Alappuzha
Overview
 
Alappuzha also known as Alleppey, is a town in Alappuzha District
Alappuzha district
Alappuzha is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala in India. It was formed as Alleppey District on August 17, 1957. The name of the district was officially changed to Alappuzha in 1990. The district is a widely known tourist destination, and is well known for its coir factories. Most of...

 of Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

 state of southern India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. As per 2001 census Alleppey is the sixth largest city in Kerala with an urban population of 177,029. Alleppey is situated 62 kilometres (38.5 mi) to the south of Kochi
Kochi
-Places:* Kochi, a city in the state of Kerala, India, formerly known as Cochin* Kingdom of Cochin, a former feudal city-state on Malabar Coast, India** Fort Kochi, one of the three main urban components which constitute the present day city of Kochi, Kerala, India...

 and 155 kilometres (96.3 mi) north of Trivandrum. A town with picturesque canal
Canal
Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:#Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:...

s, backwaters
Kerala Backwaters
The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast of Kerala state in southern India. The network includes five large lakes linked by canals, both manmade and natural, fed by 38 rivers, and extending virtually half the length of Kerala state...

, beaches
Alappuzha Beach
Alappuzha Beach is a beach in the Allepey district of Kerala, India.The beach has a small park nearby. Alappuzha Lighthouse stands near the beach which is also a curiosity for tourists....

, and lagoon
Lagoon
A lagoon is a body of shallow sea water or brackish water separated from the sea by some form of barrier. The EU's habitat directive defines lagoons as "expanses of shallow coastal salt water, of varying salinity or water volume, wholly or partially separated from the sea by sand banks or shingle,...

s, it was described as the one of the places known as "Venice of the East" by Lord Curzon .
Encyclopedia
Alappuzha also known as Alleppey, is a town in Alappuzha District
Alappuzha district
Alappuzha is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala in India. It was formed as Alleppey District on August 17, 1957. The name of the district was officially changed to Alappuzha in 1990. The district is a widely known tourist destination, and is well known for its coir factories. Most of...

 of Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

 state of southern India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. As per 2001 census Alleppey is the sixth largest city in Kerala with an urban population of 177,029. Alleppey is situated 62 kilometres (38.5 mi) to the south of Kochi
Kochi
-Places:* Kochi, a city in the state of Kerala, India, formerly known as Cochin* Kingdom of Cochin, a former feudal city-state on Malabar Coast, India** Fort Kochi, one of the three main urban components which constitute the present day city of Kochi, Kerala, India...

 and 155 kilometres (96.3 mi) north of Trivandrum. A town with picturesque canal
Canal
Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:#Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:...

s, backwaters
Kerala Backwaters
The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast of Kerala state in southern India. The network includes five large lakes linked by canals, both manmade and natural, fed by 38 rivers, and extending virtually half the length of Kerala state...

, beaches
Alappuzha Beach
Alappuzha Beach is a beach in the Allepey district of Kerala, India.The beach has a small park nearby. Alappuzha Lighthouse stands near the beach which is also a curiosity for tourists....

, and lagoon
Lagoon
A lagoon is a body of shallow sea water or brackish water separated from the sea by some form of barrier. The EU's habitat directive defines lagoons as "expanses of shallow coastal salt water, of varying salinity or water volume, wholly or partially separated from the sea by sand banks or shingle,...

s, it was described as the one of the places known as "Venice of the East" by Lord Curzon . It is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha District
Alappuzha district
Alappuzha is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala in India. It was formed as Alleppey District on August 17, 1957. The name of the district was officially changed to Alappuzha in 1990. The district is a widely known tourist destination, and is well known for its coir factories. Most of...

. Malayalam is the most spoken language. Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

 are also widely spoken in the town.

Alleppey is an important tourist destination in India. Backwaters
Kerala Backwaters
The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast of Kerala state in southern India. The network includes five large lakes linked by canals, both manmade and natural, fed by 38 rivers, and extending virtually half the length of Kerala state...

 of Alleppey are world famous and is the most popular tourist attraction in Kerala. It connects Kumarakom
Kumarakom
Kumarakom is a popular tourism destination located near the city of Kottayam , in Kerala, India, famous for its backwater tourism. It is set in the backdrop of the Vembanad Lake which is the largest freshwater lake in the state of Kerala.-Environment:...

 and Cochin towards north and Quilon
Quilon
Quilon may refer to,* Venad, a former state on Malabar Coast, India* Kollam , Kerala state, India* Kollam district, Kerala state...

 to the South. Alappuzha is also the access point for the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race
Nehru Trophy Boat Race
The Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular Vallam Kali held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha, Kerala, India. Vallam Kali or Vallamkali literally means boat play/game, but can be translated to boat race in English. The most popular event of the race is the competition of Chundan Vallams . Hence the...

, held on the Punnamada Lake, near Alappuzha, held on the second Saturday of August every year, is the most competitive and popular of the boat races in India.

Apart from Backwaters some other attractions in Alleppey are Alappuzha Beach
Alappuzha Beach
Alappuzha Beach is a beach in the Allepey district of Kerala, India.The beach has a small park nearby. Alappuzha Lighthouse stands near the beach which is also a curiosity for tourists....

 offering one of the most beautiful views of the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

, Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple
Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple
Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple is a Hindu temple in Ambalappuzha, Alapuzha district of Kerala, in south India.The Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple is believed to have been built in the year AD 790 by the local ruler Chembakasserry Pooradam Thirunal-Devanarayanan Thampuran.This temple is directly...

, Edathua
Edathua
Edathua is a place in Kuttanad, Alappuzha district, Kerala, India.Situated 12 km from Thiruvalla Town, Edathua is famous for the St. George Catholic Church known as 'Edathua Palli' situated here.The church was built by Fr. Thomas Olakkapadil. The Church celebrates its major feast during the...

 Church, Krishnapuram Palace
Krishnapuram Palace
The Krishnapuram Palace is a palace and museum located in Kayamkulam near Allepey in Alappuzha district, Kerala in southwestern India. It was built in the 18th century by Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma , the Travancore kingdom...

 also attracts lot of tourists.Coir
Coir
Coir is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes, mattresses etc. Technically coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses of brown coir are in upholstery...

 is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha. The Coir Board was established by the Central Government
Central government
A central government also known as a national government, union government and in federal states, the federal government, is the government at the level of the nation-state. The structure of central governments varies from institution to institution...

 under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act, 1955. There is also a Coir Research Institute functioning at Kalavoor
Kalavoor
Kalavoor is a village in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is well connected by road and rail. NH 47 passes through Kalavoor. Kalavoor is 10 km towards north of Alappuzha.-Demographics:...

.

Etymology

Carved out of the erstwhile Kottayam
Kottayam
Kottayam is a city in the Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of 55.40 km2. It is the administrative capital of the Kottayam district. Kottayam Kottayam (Malayalam: കോട്ടയം) is a city in the Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of 55.40 km2. It is the administrative...

 and Quilon
Quilon
Quilon may refer to,* Venad, a former state on Malabar Coast, India* Kollam , Kerala state, India* Kollam district, Kerala state...

 districts, Alappuzha(Alleppey) district was formed on 17 August 1957 and consisted initially of seven taluks, namely Cherthala
Cherthala
Cherthala is a town located in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. It is located 30 km south of the city of Kochi and 22 km north of Alappuzha town, on the Kochi-Alappuzha streatch of both the National Highway 47 as well as the costal Rail-route.lt is 85 km from the...

, Ambalappuzha
Ambalappuzha
Ambalappuzha is a small town in Alappuzha district of Kerala state, south India. The town is famous for its Sri Krishna temple. The Ambalappuzha temple is one of the three important Sri Krishna temples in the state of Kerala....

, Kuttanad
Kuttanad
Kuttanadu is a region in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its picturesque vast paddy fields and its geographical peculiarities. It's the region with the lowest altitude in India, and one of the few places in the world where farming is carried out below sea...

, Thiruvalla, Chengannur
Chengannur
Chengannur , is a municipal town in Alappuzha district of the state of Kerala in South India. Chengannur is located in the extreme eastern part of Alappuzha district. It is north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram on the MC Road. Chengannur is connected to Kollam and Kottayam by NH 220...

, Karthikappally
Karthikappally
Karthikappally is a village in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala.-History:Karthikappally was once a Buddhist center. About in the year 904-933 the Great ruler of Travancore, King Marthanda Varma, added Karthikappally to Travancore...

 and Mavelikkara
Mavelikkara
Mavelikara is a town in Alappuzha district of Kerala, India, spread over an area of 12.65 km2. It is in the southern part of Alappuzha district on the banks of the Achankovil River. Mavelikara is located 8km east of National Highway. Mavelikara is known as the capital of...

.

The name Alappuzha is derived from the geographical position and physical features of the place. It means the land between the sea and network of rivers flowing into it. The district is bounded on the north by Kochi
Kochi
-Places:* Kochi, a city in the state of Kerala, India, formerly known as Cochin* Kingdom of Cochin, a former feudal city-state on Malabar Coast, India** Fort Kochi, one of the three main urban components which constitute the present day city of Kochi, Kerala, India...

 and Kanayannur taluks of Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Ernakulam refers to the downtown area or the western part of the mainland of Kochi city in Kerala, India. The city is the most urban part of Kochi and has lent its name to the Ernakulam district. Ernakulam is called the commercial capital of the state of Kerala and is a main nerve of business in...

 district, on the east by Vaikom
Vaikom
Vaikom is a taluk and also its capital town, situated in the North-West of Kottayam in Kerala, India. Its western border is the Lake Vembanad, and is crossed by various estuaries of the River Muvattupuzha. It lies between Ernakulam and Kottayam...

, Kottayam
Kottayam
Kottayam is a city in the Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of 55.40 km2. It is the administrative capital of the Kottayam district. Kottayam Kottayam (Malayalam: കോട്ടയം) is a city in the Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of 55.40 km2. It is the administrative...

 and Changanassery taluks of Kottayam
Kottayam
Kottayam is a city in the Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of 55.40 km2. It is the administrative capital of the Kottayam district. Kottayam Kottayam (Malayalam: കോട്ടയം) is a city in the Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of 55.40 km2. It is the administrative...

 district and Thiruvalla, Kozhencherry
Kozhencherry
Kozhencherry is a small town in Pathanamthitta district of Central Travancore region in Kerala state, South India. It is on the banks of river Pampa. It is a commercial centre with many of the Banks and trade companies have their establishments here. It is believed that once the Kovilans of...

 and Adoor
Adoor
Adoor is a town and a municipality near Pandalam in Pathanamthitta district, Kerala state, India, spread over an area of 20.42 km2. The town is located midway between Thiruvananthapuram and Ernakulam. It is among one of the three municipalities in Pathanamthitta district.-Etymology:It is...

 taluks of Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta is a large town and a municipality situated in the central Travancore region in the state of Kerala, south India, spread over an area of 23.50 km2. It is the administrative capital of Pathanamthitta district. The city has a population of 38,000...

 district, on the South by Kunnathur
Kunnathur (Kerala)
Kunnathur is a Taluk in Kollam district, Kerala State, India.The capital of Kunnathur Taluk is Sasthamcottah, a famous place due to a fresh water lake and its a tourist attraction too....

 and Karunagappally taluks of Kollam
Kollam
Kollam , often anglicized as ', is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. The city lies on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake on the Arabian sea coast and is situated about north of the state capital, Thiruvananthapuram...

 district and on the west by Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

.

The present Alappuzha district comprises six taluks namely Cherthala, Ambalappuzha, Kuttanad, Karthikappally, Chengannur and Mavelikkara. Total area of this district is 1414sq.km.The district headquarters is located at Alappuzha.

History

Alappuzha also known as Alleppey, is a landmark between the broad Arabian sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 and a web of rivers flowing into it. It is a town in Alappuzha District of Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

 state of southern India.

In the early first decade of the 20th century the then Viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 of the Indian Empire, Lord Curzon made a visit in the State to Alleppey, now Alappuzha. Fascinated by the Scenic beauty of the place, in joy and amazement, he said,
Kuttanad
Kuttanad
Kuttanadu is a region in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its picturesque vast paddy fields and its geographical peculiarities. It's the region with the lowest altitude in India, and one of the few places in the world where farming is carried out below sea...

, the rice bowl of Kerala with the unending stretch of paddy fields, small streams and canals with lush green coconut palms , was well known even from the early periods of the Sangam age. History says Alappuzha had trade relations with ancient Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 and Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

.
The early Cheras
Chera dynasty
Chera Dynasty in South India is one of the most ancient ruling dynasties in India. Together with the Cholas and the Pandyas, they formed the three principle warring Iron Age Tamil kingdoms in southern India...

, who had their home in Kuttanad were called `Kuttuvans` named after this place. The famous travelers Pliny and Ptolemy of the first and 2nd centuries had mentioned about places like Purakkad or Barace in their classical works.
The literary works like "Unnuneeli Sandesam
Unnuneeli Sandesam
Unnuneeli Sandesam is among the oldest literary works in Malayalam language . It is what is called "Sandesa Kavyam" . A "Sandesa Kavyam" is a message written in poetry, on the lines of the famous "Megh Dhoot" of Kalidasa. In the case of this work, it is a message written by a lover to his lady-love...

" give some insight into the ancient period of this district. Whereas some archeological antiques like stone inscriptions, historical monuments found in the temples, churches, rock-out caves also emphasize its historic value. Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 had a strong foothold in this district even from the Ist century AD. The church located at Kokkamangalam
Kokkamangalam
Kokkamangalam is a village in Alappuzha district of Kerala state, south India. Tradition holds it to be one of the seven Christian communities in Kerala founded by the Apostle Thomas.Kokkamangalam is situated midway between Cochin and Kumarakom...

 was one of the seven churches founded by St. Thomas
Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle, also called Doubting Thomas or Didymus was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. He is best known for questioning Jesus' resurrection when first told of it, then proclaiming "My Lord and my God" on seeing Jesus in . He was perhaps the only Apostle who went outside the Roman...

 who was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. It is generally believed that he landed at Maliankara
Maliankara
Maliankara is a village in Paravur Taluk, Ernakulam district of Kerala. It is located near Moothakunnam. It is also a boat ride away from Munambam and accessible by bridge to Pallipuram of Vypin island. Along with Munambam it forms the north-west corner of Ernakulam district where the Periyar river...

 in Muziris
Muziris
Muziris is an ancient sea-port in Southwestern India on the Periyar River 3.2 km from its mouth. The derivation of the name Muziris is said to be from "Mucciripattanam," "mucciri" means "cleft palate" and "pattanam" means "city". Near Muziris, Periyar River was branched into two like a...

 Port, presently known as Cranganore or Kodungallur
Kodungallur
Kodungallur is a municipality in Thrissur District, in the state of Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast. Kodungallur is located about 29 km northwest of Kochi city and 38 km Southwest of Thrissur, on National Highway 17 . Muziris the ancient seaport at the mouth of the Periyar River was...

 in 52 AD and preached Christianity in South India
South India
South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area...

. The district flourished in the field of religion and culture under the second Chera Empire during 9th to 12th century AD. The famous literary work `Ascharya Choodamani` a Sanskrit drama written by Sakthibhadran
Sakthibhadran
Sakthibhadran is a playwright who lived in ancient Kerala. He wrote Ascharyachoodamani, the first Sanskrit drama in South India....

 who was a scholar of Chengannur
Chengannur
Chengannur , is a municipal town in Alappuzha district of the state of Kerala in South India. Chengannur is located in the extreme eastern part of Alappuzha district. It is north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram on the MC Road. Chengannur is connected to Kollam and Kottayam by NH 220...

 enables us to know all the facts.

In the 17th century the Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 power declined and the Dutch
Dutch people
The Dutch people are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United...

 had a predominant position in the principalities of this district. They built so many factories and warehouses in various places of it for storing pepper
Black pepper
Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed...

, ginger
Ginger
Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family . Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal....

 because of the fact that several treaties were signed between the Dutch and the Rajas
Rajas
Rajas ) is, in the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, one of the three gunas. Of these, rajas, is responsible for motion, energy and preservation...

 of Purakkad
Purakkad
-History:The literal meaning of Purakkad is "out of forest". The village of Purakkad was the scene of battle between Travancore and Kochin forces in 1754 AD ad between Travancore and the forces of Zamorin in 1756 AD. There was an ancient port at Purakkad. The Dutch East India Company had a factory...

, Kayamkulam
Kayamkulam
Kayamkulam is a town and a municipality in Alappuzha district of the Indian state of Kerala. It is an ancient maritime trading centre. One of the largest power plants in Kerala, run by the NTPC, is located in Kayamkulam. Krishnapuram Palace is located nearby and an old cashew factory.Kayamkulam is...

 and Karappuram. In course of time they also derived in the political and cultural affairs of the district. At that time Maharaja Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma , was the founder of the Indian Hindu feudal kingdom of Travancore from Venad SwaroopamHe ruled from 1729 till his death in 1758, having succeeded his maternal uncle Dharma Raja.King Marthanda Varma is usually credited as the "founder of Kingdom of Travancore" from...

, who was the 'Maker of modern Travancore
Travancore
Kingdom of Travancore was a former Hindu feudal kingdom and Indian Princely State with its capital at Padmanabhapuram or Trivandrum ruled by the Travancore Royal Family. The Kingdom of Travancore comprised most of modern day southern Kerala, Kanyakumari district, and the southernmost parts of...

' intervened in the political affairs of those princedoms.
In the 19th century the district arrived at progress in all spheres. One of the five subordinate courts opened in the state in connection with the reorganization of the judicial system by Colonel George Monro
George Monro
George Monro was a businessman and political figure in Canada West.He was born in Scotland in 1801 and came to Niagara in Upper Canada with his parents. In 1814, he moved to York and entered the grocery business with his brother; he later struck out on his own, becoming an importer and wholesaler...

. This was located at Mavelikkara
Mavelikkara
Mavelikara is a town in Alappuzha district of Kerala, India, spread over an area of 12.65 km2. It is in the southern part of Alappuzha district on the banks of the Achankovil River. Mavelikara is located 8km east of National Highway. Mavelikara is known as the capital of...

. The first post office and first telegraph office in the former Travancore state was established in this district. The first manufacturing factory for the coir mats was also established here in 1859. In 1894 the town Improvement Committee was set up.

The history of Alappuzha District also murmurs the facts of the prominent role that the district played in the freedom struggle of the country. The historic struggles of Punnapra and Vayalar in 1946 constrained the attitude of the people against Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, who was Dewan
Dewan
The originally Persian title of dewan has, at various points in Islamic history, designated various differing though similar functions.-Etymology:...

 of Travancore. And this ultimately led to his exit from the political scene of Travancore. A popular Ministry was formed in Travancore on 24 March 1948 after India`s independence, and on 1 July 1949 Travancore and Cochin states were integrated. The position continued till the formation of Kerala State on 1 November 1956 as per the States Reorganization Act 1956. The district came into existence as a separate administrative unit on 1 August 1957.

Geography and Climate

Alleppey or allapuzha is located at 9.54°N 76.40°E.http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/13/Alappuzha.html.The average elevation is 1 metres (3.3 ft)
Alleppey covers an area of 1414 square kilometres (545.9 sq mi) and is flanked by 2195 square kilometres (847.5 sq mi) of Vembanad Lake
Vembanad Lake
Vembanad Lake is the longest lake in India, and the largest lake in the state of Kerala. It is also one of the largest lakes, in India. A lake spanning several districts in the state of Kerala, it is known by different names in different localities viz. Punnamada Lake in Kuttanad, Kochi Lake in...

, where one can witness the magnificent union of six major rivers which spread out extensively before joining the 80 km coast line of the district. The town of Alleppey is crisscrossed by a system of canals, which is a part of the National Waterway 3 (India)
National Waterway 3 (India)
The West Coast Canal or National Waterway No 3 is located in Kerala, India and runs from Kollam to Kottapuram and was declared a National Waterway in 1993.The dredging of this canal has been finished. The National waterway 3 is one of the most navigable and tourism potential area in India and has...

.

The district is a sandy strip of land intercepted by lagoons, rivers and canals. There are no mountains or hills in the district except some scattered hillocks lying between Bharanikkavu
Bharanikkavu
Bharanikkavu is a Panchayat in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. The Village by the same name is a part of it.The name is derived from the historic Bharanikkavu Devi temple situated here.-Demographics:...

 and Chengannur
Chengannur
Chengannur , is a municipal town in Alappuzha district of the state of Kerala in South India. Chengannur is located in the extreme eastern part of Alappuzha district. It is north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram on the MC Road. Chengannur is connected to Kollam and Kottayam by NH 220...

 blocks in the eastern portion of the district. There are no forest area in this district.

Alleppey is gifted with immense natural beauty with the Arabian sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 on its west. The city has a vast network of lakes, lagoons and fresh water
Fresh Water
Fresh Water is the debut album by Australian rock and blues singer Alison McCallum, released in 1972. Rare for an Australian artist at the time, it came in a gatefold sleeve...

 rivers. Due to their closeness to the sea it has developed an unparalleled destination in the maritime map of India.The richness of the coastal Alleppey waters is expressed annually in the blooming and consequent deposit of a huge quantity of fishes and prawns on the Alleppey coast called ‘Chakara
Chakara
Chakara is a Malayalam word used to describe a peculiar marine phenomenon in which a large number of fish and prawns throng together during a particular season as a result of mud bank formations...

’. This annual shifting of sandbank appears during the post-monsoon period and contributes to the local economy and is a festive season for the people of Kerala. The annual floods rejuvenate and cleanse the soil and water due to which there is abundance of marine life like prawns, lobsters, fishes, turtles,and other flora
Flora
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life. The corresponding term for animals is fauna.-Etymology:...

 in the sea. The backwaters
Kerala Backwaters
The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast of Kerala state in southern India. The network includes five large lakes linked by canals, both manmade and natural, fed by 38 rivers, and extending virtually half the length of Kerala state...

 and Wetlands host thousands of migrant common teal
Common Teal
The Eurasian Teal or Common Teal is a common and widespread duck which breeds in temperate Eurasia and migrates south in winter. The Eurasian Teal is often called simply the Teal due to being the only one of these small dabbling ducks in much of its range...

, ducks and cormorants every year who reach here from long distances. One of the major feature of this land is the region called Kuttanad
Kuttanad
Kuttanadu is a region in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its picturesque vast paddy fields and its geographical peculiarities. It's the region with the lowest altitude in India, and one of the few places in the world where farming is carried out below sea...

, the 'granary of Kerala'. Kuttanad is also known as the rice bowl of Kerala and is one of the few places in the world where farming is done below sea level. The paddy fields lie about 0.6 to 2 m below mean sea level.

Owing to its proximity to the sea, the climate of Alleppey is humid and hot during the summer. Although the place remains fairly cool and pleasant during the months of October and November.The average monthly temperature is 25C. The district also gets the benefit of two outstanding monsoons as in the case of other parts of the state.Alappuzha city experiences a long monsoon season with heavy showers as both the Southwest monsoon and Northeast monsoon influences the weather of Alleppey. The South-west monsoon affects the climate in between the months from June to September. On the other hand the North-east monsoon rings rain from October to November. The average rainfall received by the region is 2763 mm.

Demographics

According to 2011 census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

, Alleppey district has a population of 21,21,943 with 10,10,252 men and 11,11,691 women with a population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 of 1492 persons per km2. There are 1,86,022 persons under six years of age in Alleppey district. The literacy rate of Alleppey stands at 96.26% out of which 8,95,476 are males and 9,68,082 are females. Alleppey has a decadal population growth of 0.61%. Alleppey has a sex ratio of 1100 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 282,675 in 2001.

The population is predominantly Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 and Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

,and there are sizable numbers of Muslims population too. The most widely spoken language is Malayalam,though there are also significantly large numbers of people speaking Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

, and Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

.

The standard dialect of Malayalam spoken is Central Travancore dialect. Konkani is a language that is spoken in the Konkan
Konkan
The Konkan also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad to Mangalore...

 region.During the 14th and 18th century during Potugese and Dutch invasion respectively, many konkanis migrated southwards to Thuravoor
Thuravoor
Thuravoor is a gram panchayat in the Pattanakkadu Block of Cherthala Taluk of Alappuzha District in the South Indian State of Kerala. Thuravoor lies exactly between Kochi and Alappuzha. A four lane National Highway 47 passes through the village, which along with a railway station gives it...

, Cherthala
Cherthala
Cherthala is a town located in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. It is located 30 km south of the city of Kochi and 22 km north of Alappuzha town, on the Kochi-Alappuzha streatch of both the National Highway 47 as well as the costal Rail-route.lt is 85 km from the...

 and Alleppey in the state of Travancore
Travancore
Kingdom of Travancore was a former Hindu feudal kingdom and Indian Princely State with its capital at Padmanabhapuram or Trivandrum ruled by the Travancore Royal Family. The Kingdom of Travancore comprised most of modern day southern Kerala, Kanyakumari district, and the southernmost parts of...

 as well as other places in Kerala like Cochin, Kodungalloor, Kollam etc., majority of these people settled in Alleppey.

Economy

The economy of the district is predominantly based on agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 and marine products. Though the district is industrially backward, some traditional industries based on coir
Coir
Coir is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes, mattresses etc. Technically coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses of brown coir are in upholstery...

 and coir products, marine products,handlooms, different types of handicrafts, toddy tapping, have been dominating the scene from the very early times. The district is known as the traditional home of coir industry in Kerala.

The availability of plenty of raw materials and existence of backwaters and canals suitable for the getting of green husk and accessibility of transportation are the main factors of the development of this industry. Arabs had carried on trade of coir products from very ancient period. The manufacture of mats and mattings was first introduced in 1859 by Mr. James Durragh.

The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act, 1955. There is a Coir Research Institute functioning at Kalavoor
Kalavoor
Kalavoor is a village in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is well connected by road and rail. NH 47 passes through Kalavoor. Kalavoor is 10 km towards north of Alappuzha.-Demographics:...

. The National Coir Training and Designing Centre was also established at Alappuzha in 1965.

Coir
Coir
Coir is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes, mattresses etc. Technically coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses of brown coir are in upholstery...

 is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha, Kayamkulam
Kayamkulam
Kayamkulam is a town and a municipality in Alappuzha district of the Indian state of Kerala. It is an ancient maritime trading centre. One of the largest power plants in Kerala, run by the NTPC, is located in Kayamkulam. Krishnapuram Palace is located nearby and an old cashew factory.Kayamkulam is...

, Kokkothamangalam
Kokkothamangalam
Kokkothamangalam is a census town in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala.-Demographics: India census, Kokkothamangalam had a population of 16,852. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Kokkothamangalam has an average literacy rate of 85%, higher than the national...

, Komalapuram
Komalapuram
Komalapuram is a census town in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is part of Aryad panchayat.-Demographics:At the 2001 India census, Komalapuram had a population of 43,281. Males constituted 49% of the population and females 51%...

, Mannancherry, Muhamma
Muhamma
Muhamma is a census town in Cherthala Taluk in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala.It is home to the famous Cheerappanchira kalari, where Ayyappan had his training in the martial arts; the Communist Party of India leader, Mrs. Susheela Gopalan Muhamma is a census town in Cherthala...

 and Vayalar
Vayalar
This article is about a place. For the poet, go to Vayalar RamavarmaVayalar is a village in Cherthala taluk, Alapuzha district, Kerala state, India.- Overview :...

, Coir products in Cherthala
Cherthala
Cherthala is a town located in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. It is located 30 km south of the city of Kochi and 22 km north of Alappuzha town, on the Kochi-Alappuzha streatch of both the National Highway 47 as well as the costal Rail-route.lt is 85 km from the...

 and Mannancherry, Lime shell in Arookutty
Arookutty
Arookutty is a census town in Alappuzha district in the state of Kerala, India.-Geography:Arookutty is located at .Vaduthala Jn: is located at lat=9.8500576, lon=76.3270035-Demographics:...

 and Kodamthuruth
Kodamthuruth
Kodamthuruth is a village in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala.This is a panchayat which come under the Aroor Assembly constituency.-Demographics: India census, Kodamthuruth had a population of 20432 with 9912 males and 10520 females....

, Plywood
Plywood
Plywood is a type of manufactured timber made from thin sheets of wood veneer. It is one of the most widely used wood products. It is flexible, inexpensive, workable, re-usable, and can usually be locally manufactured...

 in Chengannur
Chengannur
Chengannur , is a municipal town in Alappuzha district of the state of Kerala in South India. Chengannur is located in the extreme eastern part of Alappuzha district. It is north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram on the MC Road. Chengannur is connected to Kollam and Kottayam by NH 220...

, Keltron controls in Aroor
Aroor
Aroor is a census town in Alappuzha district,is a suburb of Kochi in the state of Kerala, India. It is a Sea food related industrial area south of Kochi...

, Potassium Chloride
Potassium chloride
The chemical compound potassium chloride is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. In its pure state, it is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance, with a crystal structure that cleaves easily in three directions. Potassium chloride crystals are...

 in Mavelikkara
Mavelikkara
Mavelikara is a town in Alappuzha district of Kerala, India, spread over an area of 12.65 km2. It is in the southern part of Alappuzha district on the banks of the Achankovil River. Mavelikara is located 8km east of National Highway. Mavelikara is known as the capital of...

 and coconut in Thanneermukkom
Thanneermukkom
-Location:Thanneermukkom is on the banks of Lake Vembanad. There is a salt water barrier at Thanneermukkom, built across the lake, which connects it to Vechoor in Kottayam district...

. The other important commodities manufactured in these towns are copra
Copra
Copra is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. Coconut oil extracted from it has made copra an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. It also yields coconut cake which is mainly used as feed for livestock.-Production:...

, coconut oil
Coconut oil
Coconut oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm . Throughout the tropical world, it has provided the primary source of fat in the diets of millions of people for generations. It has various applications in food, medicine, and industry...

, glass
Glass
Glass is an amorphous solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent.The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, composed of about 75% silica plus Na2O, CaO, and several minor additives...

, mat
Mat
A mat is a generic term for a piece of fabric or flat material, generally placed on a floor or other flat surface, and serving a range of purposes including:* providing a regular or flat surface, such as a mousepad....

s and match
Match
A match is a tool for starting a fire under controlled conditions. A typical modern match is made of a small wooden stick or stiff paper. One end is coated with a material that can be ignited by frictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface...

es.

Transport

The district can be accessible through air, rail, road and water. Cochin International Airport
Cochin International Airport
Cochin International Airport is an international airport located in Nedumbassery, a suburb on the outskirts of the city of Kochi about northeast of downtown Kochi, in the state of Kerala, India. It is the busiest and largest airport in the state of Kerala...

 which is 78 kilometres (48.5 mi) to the North is the nearest airport to the district. Thiruvananthapuram International Airport
Thiruvananthapuram International Airport
-Cargo:-Facilities:The newly built Terminal 3 has three additional jetways and parking bays to accommodate 8 aircraft. The terminal is built opposite to the current terminal across the runway and is closer to the city side.The terminal, constructed by the AAI and designed by the UK firm,...

 located 159 kilometres (98.8 mi) to the South is the other airport that links the district with other countries. International tourists utilize this facility to reach Alappuzha.

One major rail line passes through Alappuzha. The railway station is about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) away from the center of the town.Alappuzha Railway Station is linked by rail to cities like Trivandrum, Cochin, Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

, Bokaro
Bokaro Steel City
Bokaro Steel City is one of the largest Industrial city situated in the State of Jharkhand, in India. Bokaro is the 48th cleanest city in India and second in Jharkhand after Jamshedpur and one of the best cities to live in India...

 and Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

. A total of four trains originate from Alleppey to Cities like Kannur
Kannur
Kannur , also known as Cannanore, is a city in Kannur district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the administrative headquarters of the District of Kannur and 518km north of state capital Trivandrum. During British rule in India, Kannur was known by its old name Cannanore, which is still in...

, Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

, Dhanbad
Dhanbad
Dhanbad features climate that is transitional between a humid subtropical climate and a tropical wet and dry climate. Summer starts from last week of March and ends in mid-June. Peak temperature in summer can reach 47oC. Dhanbad also receives heavy rainfall...

, and Tatanagar.
Since Alleppey is a prime location many trains to important cities like Banglore, Manglore, Calicut, Amritsar
Amritsar
Amritsar is a city in the northern part of India and is the administrative headquarters of Amritsar district in the state of Punjab, India. The 2001 Indian census reported the population of the city to be over 1,500,000, with that of the entire district numbering 3,695,077...

 passes through this station.

Alappuzha is also well connected by road .National Highway NH 47
NH 47
National Highway 47, commonly referred to as NH 47, is a long highway connecting the city of Salem to Kanyakumari town in southern India...

 passes through the city connecting the city to other major cities like Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Ernakulam refers to the downtown area or the western part of the mainland of Kochi city in Kerala, India. The city is the most urban part of Kochi and has lent its name to the Ernakulam district. Ernakulam is called the commercial capital of the state of Kerala and is a main nerve of business in...

, Thrissur
Thrissur
This article is about the city in India. For the district, see Thrissur district. For the urban agglomeration area of Thrissur see Thrissur Metropolitan Area...

, Kollam
Kollam
Kollam , often anglicized as ', is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. The city lies on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake on the Arabian sea coast and is situated about north of the state capital, Thiruvananthapuram...

 , and Trivandrum.

Administration and Politics

Alleppey Town officials
Municipal Chairman Smt.Mercy Teacher
Superintendent of Police Mr.E.Divakaran

The two administrative systems prevailing in the district are revenue
Revenue
In business, revenue is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. In many countries, such as the United Kingdom, revenue is referred to as turnover....

 and local self-government
Local self-government
Local self-government is a form of public administration, such that the inhabitants of a certain territory form a community that is recognized by the central government and has a specific legal status and was originated by the Anglo-Saxons.-See also:...

, under the revenue system, the district is divided into two revenue divisions, 6 taluks and 91 villages. The two revenue divisions are Alappuzha division comprising Cherthala
Cherthala
Cherthala is a town located in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. It is located 30 km south of the city of Kochi and 22 km north of Alappuzha town, on the Kochi-Alappuzha streatch of both the National Highway 47 as well as the costal Rail-route.lt is 85 km from the...

, Ambalapuzha and Kuttanad
Kuttanad
Kuttanadu is a region in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its picturesque vast paddy fields and its geographical peculiarities. It's the region with the lowest altitude in India, and one of the few places in the world where farming is carried out below sea...

 taluks consisting of 47 villages and Chengannur
Chengannur
Chengannur , is a municipal town in Alappuzha district of the state of Kerala in South India. Chengannur is located in the extreme eastern part of Alappuzha district. It is north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram on the MC Road. Chengannur is connected to Kollam and Kottayam by NH 220...

 division comprising Karthikapally, Chengannur and Mavelikkara
Mavelikkara
Mavelikara is a town in Alappuzha district of Kerala, India, spread over an area of 12.65 km2. It is in the southern part of Alappuzha district on the banks of the Achankovil River. Mavelikara is located 8km east of National Highway. Mavelikara is known as the capital of...

 taluks consisting of 44 villages. For census purpose, Aroor
Aroor
Aroor is a census town in Alappuzha district,is a suburb of Kochi in the state of Kerala, India. It is a Sea food related industrial area south of Kochi...

, Arookutty
Arookutty
Arookutty is a census town in Alappuzha district in the state of Kerala, India.-Geography:Arookutty is located at .Vaduthala Jn: is located at lat=9.8500576, lon=76.3270035-Demographics:...

, Kodamthuruth
Kodamthuruth
Kodamthuruth is a village in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala.This is a panchayat which come under the Aroor Assembly constituency.-Demographics: India census, Kodamthuruth had a population of 20432 with 9912 males and 10520 females....

, Thanneermukkom
Thanneermukkom
-Location:Thanneermukkom is on the banks of Lake Vembanad. There is a salt water barrier at Thanneermukkom, built across the lake, which connects it to Vechoor in Kottayam district...

 Vadakku, Thaneermukkam Thekku, Vayalar
Vayalar
This article is about a place. For the poet, go to Vayalar RamavarmaVayalar is a village in Cherthala taluk, Alapuzha district, Kerala state, India.- Overview :...

 East and Kokkothamangalam
Kokkothamangalam
Kokkothamangalam is a census town in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala.-Demographics: India census, Kokkothamangalam had a population of 16,852. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Kokkothamangalam has an average literacy rate of 85%, higher than the national...

 village, except the portion included in Cherthala
Cherthala
Cherthala is a town located in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. It is located 30 km south of the city of Kochi and 22 km north of Alappuzha town, on the Kochi-Alappuzha streatch of both the National Highway 47 as well as the costal Rail-route.lt is 85 km from the...

 municipality are treated in the 1981 census as census towns based on the threefold criteria adopted for treating a place as census town.
Under the local self-government system, the district is divided into 5 statutory towns and Development blocks consisting of 71 panchayats. It may be noted that the jurisdiction of Development Block includes the areas falling in census towns also.

Alappuzha assembly constituency is part of Alappuzha (Lok Sabha constituency). The other Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

 constituency of the district is Mavelikkara
Mavelikkara
Mavelikara is a town in Alappuzha district of Kerala, India, spread over an area of 12.65 km2. It is in the southern part of Alappuzha district on the banks of the Achankovil River. Mavelikara is located 8km east of National Highway. Mavelikara is known as the capital of...


Education

Education in Alappuzha got a boost with the development of many schools, computer institutes and colleges all over the district. Alappuzha holds a distinct position in Kerala in terms of literacy rate. Presently, this district has 9 training schools, 405 lower primary schools, 105 high schools and 87 higher secondary schools.

The first school in Alleppey, the CMS (Church Missionary Society)School, was established in 1816. The school was established by Rev. Thomas Norton, the first CMS missionary to India. The first Higher secondary school in Alleppey was Leo XIIIth Higher Secondary School opened on 1889 June 1, by Portuguese Bishop
Bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

 John Gomes Pereira of Cochin.

Colleges in Alappuzha offer both graduate
Graduate school
A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree...

 and post graduate courses for their students. Some of the colleges in Alappuzha are SD College, SN College, N.S.S. College, TD Medical College, St. Joseph's College for Women, St. Michael's college, T.K Madhava Memorial college, and St. Aloysius college.

External links

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