Air Canada
Overview
 
Air Canada is the flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

 and largest airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

 of Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. The airline, founded in 1936, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 178 destinations worldwide. It is the world's tenth largest passenger airline by number of destinations, and the airline is a founding member of Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Star Alliance is the world's first and largest airline alliance, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, Germany . The alliance was founded in 1997 by five of the world's leading airlines: Air Canada, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International and United Airlines...

, an alliance of 26 member airlines formed in 1997. Air Canada's corporate headquarters are located in Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

, while its largest hub is Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada; its metropolitan area; and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.1 million people – approximately 25% of Canada's population...

, located in Mississauga, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
Air Canada is the flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

 and largest airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

 of Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. The airline, founded in 1936, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 178 destinations worldwide. It is the world's tenth largest passenger airline by number of destinations, and the airline is a founding member of Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Star Alliance is the world's first and largest airline alliance, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, Germany . The alliance was founded in 1997 by five of the world's leading airlines: Air Canada, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International and United Airlines...

, an alliance of 26 member airlines formed in 1997. Air Canada's corporate headquarters are located in Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

, while its largest hub is Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada; its metropolitan area; and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.1 million people – approximately 25% of Canada's population...

, located in Mississauga, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

. Air Canada had passenger revenues of CA$
Canadian dollar
The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. As of 2007, the Canadian dollar is the 7th most traded currency in the world. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies...

9.7 billion in 2008. The airline's regional service is Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express is a brand name under which four regional airlines operate feeder flights for Air Canada. They primarily connect smaller cities with Air Canada's domestic hub airports and focus cities, although they offer some point-to-point service. On April 26, 2011, it was reported that Air...

.

Canada's national airline originated from the Canadian federal government
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada, formally Her Majesty's Government, is the system whereby the federation of Canada is administered by a common authority; in Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council...

's 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA), which began operating its first transcontinental flight
Transcontinental flight
In the United States the term Transcontinental flight is travelling by air coast-to-coast over the continental United States.-History:The first transcontinental flight across the United States was made by Calbraith Perry Rodgers to win the Hearst prize offered by publisher William Randolph Hearst...

 routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada following government approval. Following the 1980s deregulation
Airline deregulation
Airline deregulation is the process of removing entry and price restrictions on airlines affecting, in particular, the carriers permitted to serve specific routes. In the United States, the term usually applies to the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978...

 of the Canadian airline market, the airline was privatized in 1988. In 2001, Air Canada acquired its largest rival, Canadian Airlines
Canadian Airlines
Canadian Airlines International Ltd. was a Canadian airline that operated from 1987 until 2001. The airline was Canada's second largest airline after Air Canada, and carried more than 11.9 million passengers to over 160 destinations in 17 countries on five continents at its height in 1996...

. In 2003, the airline filed for bankruptcy protection
Bankruptcy in Canada
Consumer bankruptcy in Canada is governed by the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act . The legislation is complemented by regulations, as well as directives from the Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy that provide guidelines to trustees in bankruptcy on various aspects of the BIA.-Consumer...

 and, the following year, emerged and reorganized under the holding company ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.
ACE Aviation Holdings
ACE Aviation Holdings Inc. is a Canadian holding company that provides commercial airline service and technical support and is the parent company of Air Canada. It is headquartered in Montreal.-History:...

  In 2006, 34 million people flew with Air Canada as the airline celebrated its 70th anniversary.

Air Canada operates a fleet of Airbus A330
Airbus A330
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

, Boeing 767
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

, and Boeing 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

 wide-body
Wide-body aircraft
A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with two passenger aisles, also known as a widebody aircraft or twin-aisle aircraft. The typical fuselage diameter is . In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast, allowing a total capacity of 200 to 850 passengers...

 jetliners on long-haul
Flight length
In aviation, the flight length is defined as the time airborne during a flight.- Domestic :A short-haul domestic flight is commonly categorized into being no longer than 1.5 hours in length, meaning that all domestic flights within a country such as the United Kingdom are short-haul...

 routes, and uses Airbus A320 family
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

 aircraft, including the A319, A320, and A321 variations and Embraer E170/E190
Embraer E-Jets
The Embraer E-Jets are a series of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range, jet airliners produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, and corporate aircraft. Announced at the Paris Air Show in 1999, and entering production in 2002, the aircraft series...

 family aircraft on short-haul routes. The carrier's operating divisions include Air Canada Cargo and Air Canada Jetz
Air Canada Jetz
Air Canada Jetz is an airline headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It operates a premium business service for corporate clients and professional sports teams.- History :...

. Its subsidiary, Air Canada Vacations, provides vacation packages to over 90 destinations. Together with its regional partners, the airline operates on average more than 1,370 scheduled flights daily.

Trans-Canada Airlines

Air Canada's predecessor, Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA), was created by legislation of the federal government as a subsidiary of Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
The Canadian National Railway Company is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. CN's slogan is "North America's Railroad"....

 (CNR) on 11 April 1936. The newly created Department of Transport
Transport Canada
Transport Canada is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of transportation in Canada. It is part of the Transportation, Infrastructure and Communities portfolio...

 under Minister
Minister of Transport (Canada)
The Minister of Transport is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for overseeing the federal government's transportation regulatory and development department, Transport Canada...

 C. D. Howe
C. D. Howe
Clarence Decatur Howe, PC , generally known as C. D. Howe, was a powerful Canadian Cabinet minister of the Liberal Party. Howe served in the governments of Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King and Louis St. Laurent continuously from 1935 to 1957...

 desired an airline, under government control, to link cities on the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast. Using $5 million in government seed money, two Lockheed Model 10 Electra
Lockheed Model 10 Electra
The Lockheed Model 10 Electra was a twin-engine, all-metal monoplane airliner developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in the 1930s to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2...

s and one Boeing Stearman
Stearman Aircraft
Stearman Aircraft Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer in Wichita, Kansas. Although the company designed a range of other aircraft, it is most known for producing the Model 75, which is commonly known simply as the "Stearman" or "Boeing Stearman"....

 biplane were purchased from Canadian Airways
Canadian Airways
Canadian Airways was an airline formed when Western Canadian Airways bought out Commercial. It operated through the 1930s until it was purchased by Canadian Pacific Air Lines in 1941, carrying passengers on mail planes into smaller communities.-History:James Armstrong Richardson established WCA in...

. Experienced airline executives from United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

 and American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 were brought in.

Passenger operations began on 1 September 1937, with an Electra carrying two passengers and mail from Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

 to Seattle, a $14.20 round trip. On 1 July 1938, TCA hired its first flight attendants. Transcontinental routes from Montreal to Vancouver began on 1 April 1939, using 12 Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra
Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra
|-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-835-6.-External links:*...

s and six Lockheed Model 18 Lodestars. By January 1940 the airline had grown to about 500 employees.

In 1942, Canadian Pacific Airlines
Canadian Pacific Airlines
Canadian Pacific Air Lines was a Canadian airline that operated from 1942 to 1987. It operated under the name CP Air from 1968 to 1986...

 suggested merging with TCA. Prime Minister Mackenzie King rejected the proposal and introduced legislation regulating TCA as the only airline in Canada allowed to provide transcontinental flights. With the increase in air travel after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, CP Air was granted one coast-to-coast flight, and a few international routes.

Originally headquartered in Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers .The name...

, which was also the site of the national maintenance base, the federal government moved the headquarters to Montreal in 1949; the maintenance base later also moved east. With the development of the ReserVec
ReserVec
ReserVec was a computerized reservation system developed by Ferranti Canada for Trans-Canada Airlines in the late 1950s. It appears to be the first such system ever developed, predating the more famous SABRE system in the US by about two years...

 in 1953, TCA became the first airline in the world to use a computer reservation system with remote terminals.

By 1964, TCA had grown to become Canada's national airline, and in 1964 Jean Chrétien
Jean Chrétien
Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien , known commonly as Jean Chrétien is a former Canadian politician who was the 20th Prime Minister of Canada. He served in the position for over ten years, from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003....

 submitted a private member's bill
Private Member's Bill
A member of parliament’s legislative motion, called a private member's bill or a member's bill in some parliaments, is a proposed law introduced by a member of a legislature. In most countries with a parliamentary system, most bills are proposed by the government, not by individual members of the...

 to change the name of the airline from Trans-Canada Airlines to Air Canada. This bill failed, but it was later resubmitted and passed, with the name change taking effect on 1 January 1965.

1970s: early years

During the 1970s, Air Canada operated with government regulations ensuring its dominance over domestic regional carriers and rival CP Air. Short-haul carriers were restricted to one of five regions where they could operate, and could not compete directly with Air Canada and CP Air. CP Air itself was subject to capacity limits on intercontinental flights, and restricted from domestic operations. Air Canada's fares were also subject to regulation by the government.

In the late 1970s, with reorganization at CNR, Air Canada became an independent Crown corporation. Passage of the Air Canada Act of 1978 ensured that the carrier would compete on a more equal footing with rival regional airlines and CP Air, and ended the government's direct regulatory control over Air Canada's routings, fares, and services. The act also transferred ownership of the carrier from Canadian National Railway to a subsidiary of the national government. Deregulation of the Canadian airline market, under the new National Transportation Act, 1987 officially opened the airline market in Canada to equal competition. The carrier's fleet expansion saw the acquisition of Boeing 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

, Boeing 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

, and Lockheed Tristar jetliners.
With new fleet expenditures outpacing earnings, Air Canada officials indicated that the carrier would need additional sources of capital to fund its modernisation. By 1985, the Canadian government was indicating a willingness to privatise both Canadian National Railways and Air Canada. In 1988 Air Canada was privatised, and 43% of its shares are sold on the public market, with the initial public offering
Initial public offering
An initial public offering or stock market launch, is the first sale of stock by a private company to the public. It can be used by either small or large companies to raise expansion capital and become publicly traded enterprises...

 completed in October of that year. By this time, its long-haul rival CP Air had become Canadian Airlines International following its acquisition by Pacific Western Airlines.

On 7 December 1987, Air Canada became the first airline in the world to have a fleet-wide non-smoking policy, and in 1989 became completely privatised. The successful privatisation effort was aided by a public relations effort led by company president Claude I. Taylor and chief executive officer Pierre J. Jeanniot.

1990s: strategic changes

In the early 1990s, Air Canada encountered financial difficulties as the airline industry slumped in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

. In response the airline restructured its management, hiring former Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

 executive Hollis L. Harris as its CEO. Harris restructured the airline's operations, reduced management positions, moved the corporate headquarters to Dorval Airport, and sold the enRoute
EnRoute (credit card)
enRoute was a credit card issued by Air Canada until 1992, when the airline sold its credit card division to Diners Club.Initially, the card was used only for Air Canada transactions, but over time, the card was expanded into a more general credit card for business travellers, being accepted by...

card business to Diners Club
Diners Club
Diners Club International, founded as Diners Club, is a charge card company formed in 1950 by Frank X. McNamara, Ralph Schneider and Matty Simmons...

 in 1992. By 1994, Air Canada had returned to profitability. The same year also saw the carrier winning route access to fly from Canada to the new Kansai Airport in Osaka, Japan.

In 1995, taking advantage of a new U.S.-Canada open skies
Open skies
Open skies is an international policy concept which calls for the liberalization of rules and regulations on international aviation industry most specially commercial aviation - opening a free market for the airline industry...

 agreement, Air Canada added 30 new transborder routes. In May 1997, Air Canada became a founding member of the Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Star Alliance is the world's first and largest airline alliance, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, Germany . The alliance was founded in 1997 by five of the world's leading airlines: Air Canada, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International and United Airlines...

, with the airline launching code-shares
Code sharing
A codeshare agreement, sometimes simply codeshare, is an aviation business arrangement where two or more airlines share the same flight. A seat can be purchased on one airline but is actually operated by a cooperating airline under a different flight number or code...

 with several of the alliance's members. The second half of the 1990s saw the airline earn consistent profits, totaling $1 billion for the 1997 to 1999 period.

On 2 September 1998 pilots for Air Canada launched the company's first pilots' strike, demanding higher wages. At the end of 1999 the Canadian government relaxed some of the aviation regulations, aimed at creating a consolidation of the Canadian airline industry. That year, American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 launched a takeover bid of ailing rival Canadian Airlines, spurring Air Canada to submit a competing offer for its largest rival.

2000s: merger and reorganization

In January 2001 Air Canada acquired Canada's second largest air carrier, Canadian Airlines
Canadian Airlines
Canadian Airlines International Ltd. was a Canadian airline that operated from 1987 until 2001. The airline was Canada's second largest airline after Air Canada, and carried more than 11.9 million passengers to over 160 destinations in 17 countries on five continents at its height in 1996...

, merging the latter's operations into its own. As a result, Air Canada became the world's twelfth-largest commercial airline in the first decade of the 21st century. However, as Air Canada gained access to its former rival's financial statements, officials learned that the carrier was in worse financial shape than previously thought. An expedited merger strategy was pursued, but in summer 2000 the integration efforts led to flight delays, luggage problems, and other frustrations. However, service improved following Air Canada officials pledge to do so by January 2001. Following the difficult merger, the airline was confronted by the global aviation market downturn, and the challenge of increased competition, posting back-to-back losses in 2001 and 2002.

Bankruptcy and restructuring

On 1 April 2003, Air Canada filed for protection under the Companies' Creditors Arrangements Act; it emerged from this protection on 30 September 2004, 18 months later. During the period of bankruptcy protection, the company was subject to two competing bids from Cerberus Capital Management
Cerberus Capital Management
Cerberus Capital Management, L.P. is one of the largest private equity investment firms in the United States. The firm is based in New York City, and run by -year-old financier Steve Feinberg. Former U.S...

 and Victor Li
Victor Li
Victor Li Tzar-kuoi is a Hong Kong-based businessman with Canadian citizenship. He is the son of tycoon Li Ka-shing and the brother of Richard Li. Li had a net worth of $730 million CDN in 2006. -Early years:...

. The Cerberus bid would have seen former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney
Brian Mulroney
Martin Brian Mulroney, was the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. His tenure as Prime Minister was marked by the introduction of major economic reforms, such as the Canada-U.S...

 installed as chairman, being recruited by Cerberus' international advisory board chair Dan Quayle
Dan Quayle
James Danforth "Dan" Quayle served as the 44th Vice President of the United States, serving with President George H. W. Bush . He served as a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from the state of Indiana....

, himself the former vice president of the United States. Cerberus was rejected because it had a reputation of changing existing employee pension agreements, a move strongly opposed by the CAW
CAW National Council 4000
CAW National Council 4000 is the umbrella organization for five regionally based CAW Local Unions across Canada that represent over 5,000 members in various sectors, largely within the railway and transportation industry...

. At first, Air Canada selected Victor Li
Victor Li
Victor Li Tzar-kuoi is a Hong Kong-based businessman with Canadian citizenship. He is the son of tycoon Li Ka-shing and the brother of Richard Li. Li had a net worth of $730 million CDN in 2006. -Early years:...

's Trinity Time Investments, which initially asked for a board veto and the chairmanship in return for investing $650 million in the airline. Li, who holds dual citizenship from Canada and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, later demanded changes to the pension plan (which was not in his original takeover bid), but since the unions refused to budge, the bid was withdrawn.

Finally, Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank AG is a global financial service company with its headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the emerging markets...

 unveiled an $850-million financing package for Air Canada, if it would cut $200 million in annual cost cutting in addition to the $1.1 billion that the unions agreed on in 2003. It was accepted after last-minute talks between CEO Robert Milton
Robert Milton
Robert A. Milton is the Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of ACE Aviation Holdings Inc., the parent company of Air Canada. He is also a former Chairman, President and CEO of Air Canada.-Early life and education:...

 and CAW president Buzz Hargrove
Buzz Hargrove
Basil Eldon "Buzz" Hargrove, OC is the former National President of the Canadian Auto Workers trade union...

 got the union concessions needed to let the bid go through.

ACE Aviation Holdings became the new parent company under which the reorganised Air Canada was held. In October 2004, Canadian singer, Celine Dion
Celine Dion
Céline Marie Claudette Dion, , , is a Canadian singer. Born to a large family from Charlemagne, Quebec, Dion emerged as a teen star in the French-speaking world after her manager and future husband René Angélil mortgaged his home to finance her first record...

 became the face of Air Canada, hoping to relaunch the airline, and draw in a more international market after an eighteen month period of bankruptcy protection. She recorded her single, You and I, which subsequently appeared in several Air Canada commercials.

Fleet modernization

On 31 October 2004, the last Air Canada Boeing 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

 flight landed in Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

 as AC873, ending 33 years of 747 service with the airline. The Boeing 747-400
Boeing 747-400
The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

 fleet was replaced by the Airbus A340
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

 fleet. On 19 October 2005, Air Canada unveiled a new aircraft colour scheme and uniforms. A Boeing 767-300ER was painted in the new silver-blue colour, and the green tail was replaced with a new version of the maple
Maple
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.Maples are variously classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or together with the Hippocastanaceae included in the family Sapindaceae. Modern classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in...

 leaf known as the 'Frosted Leaf.'

On 9 November 2005, Air Canada entered into an agreement to renew its widebody fleet with Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

 by purchasing 18 Boeing 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

s (10 -300ERs, 6 -200LRs, 2 777 Freighters), and 14 Boeing 787-8s. It also placed options to purchase an additional 18 Boeing 777s and 46 Boeing 787-8s and -9s. All of the 777s will be powered by the GE90-115B
General Electric GE90
General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings ranging from 74,000 to 115,000 lbf . It was first introduced in November 1995 on British Airways' 777s, and is available only on the 777...

 engine, and the 787-8s, by the GEnx
General Electric GEnx
The General Electric GEnx is an advanced dual rotor, axial flow, high-bypass turbofan jet engine in production by GE Aviation for the Boeing 787 and 747-8...

 engine. Deliveries of the 777s began in March 2007 and deliveries of the 787s are to begin in the second half of 2013. As the 777s are delivered, and as the 787s are delivered, it will gradually retire all Boeing 767s and Airbus A330s.
On 24 April 2007, Air Canada announced that it has exercised half of its options for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The firm order for the Dreamliners is now at 37 plus 13 options, for a total of 50. This makes Air Canada the largest customer of the Dreamliner in North America and the third largest in the world (behind Qantas
Qantas
Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

 and All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

). It also announced that it has cancelled orders for two Boeing 777Fs. In November 2007, Air Canada announced that it will lease an additional Boeing 777-300ER
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

 from ILFC. Air Canada has now taken delivery of the 18 Boeing 777s on order (12 -300ERs, 6 -200LRs) and still holds options for 16 more, totaling 34.
Air Canada has also taken delivery of 15 Embraer
Embraer
Embraer S.A. is a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, and executive aircraft and provides aeronautical services....

 175
Embraer E-Jets
The Embraer E-Jets are a series of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range, jet airliners produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, and corporate aircraft. Announced at the Paris Air Show in 1999, and entering production in 2002, the aircraft series...

s and 45 Embraer 190
Embraer E-Jets
The Embraer E-Jets are a series of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range, jet airliners produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, and corporate aircraft. Announced at the Paris Air Show in 1999, and entering production in 2002, the aircraft series...

s. It holds options on an additional 60 Embraer 190s. These aircraft are being used to expand its intra-Canada and Canada/USA routes. Additionally, some of the Embraer 190s will replace older A319
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

/A320
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

s.

Project XM

Started in July 2006, and now completed, Project XM: Extreme Makeover, is a $300-million aircraft interior replacement project to install new cabins on all aircraft. New aircraft such as the Boeing 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

 are being delivered with the new cabins factory installed.
New cabin features include:
  • In Executive First, new horizontal fully flat Executive First Suites (on Boeing 767s, Boeing 777s and A330s).
  • New cabins in all classes on all aircraft, with new entertainment options.
  • Personal AVOD (8.9 in (22.6 cm) touch-screen LCD) in Economy class (domestic and international) and Executive Class (domestic).
  • Larger AVOD (12 in (30.5 cm) touch-screen LCD) equipped with noise-cancelling Sennheiser
    Sennheiser
    Sennheiser electronic GmbH & Co. KG is a private German audio company specializing in the design and production of a wide range of both consumer and high fidelity products, including microphones, headphones, telephony accessories, and avionics headsets for consumer, professional, and business...

     headphones available in Executive First Suites.
  • Interactive games at all seats in Executive and Economy; XM Radio Canada
    XM Radio Canada
    XM Radio Canada was the operating name of Canadian Satellite Radio Holdings Inc. , a Canadian communications and media company, which was incorporated in 2002 to broadcast satellite radio in Canada...

     available at every seat.
  • USB ports to recharge electronic devices and for game controllers; 120 Volt AC plugs in most seats, in both classes.

Financial difficulties

Since the late 2000s, Air Canada has been facing a number of financial difficulties, including the global recession
Late 2000s recession
The late-2000s recession, sometimes referred to as the Great Recession or Lesser Depression or Long Recession, is a severe ongoing global economic problem that began in December 2007 and took a particularly sharp downward turn in September 2008. The Great Recession has affected the entire world...

, leading to speculation that it could file for bankruptcy, just several years after it exited bankruptcy on 30 September 2004.

President and CEO Montie Brewer
Montie Brewer
Montie R. Brewer was the president and CEO of Air Canada until March 31, 2009.He joined Air Canada in 2002 as Executive Vice President, Commercial and was appointed President and CEO in 2004...

 was replaced by Calin Rovinescu effective 1 April 2009. Rovinescu became the first Canadian President since Claude Taylor in 1992. Rovinescu was Air Canada's chief restructuring officer during its 2003 bankruptcy, and he resigned that year after unions rejected his demands, and is reported to be "an enforcer".

Federal finance minister Jim Flaherty
Jim Flaherty
James Michael "Jim" Flaherty, PC, MP is Canada's Minister of Finance and he has also served as Ontario's Minister of Finance. From 1995 until 2005, he was the Member of Provincial Parliament for Whitby—Ajax, and a member of the Progressive Conservative Party caucus...

 appointed retired judge James Farley, who had presided over Air Canada's 2003 bankruptcy, to mediate pension issues between the company and its unions and retirees. The contracts with four of its unions also expired around this time. The airline stated that its $2.85-billion pension shortfall (which grew from $1.2-billion in 2007) was a "liquidity risk" in its first-quarter report, and it required new financing and pension "relief" to conserve cash for 2010 operations. The company was obligated to pay $650-million into the pension fund but it suffered a 2009 Q1 loss of $400-million, so it requested a moratorium on its pension payments in 2009. The unions had insisted on financial guarantees before agreeing on a deal.

Headquarters

Air Canada Centre (French: Centre Air Canada) also known as La Rondelle ("The Puck" in French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

), is a 7 storey building that serves as the corporate headquarters of Air Canada, located on the grounds of Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport
Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport
Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport or Montréal-Trudeau, formerly known as Montréal-Dorval International Airport, is located on the Island of Montreal, from Montreal's downtown core. The airport terminals are located entirely in Dorval, while the Air Canada headquarters complex...

 and in Saint-Laurent
Saint-Laurent, Quebec
Saint-Laurent is a former city on the Island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. It is now the largest in area of the boroughs of the city of Montreal....

, Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, near Dorval
Dorval, Quebec
Dorval is a city on the island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. As of the 2006 Canadian Census, the population increased by 2.2% to 18,088. Although the city has the largest surface area in the West Island, it is among the least densely populated...

.

In 1994 David Israelson of the Toronto Star
Toronto Star
The Toronto Star is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper, based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Its print edition is distributed almost entirely within the province of Ontario...

described the facility as "ultra modern." In 1990 the airline announced that it was moving its headquarters from Downtown Montreal
Downtown Montreal
Downtown Montreal is the central business district of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is nearly enitirely located at the southern most slope of Mount Royal and is approximately bounded by Sherbrooke Street to the north, Papineau Avenue to the east, Guy Street or until Shaughnessy Village to the west,...

 to the airport to cut costs. In 2004 the company said that it has no plans to move its headquarters back to Downtown Montreal.

In 1975 Air Canada was headquartered at 1 Place Ville-Marie
Place Ville-Marie
1 Place Ville-Marie , formerly Royal Bank Tower taken from its anchor tenant, is a with 47-storey, cruciform office tower built in the International style in 1962, arguably the most distinctive building in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was built in the 1960s as the headquarters of the Royal Bank of...

 in Montreal.

Executives

Prior to 1976 Air Canada was led by a department head of the Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
The Canadian National Railway Company is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. CN's slogan is "North America's Railroad"....

, who reported to the President of CNR.

CEO and President:
  • 1976–1984: Claude Taylor - accountant; former Air Canada reservation agent and executive
  • 1984–1990: Pierre Jeanniot
    Pierre Jean Jeanniot
    Pierre J. Jeanniot is President and CEO of JINMAG Inc., a consulting, management and investment company which he created in 1990.- Career :...

     - former aircraft mechanic and Air Canada executive; founder of Jinmag Management and Investment Services
  • 1990–1992: Claude Taylor
  • 1992–1996: Hollis L. Harris (World Airways
    World Airways
    World Airways, Inc. is an American airline headquartered at the HLH Building in Peachtree City, Georgia. For the most part, the company operates non-scheduled services. Its main aircraft and maintenance base is Tampa International Airport.-History:...

     CEO 2001-2004, Continental
    Continental Airlines
    Continental Airlines was a major American airline now merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc...

     CEO and President, 1990–1992, President of Delta Air Lines
    Delta Air Lines
    Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

    )
  • 1996–1999: R. Lamar Durrett (former executive with Delta, Continental and System One)
  • 1999–2004: Robert Milton
    Robert Milton
    Robert A. Milton is the Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of ACE Aviation Holdings Inc., the parent company of Air Canada. He is also a former Chairman, President and CEO of Air Canada.-Early life and education:...

     (founding partner of Air Eagle Holdings Incorporated)
  • 2004–2009: Montie Brewer
    Montie Brewer
    Montie R. Brewer was the president and CEO of Air Canada until March 31, 2009.He joined Air Canada in 2002 as Executive Vice President, Commercial and was appointed President and CEO in 2004...

     (former United Airlines
    United Airlines
    United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

     executive)
  • 2009–present: Calin Rovinescu


Air Canada Cargo

Air Canada Cargo is the company's freight carrying division, offering more than 150 shipping destinations through the Air Canada airline network and airline partners. Its route network has focused on European destinations through its Eastern Canada departure points, along with direct services from Vancouver and Calgary to Frankfurt, Paris, and Zurich.

In Toronto, a new cargo terminal was completed in early 2002 which features modernised inventory and conveyor systems.

Aveos Fleet Performance Inc.

Formerly Air Canada Technical Services/ACTS (Aero Technical Support & Services Inc.), Aveos Fleet Performance Inc. is a full-service Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) organisation that provides airframe, engine and component maintenance and various ancillary services to more than 100 customers. Major bases are in Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver.

As of December 2009, ACE Aviation Holdings Inc. owns 27 percent of Air Canada and holds a 27.8 percent stake in Aveos, after selling its remaining stake in 2007 to private equity firms Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Co. and Sageview Capital for $723 million. On 23 September 2008, ACTS, formerly Air Canada Technical Services/ACTS, changed its name to Aveos Fleet Performance Inc. to reflect its new ownership structure. In February 2011 the CIRB ruled that Aveos and Air Canada are separate companies and gave ultimatums to the seconded Air Canada employees working at Aveos. Air Canada remains its only customer for Aircraft overhaul as jet Blue and America West have been sent to El Salvador to be repaired by Aeroman.

Air Canada Vacations

Air Canada Vacations, a subsidiary of Air Canada, is a Canadian tour operator offering a full collection of leisure travel packages including cruises, tours, car rentals and excursions. All packages include accommodation, Aeroplan® Miles and roundtrip airfare aboard Air Canada and its Star Alliance™ partners. Repeat recipient of the Consumer’s Choice Award for Best Travel Wholesaler and named Favourite Tour Operator by Baxter Travel Media in 2010, Air Canada Vacations services hundreds of destinations
in the Caribbean, Mexico, North, Central and South America, Asia, South Pacific and Europe.

Air Canada Vacations benefits from unique access to Air Canada’s extensive network, offering connecting flights from 65 Canadian cities, on-demand seat-back entertainment from gate to gate on most flights, web and mobile check-in and Aeroplan® Miles.

Air Canada Vacations was the first Canadian tour operator in 2011 to launch a mobile application for BlackBerry and Apple devices.

Air Canada Vacations partners with the world’s most recognized hoteliers and cruise lines worldwide, including Sandals and Beaches Resorts, Barceló Hotels and Resorts, Couples Resorts, Occidental Hotels & Resorts, Palace Resorts, Sol Meliá, SuperClubs, Iberostar Hotels and Resorts, Walt Disney World Resorts, Carnival Cruise Lines, Disney Cruise Line, Princess Cruises, Royal
Caribbean International, Holland America Line, Norwegian Cruise Line and Costa Cruises.

Air Canada Vacations' customers benefit from guest services made exclusively available to Air Canada Vacations under the Privileges added-value program. In conjunction with Aeroplan®, Air Canada Vacations offers Aeroplan® Miles on all air-inclusive packages and offers bonus Aeroplan® miles on select packages year-round. Aeroplan® Miles may also be redeemed toward the purchase of Air Canada Vacations’ packages.

Air Canada Vacations is headquartered in Montreal and has an office in Toronto.

As part of their customer care network, a wide network of destination representatives are available throughout the Caribbean, Mexico, Europe, Asia, South Pacific and South America.

Air Canada Vacations offers Executive Class® service on select flights, non-stop flights from major Canadian cities and daily flights to many destinations.

Air Canada Express

Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express is a brand name under which four regional airlines operate feeder flights for Air Canada. They primarily connect smaller cities with Air Canada's domestic hub airports and focus cities, although they offer some point-to-point service. On April 26, 2011, it was reported that Air...

 is the brand name of Air Canada's regional operation. Regional flights are operated for Air Canada by the following carriers: Jazz Aviation, Sky Regional Airlines
Sky Regional Airlines
Sky Regional Airlines is an airline based in at Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport in Dorval, Québec, Canada. Linked with Skyservice Business Aviation, it began operation under the Air Canada Express banner as of May 1, 2011...

, Exploits Valley Air Services
Exploits Valley Air Services
Exploits Valley Air Services, also known as EVAS or EVAS Air, is a Canadian aviation services company, based in Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador....

 (EVAS), and Air Georgian
Air Georgian
Air Georgian Limited is an airline based in the Shell Aerocentre in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. It was established and started operations in 1994 and operates as a charter and airline carrier. It once had a C208 Amphib in the UAE which was the first in the region. It had a long time cargo...

.

Air Canada Jetz

Launched in 2002, Air Canada Jetz is a charter service targeting sports teams, professional entertainers, and corporations. Air Canada Jetz fleet consists of 5 A320 & 1 A319 aircraft in an all business class configuration.

Former subsidiaries

  • Air Canada Jazz
    Air Canada Jazz
    Jazz Aviation LP is a Canadian regional airline based at Halifax Stanfield International Airport in Enfield and Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Chorus Aviation....



In 2001, Air Canada consolidated its wholly owned regional carriers Air BC
Air BC
Air BC was an airline headquartered in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. It is now part of Air Canada Jazz.- History :Air BC was established in 1980 after the merger of a number of west coast domestic airlines: Canadian Air Transit, Flight Operation, Gulf Air Aviation, Haida Airlines, Island...

, Air Nova
Air Nova
Air Nova was an airline based in Enfield, Nova Scotia, Canada that became part of Air Canada Regional in 2001. In 2002 the merger of Air BC, Air Ontario, Air Nova and Canadian Regional Airlines was finalised with the launch of a new name and brand-Air Canada Jazz.- History :Air Nova was...

, Air Ontario
Air Ontario
Air Ontario Inc. was a Canadian airline now part of Air Canada Jazz. It was headquartered in London, Ontario.- History :Air Ontario Inc. was established in June 1987, with the merger of Austin Airways, Canada’s oldest airline, which began service in 1934, and Air Ontario Ltd...

 and Canadian Regional Airlines
Canadian Regional Airlines
Canadian Regional Airlines was an airline headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is now part of Air Canada Jazz.- Former Code Data :*IATA Code: KI*ICAO Code: CDR*Callsign: Canadian Regional- History :...

 into Air Canada Regional Incorporated. In 2002 the consolidation was completed with the creation of a new brand-Air Canada Jazz
. Air Canada Jazz was spun off starting in November 2006. ACE Aviation Holdings is no longer a shareholder of Jazz Aviation LP, making it an independent company. Air Canada Jazz was the brand name of Air Canada's main regional product from 2002-2011. As of June 2011, the Air Canada Jazz brand is no longer being marketed as all regional operators adopted the Air Canada Express name. Jazz Aviation is the largest of these affiliates operating 125 aircraft on behalf of Air Canada.
  • Zip
    Zip (airline)
    Zip was a Canadian discount airline headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, launched by Air Canada as a no-frills subsidiary in September 2002. It operated a fleet of 12 Boeing 737 aircraft, each painted in a bright, neon colour with a single class of service...


In 2002, Air Canada launched, a discount airline
Low-cost carrier
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline is an airline that generally has lower fares and fewer comforts...

 to compete directly with WestJet
WestJet
WestJet Airlines Ltd. is a Canadian low-cost carrier that provides scheduled and charter air service to 71 destinations in Canada, the United States, Mexico and the Caribbean. Founded in 1996, WestJet is currently the second largest Canadian air carrier, behind Air Canada, operating an average of...

 on routes in Western Canada. Zip
Zip (airline)
Zip was a Canadian discount airline headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, launched by Air Canada as a no-frills subsidiary in September 2002. It operated a fleet of 12 Boeing 737 aircraft, each painted in a bright, neon colour with a single class of service...

 operated ex-Canadian Airlines International 737-200s as a separate airline with its own staff and brightly painted aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

. It also was disbanded in 2004.

  • Air Canada Tango
    Air Canada Tango
    Air Canada Tango was a low-cost branch of Air Canada, which was established in 2001 to offer no-frills service on some of Air Canada's routes and to reduce operating costs at the struggling main company...


On 1 November 2001, Air Canada launched Air Canada Tango, designed to offer no-frills service and lower fares using a dedicated fleet of 13 Airbus A320s in an all economy configuration of 159 seats. In Canada, it operated from Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 to Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

, Calgary
Calgary
Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

, Edmonton
Edmonton
Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta and is the province's second-largest city. Edmonton is located on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region, which is surrounded by the central region of the province.The city and its census...

, Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers .The name...

, Regina
Regina, Saskatchewan
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council. Regina is the cathedral city of the Roman Catholic and Romanian Orthodox...

/Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344....

, Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
-In Canada:Thunder Bay is the name of three places in the province of Ontario, Canada along Lake Superior:*Thunder Bay District, Ontario, a district in Northwestern Ontario*Thunder Bay, a city in Thunder Bay District*Thunder Bay, Unorganized, Ontario...

, Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

, Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 and Halifax. In addition, it operated non-stop service between Toronto and Fort Lauderdale, Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

 and Tampa
Tâmpa
Tâmpa may refer to several villages in Romania:* Tâmpa, a village in Băcia Commune, Hunedoara County* Tâmpa, a village in Miercurea Nirajului, Mureş County* Tâmpa, a mountain in Braşov city...

; as well as non-stop service between Montreal and Fort Lauderdale and Orlando. Tango was intended to compete with Canada 3000
Canada 3000
Canada 3000 Inc. was a Canadian discount charter airline offering domestic and international flights. It was the largest charter airline in the world at the time of its operation, with over 90 destinations worldwide, although it changed to scheduled service in 2000 after the Canadian Airlines and...

. The Tango service was dissolved in 2004. Air Canada now calls its lowest fare class "Tango" (Tango and Tango Plus).
  • Aeroplan
    Aeroplan
    Aeroplan is a Montreal, Quebec, Canada based coalition loyalty program owned by Aimia , a global leader in loyalty management. The Aeroplan Program was created in July 1984 by Air Canada as an incentive program for its frequent flyer customers...


Aeroplan is Air Canada's loyalty marketing program operated by Groupe Aeroplan Inc., which was spun off from Air Canada in 2005.

Destinations

Air Canada flies to 15 domestic destinations and 81 international destinations in 33 countries (including British overseas territories
British overseas territories
The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories of the United Kingdom which, although they do not form part of the United Kingdom itself, fall under its jurisdiction. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not acquired independence or have voted to remain British territories...

, Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Kingdom of the Netherlands is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with territory in Western Europe and in the Caribbean. The four parts of the Kingdom—Aruba, Curaçao, the Netherlands, and Sint Maarten—are referred to as "countries", and participate on a basis of equality...

, Overseas departments and territories of France
Overseas departments and territories of France
The French Overseas Departments and Territories consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of the European continent. These territories have varying legal status and different levels of autonomy, although all have representation in the Parliament of France , and consequently the...

 and United States territories)
across Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, Americas
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

, Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 and Oceania
Oceania
Oceania is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Conceptions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago...

. Along with its regional partners, the carrier serves 171 destinations in 39 countries worldwide.

Air Canada has flown a number of fifth freedom routes (passenger and cargo rights between two non-Canadian destinations), only one of which is still operated, namely Santiago-Buenos Aires. Past fifth freedom routes have included: Honolulu-Sydney, London Heathrow-Düsseldorf, Paris-Geneva, Paris-Munich, Paris-Berlin, Frankfurt-Zürich, Zürich-Zagreb, Zürich-Vienna, Zürich-Delhi, Lisbon-Madrid, Brussels-Prague, London Heathrow-Delhi, London Heathrow-Nice, London Heathrow-Bombay-Singapore.

Codeshare agreements

Air Canada has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:

  • Air China
    Air China
    Air China is the flag carrier and one of the major airlines of the People's Republic of China. Based in Beijing Capital International Airport, Air China is the world's 10th largest airline by fleet size. The airline ranked behind its main competitors China Southern Airlines and China Eastern...

     *
  • Air New Zealand
    Air New Zealand
    Air New Zealand Limited is the national airline and flag carrier of New Zealand. Based in Auckland, New Zealand, the airline operates scheduled passenger flights to 26 domestic destinations and 24 international destinations in 15 countries across Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, and is...

     *
  • ANA
    All Nippon Airways
    , also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

    *
  • Asiana Airlines
    Asiana Airlines
    Asiana Airlines Inc. is one of South Korea's two major airlines, along with Korean Air. Asiana has its headquarters in Asiana Town in Osoe-dong, Gangseo-gu, Seoul...

     *
  • Austrian Airlines
    Austrian Airlines
    Austrian Airlines is the flag carrier airline of Austria, headquartered in Office Park 2 on the grounds of Vienna International Airport in Schwechat, Wien-Umgebung and a subsidiary of Deutsche Lufthansa AG. Together with regional subsidiary Tyrolean Airways and charter arm Lauda Air, it operates...

     *
  • Avianca
    Avianca
    Avianca S.A. is the flag carrier airline of Colombia since December 5, 1919 when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA. It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C. with its hub at the El Dorado International Airport...

     (Future Star Alliance member)
  • BMI
    Bmi (airline)
    British Midland Airways Limited , is an airline based at Donington Hall in Castle Donington in the United Kingdom, close to East Midlands Airport, and a fully owned subsidiary of Lufthansa...

     *
  • Brussels Airlines
    Brussels Airlines
    Brussels Airlines is a flag carrier airline headquartered in the b.house on the grounds of Brussels Airport and in Diegem, Machelen, Belgium and a subsidiary of Lufthansa. It is the largest airline based in Belgium, operating to over 65 destinations in 20 European countries as well as long-haul...

     *
  • Continental Airlines
    Continental Airlines
    Continental Airlines was a major American airline now merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc...

     *
  • Jet Airways
    Jet Airways
    Jet Airways is a major Indian airline based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is India's largest airline and the market leader in the domestic sector. It operates over 400 flights daily to 76 destinations worldwide. Its main hub is Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, with secondary hubs at Delhi,...

  • LOT Polish Airlines
    LOT Polish Airlines
    Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT S.A. , trading as LOT Polish Airlines, is the flag carrier of Poland. Based in Warsaw, LOT was established in 1929, making it one of the world's oldest airlines still in operation. Using a fleet of 55 aircraft, LOT operates a complex network to 60 destinations in Europe,...

     *
  • Lufthansa
    Lufthansa
    Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

     *

  • Middle East Airlines
    Middle East Airlines
    Middle East Airlines – Air Liban S.A.L. , more commonly known as Middle East Airlines , is the national flag-carrier airline of Lebanon, with its head office in Beirut, near Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport...

  • Scandinavian Airlines *
  • Singapore Airlines
    Singapore Airlines
    Singapore Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets...

     *
  • Spanair
    Spanair
    Spanair is a Spanish airline, with its head office in the Spanair Building in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, near Barcelona. It was, until 2009, a subsidiary of Scandinavian Airlines, which now holds slightly under 20% of the company. Spanair provides a scheduled passenger network within Spain and...

     *
  • SriLankan Airlines
    SriLankan Airlines
    SriLankan Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Sri Lanka. It operates to destinations in Asia and Europe from its base and hub at Bandaranaike International Airport . The airline's trademark phrase is 'You're Our World', and the company's logo features a stylized peacock...

  • Swiss International Air Lines
    Swiss International Air Lines
    Swiss International Air Lines AG is the principal airline of Switzerland operating scheduled services in Europe and to North America, South America, Africa and Asia. Its main hub is Zurich Airport...

     *
  • TACA Airlines (Future Star Alliance member)
  • TAM Airlines *
  • TAP Portugal
    TAP Portugal
    TAP Portugal, commonly known as TAP, is the national airline of Portugal. It has its head office in Building 25 on the grounds of Portela Airport in Lisbon, and has been a member of the Star Alliance since 14 March 2005, the same day on which the company celebrated its 60th anniversary...

    *
  • Thai Airways International
    Thai Airways International
    Thai Airways International Public Company Limited is the national flag carrier and largest airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline's headquarters are located in Chatuchak District, Bangkok, and operates out of Suvarnabhumi Airport. Thai is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Thai is a...

     *
  • United Airlines
    United Airlines
    United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

     *

Notes: * indicates Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Star Alliance is the world's first and largest airline alliance, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, Germany . The alliance was founded in 1997 by five of the world's leading airlines: Air Canada, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International and United Airlines...

 partners; Air Canada is one of the founding members of Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Star Alliance is the world's first and largest airline alliance, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, Germany . The alliance was founded in 1997 by five of the world's leading airlines: Air Canada, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International and United Airlines...

.

Fleet

The Air Canada fleet consists of 204 aircraft, as of 24 November 2010. All aircraft are now fitted with the new interior, except three Boeing 767-300ERs which serve select seasonal all-economy class routes from Calgary, Vancouver, and Edmonton to Honolulu, Maui, Cancun, Varadero, and Montego Bay (winter) and Montreal and Toronto to Athens, Barcelona, and Dublin (summer) and two all-economy class A319-100s which returned from lease from now bankrupt Mexicana (which serve select winter routes from Quebec City to Varadero). The new interior is a revamp of the cabin and the installation of individual video displays in both Executive First and Economy classes.
Air Canada Fleet
Aircraft Total Orders Passengers Notes
J Y Total
Airbus A319-100
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

36 14 106 120 C-FZUH painted in Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines was a Canadian airline and operated as the country's flag carrier. Its corporate headquarters were in Montreal, Quebec...

 livery
Aircraft livery
Aircraft livery is a paint scheme applied to an aircraft, generally to fuselage, wings, empennage , or jet engines. Most airlines have a standard paint scheme for their aircraft fleet, usually prominently displaying the airline logo or name. From time to time special liveries are introduced, for...

2 0 132 132 Non-XM'd cabins
Airbus A320-200
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

41 14 132 146
Airbus A321-200
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

10 20 154 174
Airbus A330-300
Airbus A330
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

8 37 228 265 C-GHLM painted in Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Star Alliance is the world's first and largest airline alliance, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, Germany . The alliance was founded in 1997 by five of the world's leading airlines: Air Canada, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International and United Airlines...

 livery
Boeing 767-300ER 27 25
24
166
187
191
211
C-FMWY painted in Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Star Alliance is the world's first and largest airline alliance, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main, Germany . The alliance was founded in 1997 by five of the world's leading airlines: Air Canada, Lufthansa, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International and United Airlines...

 livery
Livery
A livery is a uniform, insignia or symbol adorning, in a non-military context, a person, an object or a vehicle that denotes a relationship between the wearer of the livery and an individual or corporate body. Often, elements of the heraldry relating to the individual or corporate body feature in...

3 24 223 247 Non-XM'd Cabins
Boeing 777-200LR
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

6 42 228 270
Boeing 777-300ER
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

12 307 349
Boeing 787-8 37 TBA 23 options; Entry into service: 2014
Embraer 175 15 9 64 73
Embraer 190 45 84 93
Total 205 37 23 options

  • Air Canada has an average fleet age of 10.5 years, as of 30 June 2010. The Boeing customer code for Air Canada is 33 (i.e. 777-333).



Historic fleet


In 1963, Air Canada claimed to be the first major air carrier to have adopted turbine technology on its entire fleet for lower maintenance costs and higher productivity. It also claimed to be the first world airline to introduce jet freighter service using DC-8 equipment.

Air Canada was also one of the first airlines to have its entire fleet of unpressurised aircraft equipped with fixed oxygen systems for use by flight crew and passengers, using the rebreathing bag principle.
  • Air Canada's Airbus A340-500
    Airbus A340
    The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

    s (C-GKOL, fin 951 and C-GKOM, fin 952) were retired in August 2007 and replaced by Boeing 777-200LR
    Boeing 777
    The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

    s. They were then leased to TAM Airlines.
  • Air Canada's Airbus A340-300
    Airbus A340
    The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

    s were retired in November 2008 and replaced by Boeing 777-300ERs.They were leased to 6 different airlines, including Swiss International Airlines, Gestair
    Gestair
    Gestair Private Avitation is an airline based in Madrid, Spain. Part of the Gestair Group with its business units Commercial Aviation, Aviation Training and Private Aviation, it is a corporate aviation company operating a wide range of services including charter flights and aircraft management,...

    , Air Jamaica
    Air Jamaica
    Air Jamaica is the current national airline of Jamaica. It is has been owned and operated by Caribbean Airlines since 26 May 2011. The airline, headquartered in Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago also has administrative offices located in Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston, Jamaica...

    , Lan Airlines
    LAN Airlines
    LAN Airlines S.A. is an airline based in Santiago, Chile. LAN is currently positioned amongst the largest airlines in Latin America, serving Latin America, United States, the Caribbean, Oceania, and Europe. It is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance...

    , AirAsia X
    AirAsia X
    AirAsia X is a long-haul, budget airline based in Malaysia. The airline is operated by AirAsia X Sdn. Bhd. . It commenced operations on 2 November 2007. Its first service flew from Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia, to Gold Coast Airport in Australia...

    , and BWIA Int
  • Air Canada's Boeing 767-200ER fleet was retired from service by the end of 2008.
  • The Boeing 767 involved in the Gimli incident
    Gimli Glider
    The Gimli Glider is the nickname of the Air Canada aircraft that was involved in a notable aviation incident. On 23 July 1983, Air Canada Flight 143, a Boeing 767-200 jet, ran out of fuel at an altitude of ASL, about halfway through its flight from Montreal to Edmonton via Ottawa...

     (known as the "Gimli Glider") remained in service with Air Canada until it retired in 2008. The aircraft (C-GAUN) now sits at the Mojave Spaceport in California.
  • The McDonnell Douglas DC-10
    McDonnell Douglas DC-10
    The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine widebody jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The DC-10 has range for medium- to long-haul flights, capable of carrying a maximum 380 passengers. Its most distinguishing feature is the two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a...

     aircraft operated from 1971-2001 were owned by Canadian Airlines
    Canadian Airlines
    Canadian Airlines International Ltd. was a Canadian airline that operated from 1987 until 2001. The airline was Canada's second largest airline after Air Canada, and carried more than 11.9 million passengers to over 160 destinations in 17 countries on five continents at its height in 1996...

    .

The following are lists of aircraft that Air Canada has operated since 1937, and are now no longer in the fleet:
EWLINE
Air Canada Operated Jetliners
Type Used
Airbus A340-300
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

 
1995-2008
Airbus A340-500
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

 
2004-2007
BAe 146-200
BAe 146
The British Aerospace 146 is a medium-sized commercial airliner formerly manufactured in the United Kingdom by British Aerospace, later part of BAE Systems. Production ran from 1983 until 2002. Manufacture of an improved version known as the Avro RJ began in 1992...

 
1990-2005
Boeing 727-200
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

 
1974-1992
Boeing 737-200
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

 
1976-2004
Boeing 747-100
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

 
1971-1999
Boeing 747-200M(Combi)
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

1975-2002
Boeing 747-400
Boeing 747-400
The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

1990-2005
Boeing 747-400M(Combi)
Boeing 747-400
The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

1990-2004
Boeing 767-200ER
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

1983-2008
Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

-40 -50 -60 -70
1960-1983
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It was first manufactured in 1965 with its maiden flight later that year. The DC-9 was designed for frequent, short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982.The DC-9 was followed in subsequent modified forms by...

-30
1966-2002
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine widebody jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The DC-10 has range for medium- to long-haul flights, capable of carrying a maximum 380 passengers. Its most distinguishing feature is the two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a...

 
2001-2002
Fokker F28
Fokker F28
The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet airliner designed and built by defunct Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.-Design and development:...

 
1986-2004
Lockheed L-1011
Lockheed L-1011
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 or TriStar, is a medium-to-long range, widebody passenger trijet airliner. It was the third widebody airliner to enter commercial operations, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Between 1968 and 1984, Lockheed...

 -1 -15 -100 -500
1973-1996
EWLINE
Air Canada Operated Propliners
Type Used
Avro Lancastrian
Avro Lancastrian
|-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Franks, Richard A. The Avro Lancaster, Manchester and Lincoln: A Comprehensive Guide for the Modeller. London: SAM Publications, 2000. ISBN 0-9533465-3-6....

 
1943-1947
Bristol Freighter
Bristol Freighter
The Bristol Type 170 Freighter was a British twin-engine aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company as both a freighter and airliner, although its best known use is as an air ferry to carry cars and their passengers over relatively short distances.-Design and development:The...

1953-1955
Canadair North Star
Canadair North Star
The Canadair North Star was a 1940s Canadian development of the Douglas C-54 / DC-4 aircraft. Instead of radial piston engines found on the Douglas design, Canadair employed Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in order to achieve a 35 mph faster cruising speed. The prototype flew on 15 July 1946 and...

 
1946-1961
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting impact on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made...

 
1945-1963
Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation
Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation
The Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation is an aircraft in the Lockheed Constellation aircraft line. The aircraft was Lockheed's response to the successful Douglas DC-6 airliner and first flew in 1950...

 
1954-1963
Lockheed Model 10 Electra
Lockheed Model 10 Electra
The Lockheed Model 10 Electra was a twin-engine, all-metal monoplane airliner developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in the 1930s to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2...

 
1937-1941
Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra
Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra
|-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-835-6.-External links:*...

 
1941-1949
Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar
Lockheed Lodestar
The Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar was a passenger transport aircraft of the World War II era.-Design and development:The prototype of the Lockheed Model 18, which first flew in 1939, was constructed from one of a batch of Lockheed Model 14 Super Electras which had been returned to the manufacturer by...

 
1941-1949
Stearman  1937-1939
Vickers Vanguard
Vickers Vanguard
The Vickers Type 950 Vanguard was a British short/medium-range turboprop airliner introduced in 1959 by Vickers-Armstrongs, a development of their successful Viscount design with considerably more internal room. The Vanguard was introduced just before the first of the large jet-powered airliners,...

 
1961-1972
Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...

 
1955-1974



Services

Air Canada has two classes of service, both business
Business class
Business class is a travel class available on many commercial airlines and rail lines, known by brand names which vary by airline or rail company. In the airline industry, it was originally intended as an intermediate level of service between economy class and first class, but many airlines now...

 and economy
Economy class
__FORCETOC__Economy class, also called coach class , steerage, or standard class, is the lowest class of seating in air travel, rail travel, and sometimes ferry or maritime travel....

, on most aircraft. On long-haul international routes, Executive First and Economy Class is offered; short-haul and domestic routes feature Executive Class and Economy Class. Air Canada Express features Executive Class and Economy Class, on CRJ705
Bombardier CRJ700
The Bombardier CRJ700, CRJ900, and CRJ1000 are regional airliners based on the Bombardier CRJ200. Final assembly of the aircraft is at Montréal-Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, Quebec, outside Montreal, Canada.-Development:...

 aircraft; all other Air Canada Express aircraft have one-class economy cabins.

Executive First (International Business Class)

Executive First is Air Canada’s international business class
Business class
Business class is a travel class available on many commercial airlines and rail lines, known by brand names which vary by airline or rail company. In the airline industry, it was originally intended as an intermediate level of service between economy class and first class, but many airlines now...

 product, updated during the carrier's Project XM upgrade. These cabins are available on all widebody aircraft with the exception of three Boeing 767-300ER aircraft (which feature a North American Executive Class cabin).

Executive First Suites feature electronic flat beds, in a 1–1–1 (Boeing 767-300ER and A330-300s) or 1–2–1 (Boeing 777-300ER and Boeing 777-200LR) herringbone configuration
Herringbone seating
A Herringbone seating arrangement describes the positioning of seats partially and equally askew in one direction. As the name suggests, the arrangement of the seats looks very similar to the skeleton of a fish, and has been called "fish-bone seats" in a few languages.The term is derived from the...

 with a 21 inch (0.5334 m) seat width and a 6 in 3 in (1.91 m) seat pitch. The configuration is similar in layout to Virgin Atlantic's Upper Class Suite and Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand Limited is the national airline and flag carrier of New Zealand. Based in Auckland, New Zealand, the airline operates scheduled passenger flights to 26 domestic destinations and 24 international destinations in 15 countries across Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, and is...

's Business Premier Class product. Entertainment is personal AVOD (Audio Video On Demand), while music is provided by XM Satellite Radio
XM Satellite Radio
XM Satellite Radio is one of two satellite radio services in the United States and Canada, operated by Sirius XM Radio. It provides pay-for-service radio, analogous to cable television. Its service includes 73 different music channels, 39 news, sports, talk and entertainment channels, 21 regional...

. Self-service bar areas and mood lighting are available on all Boeing 777-300ER and Boeing 777-200LR aircraft.

The prior Executive First cabin featured electronic recliner seats reclining to 151°, with a width of 21 inch (0.5334 m) and a pitch of 57 to 60 in (1.4 to 1.5 m). Seat configuration was 1–2–2 or 2–2–1 seating on the 767-300ER aircraft, depending on tail fin. The Airbus widebodies featured a 2–2–2 seating configuration. Entertainment provided was personal DVD player or in-seat AVOD depending on aircraft type.

International Economy Class

In international Economy Class, seats are pitched 31 inch (0.7874 m) to 34 inch (0.8636 m) with a width of 17.2 inch (0.43688 m) to 18.5 inch (0.4699 m) and a recline to around 6 inch (0.1524 m). On all Project XM fitted aircraft, entertainment is personal AVOD (audio-video on demand). Configuration is 3–3–3 on the Boeing 777, 2–4–2 on the A330, and 2–3–2 on the Boeing 767. On Economy Class (original) aircraft, main screen entertainment is offered. Music on both types is provided by XM Satellite Radio.

North American Executive Class

Within North America, Executive Class is Air Canada’s premium product. On Embraer 175/190 aircraft and CRJ705 aircraft (Air Canada Express), seat configuration is 1–2 abreast, with recline around 120°, and a width of 20 inch (0.508 m). On Airbus narrow-body aircraft, seat configuration is 2–2 abreast, with 124° recline, and 21 inch (0.5334 m) width. Seat pitch is 37 inch (0.9398 m) on Canadair-705 aircraft and 39 inch (0.9906 m) on Embraer and Airbus aircraft. All seats feature AVOD and the new style cabin interiors. Music is provided by XM Satellite Radio.

North American Economy Class

Economy seating for domestic, North American, sun destination and caribbean flights is 3–3 abreast on Airbus aircraft and 2–2 on Embraer aircraft, with a pitch between 30 inch (0.762 m) and 32 inch (0.8128 m) on Airbus aircraft. For these flights food and alcoholic beverages can be purchased through Onboard Café while non-alcoholic beverages are complimentary. GuestLogix point of sale terminals are used.

Air Canada regional flights

Air Canada Express flights operated by CRJ100/200, Dash 8-100/300/400 aircraft offer a bar and refreshment service on board. The CRJ705 features Executive Class and personal AVOD at every seat. Flights on board the CRJ100/200/705 and Q400 which are two hours or more feature Onboard Café.

Cabin crew

Air Canada has made a change in uniform by changing the dark green for a midnight blue colour. The uniforms were designed by Canadian fashion designer Debbie Shuchat. At a presentation in the Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada; its metropolitan area; and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.1 million people – approximately 25% of Canada's population...

 hangar, Celine Dion
Celine Dion
Céline Marie Claudette Dion, , , is a Canadian singer. Born to a large family from Charlemagne, Quebec, Dion emerged as a teen star in the French-speaking world after her manager and future husband René Angélil mortgaged his home to finance her first record...

 helped the newly-solvent airline debut its new image.

Lounge

Maple Leaf Lounges are available to passengers holding a same day ticket on Air Canada in Executive Class, Star Alliance Gold Members, Air Canada Super Elite, Air Canada Elite, Air Canada Maple Leaf Club members, American Express Maple Leaf Club members, CIBC Maple Leaf Club card holders, American Express AeroplanPlus Platinum holders, holders of a one time guest pass or economy passengers who have purchased lounge access during booking.

The Air Canada London Heathrow Arrivals Lounge is available to eligible members arriving into London from any Air Canada international flight, holding a confirmed same-day overseas travel boarding card. Eligible groups include Executive Class Passengers, Air Canada Super Elite, Air Canada Elite, Air Canada Maple Leaf Club Members, American Express Maple Leaf Club, CIBC Maple Leaf Club or those holding a one-time guest pass.

U.S. business traveler international stopover strategy

Air Canada has started to pursue American based business travelers from departure airports which do not have direct connections to Europe and abroad, and use Canadian airports like Montreal, Pearson and Vancouver to make their connection through Canada.

Aeroplan

Aeroplan is Air Canada's frequent flier program. Miles are awarded to members and can be redeemed for rewards on airline tickets (primarily Star Alliance), reservations at hotel chains and car rental agencies, or for merchandise or charitable donations. Beginning 1 January 2007, Aeroplan miles expire after 7 years, unless the member is a minor (under 18 years of age) or has Top Tier status (Prestige, Elite or SuperElite). Accumulated miles also expire if an account does not show any activity (earning or redemption) for one full year (members can resuscitate their points but will have to pay a charge).

Incidents and accidents

For incidents before 1963, please see Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines was a Canadian airline and operated as the country's flag carrier. Its corporate headquarters were in Montreal, Quebec...

.
Date Flight number Information
13 June 1964 Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...

, Fin 638 CF-THT was damaged beyond economical repair when it crash-landed at Toronto
Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada; its metropolitan area; and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.1 million people – approximately 25% of Canada's population...

 after the failure of two engines on approach.
19 May 1967 McDonnell Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

-54F, Fin 813 CF-TJM crashed and burned on a training flight while making a three-engine landing at Ottawa
Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport
Ottawa/Macdonald-Cartier International Airport or Macdonald-Cartier International Airport , in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is named after Sirs John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

. All 3 crew members were killed. There were no passengers on the flight.
11 September 1968 A Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...

 of Air Canada was reported to have been hijacked by a Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

n passenger.
7 September 1969 Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...

, Fin 629 CF-THK was damaged beyond economic repair by a fire which occurred on take-off from Sept-Iles
Sept-Îles Airport
-External links:...

. The aircraft landed back at Sept-Îles but one passenger was killed in the fire.
1 March 1970 Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...

, Fin 643 CF-THY of collided in mid-air with Ercoupe 415 CF-SHN on approach to Vancouver International Airport
Vancouver International Airport
Vancouver International Airport is located on Sea Island in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, about from Downtown Vancouver. In 2010 it was the second busiest airport in Canada by aircraft movements and passengers , behind Toronto Pearson International Airport, with non-stop flights daily to...

. The Ercoupe pilot was killed.
5 July 1970 Flight 621
Air Canada Flight 621
The deadliest accident at Toronto International Airport, now called Pearson International Airport, took place on July 5, 1970, when Air Canada Flight 621, a Douglas DC-8 registered CF-TIW, was flying on a Montreal–Toronto–Los Angeles route....

McDonnell Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

-63, Fin 878 CF-TIW exploded from a fuel line rupture caused by engine 4 striking the runway in Toronto
Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada; its metropolitan area; and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.1 million people – approximately 25% of Canada's population...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 during the first landing attempt. All 109 passengers/crew were killed.
21 June 1973 McDonnell Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

-53, Fin 822 CF-TIJ caught fire and was burnt out during refueling at Terminal 2, Toronto
Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada; its metropolitan area; and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.1 million people – approximately 25% of Canada's population...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

; no fatalities.
26 June 1978 Flight 189
Air Canada Flight 189
Air Canada Flight 189 was an Air Canada flight from Ottawa to Vancouver via Toronto and Winnipeg. On June 26, 1978 it crashed on takeoff in Toronto killing two passengers....

McDonnell Douglas DC-9
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It was first manufactured in 1965 with its maiden flight later that year. The DC-9 was designed for frequent, short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982.The DC-9 was followed in subsequent modified forms by...

-32, Fin 721 CF-TLV overran the runway in Toronto after a blown tire aborted the takeoff. Two of 107 people on board were killed.
17 September 1979 Flight 680 McDonnell Douglas DC-9
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It was first manufactured in 1965 with its maiden flight later that year. The DC-9 was designed for frequent, short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982.The DC-9 was followed in subsequent modified forms by...

-32, Fin 720 C-FTLU approximately 14 minutes after flight 680 left Logan International Airport
Logan International Airport
General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport is located in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts . It covers , has six runways, and employs an estimated 16,000 people. It is the 19th busiest airport in the United States.Boston serves as a focus city for JetBlue Airways...

 in Boston, MA
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

 for Yarmouth, NS the entire tailcone section of the plane separated resulting in rapid decompression at an altitude of 25000 feet (7,620 m) leaving a large hole in the rear of the aircraft. A beverage cart, and other items in the cabin were sucked out of the plane over the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

, but there were no fatalities or significant injuries. The plane safely returned to Boston. Fatigue cracks were determined to be the cause. This same aircraft would be destroyed by fire nearly four years later on June 2, 1983 as Air Canada Flight 797
Air Canada Flight 797
Air Canada Flight 797 was a scheduled trans-border flight that flew on a Dallas/Fort Worth-Toronto-Montreal route. On , the aircraft developed an in-flight fire behind the washroom that spread between the outer skin and the inner decor panels, filling the plane with toxic smoke...

2 June 1982 McDonnell Douglas DC-9
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It was first manufactured in 1965 with its maiden flight later that year. The DC-9 was designed for frequent, short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982.The DC-9 was followed in subsequent modified forms by...

-32, Fin 724 C-FTLY exploded during a maintenance period in Montreal
Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport
Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport or Montréal-Trudeau, formerly known as Montréal-Dorval International Airport, is located on the Island of Montreal, from Montreal's downtown core. The airport terminals are located entirely in Dorval, while the Air Canada headquarters complex...

, Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

; no fatalities.
2 June 1983 Flight 797
Air Canada Flight 797
Air Canada Flight 797 was a scheduled trans-border flight that flew on a Dallas/Fort Worth-Toronto-Montreal route. On , the aircraft developed an in-flight fire behind the washroom that spread between the outer skin and the inner decor panels, filling the plane with toxic smoke...

McDonnell Douglas DC-9
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It was first manufactured in 1965 with its maiden flight later that year. The DC-9 was designed for frequent, short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982.The DC-9 was followed in subsequent modified forms by...

-32, Fin 720 C-FTLU had an electrical fire in the aft lavatory during flight, resulting in an emergency landing at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport , sometimes called the Greater Cincinnati Airport is located in Hebron, unincorporated Boone County, Kentucky, United States and serves the Greater Cincinnati metropolitan area. Despite being located in Boone County, the airport operations are...

. During emergency exiting, the sudden influx of oxygen caused a flash fire throughout the cabin, resulting in the deaths of 23 of the 41 passengers, including Canadian folk singer Stan Rogers
Stan Rogers
Stanley Allison "Stan" Rogers was a Canadian folk musician and songwriter.Rogers was noted for his rich, baritone voice and his finely crafted, traditional-sounding songs which were frequently inspired by Canadian history and the daily lives of working people, especially those from the fishing...

. All five crew members survived. The captain was the last person to get out of the plane. It was later made into a TV movie. This is Air Canada's most recent fatal accident.
23 July 1983 Flight 143
Gimli Glider
The Gimli Glider is the nickname of the Air Canada aircraft that was involved in a notable aviation incident. On 23 July 1983, Air Canada Flight 143, a Boeing 767-200 jet, ran out of fuel at an altitude of ASL, about halfway through its flight from Montreal to Edmonton via Ottawa...

Boeing 767-233, Fin 604 C-GAUN glided to an emergency landing in Gimli
Gimli Industrial Park Airport
Gimli Industrial Park Airport, , is a former military field located west of Gimli, Manitoba, Canada. The field is now operated as a civilian airport, with one of the original parallel runways decommissioned and now a significant portion of Gimli Motorsport Park...

 after running out of fuel 12300 metres (40,354.3 ft) above Red Lake
Red Lake, Ontario
Population trend:* Population in 2006: 4526* Population in 2001: 4233* Population total in 1996: 4778** Golden : 2248** Red Lake : 2277* Population in 1991:** Golden : 2355** Red Lake : 2268-Climate:...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

. Some people suffered minor injuries during the evacuation due to the steep angle of the escape chute at the rear of the plane; caused by the collapsed nose at the front. This incident was the subject of the TV movie, Falling from the Sky: Flight 174
Falling from the Sky: Flight 174
Falling from the Sky: Flight 174 is a 1995 television movie based on the story of Air Canada Flight 143 Known as the "Gimli Glider". It follows the crew, their families and the passengers of the flight, set in 1983, from the preparations for departure to the crash landing in an abandoned airfield...

, starring William Devane
William Devane
William Joseph Devane is an American film, television and theater actor.-Life and career:Devane was born in Albany, New York in 1937 or 1939 , the son of Joseph Devane, who was Franklin D. Roosevelt's chauffeur when he was Governor of New York...

, and the book, Freefall, by William Hoffer. This incident was also featured on the Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel is an American satellite and cable specialty channel , founded by John Hendricks and distributed by Discovery Communications. It is a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav...

 series Mayday (TV series)
Mayday (TV series)
Mayday, also known as Air Crash Investigation in the United Kingdom, Australia and Asia and Air Emergency and Air Disasters in the United States, is a Canadian documentary television programme produced by Cineflix investigating air crashes, near-crashes and other disasters...

 season 5 episode 6. This flight is specially known for the Gimli Glider.
28 March 1989 Air Canada Cargo McDonnell Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

-73CF flight from Toronto
Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport is an international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada; its metropolitan area; and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.1 million people – approximately 25% of Canada's population...

 to Vancouver
Vancouver International Airport
Vancouver International Airport is located on Sea Island in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, about from Downtown Vancouver. In 2010 it was the second busiest airport in Canada by aircraft movements and passengers , behind Toronto Pearson International Airport, with non-stop flights daily to...

 with stops in Winnipeg and Edmonton
Edmonton International Airport
Edmonton International Airport is the primary air passenger and air cargo facility in the Edmonton region in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is a hub facility for Northern Alberta and Northern Canada providing regularly scheduled nonstop flights to over fifty communities in Canada, the United...

 slammed down hard onto the runway during landing in Edmonton resulting in the plane leaving the runway for more than 900 feet (274.3 m) on the frozen ground and damaging both outboard engines. Icing on the right wing was blamed for the incident. There were no fatalities, but the CASB felt a disaster was averted due to the plane stalling just above the runway, and because the ground hadn't yet thawed. One CASB official was quoted as saying "Ten seconds earlier or three weeks later and we'd be picking up bits and pieces".
16 December 1997 Flight 646
Air Canada Flight 646
Air Canada Flight 646 was a flight from Toronto's Lester B. Pearson International Airport to Fredericton, New Brunswick, operated by Air Canada. On 16 December 1997, at 23:48 local time, the Canadair CRJ-100ER jet crashed after a failed go-around attempt in Fredericton...

Air Canada Bombardier CRJ-100
Bombardier CRJ200
The Bombardier CRJ100 and CRJ200 are a family of regional airliner manufactured by Bombardier, and based on the Canadair Challenger business jet.-Development:...

ER, Fin 109 C-FSKI went off the end of the runway upon landing in Fredericton, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province in the federation that is constitutionally bilingual . The provincial capital is Fredericton and Saint John is the most populous city. Greater Moncton is the largest Census Metropolitan Area...

. There were no fatalities.
10 January 2008 Flight 190 Air Canada Flight 190, an Airbus 319
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

, Fin 279 C-GBHZ heading from Victoria
Victoria International Airport
Victoria International Airport serves Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. It is north northwest of the city, in North Saanich, quite close to the town of Sidney on the Saanich Peninsula...

 to Toronto, plunged from 36900 to 35500 ft (11,247.1 to 10,820.4 m) for approximately 15 seconds, until the pilots were able to regain control and fly the plane manually. The plane made an emergency landing in Calgary
Calgary International Airport
Calgary International Airport, , is the international airport that serves Calgary, Alberta, Canada and the surrounding region; it is situated approximately northeast of downtown Calgary...

. Two crew members and eight passengers were admitted to hospital but released the same day. The final report concluded that flight 190 encountered wake turbulence produced by a Boeing 747 on the same route of flight just ahead of flight 190. Although minimum safety distance was observed, the turbulence, along with extreme rudder
Rudder
A rudder is a device used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft or other conveyance that moves through a medium . On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane...

 and sidestick input from the pilot, led to high g loads
G-force
The g-force associated with an object is its acceleration relative to free-fall. This acceleration experienced by an object is due to the vector sum of non-gravitational forces acting on an object free to move. The accelerations that are not produced by gravity are termed proper accelerations, and...

 and the consequent movement of objects and people on the plane.
24 April 2009 Flight 034 Air Canada Flight AC34, a Boeing 777-200LR, registered as C-FIUJ Fin 703, flying from Sydney to Vancouver
Vancouver International Airport
Vancouver International Airport is located on Sea Island in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, about from Downtown Vancouver. In 2010 it was the second busiest airport in Canada by aircraft movements and passengers , behind Toronto Pearson International Airport, with non-stop flights daily to...

, encountered severe turbulence related to storm activity one hour northeast of Honolulu
Honolulu International Airport
Honolulu International Airport is the principal aviation gateway of the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawaii and is identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States, with traffic now exceeding 21 million passengers a year and rising.It is located in the Honolulu...

. The normally direct flight was forced to return back to an unscheduled stop in Honolulu where the injured passengers and crew were treated. While initial reports said that up to 22 people suffered injuries during the turbulence, the official press release from Air Canada reported nine passengers and two crew were injured while an additional two crew and two passengers remained in hospital in Honolulu. After 2 hours in Honolulu the flight continued on to Vancouver, arriving before 12:00 local time instead of the scheduled 07:30. Unconfirmed reports from passengers on the ground after landing say the turbulence lasted up to 10 minutes with little or no warning before the event.

See also

  • ACE Aviation Holdings
    ACE Aviation Holdings
    ACE Aviation Holdings Inc. is a Canadian holding company that provides commercial airline service and technical support and is the parent company of Air Canada. It is headquartered in Montreal.-History:...

  • Air transport in Canada
  • Jazz Air
  • List of airlines of Canada
  • List of airports in Canada
  • List of companies of Canada
  • Transport in Canada

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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