A. J. Cronin
Overview
 
Archibald Joseph Cronin (19 July 1896–6 January 1981) was a Scottish
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 physician
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

 and novel
Novel
A novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose. The genre has historical roots both in the fields of the medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the novella. The latter supplied the present generic term in the late 18th century....

ist. His best-known works are Hatter's Castle
Hatter's Castle
Hatter's Castle is the first novel of author A. J. Cronin. The story is set in 1879, in the fictional town of Levenford, on the Firth of Clyde. The plot revolves around many characters and has many subplots, all of which relate to the life of the hatter, James Brodie, whose narcissism and cruelty...

, The Stars Look Down
The Stars Look Down
The Stars Look Down is a 1935 novel by A. J. Cronin which chronicles various injustices in an English coal mining community. A film version was produced in 1939, and television adaptations include both Italian and British versions....

, The Citadel
The Citadel (novel)
The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It is credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later...

, The Keys of the Kingdom
The Keys of the Kingdom
The Keys of the Kingdom is a 1941 novel by A. J. Cronin. Spanning six decades, it tells the story of Father Francis Chisholm, an unconventional Scottish Catholic priest who struggles to establish a mission in China...

and The Green Years
The Green Years
The Green Years is a 1944 novel by A. J. Cronin which traces the formative years of an Irish orphan, Robert Shannon, who is sent to live with his draconian maternal grandparents in Scotland. An introspective child, Robert forms an attachment to his roguish great-grandfather, who draws the...

, all of which were adapted to film. He also created the Dr. Finlay
Dr. Finlay
Dr. Finlay is a fictional character, the hero of a series of stories by Scottish author A. J. Cronin.-History:The stories were used as the basis for the long-running BBC television programme, Dr. Finlay's Casebook, screened from 1962 to 1971, and radio series . Based on Cronin's novella entitled...

 character, the hero
Hero
A hero , in Greek mythology and folklore, was originally a demigod, their cult being one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion...

 of a series of stories that served as the basis for the popular BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 television and radio series entitled Dr. Finlay's Casebook
Dr. Finlay's Casebook (TV & radio)
Dr. Finlay's Casebook is a television series that was broadcast on the BBC from 1962 until 1971. Based on A. J. Cronin's novella entitled Country Doctor, the storylines centred on a general medical practice in the fictional Scottish town of Tannochbrae during the late 1920s...

.
Cronin was born at Rosebank Cottage in Cardross, Dunbartonshire
Dunbartonshire
Dunbartonshire or the County of Dumbarton is a lieutenancy area and registration county in the west central Lowlands of Scotland lying to the north of the River Clyde. Until 1975 it was a county used as a primary unit of local government with its county town and administrative centre at the town...

, the only child of a Protestant
Church of Scotland
The Church of Scotland, known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is a Presbyterian church, decisively shaped by the Scottish Reformation....

 mother, Jessie Cronin (née Montgomerie
Clan Montgomery
-Origins of the Clan:Clan Montgomery originated in Wales, and emigrated to Scotland in the 12th century as vassals of the FitzAlans. The family derives its surname from lands in Wales, likely from the Honour of Montgomery which was located near the Shropshire lands of the FitzAlans...

), and a Catholic father of Northern Irish
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

 extraction, Patrick Cronin, and would later write of young men from similarly mixed backgrounds.
Encyclopedia
Archibald Joseph Cronin (19 July 1896–6 January 1981) was a Scottish
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 physician
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

 and novel
Novel
A novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose. The genre has historical roots both in the fields of the medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the novella. The latter supplied the present generic term in the late 18th century....

ist. His best-known works are Hatter's Castle
Hatter's Castle
Hatter's Castle is the first novel of author A. J. Cronin. The story is set in 1879, in the fictional town of Levenford, on the Firth of Clyde. The plot revolves around many characters and has many subplots, all of which relate to the life of the hatter, James Brodie, whose narcissism and cruelty...

, The Stars Look Down
The Stars Look Down
The Stars Look Down is a 1935 novel by A. J. Cronin which chronicles various injustices in an English coal mining community. A film version was produced in 1939, and television adaptations include both Italian and British versions....

, The Citadel
The Citadel (novel)
The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It is credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later...

, The Keys of the Kingdom
The Keys of the Kingdom
The Keys of the Kingdom is a 1941 novel by A. J. Cronin. Spanning six decades, it tells the story of Father Francis Chisholm, an unconventional Scottish Catholic priest who struggles to establish a mission in China...

and The Green Years
The Green Years
The Green Years is a 1944 novel by A. J. Cronin which traces the formative years of an Irish orphan, Robert Shannon, who is sent to live with his draconian maternal grandparents in Scotland. An introspective child, Robert forms an attachment to his roguish great-grandfather, who draws the...

, all of which were adapted to film. He also created the Dr. Finlay
Dr. Finlay
Dr. Finlay is a fictional character, the hero of a series of stories by Scottish author A. J. Cronin.-History:The stories were used as the basis for the long-running BBC television programme, Dr. Finlay's Casebook, screened from 1962 to 1971, and radio series . Based on Cronin's novella entitled...

 character, the hero
Hero
A hero , in Greek mythology and folklore, was originally a demigod, their cult being one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion...

 of a series of stories that served as the basis for the popular BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 television and radio series entitled Dr. Finlay's Casebook
Dr. Finlay's Casebook (TV & radio)
Dr. Finlay's Casebook is a television series that was broadcast on the BBC from 1962 until 1971. Based on A. J. Cronin's novella entitled Country Doctor, the storylines centred on a general medical practice in the fictional Scottish town of Tannochbrae during the late 1920s...

.

Early life

Cronin was born at Rosebank Cottage in Cardross, Dunbartonshire
Dunbartonshire
Dunbartonshire or the County of Dumbarton is a lieutenancy area and registration county in the west central Lowlands of Scotland lying to the north of the River Clyde. Until 1975 it was a county used as a primary unit of local government with its county town and administrative centre at the town...

, the only child of a Protestant
Church of Scotland
The Church of Scotland, known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is a Presbyterian church, decisively shaped by the Scottish Reformation....

 mother, Jessie Cronin (née Montgomerie
Clan Montgomery
-Origins of the Clan:Clan Montgomery originated in Wales, and emigrated to Scotland in the 12th century as vassals of the FitzAlans. The family derives its surname from lands in Wales, likely from the Honour of Montgomery which was located near the Shropshire lands of the FitzAlans...

), and a Catholic father of Northern Irish
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

 extraction, Patrick Cronin, and would later write of young men from similarly mixed backgrounds. His paternal grandparents were the proprietors of a public house in Alexandria, West Dunbartonshire. His maternal grandfather, Archibald Montgomerie, was a hatter
Hatter
A hatter is a person engaged in hatmaking.Hatter also may refer to:*The Hatter, a fictional character in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland* Luton Town F.C., team a.k.a. "The Hatters"* Stockport County F.C., team a.k.a. "The Hatters"...

 who owned a shop in Dumbarton. After their marriage, Cronin's parents moved to Helensburgh
Helensburgh
Helensburgh is a town in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. It lies on the north shore of the Firth of Clyde and the eastern shore of the entrance to the Gareloch....

, where he attended Grant Street School. When he was seven years old, his father, an insurance agent and commercial traveller
Vendor (supply chain)
A vendor, or a supplier, is a supply chain management term meaning anyone who provides goods or services to a company. A vendor often manufactures inventoriable items, and sells those items to a customer.- History :...

, died from tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

. He and his mother moved to her parents' home in Dumbarton, and she soon became the first female public health inspector in Scotland.

Cronin was not only a precocious student at Dumbarton Academy who won many prizes and writing competitions, but also an excellent athlete and footballer. From an early age, he was an avid golf
Golf
Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

er, a sport he enjoyed throughout his life, and he loved salmon
Salmon
Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

 fishing
Fishing
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch wild fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping....

 as well. The family later moved to Yorkhill
Yorkhill
Yorkhill is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde in the West End of the city. It is known for its famous hospitals; the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill and the Queen Mother's Maternity Hospital....

, Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, where he attended St Aloysius College
St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow
St. Aloysius' College is a selective fee-paying independent Jesuit school in Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1859, and named after the famous Jesuit, Aloysius Gonzaga. Its strong Jesuit ethos emphasises practice of the Roman Catholic faith both in the church and in the community, with many...

 in the Garnethill
Garnethill
Garnethill is a predominantly residential area of the city of Glasgow, Scotland.-Geography:Located in the city centre, the area borders Cowcaddens to its north, Sauchiehall Street to its south, Cambridge Street to its east and the M8 motorway to its west....

 area of the city. He played football for the First XI there, an experience he included in one of his last novels, The Minstrel Boy
The Minstrel Boy (novel)
The Minstrel Boy is a 1975 novel by A. J. Cronin.The story concerns the life of a young priest called Desmonde Fitzgerald. In his seminary he is noted for his magnificent singing voice, his practical jokes and his good looks which make him inordinately attractive to women...

. A family decision that he should study for either the church or medicine was settled by Cronin himself, who chose "the lesser of two evils." He won a Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, businessman, and entrepreneur who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century...

 scholarship to study medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

 at the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

 in 1914. He was absent during the 1916-1917 session for naval service. In 1919 he graduated with highest honours, with the degree of MB, ChB. Later that year he made a trip to India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 as ship's surgeon on a liner. Cronin went on to earn additional degrees, including a Diploma in Public Health (1923) and his MRCP
Membership of the Royal College of Physicians
Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians is a postgraduate medical diploma. The examinations are run by the Federation of the Medical Royal Colleges of the United Kingdom – the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and the Royal College...

 (1924). In 1925, he was awarded an M.D.
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

 from the University of Glasgow for his dissertation, entitled "The History of Aneurysm
Aneurysm
An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. Aneurysms can commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain and an aortic aneurysm occurs in the main artery carrying blood from the left ventricle of the heart...

."

Medical career

During World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 Cronin served as a Surgeon
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

 Sub-Lieutenant
Sub-Lieutenant
Sub-lieutenant is a military rank. It is normally a junior officer rank.In many navies, a sub-lieutenant is a naval commissioned or subordinate officer, ranking below a lieutenant. In the Royal Navy the rank of sub-lieutenant is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the British Army and of...

 in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve before graduating from medical school. After the war, he trained at various hospitals including Bellahouston
Bellahouston
Bellahouston is a district in the southwest of the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is bordered by Ibrox, Dumbreck and Pollokshields.-History:...

 and Lightburn
Lightburn, Glasgow
Lightburn is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde. It takes its name from the Light Burn which flows through the area, mostly in culvert....

 Hospitals in Glasgow and Rotunda Hospital in Dublin, before taking up his first practice in Tredegar
Tredegar
Tredegar is a town situated on the Sirhowy River in the county borough of Blaenau Gwent, in south-east Wales. Located within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire, it became an early centre of the Industrial Revolution in South Wales...

, a mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

 town in South Wales
South Wales
South Wales is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west. The most densely populated region in the south-west of the United Kingdom, it is home to around 2.1 million people and includes the capital city of...

. In 1924, he was appointed Medical Inspector of Mines for Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

, and over the next few years, his survey of medical regulations in collieries and his reports on the correlation between coal dust inhalation and pulmonary disease
Pulmonology
In medicine, pulmonology is the specialty that deals with diseases of the respiratory tract and respiratory disease. It is called chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas...

 were published. He was involved in the disaster at Ystfad Colliery in Pengelly, where thirty-eight miners were drowned and the remaining twenty-three were rescued after eight days. Cronin drew on this haunting experience and his research of the occupational hazards of the mining industry for his later novels The Citadel
The Citadel (novel)
The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It is credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later...

, set in Wales, and The Stars Look Down
The Stars Look Down
The Stars Look Down is a 1935 novel by A. J. Cronin which chronicles various injustices in an English coal mining community. A film version was produced in 1939, and television adaptations include both Italian and British versions....

, set in Northumberland
Northumberland
Northumberland is the northernmost ceremonial county and a unitary district in North East England. For Eurostat purposes Northumberland is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three boroughs or unitary districts that comprise the "Northumberland and Tyne and Wear" NUTS 2 region...

. He subsequently moved to London, where he practised in Harley Street
Harley Street
Harley Street is a street in the City of Westminster in London, England which has been noted since the 19th century for its large number of private specialists in medicine and surgery.- Overview :...

 before opening his own thriving medical practice at 152,Westbourne Grove
Westbourne Grove
Westbourne Grove is a retail road running across Notting Hill, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, a section of west London, England. It runs from Kensington Park Road in the west to Queensway in the east, crossing over Portobello Road...

, Notting Hill
Notting Hill
Notting Hill is an area in London, England, close to the north-western corner of Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea...

. Cronin was also the medical officer for Whiteleys
Whiteleys
Whiteleys is a shopping centre in London, England. It was London's first department store, located in the Bayswater area. The store's main entrance was located on Queensway.-History:...

 at this time and was becoming increasingly interested in ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems...

.

Writing career

In 1930, after being diagnosed with a chronic duodenal
Duodenum
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum...

 ulcer
Peptic ulcer
A peptic ulcer, also known as PUD or peptic ulcer disease, is the most common ulcer of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. It is defined as mucosal erosions equal to or greater than 0.5 cm...

, Cronin was told he must take six months complete rest in the country on a milk diet. At Dalchenna Farm by Loch Fyne
Loch Fyne
Loch Fyne is a sea loch on the west coast of Argyll and Bute, Scotland. It extends inland from the Sound of Bute, making it the longest of the sea lochs...

, he was finally able to indulge his lifelong desire to write a novel, having theretofore "written nothing but prescriptions and scientific papers". From Dalchenna Farm he travelled to Dumbarton to research the background of the novel, using the files of Dumbarton Library, which still has the letter from Cronin requesting advice on this. He composed Hatter's Castle
Hatter's Castle
Hatter's Castle is the first novel of author A. J. Cronin. The story is set in 1879, in the fictional town of Levenford, on the Firth of Clyde. The plot revolves around many characters and has many subplots, all of which relate to the life of the hatter, James Brodie, whose narcissism and cruelty...

in the span of three months, and the manuscript was quickly accepted by Gollancz
Victor Gollancz Ltd
Victor Gollancz Ltd was a major British book publishing house of the twentieth century. It was founded in 1927 by Victor Gollancz and specialised in the publication of high quality literature, nonfiction and popular fiction, including science fiction. Upon Gollancz's death in 1967, ownership...

, the only publishing house to which it had been submitted (apparently chosen when his wife randomly stuck a pin into a list of publishers). This novel, which was an immediate and sensational success, launched his career as a prolific author, and he never returned to practising medicine.

Many of Cronin's books were bestsellers which were translated into numerous languages. His strengths included his compelling narrative skill and his powers of acute observation and graphic description. Although noted for its deep social conscience, his work is filled with colourful characters and witty dialogue. Some of his stories draw on his medical career, dramatically mixing realism, romance, and social criticism. Cronin's works examine moral conflicts between the individual and society as his idealistic heroes pursue justice for the common man. One of his earliest novels, The Stars Look Down
The Stars Look Down
The Stars Look Down is a 1935 novel by A. J. Cronin which chronicles various injustices in an English coal mining community. A film version was produced in 1939, and television adaptations include both Italian and British versions....

, chronicles transgressions in a mining community in Northeast England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 and an ambitious miner's rise to be a Member of Parliament
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

. Cronin's humanism
Humanism
Humanism is an approach in study, philosophy, world view or practice that focuses on human values and concerns. In philosophy and social science, humanism is a perspective which affirms some notion of human nature, and is contrasted with anti-humanism....

 continues to inspire - the film Billy Elliot
Billy Elliot
Billy Elliot is a 2000 British drama film written by Lee Hall and directed by Stephen Daldry. Set in the fictional town of "Everington" in the real County Durham, UK, it stars Jamie Bell as 11-year-old Billy, an aspiring dancer, Gary Lewis as his coal miner father, Jamie Draven as Billy's older...

was partly drawn from The Stars Look Down, and the opening song of Billy Elliot the Musical
Billy Elliot the Musical
Billy Elliot the Musical is a musical based on the 2000 film Billy Elliot. The music is by Sir Elton John, and book and lyrics are by Lee Hall, who wrote the film's screenplay. The plot revolves around motherless Billy, who trades boxing gloves for ballet shoes...

is entitled thus as a tribute. Through the years, Cronin's body of work has influenced many people to become writers or to enter the medical profession, including Giorgio Armani
Giorgio Armani
Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear. He is known today for his clean, tailored lines. He formed his company, Armani, in 1975, and by 2001 was acclaimed as the most successful designer to come out of Italy, with an annual turnover of $1.6 billion and a...

, who planned to become a doctor before becoming a designer.

A prodigiously fast writer, Cronin liked to average 5,000 words a day, meticulously planning the details of his plots in advance. He was known to be tough in business dealings, although in private life he was a person whose "pawky humour...peppered his conversations," according to one of his editors, Peter Haining
Peter Haining
Peter Alexander Haining was a British journalist, author and anthologist who lived and worked in Suffolk...

.

Cronin also contributed a large number of stories and essays to various international publications.

Influence of The Citadel

The Citadel
The Citadel (novel)
The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It is credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later...

, a tale of a mining company doctor's struggle to balance scientific integrity with social obligations, incited the establishment of the National Health Service
National Health Service
The National Health Service is the shared name of three of the four publicly funded healthcare systems in the United Kingdom. They provide a comprehensive range of health services, the vast majority of which are free at the point of use to residents of the United Kingdom...

 in the United Kingdom by exposing the inequity and incompetence of medical practice at the time. In the novel, Cronin advocated a free public health service in order to defeat the wiles of those doctors who "raised guinea
Guinea (British coin)
The guinea is a coin that was minted in the Kingdom of England and later in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom between 1663 and 1813...

-snatching and the bamboozling of patients to an art form." Dr. Cronin and Aneurin Bevan
Aneurin Bevan
Aneurin "Nye" Bevan was a British Labour Party politician who was the Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1959 until his death in 1960. The son of a coal miner, Bevan was a lifelong champion of social justice and the rights of working people...

 had both worked at the Tredegar Cottage Hospital
Tredegar General Hospital
Tredegar General Hospital is a community hospital in Tredegar, Blaenau Gwent, Wales providing rehabilitation and GP in-patient care with 85 full and part-time staff and 58 beds in two wards. There is a small 24 hour minor casualty unit staffed by nurses. The hospital is operated by the Aneurin...

 in Wales, which served as the basis for the NHS. The author quickly made a number of enemies in the medical profession, and there was a concerted effort by one group of specialists to get The Citadel banned. Cronin's novel, which was the publisher's best-selling book in its history, informed the public of corruption within the medical system, planting a seed that eventually led to necessary reform. Not only were the author's pioneering ideas instrumental in the creation of the NHS, but historian Raphael Samuel
Raphael Samuel
Raphael Elkan Samuel was a British Marxist historian, described by Stuart Hall as "one of the most outstanding, original intellectuals of his generation" . He was professor of history at the University of East London at the time of his death and also taught at Ruskin College from 1962 until his...

 has stated that the popularity of his novels played a substantial role in the Labour Party
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

's landslide 1945 victory.

By contrast, according to one of Cronin's biographers, Alan Davies, the book's reception was mixed. A few of the more vociferous medical practitioners of the day took exception to one of its many messages; that a few well-heeled doctors in fashionable practices were ripping off their equally well-off patients. Some, more sensibly, pointed to the lack of balance between criticism and praise for hard working doctors. The majority accepted it for what is was - a perceptive, topical novel. The press, typically, attempted to incite passions within the profession in an attempt to sell copy, while Victor Gollancz, Cronin's publisher, followed suit in an attempt to promote the book; all conveniently (or purposely) overlooking the fact that it was a work of fiction, not a scientific piece of research, and not autobiographical.

Religion

A number of Cronin's novels also deal with religion, something he had grown away from during his medical training and career, and with which he reacquainted himself in the thirties. At medical school, as he recounts in his autobiography, he had become an agnostic: "When I thought of God it was with a superior smile, indicative of biological scorn for such an outworn myth". During his practice in Wales, however, the deep religious faith of the people he worked among made him start to wonder whether "the compass of existence held more than my text-books had revealed, more than I had ever dreamed of. In short I lost my superiority, and this, though I was not then aware of it, is the first step towards finding God.

He also came to feel that "If we consider the physical universe
Universe
The Universe is commonly defined as the totality of everything that exists, including all matter and energy, the planets, stars, galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space. Definitions and usage vary and similar terms include the cosmos, the world and nature...

,... we cannot escape the notion of a primary Creator.... Accept evolution
Evolution
Evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins.Life on Earth...

 with its fossils and elementary species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

, its scientific doctrine
Doctrine
Doctrine is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system...

 of natural
Natural
Natural is an adjective that refers to Nature.Natural may refer too:In science and mathematics:* Natural transformation, category theory in mathematics* Natural foods...

 causes
Causes
Causes, or causality, is the relationship between one event and another. It may also refer to:* Cause , a term used in law* Causes , an online company...

. And still you are confronted with the same mystery, primary and profound. Ex nihilo nihil
Nothing comes from nothing
Nothing comes from nothing is a philosophical expression of a thesis first argued by Parmenides. It is associated with ancient Greek cosmology, such as presented not just in the opus of Homer and Hesiod, but also in virtually every philosophical system – there is no time interval in which a...

, as the Latin tag of our schooldays has it: nothing can come of nothing." This was brought home to him in London, where in his spare time he had organized a working boys' club. One day he invited a distinguished zoologist to deliver a lecture to the members. The speaker, adopting "a frankly atheistic approach," described the sequence of events leading to the emergence, "though he did not say how," of the first primitive life-form
Abiogenesis
Abiogenesis or biopoesis is the study of how biological life arises from inorganic matter through natural processes, and the method by which life on Earth arose...

 from lifeless matter
Matter
Matter is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects consist. Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles which have mass. A common way of defining matter is as anything that has mass and occupies volume...

. When he concluded, there was polite applause. Then, "a mild and very average youngster rose nervously to his feet" and with a slight stammer asked how there came to be anything in the first place. The naïve question took everyone by surprise. The lecturer "looked annoyed, hesitated, slowly turned red. Then, before he could answer, the whole club burst into a howl of laughter. The elaborate structure of logic offered by the test-tube realist had been crumpled by one word of challenge from a simple-minded boy."

Family

It was at university that Cronin met his future wife, Agnes Mary Gibson
Gibson (surname)
Gibson is an English and Scottish surname. The name is derived from a patronymic form of the common mediaeval personal name Gib, which is a short form of Gilbert. The name Gilbert was very popular in Great Britain in the Middle Ages. Variant forms of the surname include Gibsoun, Gipson, Gibbson,...

 (May), who was also a medical student. She was the daughter of Robert Gibson, a master
Master craftsman
A master craftsman or master tradesman was a member of a guild. In the European guild system, only masters were allowed to be members of the guild....

 baker
Baker
A baker is someone who bakes and sells bread, Cakes and similar foods may also be produced, as the traditional boundaries between what is produced by a baker as opposed to a pastry chef have blurred in recent decades...

, and Agnes Thomson
Thomson (surname)
Thomson is an English and Scottish patronymic surname meaning "son of Thom, Thomp, Thompkin, or other diminutive of Thomas", itself dervied from the Aramaic תום or Tôm, meaning "twin". The Welsh surname is documented in Cheshire records before and after the 1066 Norman Conquest. Variations...

 Gibson (née
NEE
NEE is a political protest group whose goal was to provide an alternative for voters who are unhappy with all political parties at hand in Belgium, where voting is compulsory.The NEE party was founded in 2005 in Antwerp...

 Gilchrist
Gilchrist
Gilchrist is a surname of Scottish origin, having originated in Islay. According to several genealogy websites, it literally means "servant of Christ." Some variations known to exist are Gillecrist, Gilcreest, Gilcrest, Gilchrest and Gilcress.Gilchrist may refer to:* Adam Gilchrist, Australian...

) of Hamilton, Lanarkshire. The couple married on 31 August 1921. As a doctor, May worked with her husband briefly in the dispensary
Dispensary
A dispensary is an office in a school, hospital or other organization that dispenses medications and medical supplies. In a traditional dispensary set-up a pharmacist dispenses medication as per prescription or order form....

 while he was employed by the Tredegar Medical Aid Society
Tredegar Medical Aid Society
Tredegar Medical Aid Society was founded in Tredegar in South Wales. In return for a contribution from its members it supplied free health care. This society contributed the model which established the British National Health Service...

; she also assisted him with his practice in London. When he became an author, she would proofread his manuscript
Manuscript
A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way...

s. Their first son, Vincent
Vincent Cronin
Vincent Archibald Patrick Cronin, FRSL was a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer, best-known for his biographies of Louis XIV, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, Catherine the Great, and Napoleon, as well as for his books on the Renaissance.Cronin was born in Tredegar, Monmouthshire...

, was born in Tredegar in 1924. Their second son, Patrick
R. F. Patrick Cronin
Robert Francis Patrick Cronin, FRCPC, FACP, FRCP was a cardiologist, researcher, professor, and healthcare consultant who served as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University from 1972 to 1977. Dr. Cronin became widely recognized for his work in developing countries...

, was born in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 in 1926. Andrew, their youngest son, was born in London in 1937.

With his stories being adapted to Hollywood films, Cronin and his family moved to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 in 1939, living in Bel Air, California, Nantucket, Massachusetts, Greenwich
Greenwich, Connecticut
Greenwich is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 61,171. It is home to many hedge funds and other financial service companies. Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut and is 38+ minutes ...

, Connecticut, and Blue Hill
Blue Hill, Maine
Blue Hill is a town in Hancock County, Maine, United States. The population was 2,390 at the 2000 census. It is home to Blue Hill Memorial Hospital, George Stevens Academy, the now-closed Liberty School, New Surry Theatre, Kneisel Hall, Bagaduce Music Lending Library, the Kollegewidgwok Yacht Club...

, Maine. In 1945, the Cronins sailed back to England aboard the RMS Queen Mary
RMS Queen Mary
RMS Queen Mary is a retired ocean liner that sailed primarily in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line...

, where they stayed briefly in Hove
Hove
Hove is a town on the south coast of England, immediately to the west of its larger neighbour Brighton, with which it forms the unitary authority Brighton and Hove. It forms a single conurbation together with Brighton and some smaller towns and villages running along the coast...

 and then in Raheny
Raheny
Raheny is a northern suburb of Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. It is an old area, centred around an old village, and is referenced back to 570 AD but after years of light settlement, with a main village and a coastal hamlet, grew rapidly in the 20th century, and is now a mid-density...

, Ireland before returning to the U.S. the following year. They subsequently took up residence at the Carlyle Hotel
Carlyle Hotel
The Carlyle Hotel, known formally as The Carlyle, is a combination luxury and residential hotel located at 35 East 76th Street on the northeast corner of Madison Avenue, in the Upper East Side area of New York City...

 in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 and then in Deerfield
Deerfield, Massachusetts
Deerfield is a town in Franklin County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 4,750 as of the 2000 census. Deerfield is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area in Western Massachusetts, lying only north of the city of Springfield.Deerfield includes the...

, Massachusetts before settling in New Canaan
New Canaan, Connecticut
New Canaan is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States, northeast of Stamford, on the Fivemile River. The population was 19,738 according to the 2010 census.The town is one of the most affluent communities in the United States...

, Connecticut in 1947. Ever the nomad, Cronin also frequently travelled to his homes in Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

 and Cap-d'Ail
Cap-d'Ail
Cap-d'Ail , Italian: Capodaglio, is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.It borders the district of La Colle in the Principality of Monaco....

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, where he summered.

Later years

Ultimately, Cronin returned to Europe, residing in Lucerne
Lucerne
Lucerne is a city in north-central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of that country. Lucerne is the capital of the Canton of Lucerne and the capital of the district of the same name. With a population of about 76,200 people, Lucerne is the most populous city in Central Switzerland, and...

 and Montreux
Montreux
Montreux is a municipality in the district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.It is located on Lake Geneva at the foot of the Alps and has a population, , of and nearly 90,000 in the agglomeration.- History :...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 for the last 25 years of his life and continuing to write into his eighties. He included among his friends Lord Olivier
Laurence Olivier
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM was an English actor, director, and producer. He was one of the most famous and revered actors of the 20th century. He married three times, to fellow actors Jill Esmond, Vivien Leigh, and Joan Plowright...

, Sir Charles Chaplin and Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn was a British actress and humanitarian. Although modest about her acting ability, Hepburn remains one of the world's most famous actresses of all time, remembered as a film and fashion icon of the twentieth century...

, to whose first son he was godfather
Godparent
A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a child's baptism. A male godparent is a godfather, and a female godparent is a godmother...

.

Although the latter part of his life was spent entirely abroad, Cronin retained a great affection for the district of his childhood, writing in 1972 to a local teacher: "Although I have travelled the world over I must say in all sincerity that my heart belongs to Dumbarton.... In my study there is a beautiful 17th century coloured print of the Rock.... I even follow with great fervour the fortunes of the Dumbarton football team." Further evidence of Cronin's lifelong support of Dumbarton F. C. comes from a framed typewritten letter hanging in the foyer of the club's stadium. In the letter, written in 1972 and addressed to the club's then secretary, Cronin congratulates Dumbarton on their return to the top division after an absence of 50 years and recalls his childhood supporting the Sons (the club's nickname) and on occasion being "lifted over" the turnstiles (a common practice in times past so that children did not have to pay).

Cronin died on 6 January 1981 in Montreux, and is interred at La Tour-de-Peilz
La Tour-de-Peilz
La Tour-de-Peilz is a municipality in Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut District in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. The city is located on Lake Geneva between Montreux and Vevey .-History:...

. Many of Cronin's writings, including published and unpublished literary manuscripts, drafts, letters, school exercise books and essays, laboratory
Laboratory
A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories...

 books, and his M.D. thesis, are held at the National Library of Scotland
National Library of Scotland
The National Library of Scotland is the legal deposit library of Scotland and is one of the country's National Collections. It is based in a collection of buildings in Edinburgh city centre. The headquarters is on George IV Bridge, between the Old Town and the university quarter...

 and at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas.

Honours

  • American Booksellers' Award, 1937, for The Citadel
    The Citadel (novel)
    The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It is credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later...

  • D.Litt. from Bowdoin College
    Bowdoin College
    Bowdoin College , founded in 1794, is an elite private liberal arts college located in the coastal Maine town of Brunswick, Maine. As of 2011, U.S. News and World Report ranks Bowdoin 6th among liberal arts colleges in the United States. At times, it was ranked as high as 4th in the country. It is...

     and Lafayette College
    Lafayette College
    Lafayette College is a private coeducational liberal arts and engineering college located in Easton, Pennsylvania, USA. The school, founded in 1826 by James Madison Porter,son of General Andrew Porter of Norristown and citizens of Easton, first began holding classes in 1832...


Selected periodical publications

  • "The Most Unforgettable Character I Ever Met: The Doctor of Lennox
    Lennox (district)
    The district of Lennox , often known as "the Lennox", is a region of Scotland centred around the village of Lennoxtown in East Dunbartonshire, eight miles north of the centre of Glasgow. At various times in history, the district has had both a dukedom and earldom associated with it.- External...

    ," Reader's Digest, 35 (September 1939): 26-30.
  • "Turning Point of My Career," Reader's Digest, 38 (May 1941): 53-57.
  • "Diogenes
    Diogenes of Sinope
    Diogenes the Cynic was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Also known as Diogenes of Sinope , he was born in Sinope , an Ionian colony on the Black Sea , in 412 or 404 BCE and died at Corinth in 323 BCE.Diogenes of Sinope was a controversial figure...

     in Maine," Reader's Digest, 39 (August 1941): 11-13.
  • "Reward of Mercy," Reader's Digest, 39 (September 1941): 25-37.
  • "How I Came to Write a Novel of a Priest," Life, 11 (20 October 1941): 64-66.
  • "Drama in Everyday Life," Reader's Digest, 42 (March 1943): 83-86.
  • "Candles in Vienna
    Vienna
    Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

    ," Reader's Digest, 48 (June 1946): 1-3.
  • "Star of Hope Still Rises," Reader's Digest, 53 (December 1948): 1-3.
  • "Johnny Brown Stays Here," Reader's Digest, 54 (January 1949): 9-12.
  • "Two Gentlemen of Verona
    Verona
    Verona ; German Bern, Dietrichsbern or Welschbern) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, with approx. 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven chef-lieus of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third of North-Eastern Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona...

    ," Reader's Digest, 54 (February 1949): 1-5.
  • "Greater Gift," Reader's Digest, 54 (March 1949): 88-91.
  • "Irish Rose," Reader's Digest, 56 (January 1950): 21-24.
  • "Monsieur le Maire," Reader's Digest, 58 (January 1951): 52-56.
  • "Best Investment I Ever Made," Reader's Digest, 58 (March 1951): 25-28.
  • "Quo Vadis?", Reader's Digest, 59 (December 1951): 41-44.
  • "Tombstone for Nora Malone," Reader's Digest, 60 (January 1952): 99-101.
  • "When You Dread Failure," Reader's Digest, 60 (February 1952): 21-24.
  • "What I Learned at La Grande Chartreuse
    Grande Chartreuse
    Grande Chartreuse is the head monastery of the Carthusian order. It is located in the Chartreuse Mountains, north of the city of Grenoble, in the commune of Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse , France. Originally, the château belonged to the See of Grenoble...

    ," Reader's Digest, 62 (February 1953): 73-77.
  • "Grace of Gratitude," Reader's Digest, 62 (March 1953): 67-70.
  • "Thousand and One Lives," Reader's Digest, 64 (January 1954): 8-11.
  • "How to Stop Worrying," Reader's Digest, 64 (May 1954): 47-50.
  • "Don't Be Sorry for Yourself!," Reader's Digest, 66 (February 1955): 97-100.
  • "Unless You Deny Yourself," Reader's Digest, 68 (January 1956): 54-56.
  • "Resurrection of Joao Jacinto," Reader's Digest, 89 (November 1966): 153-157.

Film adaptations

  • 1934–Once to Every Woman
    Once to Every Woman
    Once to Every Woman is a 1934 film adaptation of A. J. Cronin's short story, Kaleidoscope in "K". The film was made by Columbia Pictures and stars Ralph Bellamy and Fay Wray.- Cast :*Ralph Bellamy as Dr. Jim Barclay*Fay Wray as Mary Fanshawe...

    (from short story, Kaleidoscope in "K")–directed by Lambert Hillyer, featuring Ralph Bellamy
    Ralph Bellamy
    Ralph Bellamy was an American actor whose career spanned sixty-two years.-Early life:He was born Ralph Rexford Bellamy in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Lilla Louise , a native of Canada, and Charles Rexford Bellamy. He ran away from home when he was fifteen and managed to get into a road show...

    , Fay Wray
    Fay Wray
    Fay Wray was a Canadian-American actress most noted for playing the female lead in King Kong...

    , Walter Connolly
    Walter Connolly
    Walter Connolly was an American character actor who appeared in almost fifty films between 1914 and 1939.Connolly was a successful stage actor who appeared in twenty-two Broadway productions between 1916 and 1935, notably revivals of Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author and Chekhov's...

    , Mary Carlisle
    Mary Carlisle
    Mary Carlisle was an American actress and singer. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, she was a star of Hollywood films in the 1930s, having been one of thirteen girls selected as "WAMPAS Baby Stars" in 1932. The archetypal blonde, Mary Carlisle was brought to Hollywood at the age of four by her...

    , and Walter Byron
  • 1934–Grand Canary
    Grand Canary (film)
    Grand Canary is a 1934 Fox film of A. J. Cronin's novel of the same title. The film was produced by Jesse L. Lasky and directed by Irving Cummings.-Cast:*Warner Baxter as Dr. Harvey Leith*Madge Evans as Lady Mary Fielding...

    –directed by Irving Cummings
    Irving Cummings
    Irving Cummings , born Irving Camisky in New York City, New York was an American movie actor, director, producer and writer....

    , featuring Warner Baxter
    Warner Baxter
    Warner Leroy Baxter was an American actor, known for his role as The Cisco Kid in In Old Arizona , for which he won the second Academy Award for Best Actor in the 1928–1929 Academy Awards. Warner Baxter started his movie career in silent movies...

    , Madge Evans
    Madge Evans
    Madge Evans was an American stage and film actress. She began her career as a child performer and model.-Child model and stage actress:...

    , Marjorie Rambeau
    Marjorie Rambeau
    Marjorie Rambeau was an American film and stage actress.-Early life:Rambeau was born in San Francisco, California to Marcel Rambeau and Lilian Garlinda Kindelberger. Her parents split up when she was a girl. She and her mother went to Nome, Alaska where young Marjorie dressed as a boy, sang and...

    , Zita Johann
    Zita Johann
    Zita Johann was an American actress, best known for her role as Princess Ankhesenamón in Karl Freund's 1932 film version of The Mummy, co-starring with Boris Karloff....

    , and H.B. Warner
  • 1938–The Citadel
    The Citadel (film)
    The Citadel is a 1938 film based on the novel of the same name by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937. The film was directed by King Vidor and produced by Victor Saville.-Plot:...

    –directed by King Vidor
    King Vidor
    King Wallis Vidor was an American film director, film producer, and screenwriter whose career spanned nearly seven decades...

    , featuring Robert Donat
    Robert Donat
    Robert Donat was an English film and stage actor. He is best-known for his roles in Alfred Hitchcock's The 39 Steps and Goodbye, Mr...

    , Rosalind Russell
    Rosalind Russell
    Rosalind Russell was an American actress of stage and screen, perhaps best known for her role as a fast-talking newspaper reporter in the Howard Hawks screwball comedy His Girl Friday, as well as the role of Mame Dennis in the film Auntie Mame...

    , Ralph Richardson
    Ralph Richardson
    Sir Ralph David Richardson was an English actor, one of a group of theatrical knights of the mid-20th century who, though more closely associated with the stage, also appeared in several classic films....

    , and Rex Harrison
    Rex Harrison
    Sir Reginald Carey “Rex” Harrison was an English actor of stage and screen. Harrison won an Academy Award and two Tony Awards.-Youth and stage career:...

  • 1940–Vigil in the Night
    Vigil in the Night
    Vigil in the Night is a 1940 film based on the 1939 serialized novel Vigil in the Night, by A. J. Cronin...

    –directed by George Stevens
    George Stevens
    George Stevens was an American film director, producer, screenwriter and cinematographer.Among his most notable films were Diary of Anne Frank , nominated for Best Director, Giant , winner of Oscar for Best Director, Shane , Oscar nominated, and A Place in the Sun , winner of Oscar for Best...

    , featuring Carole Lombard
    Carole Lombard
    Carole Lombard was an American actress. She was particularly noted for her comedic roles in the screwball comedies of the 1930s...

    , Brian Aherne
    Brian Aherne
    Brian Aherne was a British actor of both stage and screen, who found success in Hollywood.-Early life and stage career:...

    , Anne Shirley, and Robert Coote
    Robert Coote
    Robert Coote was an English actor. He played aristocrats or British military types in many films, and created the role of Colonel Hugh Pickering in the long-running original Broadway production of My Fair Lady.-Biography:Coote was educated at Hurstpierpoint College in Sussex...

  • 1940–The Stars Look Down
    The Stars Look Down (film)
    The Stars Look Down is a 1940 British film based on A. J. Cronin's novel of the same title, initially published in 1935, which chronicles various injustices in a mining community in North East England. The film, co-scripted by Cronin and directed by Carol Reed, stars Michael Redgrave as Davey...

    –directed by Carol Reed
    Carol Reed
    Sir Carol Reed was an English film director best known for Odd Man Out , The Fallen Idol , The Third Man and Oliver!...

    , narrated by Lionel Barrymore
    Lionel Barrymore
    Lionel Barrymore was an American actor of stage, screen and radio. He won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance in A Free Soul...

     (US version), featuring Michael Redgrave
    Michael Redgrave
    Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave, CBE was an English stage and film actor, director, manager and author.-Youth and education:...

    , Margaret Lockwood, Emlyn Williams
    Emlyn Williams
    George Emlyn Williams, CBE , known as Emlyn Williams, was a Welsh dramatist and actor.-Biography:He was born into a Welsh-speaking, working class family in Mostyn, Flintshire....

    , Nancy Price
    Nancy Price
    Nancy Price, CBE , was an English actress on stage and screen, authoress and theatre director. Her acting career began in a repertory theatre company before progressing to the London stage, silent films, talkies and finally television. In addition to appearing on stage she became involved in...

    , and Cecil Parker
    Cecil Parker
    Cecil Parker was an English character and comedy actor with a distinctive husky voice, who usually played supporting roles in his 91 films made between 1928 and 1969....

  • 1941–Shining Victory
    Shining Victory
    Shining Victory is a 1941 film based on the play, Jupiter Laughs, by A. J. Cronin. It stars James Stephenson, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Donald Crisp, and Barbara O'Neil, and it was the first film directed by Irving Rapper. Bette Davis makes a brief cameo appearance as a nurse in the film.-Plot...

    (from play, Jupiter Laughs
    Jupiter Laughs
    Jupiter Laughs is A. J. Cronin's 1940 play in three acts about a doctor and his love interest, who hopes to become a medical missionary. The play was first staged in Glasgow at the King's Theatre and starred Henry Longhurst, Catherine Lacey and James Mason. In 1940, it opened on Broadway at the...

    )–directed by Irving Rapper
    Irving Rapper
    Irving Rapper was a British film director. His most successful body of work is 10 films he made while under contract with Warner Brothers....

    , featuring James Stephenson
    James Stephenson
    James Stephenson was a British actor.-Career:British stage actor James Stephenson made his film debut in 1937 at the age of 48 with parts in four films...

    , Geraldine Fitzgerald
    Geraldine Fitzgerald
    Geraldine Fitzgerald, Lady Lindsay-Hogg was an Irish-American actress and a member of the American Theatre Hall of Fame.-Early life:...

    , Donald Crisp
    Donald Crisp
    Donald Crisp was an English film actor. He was also an early motion picture producer, director and screenwriter...

    , Barbara O'Neil
    Barbara O'Neil
    -Early life and career:Barbara O'Neil was born in St. Louis, Missouri. She began her acting career in summer stock. In July 1931 Bretaigne Windust, Charles Leatherbee , and Joshua Logan, the three directors of the University Players, a three-year old summer stock company at West Falmouth on Cape...

    , and Bette Davis
    Bette Davis
    Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis was an American actress of film, television and theater. Noted for her willingness to play unsympathetic characters, she was highly regarded for her performances in a range of film genres, from contemporary crime melodramas to historical and period films and occasional...

  • 1942–Hatter's Castle
    Hatter's Castle (film)
    Hatter's Castle is a 1941 British film adaptation of the 1931 novel by A. J. Cronin, which dramatizes the ruin that befalls a Scottish hatter set on recapturing his imagined lost nobility. The film was made by Paramount British Pictures and stars Robert Newton, Deborah Kerr, James Mason, and Emlyn...

    –directed by Lance Comfort, featuring Robert Newton
    Robert Newton
    Robert Newton was an English stage and film actor. Along with Errol Flynn, Newton was one of the most popular actors among the male juvenile audience of the 1940s and early 1950s, especially with British boys...

    , Deborah Kerr
    Deborah Kerr
    Deborah Kerr, CBE was a Scottish film and television actress from Glasgow. She won the Sarah Siddons Award for her Chicago performance as Laura Reynolds in Tea and Sympathy, a role which she originated on Broadway, a Golden Globe Award for the motion picture The King and I, and was a three-time...

    , James Mason
    James Mason
    James Neville Mason was an English actor who attained stardom in both British and American films. Mason remained a powerful figure in the industry throughout his career and was nominated for three Academy Awards as well as three Golden Globes .- Early life :Mason was born in Huddersfield, in the...

    , Emlyn Williams
    Emlyn Williams
    George Emlyn Williams, CBE , known as Emlyn Williams, was a Welsh dramatist and actor.-Biography:He was born into a Welsh-speaking, working class family in Mostyn, Flintshire....

    , and Enid Stamp-Taylor
  • 1944–The Keys of the Kingdom
    The Keys of the Kingdom (film)
    The Keys of the Kingdom is a 1944 American film based on the 1941 novel, The Keys of the Kingdom, by A. J. Cronin. The movie was adapted by Nunnally Johnson, directed by John M. Stahl and produced by Joseph L. Mankiewicz. It stars Gregory Peck, Thomas Mitchell, Vincent Price, Rose Stradner, Edmund...

    –directed by John M. Stahl
    John M. Stahl
    John Malcolm Stahl was an American film director and producer.Born in New York City, New York, he began working in the city's growing motion picture industry at a young age and directed his first silent film short in 1914. In the early 1920s Stahl signed on with Louis B...

    , featuring Gregory Peck
    Gregory Peck
    Eldred Gregory Peck was an American actor.One of 20th Century Fox's most popular film stars from the 1940s to the 1960s, Peck continued to play important roles well into the 1980s. His notable performances include that of Atticus Finch in the 1962 film To Kill a Mockingbird, for which he won an...

    , Thomas Mitchell
    Thomas Mitchell (actor)
    Thomas Mitchell was an American actor, playwright and screenwriter. Among his most famous roles in a long career are those of Gerald O'Hara, the father of Scarlett O'Hara in Gone with the Wind, the drunken Doc Boone in John Ford's Stagecoach, and Uncle Billy in It's a Wonderful Life...

    , Vincent Price
    Vincent Price
    Vincent Leonard Price, Jr. was an American actor, well known for his distinctive voice and serio-comic attitude in a series of horror films made in the latter part of his career.-Early life and career:Price was born in St...

    , Rose Stradner, Edmund Gwenn
    Edmund Gwenn
    Edmund Gwenn was an English theatre and film actor.-Background:Born Edmund John Kellaway in Wandsworth, London , and educated at St. Olave's School and later at King's College London, Gwenn began his acting career in the theatre in 1895...

    , Benson Fong
    Benson Fong
    Benson Fong was a Chinese American character actor.Born in Sacramento, California, Fong was from a mercantile family...

    , Cedric Hardwicke
    Cedric Hardwicke
    Sir Cedric Webster Hardwicke was a noted English stage and film actor whose career spanned nearly fifty years...

    , Jane Ball, and Roddy McDowall
    Roddy McDowall
    Roderick Andrew Anthony Jude "Roddy" McDowall was an English actor and photographer. His film roles included Cornelius and Caesar in the Planet of the Apes film series...

  • 1946–The Green Years
    The Green Years (film)
    The Green Years is a 1946 American comedy-drama film featuring Charles Coburn, Tom Drake, Hume Cronyn, Gladys Cooper, Dean Stockwell, and Jessica Tandy, based on A. J. Cronin's novel of the same title...

    –directed by Victor Saville, featuring Charles Coburn
    Charles Coburn
    Charles Douville Coburn was an American film and theater actor.-Biography:Coburn was born in Macon, Georgia, the son of Scots-Irish Americans Emma Louise Sprigman and Moses Douville Coburn. Growing up in Savannah, he started out doing odd jobs at the local Savannah Theater, handing out programs,...

    , Tom Drake
    Tom Drake
    Tom Drake , born Alfred Sinclair Alderdice in Brooklyn, New York, was an American actor. Drake made films starting in 1940 and continuing until the mid-1970s, and also made TV acting appearances....

    , Beverly Tyler, Hume Cronyn
    Hume Cronyn
    Hume Blake Cronyn, OC was a Canadian actor of stage and screen, who enjoyed a long career, often appearing professionally alongside his second wife, Jessica Tandy.-Early life:...

    , Gladys Cooper
    Gladys Cooper
    Dame Gladys Constance Cooper, DBE was an English actress whose career spanned seven decades on stage, in films and on television....

    , Dean Stockwell
    Dean Stockwell
    Dean Stockwell is an American actor of film and television, with a career spanning over 65 years. As a child actor under contract to MGM he first came to the public's attention in films such as Anchors Aweigh and The Green Years; as a young adult he played a lead role in the 1957 Broadway and...

    , Selena Royle, and Jessica Tandy
    Jessica Tandy
    Jessie Alice "Jessica" Tandy was an English-American stage and film actress.She first appeared on the London stage in 1926 at the age of 16, playing, among others, Katherine opposite Laurence Olivier's Henry V, and Cordelia opposite John Gielgud's King Lear. She also worked in British films...

  • 1953–Ich suche Dich
    Ich suche Dich
    Ich suche Dich is a 1956 German film based on the play Jupiter Laughs by A. J. Cronin directed by O. W. Fischer also starring in the film, that also features Anouk Aimée, Nadja Tiller, and Otto Brüggemann. Seeleiten Castle in Murnau, Bavaria serves as one of the filming locations.-Cast:*O. W....

    ("I Seek You" - from play, Jupiter Laughs
    Jupiter Laughs
    Jupiter Laughs is A. J. Cronin's 1940 play in three acts about a doctor and his love interest, who hopes to become a medical missionary. The play was first staged in Glasgow at the King's Theatre and starred Henry Longhurst, Catherine Lacey and James Mason. In 1940, it opened on Broadway at the...

    )–directed by O.W. Fischer, featuring O.W. Fischer, Anouk Aimée
    Anouk Aimée
    Anouk Aimée is a French film actress. Aimée has appeared in 70 films since 1947. She began her film career in 1947 at age 14. In 1958 she portrayed the tragic artist Jeanne Hébuterne in the film Les Amants de Montparnasse...

    , Nadja Tiller
    Nadja Tiller
    Nadja Tiller is an Austrian actress. She was one of the most popular German actresses of the 1950s and 1960s.She won the Miss Austria competition in 1949, a national beauty pageant for unmarried women in Austria. She had her major film debut in 1952 in 'Märchen vom Glück .In 1955, she acted...

    , and Otto Brüggemann
  • 1957–The Spanish Gardener
    The Spanish Gardener (film)
    The Spanish Gardener is a 1956 film based on the novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1950. The film stars Dirk Bogarde and Jon Whiteley, and was directed by Philip Leacock. The adaptation was filmed both at Pinewood Studios, situated outside of London, and in S'Agaro, on the Costa Brava...

    –directed by Philip Leacock
    Philip Leacock
    Philip David Charles Leacock was an English television and film director and producer. His brother was documentary filmmaker Richard Leacock.-Career:...

    , featuring Dirk Bogarde
    Dirk Bogarde
    Sir Dirk Bogarde was an English actor and novelist. Initially a matinee idol in such films as Doctor in the House and other Rank Organisation pictures, Bogarde later acted in art-house films such as Death in Venice...

    , Jon Whiteley
    Jon Whiteley
    Jon Whiteley was a child actor in films.Whiteley appeared in five films during his brief career, and it was for the second of these, The Little Kidnappers that he, along with co-star Vincent Winter, was awarded an Academy Juvenile Award for this film...

    , Michael Hordern
    Michael Hordern
    Sir Michael Murray Hordern was an English actor, knighted in 1983 for his services to the theatre, which stretched back to before the Second World War.-Personal life:...

    , Cyril Cusack
    Cyril Cusack
    Cyril James Cusack was an Irish actor, who appeared in more than 90 films.-Early life:Cusack was born in Durban, Natal, South Africa, the son of Alice Violet , an actress, and James Walter Cusack, a sergeant in the Natal mounted police. His parents separated when he was young and his mother took...

    , and Lyndon Brook
    Lyndon Brook
    Lyndon Brook was a British actor, on film and television.Born in York, Brook came from an established acting family. His father, Clive Brook, had been a star of the silent movies and had moved to Hollywood to play quintessential Englishmen in a host of films...

  • 1958– Kalapani ("Black Water" - from novel, Beyond This Place
    Beyond This Place
    Beyond This Place is a 1953 novel by Scottish author A. J. Cronin. A serial version appeared in Collier's under the title of To Live Again.-Adaptations:...

    )–directed by Raj Khosla
    Raj Khosla
    Raj Khosla was one of the top directors, producer and screenwriter in Hindi films from the 1950s to the 1980s. He was known for bringing in ‘neo-noir’ and style in Indian cinema since black & white times, and also as a "women's director" because he showcased actresses at their best. He is often...

    , featuring Dev Anand
    Dev Anand
    Dharam Dev Anand , better known as Dev Anand , is an Indian Hindi Cinema actor, director and film producer. Dev is the second of three brothers who were active in Hindi Cinema. His brothers are Chetan Anand and Vijay Anand. Their sister, Sheel Kanta Kapur, is the mother of renowned Hindi and...

    , Madhubala
    Madhubala
    Mumtaz Jahan Begum Dehlavi, known by her stage name Madhubala was a Hindi movie actress. She starred in several successful movies in the 1950s and early 1960s, many of which have attained a classic status...

    , Nalini Jaywant
    Nalini Jaywant
    Nalini Jaywant was an Indian movie actress from Bollywood in the 1940s and 1950s.-Personal life and education:...

    , and Agha
    Agha (actor)
    Agha was an Indian film producer in Bollywood films, who started his film career with the film Daulat in 1937.He was known for comic roles and appeared in over 180 Hindi films in his career between 1937 and 1989 spanning five decades....

  • 1959–Web of Evidence
    Web of Evidence
    Web of Evidence is a 1959 British film based on the novel, Beyond This Place, by A. J. Cronin. It was directed by Jack Cardiff and stars Van Johnson and Vera Miles. The original title was kept for the film's European release, though it was given an alternate title for the American release...

    (from novel, Beyond This Place
    Beyond This Place
    Beyond This Place is a 1953 novel by Scottish author A. J. Cronin. A serial version appeared in Collier's under the title of To Live Again.-Adaptations:...

    )–directed by Jack Cardiff
    Jack Cardiff
    Jack Cardiff, OBE, BSC was a British cinematographer, director and photographer.His career spanned the development of cinema, from silent film, through early experiments in Technicolor to filmmaking in the 21st century...

    , featuring Van Johnson
    Van Johnson
    Van Johnson was an American film and television actor and dancer who was a major star at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios during and after World War II....

    , Vera Miles
    Vera Miles
    Vera Miles is an American film actress who gained popularity for starring in films such as The Searchers, The Wrong Man, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, Psycho and Psycho II.-Early life:...

    , Emlyn Williams
    Emlyn Williams
    George Emlyn Williams, CBE , known as Emlyn Williams, was a Welsh dramatist and actor.-Biography:He was born into a Welsh-speaking, working class family in Mostyn, Flintshire....

    , Bernard Lee
    Bernard Lee
    John Bernard Lee was an English actor, best known for his role as M in the first eleven James Bond films.-Life and career:...

    , and Jean Kent
    Jean Kent
    Jean Kent is a British film actress who appeared in a number of the Gainsborough melodramas of the 1940s.-Biography:Jean Kent was born in Brixton, London as Joan Mildred Summerfield. She started her theatrical career as a dancer in 1931. Initially, she used the stage name of Jean Carr when she...

  • 1967– Pula Rangadu
    Pula Rangadu
    Poola Rangadu is a 1967 Tollywood film that is loosely based on A. J. Cronin's novel, Beyond This Place. It was directed by Adurthi Subba Rao and stars ANR and Jamuna. It is a commercial hit film with some good songs.-The plot:...

    (from novel, Beyond This Place
    Beyond This Place
    Beyond This Place is a 1953 novel by Scottish author A. J. Cronin. A serial version appeared in Collier's under the title of To Live Again.-Adaptations:...

    )–directed by Adurthi Subba Rao, featuring ANR
    Akkineni Nageswara Rao
    Akkineni Nageswara Rao , also known as ANR, is a Telugu cinema actor from Gudivada, Andhra Pradesh. Nageswara Rao has worked in several genres of films in his 70-year acting career, including mythological, social, and drama films...

    , Jamuna
    Jamuna Ramanarao
    Jamuna is a veteran Telugu actress, a director and a politician.-Early life and background:Jamuna was born in Nidamaru, Guntur to Nippani Srinivas Rao, a Madhwa Brahmin business man, and Kausalya Devi, an Arya Vysya. She grew up in Duggirala, Guntur District in Andhra Pradesh state,...

    , and Nageshwara Rao Akkineni
  • 1971–Tere Mere Sapne
    Tere Mere Sapne (1971 film)
    Tere Mere Sapne is a 1971 film produced by Dev Anand, and written and directed by his brother Vijay Anand for Navketan Films. The movie stars Dev, Vijay, Mumtaz, and Hema Malini. The film's music is by S. D. Burman, and the story is based on The Citadel, a novel by A.J. Cronin...

    ("Our Dreams" - from novel, The Citadel
    The Citadel (novel)
    The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It is credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later...

    )–directed by Vijay Anand, featuring Dev Anand
    Dev Anand
    Dharam Dev Anand , better known as Dev Anand , is an Indian Hindi Cinema actor, director and film producer. Dev is the second of three brothers who were active in Hindi Cinema. His brothers are Chetan Anand and Vijay Anand. Their sister, Sheel Kanta Kapur, is the mother of renowned Hindi and...

    , Mumtaz
    Mumtaz (actress)
    Mumtaz , fondly called Mumu, is a famous Bollywood actress, best remembered for her roles in Tere Mere Sapne and Khilona . Her performance in Khilona got her the Filmfare Best Actress Award, while the film itself won the Filmfare Best Movie Award...

    , Hema Malini
    Hema Malini
    Hema Malini is an Indian actress, director and producer, as well as a Bharatanatyam dancer-choreographer. Making her acting debut in Sapno Ka Saudagar , she went on to appear in numerous Bollywood films, most notably those with actor and future-husband Dharmendra. She was initially promoted as...

    , Vijay Anand, and Prem Nath
  • 1972–Jiban Saikate
    Jiban Saikate (1972)
    Jiban Saikate is a 1972 Bengali film based on the novel The Citadel by A. J. Cronin. It was directed by Swadesh Sarkar and stars Soumitra Chatterjee, Aparna Sen and Dilip Roy.-External links:* * *...

    (from novel, The Citadel
    The Citadel (novel)
    The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It is credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later...

    )–directed by Swadesh Sarkar, featuring Soumitra Chatterjee
    Soumitra Chatterjee
    Soumitra Chatterjee or Soumitra Chattopadhyay is an iconic Bengali actor from India, known among other things for his frequent collaborations with the great Bengali film director Satyajit Ray and his constant comparison with the Bengali screen idol Uttam Kumar.-Background:Soumitra graduated from...

     and Aparna Sen
    Aparna Sen
    Aparna Sen is a critically acclaimed Bengali Indian filmmaker, script writer, and actress. She is the winner of three National Film Awards and eight international film festival awards.-Biography:...

  • 1975–Mausam ("Seasons" - from novel, The Judas Tree
    The Judas Tree
    The Judas Tree is a 1961 novel by A. J. Cronin. It begins with the story of David Moray, his early career as an ambitious young doctor away on business. He has promised to return to marry a woman he loves, Mary Douglas. Early on in the story he is introduced to successful people and is invited to...

    )–directed by Gulzar
    Gulzar (lyricist)
    Sampooran Singh Kalra , known popularly by his pen name Gulzar , is an Indian poet, lyricist and director. He primarily writes in Hindi-Urdu and has also written in Punjabi and several dialects of Hindi such as Braj Bhasha, Khariboli, Haryanvi and Marwari.Gulzar was awarded the Padma Bhushan in...

    , featuring Sharmila Tagore
    Sharmila Tagore
    Sharmila Tagore is an Indian film actress. She has won National Film Awards and Filmfare Awards for her performances.She has led the Indian Film Censor Board from October 2004 till March 2011...

    , Sanjeev Kumar
    Sanjeev Kumar (actor)
    Sanjeev Kumar was one of the most prominent Indian actors in Bollywood.-Personal life and background:Sanjeev Kumar was born as Jariwala in Gujarat to a Gujarati family. His first home was in Surat and family based in Mumbai. A stint in the film school took him to Bollywood, where he eventually...

    , Dina Pathak
    Dina Pathak
    Dina Pathak or Deena Pathak was a veteran actor and director of Gujarati theatre and also a film actor. She was also a woman activist and remained the President of the 'National Federation of Indian Women'...

    , and Om Shivpuri
    Om Shivpuri
    Om Shivpuri was an Indian theatre actor-director and character actor in Hindi films.A National School of Drama, New Delhi alumni, Om Shivpuri became the first chief of the National School of Drama Repertory Company and one of its actors; he later founded an important theatre group of its era, in...

  • 1982–Madhura Swapnam
    Madhura Swapnam
    Madhura Swapnam is a 1982 Tollywood film based on A. J. Cronin's novel, The Citadel. The film was directed by K. Raghavendra Rao and stars Jaya Prada, Jayasudha, and Krishnamraju....

    (from novel, The Citadel
    The Citadel (novel)
    The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It is credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later...

    )–directed by K. Raghavendra Rao
    K. Raghavendra Rao
    Kovelamudi Raghavendra Rao shortly K. Raghavendra is a renowned director. He is one of the most commercially successful directors of Telugu cinema, and many believe that his contribution has been instrumental to the success of Telugu cinema. As of 2006, Raghavendra Rao has directed 103 films...

    , featuring Jaya Prada
    Jaya Prada
    Jaya Prada is an Indian film actress and politician. She has starred in hundreds of Telugu, Hindi, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali and Marathi films.-Early life:...

    , Jayasudha
    Jayasudha
    Jayasudha is an Indian film actress-turned-MLA for the Congress in Secunderabad. She was a famous South Indian actress from the 1970s and 1980s, with most of her films being Telugu films. She has also worked in Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, and three Hindi films....

    , and Krishnamraju

Selected television credits

  • 1955–Escape From Fear
    Escape From Fear (1955)
    Escape From Fear is a 1955 American television adaptation from A. J. Cronin's 1954 serial story of the same title. The show was written by Bernard Girard, directed by Allen Reisner, and produced by Tony Barr. It was the twelfth episode of the first season of Climax!, which was broadcast on CBS...

    (CBS
    CBS
    CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

    ), featuring William Lundigan
    William Lundigan
    William Lundigan was an American film actor. His films include Dodge City , The Fighting 69th , The Sea Hawk , Santa Fe Trail , Dishonored Lady , Pinky , Love Nest with Marilyn Monroe, The House on Telegraph Hill , I'd Climb the Highest Mountain and Inferno...

    , Tristram Coffin, Mari Blanchard
    Mari Blanchard
    Mari Blanchard was an American actress, known for her roles as a B movie femme fatale in American films of the 1950s and early 1960s.-Career:In the late 1940s, Blanchard was a successful print model and film extra...

    , Howard Duff
    Howard Duff
    Howard Green Duff was an American actor of film, television, stage, and radio.Duff was born in Charleston, Washington, now a part of Bremerton. He graduated from Roosevelt High School in Seattle in 1932 where he began acting in school plays only after he was cut from the basketball team...

    , and Jay Novello
    Jay Novello
    Jay Novello was an American radio, film, and television character actor.Born in Chicago as Michael Romano, of Italian descent, Novello began his career as a radio actor, playing Jack Packard on the Hollywood version of I Love a Mystery for a brief period, circa 1944...

  • 1957–Beyond This Place
    Beyond This Place (1957)
    Beyond This Place is a 1957 American television adaptation from A. J. Cronin's novel, Beyond This Place, which was originally published in 1953. It is not really a film, but a live production broadcast on television, and possibly preserved on kinescope. The show was directed by Sidney Lumet and...

    (CBS
    CBS
    CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

    ), featuring Farley Granger
    Farley Granger
    Farley Earle Granger was an American actor. In a career spanning several decades, he was perhaps best known for his two collaborations with Alfred Hitchcock, Rope in 1948 and Strangers on a Train in 1951.-Early life:...

    , Peggy Ann Garner
    Peggy Ann Garner
    Peggy Ann Garner was an American actress.A successful child actor, Garner played her first film role in 1938 and won the Academy Juvenile Award for her work in A Tree Grows in Brooklyn...

    , Max Adrian
    Max Adrian
    Max Adrian was a Northern Irish stage, film and television actor and singer. He was a founding member of both the Royal Shakespeare Company and the National Theatre....

    , Brian Donlevy
    Brian Donlevy
    Brian Donlevy was an Irish-born American film actor, noted for playing tough guys from the 1930s to the 1960s. He usually appeared in supporting roles. Among his best known films are Beau Geste and The Great McGinty...

    , and Shelley Winters
    Shelley Winters
    Shelley Winters was an American actress who appeared in dozens of films, as well as on stage and television; her career spanned over 50 years until her death in 2006...

  • 1958–Nicholas
    Nicholas (1958)
    Nicholas is a 1958 Brazilian telenovela adapted from A. J. Cronin's 1950 novel, The Spanish Gardener. The series was directed by Julio Gouveia, the head of The Theatre School of São Paulo. It starred Ricardinho as Nicholas, and Roberto de Cleto as the gardener...

    (TV Tupi), featuring Ricardinho, Roberto de Cleto, and Rafael Golombeck
  • 1960–The Citadel
    The Citadel (1960)
    The Citadel is a 1960 American television adaptation of A. J. Cronin's 1937 novel, The Citadel. It was written by Dale Wasserman and starred James Donald as Dr. Manson and Ann Blyth as Christine Barlow...

    (ABC
    American Broadcasting Company
    The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

    ), featuring James Donald
    James Donald
    James Donald was a Scottish actor. Tall and thin, he usually specialised in playing authority figures.Donald was born in Aberdeen, and made his first professional stage appearance sometime in the late-1930s, having been educated at Rossall School on Lancashire's Fylde coast...

    , Ann Blyth
    Ann Blyth
    Ann Marie Blyth is an American actress and singer, often cast in Hollywood musicals, but also successful in dramatic roles. Her performance as Veda Pierce in the 1945 film Mildred Pierce was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.-Life and career:Blyth was born in Mount Kisco,...

    , Lloyd Bochner
    Lloyd Bochner
    Lloyd Wolfe Bochner was a Canadian actor, usually playing the role of suave, rich leading men.- Career :...

    , Hugh Griffith
    Hugh Griffith
    Hugh Emrys Griffith was a Welsh film, stage and television actor.-Early life:Griffith was born in Marianglas, Anglesey, Wales, the son of Mary and William Griffith. He was educated at Llangefni County School and attempted to gain entrance to university, but failed the English examination...

    , and Torin Thatcher
    Torin Thatcher
    Torin Thatcher was an English actor born in Bombay, British India, India), to English parents. He was an imposing, powerfully built figure noted for his flashy portrayals of screen villains....

  • 1960–The Citadel
    The Citadel (1960 British miniseries)
    The Citadel is a 1960 British television adaptation of A. J. Cronin's 1937 novel, The Citadel. The series was directed by John Frankau and produced by Peter Graham Scott. It starred Eric Lander as Dr. Andrew Manson, and Zena Walker as Christine, his wife...

    , featuring Eric Lander, Zena Walker
    Zena Walker
    Zena Walker was an English actress in film, theatre, and television.Walker was born in Birmingham, the daughter of George Walker, a grocer, and his wife Elizabeth Louise . She attended St. Martin's School in 1960 and then went on to train at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. She starred in an...

    , Jack May
    Jack May
    Jack May was an English actor. Born in Henley-on-Thames, he was educated at Forest School, Walthamstow and after war service with the Royal Indian Navy in India was offered a place at RADA, but he instead went to Merton College, Oxford...

    , Elizabeth Shepherd
    Elizabeth Shepherd
    Elizabeth Shepherd is an English character actress whose work has spanned the stage and both the big and small screens. Her surname has been alternately billed as "Shephard" and "Sheppard"....

    , and Richard Vernon
    Richard Vernon
    Richard Vernon was a British actor. He appeared in many feature films and television programmes, often in aristocratic or supercilious roles...

  • 1962-1971–Dr. Finlay's Casebook
    Dr. Finlay's Casebook (TV & radio)
    Dr. Finlay's Casebook is a television series that was broadcast on the BBC from 1962 until 1971. Based on A. J. Cronin's novella entitled Country Doctor, the storylines centred on a general medical practice in the fictional Scottish town of Tannochbrae during the late 1920s...

    (BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

    ), featuring Bill Simpson, Andrew Cruickshank
    Andrew Cruickshank
    Andrew John Maxton Cruickshank was a Scottish supporting actor, most famous for his portrayal of Dr Cameron in the long-running UK BBC television series, Dr Finlay's Casebook, which ran for 191 episodes from 1962 until 1971.-Life and career:Andrew Cruickshank was born to Andrew and Mary...

    , and Barbara Mullen
    Barbara Mullen
    Barbara Mullen was an American actress well known in the UK for playing the part of Janet the housekeeper in Dr Finlay's Casebook...

  • 1962 & 1963–The Ordeal of Dr. Shannon
    The Ordeal of Dr. Shannon
    The Ordeal of Dr. Shannon is a 1962 American television adaption from A. J. Cronin's novel, Shannon's Way, which was originally published in 1948. The dramatization was written by Robert Stewart, directed by Joan Kemp-Welch, and produced by Lewis Freedman...

    (NBC
    NBC
    The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

     & ITV
    ITV
    ITV is the major commercial public service TV network in the United Kingdom. Launched in 1955 under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to the BBC, it is also the oldest commercial network in the UK...

    ), featuring Rod Taylor, Elizabeth MacLennan, and Ronald Fraser
    Ronald Fraser
    Ronald Fraser was an English character actor, who appeared in numerous British films of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s whilst also appearing in many popular TV shows.-Background:...

  • 1963-1965–Memorandum van een dokter
    Memorandum van een dokter
    Memorandum van een dokter is a Dutch television series based on A. J. Cronin's stories about the fictional hero, Dr. Finlay. The series was broadcast from 1963 to 1965 and was directed by Peter Holland. It starred Bram van der Vlugt as Dr. Finlay, Rob Geraerds as Dr. Cameron, and Fien Berghegge...

    , featuring Bram van der Vlugt, Rob Geraerds, and Fien Berghegge
  • 1964–La Cittadella
    La Cittadella (1964)
    La Cittadella is a 1964 Italian miniseries based on A. J. Cronin's 1937 novel, The Citadel, and produced by Radiotelevisione Italiana. It was directed by Anton Giulio Majano and stars Alberto Lupo as Dr. Manson and Anna Maria Guarnieri as his wife, Christine...

    (RAI
    RAI
    RAI — Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian state owned public service broadcaster controlled by the Ministry of Economic Development. Rai is the biggest television company in Italy...

    ), featuring Alberto Lupo, Anna Maria Guarnieri, Fosco Giachetti
    Fosco Giachetti
    Fosco Giachetti was an Italian actor.He was the brother of the actor Gianfranco Giachetti.Fosco Giachetti was the protagonist of Lo squadrone bianco , directed by Augusto Genina...

    , and Eleonora Rossi Drago
    Eleonora Rossi Drago
    Eleonora Rossi Drago, born Palmira Omiccioli, was an Italian film actress. She was born in Quinto al Mare, Genoa, Italy....

  • 1964–Novi asistent
    Novi asistent
    Novi asistent is a 1964 Yugoslavian television series based on A. J. Cronin's stories about the fictional hero, Dr. Finlay. The series was directed by Mirjana Samardzic and starred Dejan Dubajic, Ljiljana Jovanovic, Nikola Simic, and Milan Srdoc....

    , featuring Dejan Dubajic, Ljiljana Jovanovic, Nikola Simic, and Milan Srdoc
  • 1967–O Jardineiro Espanhol
    O Jardineiro Espanhol
    O Jardineiro Espanhol is a 1967 Brazilian telenovela that is based on A. J. Cronin's 1950 novel, The Spanish Gardener. The series was written by Tatiana Belinsky and directed by Fabio Sabag. It starred Ednei Giovenazzi as Nicholas, and Osmano Cardoso as the gardener. Other actors included Ana...

    (TV Tupi), featuring Ednei Giovenazzi and Osmano Cardoso
  • 1971–E le stelle stanno a guardare
    E le stelle stanno a guardare
    E le stelle stanno a guardare is a 1971 Italian adaptation of A. J. Cronin's 1935 novel The Stars Look Down. It was written and directed by Anton Giulio Majano and was produced by Radiotelevisione Italiana...

    (RAI
    RAI
    RAI — Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian state owned public service broadcaster controlled by the Ministry of Economic Development. Rai is the biggest television company in Italy...

    ), featuring Orso Maria Guerrini, Andrea Checchi
    Andrea Checchi
    Andrea Checchi was a prolific Italian film actor.Born in Florence, Checchi appeared in over 150 films in his lengthy career, which spanned from 1934 to his death in 1974...

    , and Giancarlo Giannini
    Giancarlo Giannini
    Giancarlo Giannini is an Italian actor and dubber.Giannini was born La Spezia, Liguria, Italy. He studied at the Accademia Nazionale d'Arte Drammatica in Rome, and made his film debut in a small part in Fango sulla metropoli in 1965...

  • 1975–The Stars Look Down (Granada
    Granada Television
    Granada Television is the ITV contractor for North West England. Based in Manchester since its inception, it is the only surviving original ITA franchisee from 1954 and is ITV's most successful....

    ), featuring Ian Hastings, Susan Tracy, Alun Armstrong
    Alun Armstrong (actor)
    Alun Armstrong is a prolific British character actor. Armstrong grew up in County Durham in North East England. He first became interested in acting through Shakespeare productions at his grammar school. Since his career began in the early 1970s, he has played, in his words, "the full spectrum of...

    , and Christian Rodska
    Christian Rodska
    Christian Rodska is an English actor who has appeared in many television and radio series and narrated a number of audiobooks...

  • 1976–Slecna Meg a talír Ming (Ceskoslovenská Televise), featuring Marie Rosulková, Eva Svobodová, Petr Kostka
    Petr Kostka
    Petr Kostka is a Czech actor.He was born in Říčany near Prague, Czechoslovakia. In 2003, he received Thalia Award for performing Herman in Smíšené pocity Mixed Emotions.-Selected filmography:...

    , and Svatopluk Benes
  • 1977–Les Années d'illusion
    Les Années d'illusion
    Les Années d'illusion is a 1977 French adaptation of A.J. Cronin's 1950 novel, The Valorous Years. The miniseries was directed by Pierre Matteuzzi and starred Yves Brainville, Josephine Chaplin, Michel Cassagne, and Laurence Calame....

    (TF1
    TF1
    TF1 is a national French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues. TF1's average market share of 24% makes it the most popular domestic network...

    ), featuring Yves Brainville, Josephine Chaplin
    Josephine Chaplin
    Josephine Hannah Chaplin is an actress and the daughter of actor/comedian/director Charlie Chaplin and his last wife, Oona O'Neill. Her siblings include Geraldine Chaplin, Christopher Chaplin and Michael Chaplin. She was also half-sister to Sydney Chaplin, Charles Chaplin, Jr...

    , Michel Cassagne, and Laurence Calame
  • 1983–The Citadel (BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

     and PBS
    Public Broadcasting Service
    The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

    ), featuring Ben Cross
    Ben Cross
    Ben Cross is a British actor of the stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of the British Olympic athlete Harold Abrahams in the 1981 movie Chariots of Fire.-Early life:...

    , Clare Higgins, Tenniel Evans
    Tenniel Evans
    -Family:Walter Tenniel Evans was born in Nairobi, Kenya. His middle name derived from the illustrator Sir John Tenniel, a distant relation. His daughter, Serena Evans, is an actress, and his son, Matthew, is a television director....

    , and Gareth Thomas
    Gareth Thomas (actor)
    Gareth Thomas is a Welsh actor.Thomas is best known for the part of Roj Blake in the dystopian science fiction television series Blake's 7, but has taken roles in many other films and television programmes, including Adam Brake in Children of the Stones.Thomas trained at RADA and is now an...

  • 1993-1996–Doctor Finlay
    Doctor Finlay
    Doctor Finlay is a British television series based on A. J. Cronin's stories about the fictional hero, Dr. Finlay. It is a follow-up to Dr. Finlay's Casebook, the successful BBC series. It takes place in the 1940s after John Finlay returns from war service...

    (ITV
    ITV
    ITV is the major commercial public service TV network in the United Kingdom. Launched in 1955 under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to the BBC, it is also the oldest commercial network in the UK...

     and PBS
    Public Broadcasting Service
    The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

    ), featuring David Rintoul
    David Rintoul
    David Rintoul is a stage and television actor.Rintoul was born in Aberdeen, Scotland. He studied at Edinburgh University and won a scholarship to study at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London....

    , Annette Crosbie
    Annette Crosbie
    Annette Crosbie, OBE is a Scottish character actor.-Life and career:Crosbie was born in Gorebridge, Midlothian, Scotland, to Presbyterian parents who disapproved of her becoming an actor. Nevertheless, she joined the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School while still in her teens...

    , Ian Bannen
    Ian Bannen
    Ian Bannen was a Scottish character actor and occasional leading man.-Early life and career:Bannen was born in Airdrie, North Lanarkshire, the son of Clare and John James Bannen, a lawyer. Bannen served in the British Army after attending St Aloysius' College, Glasgow and Ratcliffe College,...

    , Jessica Turner, and Jason Flemyng
    Jason Flemyng
    Jason Iain Flemyng is an English actor. He is known for his film work, which has included roles in British films such as Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels and Snatch , both for Guy Ritchie, as well as Hollywood productions such as Rob Roy along with the Alan Moore comic book adaptations From...

  • 2003–La Cittadella
    La Cittadella (2003)
    La Cittadella is a 2003 Italian miniseries based on A. J. Cronin's 1937 novel, The Citadel, and produced by Titanus. It was directed by Fabrizio Costa and stars Massimo Ghini as Dr. Manson and Barbora Bobulová as his wife, Christine...

    (Titanus
    Titanus
    Titanus is an Italian film production company, founded in 1904 by Gustavo Lombardo . The company's headquarters are located at 28 Via Sommacampagna, Rome and its studios on the Via Tiburtina, 13 km from the centre of Rome....

    ), featuring Massimo Ghini, Barbora Bobulová
    Barbora Bobulová
    Barbora Bobuľová is a Slovak actress.Born in Martin, Slovakia, Bobuľová trained at the National Drama Academy in Bratislava before moving to Italy in 1995...

    , Franco Castellano, and Anna Galiena
    Anna Galiena
    Anna Galiena is an Italian actress, best known to English-speaking audiences for her appearances in Le Mari de la coiffeuse, Jamón, jamón and Being Human.-Movie career:...


Selected radio credits

  • 1940–The Citadel (The Campbell Playhouse
    The Campbell Playhouse
    The Campbell Playhouse was a CBS radio drama series directed by and starring Orson Welles. Produced by John Houseman, it was a sponsored continuation of the Mercury Theatre on the Air...

    - CBS
    CBS
    CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

    ), featuring Orson Welles
    Orson Welles
    George Orson Welles , best known as Orson Welles, was an American film director, actor, theatre director, screenwriter, and producer, who worked extensively in film, theatre, television and radio...

    , Geraldine Fitzgerald
    Geraldine Fitzgerald
    Geraldine Fitzgerald, Lady Lindsay-Hogg was an Irish-American actress and a member of the American Theatre Hall of Fame.-Early life:...

    , Ernest Chappell
    Ernest Chappell
    Ernest E. Chappell was an American radio announcer and actor, best remembered for his featured role in the late 1940s radio program Quiet, Please. The show ran from 1947 to 1949, and Quiet, Please was Chappell's major acting credit...

    , Everett Sloane
    Everett Sloane
    Everett Sloane was an American stage, film and television actor, songwriter, and theatre director.-Early life:...

    , George Coulouris
    George Coulouris
    George Coulouris was a prominent English film and stage actor.-Early life:Coulouris was born in Manchester, England, the son of Abigail and Nicholas Coulouris, a merchant of Greek origin. He was brought up both in Manchester and nearby Urmston and was educated at Manchester Grammar School...

    , and Ray Collins
    Ray Collins (actor)
    Ray Bidwell Collins was an American actor in film, stage, radio, and television. One of Collins' best remembered roles was that of Lt. Arthur Tragg in the long-running series Perry Mason.- Biography :...

  • 1970-1978–Dr. Finlay's Casebook
    Dr. Finlay's Casebook (TV & radio)
    Dr. Finlay's Casebook is a television series that was broadcast on the BBC from 1962 until 1971. Based on A. J. Cronin's novella entitled Country Doctor, the storylines centred on a general medical practice in the fictional Scottish town of Tannochbrae during the late 1920s...

    (BBC Radio 4
    BBC Radio 4
    BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station, operated and owned by the BBC, that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes, including news, drama, comedy, science and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967. The station controller is currently Gwyneth Williams, and the...

    ), featuring Bill Simpson, Andrew Cruickshank
    Andrew Cruickshank
    Andrew John Maxton Cruickshank was a Scottish supporting actor, most famous for his portrayal of Dr Cameron in the long-running UK BBC television series, Dr Finlay's Casebook, which ran for 191 episodes from 1962 until 1971.-Life and career:Andrew Cruickshank was born to Andrew and Mary...

    , and Barbara Mullen
    Barbara Mullen
    Barbara Mullen was an American actress well known in the UK for playing the part of Janet the housekeeper in Dr Finlay's Casebook...

     (rebroadcast in 2003 on BBC 7)
  • 2001-2002–Adventures of a Black Bag
    Dr. Finlay's Casebook (TV & radio)
    Dr. Finlay's Casebook is a television series that was broadcast on the BBC from 1962 until 1971. Based on A. J. Cronin's novella entitled Country Doctor, the storylines centred on a general medical practice in the fictional Scottish town of Tannochbrae during the late 1920s...

    (BBC Radio 4
    BBC Radio 4
    BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station, operated and owned by the BBC, that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes, including news, drama, comedy, science and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967. The station controller is currently Gwyneth Williams, and the...

    ), featuring John Gordon Sinclair
    John Gordon Sinclair
    John Gordon Sinclair is a Scottish actor most famous for playing Gregory in Gregory's Girl. He was born as Gordon John but took the stage name 'John Gordon Sinclair' because Equity already had a Gordon John registered....

    , Brian Pettifer
    Brian Pettifer
    Brian Pettifer is an actor who has appeared in many television shows. Pettifer was born in Lower Durban, South Africa, and briefly brought up in Glasgow and London. He intended to become a photographer, but pursued a career as an actor...

    , Katy Murphy
    Katy Murphy
    Katy Murphy is a Scottish actress who has appeared in Mike and Angelo, Spatz, B&B, The Steamie, The River, Takin' Over the Asylum, Casualty and perhaps most memorably Tutti Frutti. She played the part of Janet in the Radio 4 series Adventures of a Black Bag, and her most recent performance was in...

    , and Celia Imrie
    Celia Imrie
    Celia Diana Savile Imrie is an English actress. In a career starting in the early 1970s, Imrie has played Marianne Bellshade in Bergerac, Philippa Moorcroft in Dinnerladies, Miss Babs in Acorn Antiques, Diana Neal in After You've Gone and Gloria Millington in Kingdom...

  • 2007-2009–Doctor Finlay: The Further Adventures of a Black Bag (BBC Radio 7), featuring John Gordon Sinclair
    John Gordon Sinclair
    John Gordon Sinclair is a Scottish actor most famous for playing Gregory in Gregory's Girl. He was born as Gordon John but took the stage name 'John Gordon Sinclair' because Equity already had a Gordon John registered....

    , Brian Pettifer
    Brian Pettifer
    Brian Pettifer is an actor who has appeared in many television shows. Pettifer was born in Lower Durban, South Africa, and briefly brought up in Glasgow and London. He intended to become a photographer, but pursued a career as an actor...

    , and Katy Murphy
    Katy Murphy
    Katy Murphy is a Scottish actress who has appeared in Mike and Angelo, Spatz, B&B, The Steamie, The River, Takin' Over the Asylum, Casualty and perhaps most memorably Tutti Frutti. She played the part of Janet in the Radio 4 series Adventures of a Black Bag, and her most recent performance was in...


Further reading

  • Salwak, Dale. A. J. Cronin. Boston: Twayne's English Authors Series, 1985. ISBN 0-8057-6884-X
  • Davies, Alan. A. J. Cronin: The Man Who Created Dr Finlay. Alma Books, April 2011. ISBN 978-1-84688-112-1

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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