The 2S1 Gvozdika,; is a Soviet 122-mm self-propelled howitzer
Self-propelled artillery
Self-propelled artillery vehicles are combat vehicles armed with artillery. Within the term are covered self-propelled guns and rocket artillery...

 that resembles the PT-76
The PT-76 is a Soviet amphibious light tank which was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armed forces. It was widely exported to other friendly states, like India, Iraq, North Korea and North Vietnam. Overall,...

 but is essentially a version of the MT-LB
The MT-LB is a Soviet multi-purpose fully amphibious auxiliary armoured vehicle which was first introduced in the late 1960s...

 APC, mounting the 2A18 howitzer. "2S1" is its GRAU
Grau is a German word meaning "gray" and a Catalan word meaning "grade". It may refer to:* BAP Almirante Grau , a De Zeven Provinciën class cruiser in service with the Peruvian Navy* Grau Käse, Tyrolean grey cheese...

 designation. An alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as
Gvozdika. The 2S1 is fully amphibious
Amphibious vehicle
An amphibious vehicle , is a vehicle or craft, that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on water – just like an amphibian....

 with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of wider tracks are also available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infra-red night-vision capability.


The 2S1 has seven road wheels on each side; the running gear can be fitted with different widths of track to match terrain. The interior is separated into a driver's compartment on the left, an engine compartment on the right and a fighting compartment to the rear. Within the fighting compartment sit the commander on the left, the loader on the right and the gunner to the front. The all-welded turret is located above the fighting compartment. The 2S1 utilizes a 122 mm howitzer based on the towed D-30 howitzer. The gun is equipped with a double-baffle muzzle brake
Muzzle brake
Muzzle brakes and recoil compensators are devices that are fitted to the muzzle of a firearm or cannon to redirect propellant gases with the effect of countering both recoil of the gun and unwanted rising of the barrel during rapid fire...

 and a fume extractor. It is capable of firing HE (high explosive), leaflet, HE/RAP
Rocket Assisted Projectile
A Rocket Assisted Projectile is an artillery or cannon round incorporating a rocket motor for independent propulsion. This grants the projectile both greater speed and range than an ordinary shell, which is propelled only by the ballistic force of the gun's exploding charge...

, armor-piercing HE, flechette
A flechette is a pointed steel projectile, with a vaned tail for stable flight. The name comes from French , "little arrow" or "dart", and sometimes retains the acute accent in English: fléchette.-Bulk and artillery use:...

 and chemical rounds.

Production history

The first prototype was ready in 1969. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
The Soviet Army is the name given to the main part of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1992. Previously, it had been known as the Red Army. Informally, Армия referred to all the MOD armed forces, except, in some cases, the Soviet Navy.This article covers the Soviet Ground...

 in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division
Division (military)
A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, and in turn several divisions typically make up a corps...

, 36 per motorized rifle division
Division (military)
A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, and in turn several divisions typically make up a corps...

). It was designated the M1974 by the US Army and manufactured in Bulgarian, Polish and Russian state factories.

Former Soviet Union

  • MT-LBu
    The MT-LBu is a Soviet multi-purpose fully amphibious armoured carrier which was developed under the factory index Ob'yekt 10 in the late 1960s, based on the MT-LB...

    - This larger variant of the MT-LB
    The MT-LB is a Soviet multi-purpose fully amphibious auxiliary armoured vehicle which was first introduced in the late 1960s...

     that has the longer chassis and stronger engine of the 2S1 could be considered a derivative of the 2S1.
  • UR-77 "Meteorit" (ustanovka razminirovaniya) - A mine clearing vehicle with a turret-like superstructure bearing two launch ramps. The ramps are used to fire rockets towing hose-type mine-clearing line charge
    Mine-clearing line charge
    A mine-clearing line charge is used to create a breach in minefields under combat conditions. While there are many types, the basic design is for many explosive charges connected on a line to be projected onto the minefield. The charges explode, detonating any buried mines, thus clearing a path...

    s. A single charge can clear an area of 90 m by 6 m. The UR-77 is the successor to the BTR-50
    The BTR-50 The BTR-50 The BTR-50 (BTR stands for Bronetransporter (БТР, Бронетранспортер, literally "armored transporter") is a Soviet amphibious armored personnel carrier (APC) based on the PT-76 light tank. The BTR-50 is tracked, unlike most in the BTR series, which are wheeled. The BTR-50...

     based UR-67.
  • RKhM "Kashalot" (razvedivatel’naya khimicheskaya mashina) - Chemical reconnaissance vehicle with detection, marking and alarm devices. This model has the hull shape and single rear door of the 2S1, but with the short chassis and machine gun turret of the MT-LB
    The MT-LB is a Soviet multi-purpose fully amphibious auxiliary armoured vehicle which was first introduced in the late 1960s...

    . Former Western designation:
    ATV M1979/4.
    • RKhM-K - Command version with additional signal equipment but without sensors or markers.
  • 2S34 "Chosta" - Modernisation of the 2S1 with the 122mm 2A31 gun replaced by the 120mm 2A80. Further improvements include a new fire control system, a battlefield observation system and the ability to fire the Kitolov 2 guided ammunition. One unit, the 21st Mechanized Brigade in Totskoye
    Totskoye is a village in Orenburg Oblast, Russia. It is the administrative center of Totsky District. Population: 7,201 ....

     is currently being equipped with the system.


The 2S1 Gvozdika (as well as other related vehicles such as the MT-LB
The MT-LB is a Soviet multi-purpose fully amphibious auxiliary armoured vehicle which was first introduced in the late 1960s...

 and Opal
Opal (armoured personnel carrier)
The Opal-I is a multi-purpose fully amphibious armoured personnel carrier developed and produced by HSW S.A.. APC is a development of MT-LB that was produced in HSW on licence. Major changes are with reworked nose section and propellers for better in water speed and manoeuvrability, new turret with...

) were produced in Poland by Huta Stalowa Wola
Huta Stalowa Wola
Huta Stalowa Wola is a steel mill and manufacturing company in Stalowa Wola, Poland.It was established in 1938-1939 in Second Polish Republic. It was a major part of a series of investments made by the Polish government in the years 1936–1939 to create the Central Industrial Region...

 under the name 2S1 Goździk.
  • 2S1M Goździk - Version with special amphibious kit that increases the vehicle's amphibious capabilities.
  • 2S1T Goździk - Version with a TOPAZ digital fire control system from WB electronics. The system consists of a FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. The same system is used on other Polish Armed Forces artillery systems like the , Dana-T and WR-40 Langusta
    WR-40 Langusta
    WR-40 Langusta is a Polish self-propelled multiple rocket launcher developed by Centrum Produkcji Wojskowej HSW S.A.. The first 32 units of the WR-40 will enter service in 2010.The Langusta is based on a deeply modernized Soviet BM-21 launcher...

  • Rak carrier (Rak is polish
    Polish language
    Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

     for crayfish) - A new 120mm mortar turret with an automatic feed system intended to be installed on existing 2S1 chassis as well as in the wheeled KTO Rosomak
    KTO Rosomak
    The KTO Rosomak is 8x8 multi-role military vehicle produced by...

  • LPG (LPG for Lekkie Podwozie Gąsiennicowe – lit. Light Tracked Chassis) - A chassis of a surplus 2S1 Goździk converted into an Armored Personnel Carrier. The original gun turret was removed, the upper part of the vehicle was redesigned, and the old engine replaced with a modern MTU
    MTU Friedrichshafen
    MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH is a manufacturer of commercial internal combustion engines founded by Wilhelm Maybach and his son Karl Maybach in 1909...

     diesel engine. The vehicle is used as a command vehicle for the howitzer and Rak mortar units and as medical or technical support vehicles.


  • Model 89 - Romanian variant that uses a modified version of the hull of the MLI-84.


  • Raad-1 ('thunder') - Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh
    The Boragh is an Iranian-made armoured personnel carrier. Boragh is believed to be a reverse engineered and upgraded model of the Chinese Type 86 . The upgrades include a reduction in weight, a higher road speed, and stronger armor...



  • BMP-23
    The BMP-23 is a Bulgarian infantry fighting vehicle which was first introduced in the early 1980s. Despite its name, the BMP-23 is very different from the BMP-1 and more similar to BMP-2. The hull is based around that of the Soviet 2S1 Gvozdika, but with thicker armour and a more powerful diesel...

    (Bojna mashina na pekhotata) - Infantry fighting vehicle with 2A14 23mm gun and ATGM 9K11 "Malyutka" in a 2-man turret. The chassis is based on the one from the MT-LB
    The MT-LB is a Soviet multi-purpose fully amphibious auxiliary armoured vehicle which was first introduced in the late 1960s...

     but with components of the 2S1 and fitted with a 315 hp engine.
    • BMP-23D - Improved version with 9K111 "Fagot" and smoke grenade launchers.
    • BRM-23 - Reconnaissance version. Prototype.
  • BMP-30 - Similar chassis as the BMP-23 but with the complete turret of the Soviet-made BMP-2
    The BMP-2 is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following the BMP-1 of the 1960s....

    . Only 10 were built.


- 145 - - 81 - 5 - 246 - 506 - 10 - 20 - 72 (known as 122 PsH 74) 48-110 - 10 - 533 South Ossetia
South Ossetia
South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region is a disputed region and partly recognized state in the South Caucasus, located in the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic....

 - 72 - 49 - 400 - 622 - 638 - 12 - 12

Former Operators

- Phased out in early 2000s. - Passed on to successor states. - Phased out in 1990 after German reunion - 48 reserve status since 2005 - 8 reserve status - Passed on to successor states. - Passed on to successor states.

Combat history

  • Chechnya
    The Chechen Republic , commonly referred to as Chechnya , also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria , is a federal subject of Russia . It is located in the southeastern part of Europe in the Northern Caucasus mountains. The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny...

    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    ) - Second Chechen War
    Second Chechen War
    The Second Chechen War, in a later phase better known as the War in the North Caucasus, was launched by the Russian Federation starting 26 August 1999, in response to the Invasion of Dagestan by the Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade ....

     (1999 to 2000)
  • Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

     - First Gulf War, Second Gulf War
  • Yugoslavia - Yugoslav Wars
    Yugoslav wars
    The Yugoslav Wars were a series of wars, fought throughout the former Yugoslavia between 1991 and 1995. The wars were complex: characterized by bitter ethnic conflicts among the peoples of the former Yugoslavia, mostly between Serbs on the one side and Croats and Bosniaks on the other; but also...

    , Kosovo War
    Kosovo War
    The term Kosovo War or Kosovo conflict was two sequential, and at times parallel, armed conflicts in Kosovo province, then part of FR Yugoslav Republic of Serbia; from early 1998 to 1999, there was an armed conflict initiated by the ethnic Albanian "Kosovo Liberation Army" , who sought independence...

  • Georgia
    Georgia (country)
    Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

     - 2008 South Ossetia war
    2008 South Ossetia war
    The 2008 South Ossetia War or Russo-Georgian War was an armed conflict in August 2008 between Georgia on one side, and Russia and separatist governments of South Ossetia and Abkhazia on the other....

  • Libya
    Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

     - 2011 Libyan uprising

External links

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