22nd Reserve Division (German Empire)
The 22nd Reserve Division (22. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the German
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

German Army (German Empire)
The German Army was the name given the combined land forces of the German Empire, also known as the National Army , Imperial Army or Imperial German Army. The term "Deutsches Heer" is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the German Bundeswehr...

 in World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914. The division was disbanded during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I.


The division was a reserve division of the IV Reserve Corps and was raised primarily in the Province of Prussian Saxony and the Thuringian states. The 32nd Reserve Infantry Regiment was raised in the Reuss principalities. The 71st Reserve Infantry Regiment had one battalion each from Saxe-Meiningen
The Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia....

, Prussian Saxony and Electoral Hesse. The 82nd Reserve Infantry Regiment had one battalion each from Prussian Saxony, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen.-History:...

, and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The 94th Reserve Infantry Regiment was raised in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach. It was raised to a Grand duchy in 1815 by resolution of the Vienna Congress. In 1877, it officially changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Saxony , but this name was...

. The 11th Jäger Battalion came from Electoral Hesse. Divisional cavalry, artillery and pioneer troops came from Prussian Saxony and Electoral Hesse.

Combat chronicle

The 22nd Reserve Division began the war on the Western Front
Western Front (World War I)
Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne...

. It fought in the opening campaigns against the Belgian Army and the British Expeditionary Force, including the Battle of Mons
Battle of Mons
The Battle of Mons was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force in the First World War. It was a subsidiary action of the Battle of the Frontiers, in which the Allies clashed with Germany on the French borders. At Mons, the British army attempted to hold the line of the...

, and pursued the Allies during the Great Retreat
Great Retreat
The Great Retreat, also known as the Retreat from Mons, is the name given to the long, fighting retreat by Allied forces to the River Marne, on the Western Front early in World War I, after their holding action against the Imperial German Armies at the Battle of Mons on 23 August 1914...

, culminating in the First Battle of the Marne
First Battle of the Marne
The Battle of the Marne was a First World War battle fought between 5 and 12 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German Army under Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke the Younger. The battle effectively ended the month long German offensive that opened the war and had...

. After 1st Marne, the division held the line between the Aisne and the Oise until the Autumn of 1915, when it went to the Champagne region. In 1916, it fought in the Battle of Verdun
Battle of Verdun
The Battle of Verdun was one of the major battles during the First World War on the Western Front. It was fought between the German and French armies, from 21 February – 18 December 1916, on hilly terrain north of the city of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France...

. It then saw action in the later phases of the Battle of the Somme. The division occupied various parts of the line in 1917, and then fought in the Battle of Passchendaele. In 1918, it saw action in the German Spring Offensive
Spring Offensive
The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht , also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during World War I, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914...

, including the Battle of the Lys. Allied intelligence rated the division as second class.

Order of battle on mobilization

The order of battle of the 22nd Reserve Division on mobilization was as follows:
  • 43. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 71
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 94
    • Reserve-Jäger-Bataillon Nr. 11
  • 44. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 32
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 82
  • Reserve-Jäger-Regiment zu Pferde Nr. 1
  • Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 22

1.Reserve-Kompanie/Magdeburgisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 4
2.Reserve-Kompanie/Magdeburgisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 4

Order of battle on March 28, 1918

The 22nd Reserve Division was triangularized
Triangular division
A triangular division is a designation given to the way divisions are organized. In a triangular organization, the division's main body is composed of three regimental maneuver elements. These regiments may be controlled by a brigade headquarters or directly subordinated to the division commander...

in March 1915. Over the course of the war, other changes took place, including the formation of the artillery and signals commands. The order of battle on March 28, 1918 was as follows:
  • 43. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 71
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 82
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 94
  • 2.Eskadron/schweres-Reserve-Reiter-Regiment Nr. 1 (Heavy Cavalry Regiment No. 1)
  • Artillerie-Kommandeur 96
    • Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 22
    • I.Abteilung/Kgl. Bayerisches 2. Fußartillerie-Regiment
  • Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 322
  • Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 422
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