10th Reserve Division (German Empire)
The 10th Reserve Division (10. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

German Army (German Empire)
The German Army was the name given the combined land forces of the German Empire, also known as the National Army , Imperial Army or Imperial German Army. The term "Deutsches Heer" is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the German Bundeswehr...

 in World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914. The division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I. The division was formed with a regular infantry brigade from the Province of West Prussia and a reserve infantry brigade from West Prussia and the Province of Posen
Province of Posen
The Province of Posen was a province of Prussia from 1848–1918 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918. The area was about 29,000 km2....


Combat chronicle

The 10th Reserve Division fought on the Western Front
Western Front (World War I)
Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne...

, participating in the opening German offensive which led to the Allied Great Retreat
Great Retreat
The Great Retreat, also known as the Retreat from Mons, is the name given to the long, fighting retreat by Allied forces to the River Marne, on the Western Front early in World War I, after their holding action against the Imperial German Armies at the Battle of Mons on 23 August 1914...

. Thereafter, the division remained in the line in the Verdun region until February 1916, when it entered the Battle of Verdun
Battle of Verdun
The Battle of Verdun was one of the major battles during the First World War on the Western Front. It was fought between the German and French armies, from 21 February – 18 December 1916, on hilly terrain north of the city of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France...

. After a respite in the lines in the Upper Alsace and Champagne, the division fought in the later phases of the Battle of the Somme. It returned to Verdun in late October 1916. In 1917, it fought on the Aisne, including in the Second Battle of the Aisne
Second Battle of the Aisne
The Second Battle of the Aisne , was the massive main assault of the French military's Nivelle Offensive or Chemin des Dames Offensive in 1917 during World War I....

, also known as the Third Battle of Champagne. The division returned again to Verdun in April 1917, remaining in the line until late July, when it went into reserve for a few weeks. It returned to the trenchlines near Reims on 8 August, remaining in that region until March 1918. The division then participated in the 1918 German Spring Offensive
Spring Offensive
The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht , also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during World War I, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914...

, including the Third Battle of the Aisne
Third Battle of the Aisne
The Third Battle of the Aisne was a battle of the German Spring Offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Force could arrive completely in France. It was one of a series of desperate offensives, known as the Kaiserschlacht,...

, and in the Second Battle of the Marne
Second Battle of the Marne
The Second Battle of the Marne , or Battle of Reims was the last major German Spring Offensive on the Western Front during the First World War. The German attack failed when an Allied counterattack led by France overwhelmed the Germans, inflicting severe casualties...

, the last major German offensive of the war. It fought against the French and American Aisne-Marne Offensive and remained in the line until the end of the war. Allied intelligence rated the division as first class and described it as a "big attack" division.

Order of battle on mobilization

The order of battle of the 10th Reserve Division on mobilization was as follows:
  • 77. Infanterie-Brigade
    • Füsilier-Regiment von Steinmetz (1. Westpreußisches) Nr. 37
    • 7. Westpreußisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 155
  • 18. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 37
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 46
  • Reserve-Ulanen-Regiment Nr. 6
  • Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 10
  • 1.Reserve-Kompanie/Niederschlesisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 5
  • 2.Reserve-Kompanie/Niederschlesisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 5

Order of battle on 14 March 1918

The 10th Reserve Division was triangularized
Triangular division
A triangular division is a designation given to the way divisions are organized. In a triangular organization, the division's main body is composed of three regimental maneuver elements. These regiments may be controlled by a brigade headquarters or directly subordinated to the division commander...

in April 1916. Over the course of the war, other changes took place, including the formation of artillery and signals commands and a pioneer battalion. The order of battle on 14 March 1918 was as follows:
  • 77. Infanterie-Brigade
    • Füsilier-Regiment von Steinmetz (1. Westpreußisches) Nr. 37
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 37
    • 7. Westpreußisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 155
    • Maschinengewehr-Scharfschützen-Abteilung Nr. 10
  • 1. Eskadron/Reserve-Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 3
  • Artillerie-Kommandeur 61
    • Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 10
    • I.Bataillon/Reserve-Fußartillerie-Regiment Nr. 3
  • Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 310
  • Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 410
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