Ústí nad Labem
Ústí nad Labem (ˈuːsciː ˈnad labɛm; ) is a city of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, in the Ústí nad Labem Region
Ústí nad Labem Region
Ústí nad Labem Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western part of its historical region of Bohemia...

. The city is the 7th-most populous in the country.
Ústí is situated in a mountainous district at the confluence of the Bílina and the Elbe
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northwestern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia , then Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km northwest of Hamburg...

 (Labe) Rivers, and, besides being an active river port, is an important railway junction. It is the birthplace of the painter Anton Raphael Mengs
Anton Raphael Mengs
Anton Raphael Mengs was a German painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.- Biography :Mengs was born in 1728 at Ústí nad Labem in Bohemia...



Ústí nad Labem was mentioned as a trading centre as early as 993. The city was founded by King Otakar II of Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

 in the latter part of the 13th century, who called German settlers into the country and granted them German city law. In 1423 it was pledged by Emperor Sigismund
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund of Luxemburg KG was King of Hungary, of Croatia from 1387 to 1437, of Bohemia from 1419, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Italy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411...

 to Elector Frederick I
Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
Frederick IV of Meissen and Elector of Saxony was Margrave of Meissen and Elector of Saxony from 1381 until his death. He is not to be confused with his cousin Frederick IV, Landgrave of Thuringia, the son of Balthasar, Landgrave of Thuringia...

 of Meißen, who occupied it with a Saxon garrison. In 1426 it was besieged by the Hussites, who on June 16, 1426, though only 25,000 strong, defeated with great slaughter a German
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

 army of 70,000 which had been sent to its relief; the town was stormed and sacked the next day. After lying waste for three years, it was rebuilt in 1429. It suffered much during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

 and Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines...


Not far from Ústí is the village of Chlumec, where, on August 29-August 30, 1813, a battle took place between the French Empire
First French Empire
The First French Empire , also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France...

 under Vandamme and an allied army of Austrians
Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire was a modern era successor empire, which was centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire...

, Prussians
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

, and Russians
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

. The French were defeated and Vandamme surrendered with his army of 10,000 men.

During the 19th century the city became heavily industrialized and due to the large-scale immigration the number of inhabitants grew from 2,000 to over 40,000 making Ústí one of the biggest cities in Bohemia. Mining, chemical industry and river transport were its most important assets. The local river port became the busiest one in the whole Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 surpassing the seaport in Trieste. Nowadays it is the industrial city with chemical establishments, metallurgy manufacture, machinetool industries, textiles and nutriment industry.

Ústí was a center of early German National Socialism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

. On November 15, 1903, the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei in Österreich ("German Workers' Party in Austria") was formed; it would become the basis for the Sudeten German National Socialist Party
Sudeten German National Socialist Party
The Sudeten German Party was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront on October 1, 1933, some months after the state of Czechoslovakia had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party...

 and Austrian National Socialism
Austrian National Socialism
Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-German movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. The movement took a concrete form on November 15, 1903 when the German Worker's Party was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Aussig...

. Much of their literature and books were printed in Ústí.

From April 17 to April 19, 1945 the city was bombed by the Allied Forces
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 and over 500 people lost their lives. On July 31, 1945, the Ústí Massacre
Ústí massacre
The Ústí massacre was a lynching of ethnic Germans in Ústí nad Labem , a largely ethnic German city in northern Bohemia shortly after the end of the World War II, on July 31, 1945....

 against German civilians occurred. In 1945 and 1946, over 53,000 ethnic German
Ethnic German
Ethnic Germans historically also ), also collectively referred to as the German diaspora, refers to people who are of German ethnicity. Many are not born in Europe or in the modern-day state of Germany or hold German citizenship...

s were expelled from the area. Emigrants from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

, and Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 settled in the city, among them many Roma and Sinti
Sinti or Sinta or Sinte is the name of a Romani or Gypsy population in Europe. Traditionally nomadic, today only a small percentage of the group remains unsettled...

. During the 1970s-1980s large numbers of panelák
is a colloquial term in Czech and Slovak for a panel building constructed of pre-fabricated, pre-stressed concrete, such as those extant in Czech Republic and elsewhere in the former Soviet bloc...

s were constructed in Ústí. After the fall of communism
Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

 in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

 in the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
The Velvet Revolution or Gentle Revolution was a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that took place from November 17 – December 29, 1989...

 of 1989, the city's heavy industry suffered economic troubles.

The Střekov castle
Strekov castle
Střekov castle is situated in the village Střekov in the city of Ústí nad Labem. It was built at the beginning of the 14th century on a basalt rock above the river Labe to protect the important waterway and to collect duties...

 is located in a southern suburb of the city. Ústí is a center for tourism owing to the romantic landscape of the Bohemian Highlands (České středohoří) and the České Švýcarsko
Ceské Švýcarsko
Bohemian Switzerland , also known as Czech Switzerland, is a picturesque region in the north-western Czech Republic. It lies on the Czech side of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains north of Děčín on both sides of the Elbe River. It extends eastward into the Lusatian Mountains and westward into the Ore...

 national park.

Road Transportation

The city is connected to the international highway E 442(Liberec, Děčín, Ústí, Dresden) and first class highways (I/8, I/30, I/13).

The city is directly connected to the express highway D8 (Berlin – Prague) that intersects the western border of the city. Some sections of the highway are already in operation, with the completion of the entire highway in Czech territory currently planned for 2016.

City Mass Transportation

The city has a network of mass transportation that includes bus and trolley bus lines.

Railway Transportation

Usti nad Labem is an important railway node with four railway stations that is intersected by international lines Berlin-Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 and Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the 12th largest city in the European Union with a population of 1.27 million people. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of Mount Vitosha and approximately at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.Prehistoric settlements were excavated...

 (Baltic-Orient). The backbone international line is the national railway line No. 090 – I. transit railway corridor State frontier Decin – Usti nad Labem – Prague – Breclav – state frontier which is part of the IV. Trans-European Multimodal Corridor. The re-construction on the way and the modernization of the line to meet the parameters of increased line speed will add quality to personal and commercial transportation. On the line section that intersects the city center interregional railway transpor-tation, suburban transportation and the backbone city mass transportation will come together. The Eurocity (EC) and Intercity (IC) trains connected to the European railway network stop regularly in Usti nad Labem Central Station.

River Transportation

The Elbe River Line is a junction with the West-European river lines opening access to Germany, Benelux countries, northern France and to important sea ports. The Elbe River Line is a part of the IV. Trans-European Multimodal Corridor. Freight transportation and pleasure cruises are run on the water line section Pardubice – Chvaletice – Usti nad Labem – Hrensko – Hamburg.

Air Transportation

Currently, an airport for small sports planes is under construction. The nearest airport for airliners is in Prague (92 km) or Dresden, Germany (75 km).

Matiční Street Wall

The city gained notoriety in the late 1990s when a 150 m long wall was constructed along part of the Matiční Street separating family houses on one side from the tenement houses on the other. Since the latter were homes mainly to Roma, it turned into an international racist scandal. Mayor Ladislav Hruška promised local homeowners' representatives that the wall would be finished by the end of September, 1998. Foreign press arrived in Ústí to investigate, and were told by aldermen that the wall was not meant to segregate by race, but to keep respectable citizens safe from noise and rubbish coming from the opposite side of the street.

In September, city representatives announced that plans would be changed from a four meter soundproof wall to a 1.8 meter wall of ceramic bricks, and a children's playground would also be constructed in front of the tenement houses. Despite these changes, the Roma Civic Initiative
Roma Civic Initiative
The Roma Civic Initiative is a Roma minority political party, now based in Slovakia.The party was originally established in Czechoslovakia on November 21, 1989, immediately following the Velvet Revolution...

 and Deputy Prime Minister Vladimír Špidla
Vladimír Špidla
Vladimír Špidla is a Czech politician. He served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from July 2002 to June 2004. Then Vladimír Špidla was appointed to the European Commission as Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities.-Biography:Špidla studied history at Charles...

 vocally opposed the construction. The wall was criticized by Congressman Christopher Smith, and a delegation from the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation...

 described it as a "racist" and drastic solution.

The new plans slated construction to begin August 30, 1999, but a decision by the district council delayed the move because a wall that large would require a permit, and threatened to damage the root systems of trees along Matični Street. On October 5, however, construction began regardless of the opposition by foreign observers and members of the Czech government
Politics of the Czech Republic
Politically, the Czech Republic is a multi-party parliamentary representative democratic republic. According to the Constitution of the Czech Republic, the President is the head of state while the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising supreme executive power...

. The following day, 50 Roma physically blockaded construction of the wall and dismantled parts that had already been set up. Nonetheless, the wall was completed on October 13. Domestic and international pressure eventually convinced the city to dismantle the wall, and it was destroyed six weeks after it was erected.

Officials in Prešov
Prešov Historically, the city has been known in German as Eperies , Eperjes in Hungarian, Fragopolis in Latin, Preszów in Polish, Peryeshis in Romany, Пряшев in Russian and Пряшів in Rusyn and Ukrainian.-Characteristics:The city is a showcase of Baroque, Rococo and Gothic...

, Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

 considered building a similar wall in 2005. http://www.euro-reporters.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=150&Itemid=0

Mariansky Bridge

Mariansky Bridge was opened in 1998. The bridge was built over a period of five years. The city has invested over CZK 750 million ($37,500,000) to build it. The bridge won an award of the European Association of Steel Structures - ECCS (European Convention for constructional Steelwork) European Steel Design Awards. International Association for Bridges and Civil Engineering ranked Mariansky Bridge between the 10 best structures of the world for the last decade.

Famous Natives and Residents

  • Anton Raphael Mengs
    Anton Raphael Mengs
    Anton Raphael Mengs was a German painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.- Biography :Mengs was born in 1728 at Ústí nad Labem in Bohemia...

    , painter.
  • Viktor Ullmann
    Viktor Ullmann
    Viktor Ullmann was a Silesia-born Austrian, later Czech composer, conductor and pianist of Jewish origin.- Biography :...

    , composer, conductor and pianist.
  • Heinz Edelmann
    Heinz Edelmann
    Heinz Edelmann was a German illustrator and designer. He was born in Ústí nad Labem, Czechoslovakia, into a Czech-German family of Wilhelm Edelmann and his wife Josefa née Kladivová...

    , illustrator and designer.
  • Vladimír Páral
    Vladimír Páral
    Vladimír Páral is Czech prozaic, one of the most successful Czech contemporary writers.-Black pentalogy:*Veletrh splněných přání , 1964...

    , prozaic.
  • Petr Vopěnka
    Petr Vopenka
    Petr Vopěnka is a Czech mathematician. In the early seventies, he established the Alternative Set Theory , which he subsequently developed in a series of articles and monographs...

    , mathematician.
  • Milan Hejduk
    Milan Hejduk
    Milan Hejduk is a Czech professional ice hockey forward and the captain for the Colorado Avalanche of the National Hockey League .- Playing career :...

    , hockey player for Colorado Avalanche
    Colorado Avalanche
    The Colorado Avalanche are a professional ice hockey team based in Denver, Colorado, United States. They are members of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The Avalanche have won the Stanley Cup twice, in 1995–96 and 2000–01. The franchise...

  • Michal Neuvirth
    Michal Neuvirth
    Michal Neuvirth is a Czech professional ice hockey goaltender currently playing for the Washington Capitals after spending time with the Hershey Bears of the American Hockey League...

    , hockey player for Washington Capitals
    Washington Capitals
    The Washington Capitals are a professional ice hockey team based in Washington, D.C. They are members of the Southeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League . Since their founding in 1974, "The Caps" have won one conference championship to reach the 1998 Stanley Cup...

  • Jiří Jarošík
    Jirí Jarošík
    Jiří Jarošík is a Czech footballer who is currently playing for AC Sparta Prague. He played Czech national team, where he played 23 matches. He is a defender and midfielder.-Early career:...

    , ex Chelsea FC and Celtic FC player, currently of Real Zaragoza
    Real Zaragoza
    Real Zaragoza, S.A.D. is a Spanish association football team from Zaragoza in Spain. Founded on 18 March 1932, Real Zaragoza have spent the majority of their 78 year history in the Spanish top-flight. Real Zaragoza are Spain's 9th highest ranked team in overall league points...


Twin towns — Sister cities

Ústí is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Halton
Halton (borough)
Halton is a local government district in North West England, with borough status and administered by a unitary authority. It was created in 1974 as a district of Cheshire, and became a unitary authority area on 1 April 1998. It consists of the towns of Widnes and Runcorn and the civil parishes of...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

Chemnitz is the third-largest city of the Free State of Saxony, Germany. Chemnitz is an independent city which is not part of any county and seat of the government region Direktionsbezirk Chemnitz. Located in the northern foothills of the Ore Mountains, it is a part of the Saxon triangle...

, Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

Vladimir is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow along the M7 motorway. Population:...

, Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

External links

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