Żoliborz is one of the northern districts
In the Polish system of local administration, a dzielnica is an administrative subdivision or quarter of a city or town. A dzielnica may have its own elected council , and those of Warsaw each have their own mayor...

 of the city of Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

. It is located directly to the north of the City Centre
Śródmieście is the central borough of the city of Warsaw. The best known neighborhoods in the borough are the Old Town and New Town ....

, on the left bank of the Vistula
The Vistula is the longest and the most important river in Poland, at 1,047 km in length. The watershed area of the Vistula is , of which lies within Poland ....

 river. It has approximately 50,000 inhabitants and is one of the smallest boroughs of Warsaw.

In 18th century the area belonged to the Piarists
The Order of Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools or, in short, Piarists , is the name of the oldest Catholic educational order also known as the Scolopi, Escolapios or Poor Clerics of the Mother of God...

 of a monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

 in the nearby city of Warsaw. The monk
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of monks, while always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose...

s started to parcel the grounds and allowed for the creation of various settlements on their fields, which were parceled between several villages. One of them was named Joli Bord (Beautiful Embankment in French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, which was later transcribed to Polish language
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

 as Żoliborz). After 1831 the area was confiscated by Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n authorities, who there erected the Warsaw Citadel
Warsaw Citadel
Cytadela is a 19th-century fortress in Warsaw, Poland. It was built by order of Tsar Nicholas I after the suppression of the 1830 November Uprising in order to bolster imperial Russian control of the city. It served as a prison into the late 1930s.- History :The Citadel was built by personal...

. The area was thus mostly unpopulated and even after the ban on construction of brick-made houses was lifted, it retained much of its rural character.

After Poland regained its independence in 1918, the city of Warsaw started to grow rapidly and new areas were needed. In the 1920s the area of Żoliborz was converted into a borough of Warsaw and the construction of new houses started. Until the late 1930s most of today's Żoliborz was built-up with large houses notable for their modernist architecture. The wide streets, open areas, parks and squares built there are regarded as fine examples of good urbanist architecture. Also, a so-called Żoliborz Oficerski (Officers' Żoliborz) was built up with villas for the officers of the Polish Army and other notable people of the epoch. Several star-shaped squares were built along the main axis of the borough, with the Plac Wilsona
Plac Wilsona
Plac Wilsona is the chief square of northern Warsaw's Żoliborz district. It is also one of the Polish capital's main transport hubs, with several bus and streetcars stops ....

 as the borough's centre and main transport hub.

During the Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
The Warsaw Uprising was a major World War II operation by the Polish resistance Home Army , to liberate Warsaw from Nazi Germany. The rebellion was timed to coincide with the Soviet Union's Red Army approaching the eastern suburbs of the city and the retreat of German forces...

 one of the first struggles took part in Żoliborz. After the Polish soldiers were defeated by the Germans
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Żoliborz was spared the fate of the rest of Warsaw and survived the war to a higher degree than other areas.

Famous people born in Żoliborz

Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann
Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann
Anna Maria Elisabeth Lisinska Jerichau-Baumann was a Polish-born Danish painter. She was married to the sculptor Jens Adolf Jerichau.-Early life and career:...

Lech Kaczyński
Lech Kaczynski
Lech Aleksander Kaczyński was Polish lawyer and politician who served as the President of Poland from 2005 until 2010 and as Mayor of Warsaw from 2002 until 22 December 2005. Before he became a president, he was also a member of the party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość...

Jarosław Kaczyński
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.