Xinhai Revolution
Overview
 
The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution, also known as Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history.Chinese history is not as neat as is often described and it was rare for one dynasty to change peacefully into the next. Dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they...

, the Qing (1644–1912)
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

, and established the Republic of China
Republic of China (1912–1949)
In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism...

. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle
Sexagenary cycle
The Chinese sexagenary cycle , also known as the Stems-and-Branches , is a cycle of sixty terms used for recording days or years. It appears, as a means of recording days, in the first Chinese written texts, the Shang dynasty oracle bones from the late second millennium BC. Its use to record years...

 of the Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. It is not exclusive to China, but followed by many other Asian cultures as well...

.

The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point is the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 on October 10, 1911 that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
The Railway Protection Movement , also known as the "Railway Rights Protection Movement", was a political protest movement that erupted in 1911 in late Qing China against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks...

.
Encyclopedia
The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution, also known as Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history.Chinese history is not as neat as is often described and it was rare for one dynasty to change peacefully into the next. Dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they...

, the Qing (1644–1912)
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

, and established the Republic of China
Republic of China (1912–1949)
In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism...

. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle
Sexagenary cycle
The Chinese sexagenary cycle , also known as the Stems-and-Branches , is a cycle of sixty terms used for recording days or years. It appears, as a means of recording days, in the first Chinese written texts, the Shang dynasty oracle bones from the late second millennium BC. Its use to record years...

 of the Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. It is not exclusive to China, but followed by many other Asian cultures as well...

.

The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point is the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 on October 10, 1911 that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
The Railway Protection Movement , also known as the "Railway Rights Protection Movement", was a political protest movement that erupted in 1911 in late Qing China against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks...

. The revolution ended with the abdication of the "Last Emperor
Emperor of China
The Emperor of China refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning between the founding of Qin Dynasty of China, united by the King of Qin in 221 BCE, and the fall of Yuan Shikai's Empire of China in 1916. When referred to as the Son of Heaven , a title that predates the Qin unification, the...

" Puyi on February 12, 1912, that marked the end of over 2,000 years of Imperial China
Imperial China
Imperial China may refer to:* Imperial era of Chinese history , divided into three major periods:** Early Imperial China** Mid-Imperial China** Late Imperial China...

 and the beginning of China's Republican era
History of the Republic of China
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing Dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China put an end to over two thousand years of Imperial rule. The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1912...

.

In general the revolution was a reaction to the declining Qing state and its inability to reform and modernize China to confront the challenges posed by foreign powers and reverse domestic decline, and the majority Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

's resentment of the ruling Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 minority. Many underground anti-Qing groups with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile had tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai was an important Chinese general and politician famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor of China, his autocratic rule as the second President of the Republic of China , and his short-lived...

, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

, the leader of the Tongmenghui (United League)
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

. After the Qing court transferred power to the newly-founded republic, the formation of a provisional coalition government
Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912)
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912...

 was created along with the National Assembly
National Assembly of the Republic of China
The National Assembly of the Republic of China refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the Republic of China. The National Assembly was originally founded in 1913 as the first legislature in Chinese history, but was disbanded less than a year later as President Yuan Shikai assumed...

. However, political power of the new national government
Beiyang Government
The Beiyang government or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Government of the Republic of China. The name comes from the Beiyang Army which dominated...

 in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and lead to decades of political division and warlordism
Warlord era
The Chinese Warlord Era was the period in the history of the Republic of China, from 1916 to 1928, when the country was divided among military cliques, a division that continued until the fall of the Nationalist government in the mainland China regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia,...

, including several attempts at imperial restoration.

Today, both the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 on Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 and the People's Republic of China on the mainland
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 consider themselves to be successors to the Xinhai Revolution and continue to pay homage to the ideals of the revolution including nationalism
Chinese nationalism
Chinese nationalism , sometimes synonymous with Chinese patriotism refers to cultural, historiographical, and political theories, movements and beliefs that assert the idea of a cohesive, unified Chinese people and culture in a unified country known as China...

, republicanism
Republicanism
Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, where the head of state is appointed by means other than heredity, often elections. The exact meaning of republicanism varies depending on the cultural and historical context...

, modernization of China and the national unity
Zhonghua minzu
Zhonghua minzu , usually translated as Chinese ethnic groups or Chinese nationality, refers to the modern notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions, with a central identity for China as a whole...

. October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 as Double Ten Day
Double Ten Day
Double Ten Day is the national day of the Republic of China and celebrates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of October 10, 1911, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912...

, the National Day of the Republic of China. In mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

, Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

, the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. Many overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the Greater China Area . People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves Overseas Chinese....

 also celebrate the anniversary in Chinatown
Chinatown
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of overseas Chinese people, although it is often generalized to include various Southeast Asian people. Chinatowns exist throughout the world, including East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. Binondo's Chinatown located in Manila,...

s across the world.

Background

After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War
First Opium War
The First Anglo-Chinese War , known popularly as the First Opium War or simply the Opium War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice...

 in 1842, the Qing court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a deeply conservative court culture where ethnic Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 rulers did not want to give too much authority to the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 group.

In the wars against the Taiping (1851–64)
Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty...

, Nian (1851–1868), Muslims of Yunnan (1856–1868) and the Northwest (1862–1877)
Dungan revolt
The Dungan Revolt was a mainly ethnic war with a few religious factors in 19th-century China. It is also known as the Hui Minorities' War. The term is sometimes used to include the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan which occurred during the same period...

, the traditional Manchu armies
Eight Banners
The Eight Banners were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. They provided the basic framework for the Manchu military organization...

 were proven incompetent and the court came to rely on Han local armies.

Following defeat in the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

 the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement
Self-Strengthening Movement
The Self-Strengthening Movement , c 1861–1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers....

 from 1861. In 1895 China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

. This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society also needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 Emperor Guangxu was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei , was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing Dynasty. He led movements to establish a constitutional monarchy and was an ardent Chinese nationalist. His ideas inspired a reformation movement that was supported by the Guangxu...

 and Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao |Styled]] Zhuoru, ; Pseudonym: Rengong) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty , who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and reform movements...

 for a drastic reform in education, military and economy under the Hundred Days Reforms. The reform was a failure as it was ended prematurely by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi1 , of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years from 1861 to her death in 1908....

. Emperor Guangxu, who have always been a puppet emperor dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898. Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society
Progressive Party (China)
- Origins :Chinese constitutionalism was a movement that originated after the First Sino-Japanese War . A young group of intellectuals in China led by Kang Youwei argued that China's defeat was due to its lack of modern institutions and legal framework which the Self-Strengthening Movement had...

 in an attempt to restore the emperor. Empress Cixi mainly controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

 prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions, gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by brutally suppressing, often at great costs, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas.

Organization for revolution

Earliest groups

There were many revolutionaries and many groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to reestablish a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 government. The earliest revolutionary organizations were established outside of China like Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan , was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. In 1890, Yeung started the Furen Literary Society in British colonial Hong Kong to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and to establish a republic in China...

's Furen Literary Society
Furen Literary Society
The Furen Literary Society, also known as the Chinese Patriotic Mutual Improvement Association, or the 'Furen Cultural Society Restoration Association ', was founded in Colonial Hong Kong in 1892 to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and establishing a republic in China.It was...

 created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members including Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai , styled Sing-on , art-named Hong-yu was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. Tse was the first Chinese to fly an airship, China in 1899...

, who did political satire like "The Situation in the Far East" one of the first ever Chinese manhua
Manhua
Manhua are Chinese comics originally produced in China. Possibly due to their greater degree of artistic freedom of expression and closer international ties with Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan have been the places of publication of most manhua thus far, often including Chinese translations of...

, and later became one of the core founders of South China morning post
South China Morning Post
The South China Morning Post , together with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is an English-language Hong Kong newspaper, published by the SCMP Group with a circulation of 104,000....

.

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society)
Revive China Society
The Hsing Chung Hui or Xingzhonghui translated as the Revive China Society, Society for Regenerating China, Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities...

 was established at Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of fund-raising revolutions. The two organizations were merged in 1894.

Smaller groups

The Huaxinghui (China Revival Society)
Huaxinghui
The Huaxinghui , translated as the China Revival Society or China Arise Society, was founded by Huang Xing and Zhang Shizhao on February 15, 1904, in Hunan for the explicit goal of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui. The Huaxinghui was...

 was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

, Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao , courtesy name Xingyan, penname Huangzhonghuang, Qingtong or Qiutong, was a Chinese politician of the 20th century. He was the Minister of Justice and Minister of Education of the Beiyang Government, led by Duan Qirui during the Republic of China period...

, Chen Tianhua
Chen Tianhua
Chen Tianhua , was a Chinese revolutionary born in Xinhua, Hunan province into a poor peasant family during the Qing dynasty.-Early life and education:Chen did not begin his education until he was fifteen...

 and Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 and 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, and inspire the other provinces to rise up".

The Guangfuhui (Restoration Society)
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 was also founded in 1904 in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei
Cai Yuanpei
Cai Yuanpei was a Chinese educator and the president of Peking University. He was known for his critical evaluation of the Chinese culture that led to the influential May Fourth Movement...

. Other notable members include Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin was a Chinese philologist, textual critic and anti-Manchu revolutionary.His philological works include Wen Shi , the first systematic work of Chinese etymology...

 and Tao Chengzhang. Despite having the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui is highly critical of Sun Yat-sen. One of the most famous female revolutionaries Qiu Jin
Qiu Jin
Qiū Jǐn Courtesy names: Xuánqīng and Jìngxióng Sobriquet: The Woman Knight of Mirror Lake was a Chinese anti-Qing Empire revolutionary, feminist and writer...

 who fought for women's rights
Women's rights
Women's rights are entitlements and freedoms claimed for women and girls of all ages in many societies.In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behaviour, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed...

 was also from Guangfuhui.

There were also many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui (勵志學會) in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

, Gongchanghui (公強會) in Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

, Yiwenhui (益聞會) and Hanzhudulihui (漢族獨立會) in Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

, Yizhihui (易知社) in Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

, Yuewanghui (岳王會) in Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

 and Qunzhihui (群智會/群智社) in Guangzhou.

Other criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu include Green Gang
Green Gang
The Green Gang was a Chinese criminal organization that operated in Shanghai in the early 20th century.-Origins:It was a secret society established originally by Fong Toh-tak of Shaolin Monastery to protect the Han Chinese who were oppressed by the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty, and to restore...

 and Hongmen Zhigongtang (致公堂). Sun Yat-sen himself came in contact with the Hongmen also known as Tiandihui (Heaven and Earth society)
Tiandihui
The Tiandihui is a fraternal organization that originated in China. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept, although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups.As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces, it...

.

Gelaohui (Elder Brother society)
Gelaohui
The Gelaohui , also called Futaubang, or Hatchet Gang , as every member allegedly carried a small hatchet inside the sleeve, was a secret society and underground resistance movement associated with the revolutionary Tongmenghui led by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren.Originating in western china,...

 was also another group with Zhu De
Zhu De
Zhu De was a Chinese militarist, politician, revolutionary, and one of the pioneers of the Chinese Communist Party. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, in 1955 Zhu became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the founder.-Early...

, Wu Yuzhang
Wu Yuzhang
Wu Yuzhang was a Chinese politician and educationist, President of Renmin University of China from 1950 to 1966.-Biography:...

, Liu Zhidan (劉志丹) and Helong. This is the revolutionary group that would eventually develop a strong link with the later Communist party
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

.

Tongmenghui

Sun Yat-sen successfully united the Revive China Society, Huaxingwui and Guangfuhui in the summer of 1905, thereby establishing the unified Tongmenghui (United League)
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

 in August 1905 in Tokyo. While it started in Tokyo, it has loose organizations distributed across the country and outside the country. Sun Yat-sen was the leader of this unified group. Other revolutionaries that worked with the Tongmenghui include Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

 and Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

. When the Tongmenhui was established, more than 90% of the Tongmenhui members were between age of 17 and 26 years of age. Some of the work in the era include manhua publications like the Journal of Current Pictorial
Journal of Current Pictorial
Journal of Current Pictorial was a manhua magazine published in 1905. It was authored and drawn by members of the Chinese Alliance. The magazine was banned in China in 1907...

.

Later groups

In February 1906 Rizhihui (日知會) also had many revolutionaries including Sun Wu (孫武), Zhang Nanxian (張難先), He Jiwei and Feng Mumin. A nucleus of attendees of this conference evolved into the Tongmenhui's establishment in Hubei.

In July 1907 several members of Tongmenhui in Tokyo advocated a revolution in the area of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

. Liu Quiyi (劉揆一), Jiao Dafeng (焦達峰), Zhang Boxiang (張伯祥) and Sun Wu (孫武) established Gongjinhui (Progressive Association) (共進會). In January 1911 revolutionary group Zhengwu Xueshe (振武學社) was renamed as Wenxueshe (Literary society) (文學社). Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) was chosen as the leader. These two organizations would play a big role in the Wuchang Uprising.

Political views

Many revolutionaries promoted anti-Qing / anti-Manchu sentiments, and revived memories of conflict between the ethnic minority Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 and the ethnic majority Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 from the late Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

. Leading intellectuals were influenced by books that had survived from the last years of Ming dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 (1368–1644), the last dynasty of Han Chinese. In 1904 Sun Yat-sen came about with the goal "to expel the Tatar barbarians
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people." (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權). Many of the underground groups promoted the ideas of "Resist Qing and restore Ming
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

" (反清復明) that has been around since the days of the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty...

. Others like Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin was a Chinese philologist, textual critic and anti-Manchu revolutionary.His philological works include Wen Shi , the first systematic work of Chinese etymology...

 supported straight up lines like "slay the manchus" and support concepts like Anti-Manchuism (興漢滅胡 / 排滿主義).

Strata and groups

The Xinhai Revolution was supported by many groups, including students and intellectuals who returned from abroad, as well as participants of the revolutionary organizations, overseas Chinese, soldiers of the new army, local gentry, farmers, and others.

Overseas Chinese

Assistance from overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the Greater China Area . People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves Overseas Chinese....

 was important in the Xinhai Revolution. In the first year of the Revive China Society in 1894, the first meeting ever held by the group was held in the home of Ho Fon, an overseas Chinese who was also the leader of the first Chinese church of Christ. Overseas Chinese support and actively participated in the funding of revolutionary activities, especially by the Southeast Asia Chinese of Malaya
British Malaya
British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries...

 (Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and Malaysia). Many of these groups were reorganized by Sun, who was referred to as the "mother of the Chinese revolution".

Newly emerged intellectuals

In 1906 after the abolition of the imperial examinations, the Qing Government established many new schools and encouraged students to study abroad. Many young people attended the new schools or went abroad to study to places like Japan. A new class of intellectuals emerged from those students who had studied overseas or at the new schools, in places like Japan. These Chinese students in Japan contributed immensely to the Xinhai Revolution. Besides Sun Yat-sen, key figures in the revolution such as Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

, Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

, Liao Zhongkai
Liao Zhongkai
Liao Zhongkai , Kuomintang leader and financier. Liao Zhongkai was the principal architect of the first Kuomintang-Chinese Communist Party United Front in the 1920s....

, Zhu Zhixin
Zhu Zhixin
Zhu Zhixin is a politician of the People's Republic of China. He currently serves as the vice chairman and vice Communist Party of China Party chief of the National Development and Reform Commission of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.-Early years and education:Zhu was born in...

, and Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

, were all Chinese students in Japan. Some young students like Zou Rong
Zou Rong
Zou Rong . Chinese nationalist and revolutionary martyr of the anti-Qing movement. Born in Chongqing, Sichuan Province, he was sent to Japan at an early age, where he studied the successful Japanese way of modernization...

 was known for writing the book "Revolutionary Army" where he talked about the extermination of the manchus for the 260 years of oppression and sorrow, cruelty and tyranny, and turn the sons and grandsons of Yellow Emperor into George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

s.

Before 1908, revolutionaries focused on coordinating these organizations in preparation for uprisings that these organizations would launch; hence, these groups would provide most of the manpower needed for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. After the Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen recalled the days of recruiting support for the revolution and said "The literati were deeply into the search for honors and profits, so they were regarded as having only secondary importance. By contrast, organizations like Sanhehui
Tiandihui
The Tiandihui is a fraternal organization that originated in China. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept, although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups.As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces, it...

 were able to sow widely the ideas of resisting the Qing and restoring the Ming."

Gentry and businessmen

The strength of the gentry in local politics had become apparent. From December 1908, the Qing Government created some government apparatus to allow the gentry and businessmen to participate in politics. These middle-class people were originally supporters of constitutionalism. However, they became disenchanted when the Qing Government created a cabinet with Prince Qing
Yikuang, Prince Qing
Yikuang, the Prince Qing , was a Manchu prince of the late Qing Dynasty, who was the first premier of China...

 as prime minister. By early 1911 an experimental cabinet had 13 members, 9 of which were Manchus selected from imperial family.

Foreigners

Besides Chinese and overseas Chinese, some of the supporters and participants of Xinhai Revolution were foreigners; among foreigners, the Japanese were the most active group. Some Japanese even became members of Tongmenghui. Miyazaki Touten was the closest Japanese supporter, others include Heiyama Shu or Ryōhei Uchida
Ryohei Uchida
was a Japanese ultranationalist political theorist. Pan-Asianist, and martial artist, active in the pre-war Empire of Japan.-Biography:Uchida was born in Fukuoka prefecture. He was the son of Shinto Muso-ryu practitioner Uchida Ryōgorō, and from an early age was interested in many forms of Japanese...

. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern also took part in the revolution. Some foreigners such as English explorer Arthur de Carle Sowerby
Arthur de Carle Sowerby
Arthur de Carle Sowerby was British naturalist, explorer, writer, and publisher in China. His father was Arthur Sowerby .-Background:...

 led expeditions to rescue many foreign missionaries between 1911 and 1912.

Soldiers of the new armies

The New Army
New Army
The New Armies were the modernized Qing armies, trained and equipped according to Western standards...

 was formed in 1901 after the defeat of the Qings from the First Sino-Japanese war
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

. They were launched by a decree from eight provinces. New Army were by far the best trained and equipped. They were better recruited than old formations and received regular promotions. Beginning in 1908, the revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies. Sun Yat-sen and the revolutionaries infiltrated the New Army.

Uprisings and incidents

The general focus of the uprisings are those that surround the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

 and Sun Yat-sen including the smaller groups within. Some uprisings below involve groups that never merged with the Tongmenghui. Sun Yat-sen may have participated in 8–10 uprisings; all uprisings prior to the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 had failed.

First Guangzhou Uprising

In spring 1895, the Revive China Society
Revive China Society
The Hsing Chung Hui or Xingzhonghui translated as the Revive China Society, Society for Regenerating China, Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities...

, which was based in Hong Kong, planned the first "Guangzhou uprising" (廣州起義). Lu Haodong was tasked with designing the revolutionaries' Blue Sky with a White Sun
Blue Sky with a White Sun
The Blue Sky with a White Sun serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang , the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China , and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy....

 flag. On October 26, 1895, Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan , was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. In 1890, Yeung started the Furen Literary Society in British colonial Hong Kong to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and to establish a republic in China...

 and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang and Lu Haodong to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the government. The Qing Government began to arrest revolutionaries, including Lu Haodong, who was later executed. The first Guangzhou uprising was admittedly a failure. Under the pressure from Qing Government, the government of Hong Kong forbade these two men to enter the territory for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile, promoting the Chinese revolution and raising funds in Japan, the United States, Canada and Britain on behalf of the revolution. In 1901, Yeung Kui-wan was assassinated by Qing agents in Hong Kong. After his death his family protected his identity on his tomb without his name, and just a number: 6348.

Independence Army Uprising

In 1900, after the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

 started, Tang Caichang (唐才常) and Tan Sitong
Tan Sitong
Tan Sitong , courtesy name Fusheng, pseudonym Zhuangfei , was a well-known Chinese politician, thinker and revolutionist in the late Qing Dynasty who was in support of reform; he was however, finally executed because of the failure of the reformation...

 of the previous Foot Emancipation Society
Foot Emancipation Society
Foot Emancipation Society , or Anti-footbinding Society , was a civil organization which opposed foot-binding in the late Qing Dynasty...

 organised the Independence Army. The "Independence Army Uprising" (自立軍起義) was planned to occur on August 23, 1900. Their goal was to overthrow Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi1 , of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years from 1861 to her death in 1908....

 to establish a constitutional monarchy under Emperor Guangxu. Their plot was discovered by the governor general of Hunan and Hubei. About 20 conspirators were arrested and executed.

Huizhou Uprising

On October 8, 1900, Sun Yat-sen ordered the launch of the "Huizhou Uprising" (惠州起義). The revolutionary army was led by Zheng Shiliang and initially included 20,000 men, who fought for half a month. However, after the Japanese Prime Minister prohibited Sun Yat-sen from carrying out revolutionary activities on Taiwan, Zheng Shiliang had no choice but to order the army to disperse. This uprising therefore also failed. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern participated in this uprising.

Great Ming Uprising

A very short uprising occurred from January 25 to 28 in 1903 to establish a "Great Ming Heavenly kingdom" (大明順天國). This involved Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai , styled Sing-on , art-named Hong-yu was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. Tse was the first Chinese to fly an airship, China in 1899...

, Li Jitong (李紀堂), Liang Muguang (梁慕光) and Hong Chunfu (洪全福) who formerly took part in the Jintian Uprising
Jintian Uprising
The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan on 11 February 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty. The uprising was named after Jintian , the place where it took place...

 during the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, established by Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion...

 era.

Ping-liu-li Uprising

Ma Fuyi (馬福益) and Huaxinghui
Huaxinghui
The Huaxinghui , translated as the China Revival Society or China Arise Society, was founded by Huang Xing and Zhang Shizhao on February 15, 1904, in Hunan for the explicit goal of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui. The Huaxinghui was...

 was involved in an uprising in three areas of Pingxiang
Pingxiang
Pingxiang may refer to:*Pingxiang, Jiangxi , prefecture-level city in Jiangxi, China*Pingxiang, Guangxi , county-level city in Guangxi, China*Pingxiang County , in Hebei, China...

, Liuyang
Liuyang
Liuyang is a county-level city in Changsha, the capital of Hunan province in China. Liuyang is well known for its fireworks industry. It has an area of 5,008 square kilometres and a population of 1,380,000 as of 2003....

 and Liling
Liling
Liling is a county-level city in the eastern part of Hunan province of the People's Republic of China. Liling is about 5 miles from Jiangxi province and it is south of Hunan's capital, Changsha. Liling has an area of 2,157km2 and a population of about 1,020,000....

 called "Ping-liu-li Uprising" (萍瀏醴起義) in 1905. The uprising recruited miners as early as 1903 to rise against the Qing ruling class. After the uprising failed, Ma Fuyi was executed.

Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway assassination attempt

Wu Yue (吳樾) of Guangfuhui
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 carried out an assassination attempt at the Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway station (正陽門車站) in an attack on five Qing officials on September 24, 1905.

Huanggang Uprising

The "Huanggang Uprising" (黃岡起義) was launched on May 22, 1907 in Chaozhou
Chaozhou
Chaozhou is a city in eastern Guangdong province of the People's Republic of China. It borders Shantou to the south, Jieyang to the southwest, Meizhou to the northwest, the province of Fujian to the east, and the South China Sea to the southeast...

. The Revolutionary party, along with Xu Xueqiu (許雪秋), Chen Yongpo (陳湧波), and Yu Tongshi (余通實) launched the uprising and captured Huanggang city. Other Japanese that followed include (萱野長知) and (池亨吉). After the uprising, Qing Government quickly and forcefully suppressed the uprising. Around 200 revolutionaries were killed with the uprising failing.

Huizhou seven women lake Uprising

In the same year, Sun Yat-sen sent more revolutionaries were in Huizhou to launch the "Huizhou seven women lake Uprising" (惠州七女湖起義). On June 2 Deng Zhiyu (鄧子瑜) and Chen Chuan (陳純) gathered a few members and together they seized Qing arms in the lake, 20 km from Huizhou. They killed several Qing soldiers and attacked Taiwei (泰尾) on the 5th. The Qing Army fled in disorder and the revolutionaries exploited the opportunity, capturing several towns. They defeated the Qing Army once again in Bazhiyie. Many organizations voiced their support after the uprising, and the number of troops increased to 200 men at its height. The uprising failed in the end.

Anqing Uprising

On July 6, 1907, Xu Xilin
Xu Xilin
Xu Xilin , was a Chinese revolutionary born in Dongpu, Shanyin, Shaoxing, Zhejiang during the Qing dynasty.Xu was sent to Japan in 1903 for study where he joined other Zhejiang students in rescuing Zhang Taiyan, who was arrested for spreading Anti Qing views...

 of Guangfuhui
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 led an uprising in Anqing
Anqing
Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

, Anhui, which became known as the "Anqing Uprising" (安慶起義). Xu Xilin at the time was the police commissioner as well as the supervisor of the police academy. He led an uprising that was to also assassinate the provincial governor of Anhui En Ming (恩銘). They were defeated after four hours of struggle. Xu was captured where bodyguards cut out his heart and liver and ate them. His cousin Qiu Jin
Qiu Jin
Qiū Jǐn Courtesy names: Xuánqīng and Jìngxióng Sobriquet: The Woman Knight of Mirror Lake was a Chinese anti-Qing Empire revolutionary, feminist and writer...

 was also executed a few days later.

Qinzhou Uprising

Between August to September 1907 was the "Qinzhou Uprising" (欽州防城起義)., caused to protest against heavy taxation from the government. Sun Yat-sen sent Wang Heshun (王和順) there to assist the revolutionary army and captured the county on September. After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Qinzhou, but they were unsuccessful. They eventually retreated to the area of Shiwandashan while Wang Heshun returned to Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

.

Zhennanguan Uprising

On December 1, 1907, the "Zhennanguan Uprising" (鎮南關起事) took place at Zhennanguan, a border on the Chinese-Vietnamese border. Sun Yat-sen sent Huang Mintang (黃明堂) to monitor the pass, which was guarded by a fort. With the assistance of supporters among the fort's defenders, the revolutionaries captured the cannon tower in Zhennanguan. Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 and Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

 personally went to the tower to command the battle. Qing Government sent armies to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into mountainous areas. After the failure of this uprising, Sun was forced to move to Singapore due to anti-Sun sentiments within the revolutionary groups. He would not return to the mainland until after the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

.

Qin-lian Uprising

On March 27, 1908, Huang Xing launched a raid, later known as the "Qin-lian Uprising" (欽廉上思起義), from a base in Vietnam and attacked the cities of Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Qinzhou is a municipal region in Guangxi, People's Republic of China.The municipality lies on the Gulf of Tonkin and has a population of 944, 000.-Administration:The Qinzhou municipal region comprises two districts and two counties....

 and Lianzhou
Lianzhou
Lianzhou is a county-level city of Guangdong Province, China, directly under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Qingyuan. Lianzhou has become famous for an international photography festival celebrated yearly in the city....

 in Guangdong. The struggle continued for 14 days, but was forced to terminate after the revolutionaries ran out of supplies.

Hekou Uprising

In April 1908, another uprising was launched in Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 Hekou called the "Hekou Uprising" (雲南河口起義). Huang Mingtang (黃明堂) led 200 men from Vietnam and attacked Hekou on April 30, 1908. Other revolutionaries that participated include Wang Heshun (王和順) and Guan Renfu (關仁甫). They were outnumbered and defeated, thus causing the uprising to fail.

Mapaoying Uprising

On November 19, 1908, the "Mapaiying Uprising" (馬炮營起義) was launched by revolutionary group Yuewanghui (岳王會) member Xiong Chenggei (熊成基) at Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

. Yuewanghui at this time is a subset of Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

. This uprising also failed.

Gengxu New Army Uprising

In February 1910, the "Gengxu New Army Uprising" (庚戌新軍起義) also known as "Guangzhou New Army Uprising" (廣州新軍起義) took place. This event involved a conflict between the citizens as well as the police enforcements and the New Army. After the revolutionary leader Ni Yingdian was killed by Qing forces, the remaining revolutionaries were quickly defeated, causing the uprising to fail. Despite this, it instilled great confidence among the people in the revolutionaries.

Second Guangzhou Uprising

On April 27, 1911, an uprising was held in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

 known as the "Second Guangzhou Uprising" (辛亥廣州起義) or "Yellow Flower Mound revolt" (黃花岡之役). The result was a disaster as only 72 bodies were ever found. The 72 revolutionaries were remembered as martyrs
Martyrdom in Chinese culture
The concept of martyrdom in China was largely developed by the Tongmenghui and the Kuomintang party during the Xinhai Revolution, Northern Expedition, and Second Sino-Japanese War.- Modern Development :...

. Revolutionary Lin Jue-min (林覺民) was one of the 72 heroes sacrificed. On the eve of battle he wrote the legendary "A Letter to My Wife" (與妻訣別書), later to be considered a Chinese literature masterpiece.

Wuchang Uprising


The Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會) were revolutionary organizations that were involved in the uprising that mainly started out from the Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
The Railway Protection Movement , also known as the "Railway Rights Protection Movement", was a political protest movement that erupted in 1911 in late Qing China against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks...

. In the late summer, some Hubei New Army units were ordered to neighboring Sichuan to quell the Railway Protection Movement, a mass protest of the Qing government's seizure and handover of local railway development ventures to foreign powers.

The New Army units of Hubei had originally been the "Hubei Army," which had been trained by Qing official Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong ; Pseudonyms: Xiāngtāo , Xiāngyán , Yīgōng , Wújìng-Jūshì , later Bàobīng ; Posthumous name: Wénxiāng ) was an eminent Chinese politician during the late Qing Dynasty who advocated for controlled reform...

. On September 24, the Literary Society and Progressive Association convened a conference in Wuchang along with 60 representatives from local New Army units. During the conference, they established a headquarters for the uprising. The leaders of the two organizations, Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) and Sun Wu (孫武), were elected as the commander and the chief of staff. Initially the date of the uprising was to be October 6, 1911. It was postponed to a later date due to insufficient preparations.

On October 9, Revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the Qing dynasty had built bombs and one accidentally exploded. Sun Yat-sen himself had no direct part in the uprising and was traveling in the United States at the time in an effort to recruit more support from among overseas Chinese. The Qing Viceroy of Huguang
Viceroy of Huguang
The Viceroy of Huguang , fully referred to as the Governor General of the Hubei and Hunan Provinces and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight viceroys in China proper during the Qing Dynasty of China. The Viceroy had...

 Rui Cheng (瑞澂) tried to track down and arrest the revolutionaries. Squad leader Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer and launched the revolt at October 10, 1911 at 7 pm. The revolt was a success; the entire city of Wuchang was captured by the revolutionaries by the morning of October 11. In the evening that day, they established a tactical headquarters and announced the establishment of the "Military Government of Hubei of Republic of China." The conference chose Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. He was twice president of the Republic of China.- Early history :...

 as the governor of the temporary government. The up and coming Battle of Yangxia
Battle of Yangxia
The Battle of Yangxia , also known as the Defense of Yangxia was fought from October 18 to December 1, 1911 between the revolutionaries of the Wuchang Uprising and the loyalist armies of the Qing Dynasty...

 led by Huang Xing would be a decisive battle of the uprising when the Qing responds.

After Wuchang, echoes from other provinces

After the success of the Wuchang uprising, many people followed in cities and towns in other provinces with more uprisings of their own. Many of the uprisings are followed up with restorations (光復). Some areas have more of an uprising tone, while others may have more of an independence tone depending on source. Essentially all province left the Qing to join the Republic of China.

Changsha restoration

On October 22, 1911 the Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 Tongmenghui members were led by Jiao Dafeng (焦達嶧) and Chen Zuoxin (陳作新). They led an armed group consisting partly revolutionaries from Hongjiang
Hongjiang
Hongjiang , formerly Qianyang County , is a county-level city of Huaihua, Hunan, China.-History:Hongjiang was established in 1997 by merging old Hongjiang and Qianyang. However, the residents of the old Hongjiang resisted this merge...

 and partly of New Army units in a campaign to extend the uprising into Changsha. They then captured the city and killed the local Imperial general. Then they announced the establishment of "Hunan Military Government of the Republic of China", and announced their opposition to the Qing Empire.

Shaanxi Uprising

On the same day, a member of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

's Tongmenghui, Jing Dingcheng (景定成), Qian ding (錢鼎) as well as Jing Wumu (井勿幕) and others including Gelaohui
Gelaohui
The Gelaohui , also called Futaubang, or Hatchet Gang , as every member allegedly carried a small hatchet inside the sleeve, was a secret society and underground resistance movement associated with the revolutionary Tongmenghui led by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren.Originating in western china,...

, launched an uprising and captured Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

 after two days of struggle. The Muslim General Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang , a Hui, was born in 1855, in Linxia, Gansu, China. He became a general in the Qing dynasty army, and of the Republic of China. His father was Ma Zhanao, and his younger brother was Ma Guoliang...

 led over 20 battalions of Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

 Muslim troops to defend the Qings by attacking Shaanxi against revolutionary Zhang Fenghui (張鳳翽). Ma Anliang attacked the revolutionaries successfully, but when news of the Qing emperor Puyi
Puyi
Puyi , of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China, and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty. He ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912. From 1 to 12 July 1917 he was briefly restored to the throne as a nominal emperor by the...

 was about to abdicate, Ma agreed to join the new Republic. The revolutionaries established the "Qinlong Fuhan Military Government", and elected Zhang Fenghui, a member of the Yuanrizhi Society (原日知會), as new governor. Xi'an Manchu city (滿城) finally fell on Oct 24 after basically a massacre of its manchus citizens. Many committed suicide including Qing general Wenrui (文瑞) who threw himself down a well.

Jiujiang Uprising

On October 23, Lin Sen
Lin Sen
Lin Sen , courtesy name Zichao , sobriquet Changren , was President of the National Government of the Republic of China from 1931 until his death.-Early life:...

, Jiang Qun (蔣群), Cai Hui (蔡蕙), and other members of the Tongmenghui in the province of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 plotted a revolt of New Army units in Jiujiang
Jiujiang
Jiujiang , formerly transliterated Kiukiang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, China. It is the second-largest prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province, the largest one being Nanchang...

. After they achieved victory, they announced their independence. The "Jiujiang Military Government" was then established.

Shanxi Taiyuan Uprising

On October 29, Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan, was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. Yan effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War...

 of the New Army led an uprising in Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China. At the 2010 census, it had a total population of 4,201,591 inhabitants on 6959 km² whom 3,212,500 are urban on 1,460 km². The name of the city literally means "Great Plains", referring to the location where the Fen River...

, the capital city of the province of Shanxi
Shanxi
' is a province in Northern China. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋" , after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period....

 along with Yao Yijie (姚以價), Huang Guoliang (黃國梁), Wen Shouquan (溫壽泉), Li Chenglin (李成林), Zhang Shuzhi (張樹幟), Qiao Xi (喬煦). They managed to kill the Qing Governor of Shanxi, Lu Zhongqi (陸鍾琦), which ended the last Qing governor history in Shanxi. They then announced the establishment of "Shanxi Military Government" with Yan Xishan as the military governor. After the revolution Yan Xishan would later become one of the warlords of the warlord era.

Kunming Double Ninth Uprising

On October 30, Li Genyuan (李根源) of the Tongmenghui in Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 province joined with Cai E
Cai E
Cai E or Tsai Ao was a Chinese revolutionary leader and warlord. He was born Cai Genyin in Shaoyang, Hunan, and his courtesy name was Songpo...

, Luo Peijin (羅佩金), Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao was a Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of Republican China. Tang Jiyao was military governor of Yunnan from 1913-1927.-Life:...

, and other officers of the New Army, and launched the "Double Ninth
Double Ninth Festival
The Double Ninth Festival , observed on the ninth day of the ninth month in the Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writing since before the East Han period ....

 Uprising" (重九起義). They captured Kunming
Kunming
' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

 the next day, and established the "Yunnan Military Government", electing Cai E
Cai E
Cai E or Tsai Ao was a Chinese revolutionary leader and warlord. He was born Cai Genyin in Shaoyang, Hunan, and his courtesy name was Songpo...

 as the military governor.

Nanchang restoration

On October 31, the Nanchang
Nanchang
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

 branch of the Tongmenghui led New Army units in a local uprising and succeeded. They established the Jiangxi Military Government. Li Liejun
Li Liejun
Li Liejun, 李烈钧, was a Chinese revolutionary leader and general.Li was born in Wuning, Jiangxi, China. He went on to get a higher education and was sent to the Imperial Japanese Army Academy where he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance...

 was elected as the military governor. Li declared Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 as independent and launched an expedition against Yuan Shikai.

Shanghai armed Uprising

On November 3, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

's Tongmenghui, guangfuhui, and merchants led by Chen Qimei
Chen Qimei
Chen Qimei was a Chinese revolutionary activist, close political ally of Sun Yat-sen, and early mentor of Chiang Kai-shek. He was as one of the founders of the Republic of China, and the uncle of Chen Guofu and Chen Lifu....

, Li Pingsu (李平書), Zhang Chengyou (張承槱), Li Yingshi (李英石), Li Xiehe (李燮和) and Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 organized an armed rebellion in Shanghai. They recruited various squads, and received the support of local police officers. The rebels captured the Jiangnan Workshop on the 4th, and captured Shanghai soon after. On November 8, they established the "Shanghai Military Government", and elected Chen Qimei as the military governor. Chen Qimei would eventually become one of the starter of the ROC four big families
Four big families of the Republic of China
The Four big families of the Republic of China are an initial group of families in the Republic of China era. They were responsible for much of China's management of finance, politics, economy and law. The four big families begin with the Chinese surname Chiang, Soong, Kung and...

, next to some of the most well known families of the era.

Guizhou Uprising

On November 4, Zhang Bailin (張百麟) of the revolutionary party in Guizhou
Guizhou
' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

 led an uprising along with New Army units and students from the military academy. They immediately captured Guiyang
Guiyang
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the centre of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters...

 and established the "Great Han Guizhou Military Government", electing Yang Jincheng (楊藎誠) and Zhao Dequan (趙德全) as the chief and vice governor.

Zhejiang Uprising

Also on November 4, the revolutionaries in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

 urged the New Army units in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 to launch an uprising. Zhu Rui (朱瑞), Wu Siyu (吳思豫), Lu Gongwang (吕公望) and many others of the New Army captured the military supplies workshop. Other dare-to-die squads led by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 and Yin Zhirei (尹銳志) along with others captured most of the government offices. Eventually Hangzhou was in the control of the revolutionaries, and the constitutionist Tang Shouqian (湯壽潛) was elected as the military governor.

Jiangsu restoration

On November 5, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

 constitutionists and gentry urged the Qing governor Cheng Dequan (程德全) to announce independence, and established the "Jiangsu Revolutionary Military Government" with Cheng himself as the governor. Unlike some of the other cities, the anti-Manchu violence began after the restoration on November 7 in Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Jiangsu province in the eastern People's Republic of China . Sitting on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, it borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the west, Changzhou to the east, and Yangzhou across the river to the north.Once...

. Qing clansman general Zaimu (載穆) agreed to surrender, but because of a misunderstanding, the revolutionaries were unware their safety were guaranteed. The Manchu quarters were ransacked and untold number of manchus were killed. Zaimu feeling betrayed, committed suicide. This is regarded as "Zhenjiang Uprising" (鎮江起義).

Anhui Uprising

Members of Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

's Tongmenghui also launched the uprising on that day, and laid siege on the provincial capital. The constitutionists persuaded Zhu Jiabao (朱家寶), the Qing Governor of Anhui, to announce independence.

Guangxi Uprising

On November 7, the Guangxi
Guangxi
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China along its border with Vietnam. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.Guangxi's location, in...

 politics department decided to secede from the Qing government, announcing Guangxi's independence. The Qing Governor, Shen Bingkun (沈秉堃) was allowed to remain governor, but Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting was born in Wuming, Guangxi, China. Originating as a common bandit, Lu became a military commander in Guangxi in the Qing dynasty and suppressed the revolutionary uprising at Zhennan Pass on the Sino-Vietnam border in Pingxiang, Guangxi led by Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing.However, when...

 would soon become the new governor. Lu Rongting would later become one of the warlord, while his bandits control Guangxi for more than a decade to follow.

Fujian independence

In November members of Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

's branch of the Tongmenghui along with Sun Daoren (孫道仁) of the New Army launched an uprising against the Qing Army. The Qing viceroy, Song Shou (松壽), committed suicide. On November 11 the entire Fujian province declared independence. The "Fujian Military Government" was established, and Sun Daoren was elected as the military governor.

Guangdong independence

Near the end of October, Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming was a revolutionary figure in the early periods of the Republic of China. Chen Jiongming was born in 1878 at Haifeng, Guangdong, China....

, Deng Keng (鄧鏗), Peng Reihai (彭瑞海) and other members of Guangdong's Tongmenghui organized local militias to led the uprising in Huazhou, Nanhai, Sunde and Sanshui in Guangdong province. On November 8, after being persuaded by Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

, general Li zhun (李準) and Long Jiguang (龍濟光) of the Guangdong Navy agreed to support the revolution. The Qing viceroy of Liangguang
Viceroy of Liangguang
The Viceroy of Liangguang , fully referred to as the Governor General of Liangguang and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Manager of Waterways; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight viceroys in China proper during the Qing Dynasty of China...

 Zhang Mingqi (張鳴岐) was forced to discuss with the local representatives a proposal for Guangdong's independence. They decided to announce Guangdong's independence the next day. Chen Jiongming then captured Huizhou. On November 9 Guangdong announced its independence, and established a Military Government. They elected Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming as the chief and vice governor. Qiu Fengjia
Qiu Fengjia
Qiu Fengjia was a Chinese patriot, educator and, poet. He was born in Miaoli County in Taiwan. He was given the command of militia forces in Taiwan during Japanese invasion of Taiwan in 1895, but soon fled to mainland China after President Tang Chin-sung of Republic of Formosa fled the island...

 is known to have help make the independence declaration more peaceful.

Shandong independence

On November 13, persuaded by revolutionary Din Weifen (丁惟汾) and several other officers of the New Army, the Qing Governor of Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 Sun Baoqi agreed to secede from the Qing Government and announced Shandong's independence.

Ningxia Uprising

On November 17, Ningxia
Ningxia
Ningxia, formerly transliterated as Ningsia, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Located in Northwest China, on the Loess Plateau, the Yellow River flows through this vast area of land. The Great Wall of China runs along its northeastern boundary...

 the Tongmenghui launched the "Ningxia Uprising" (寧夏會黨起義). The revolutionaries sent Yu Youren to Zhangjiachuan to meet Dungan Sufi master Ma Yuanzhang to persuade him not to support the Qing. But Ma didn't want to endanger his relationship with the Qings. He sent the eastern Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

 Muslim militia under the command of one of his son to help Ma Qi
Ma Qi
Ma Qi was a Chinese Muslim warlord in early 20th century China.-Early life:His grandfather Sa-la Ma , is a Salar. He was born in 1869 in Daohe, now part of Linxia, Gansu, China. His father was Ma Haiyan...

 crush the Ningxia Gelaohui. The "Ningxia Revolutionary Military Government" would be established on November 23. Some of the revolutionaries involved include Huang yue (黃鉞) and Xiang shen (向燊) who gathered New Armies at Qinzhou (秦州).

Sichuan independence

On November 21, Guang'an
Guang'an
Guang'an is a prefecture-level city in eastern Sichuan province. It is most famous as the birthplace of China's former paramount leader Deng Xiaoping. Guang'an lies between the hills of central Sichuan and the gorges area of the east...

 organized the "Great Han shu
Shu Han
Shu Han was one of the three states competing for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period, after the fall of the Han Dynasty. The state was based on areas around Sichuan, which was then known as Shu...

 northern Military Government".

On November 22, Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 and Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 began to declare independence. By the 27th, the "Great Han Sichuan Military Government" was established, headed by revolutionary Pu Dianzun (蒲殿俊). Qing official Duan fang (端方) would also be killed.

Nanking Uprising

On November 8, plotted and supported by the Tongmenghui, Xu Shaozhen (徐紹楨) of the New Army announced an uprising in Molin Pass (秣陵關), 30km away from Nanking City. Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei, and other generals decided to form a united army under Xu to strike Nanking together. On November 11, the united army headquarter was established in Zhenjiang. Between November 24 and December 1, under the command of Xu Shaozhen, the united army captured Wulongshan (烏龍山), Mufushan (幕府山), Yuhuatai (雨花臺), Tianbao City (天保城) and many other strongholds of the Qing Army. On December 2, the Nanking City was captured by the revolutionaries after the "Battle of Nanking". On December 3, revolutionary Su Liangbi led troops to massacre an incalculable number of manchus. He was then arrested with his troops disbanded.

Tibetan Independence

In 1905 the Qing sent Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng was a Qing official and Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. He is known for being the last amban in Tibet, appointed in March, 1908. Lien Yu , a Manchu, was appointed as the other amban...

 to Tibet to put down disorder
1905 Tibetan Rebellion
-Attacks on Christian Missionaries and Converts:Under pressure from foreigners, the Qing Dynasty government allowed Christian missionaries into Tibetan Buddhist areas in Yunnan province. The Tibetan Lamas had long defied the rule of the Qing authorities and officials, and the Qing dynasty fought...

. By 1908 Zhao was appointed imperial resident in Lhasa
Lhasa
Lhasa is the administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China and the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau, after Xining. At an altitude of , Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world...

. When the revolutionaries arrived to Tibet, Zhao would be beheaded in December 1911. The area that was historically known as Kham
Kham
Kham , is a historical region covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibetan Autonomous Region and Sichuan province, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China. During the Republic of China's rule over mainland China , most of the region was...

 was now the Xikang Administrative District
Xikang
Xikang or Sikang , is a defunct province of the Republic of China , comprising most of the Kham region of traditional Tibet, where Khampas, a subgroup of the Tibetan ethnicity, live. The area is also home to a small minority of Mongol ethnicity...

 created by the revolutionaries. By the end of 1912 the last Manchu troops were escorted out of Tibet. Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The name is a combination of the Mongolian word далай meaning "Ocean" and the Tibetan word bla-ma meaning "teacher"...

 returned to Tibet in January 1913 from Sikkim
Sikkim
Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayan mountains...

, where he had been residing. When the new ROC government apologised for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama to his former position. He replied that he was not interested in Chinese ranks and was assuming the spiritual and political leadership of Tibet. Because of this, many have read this reply as a formal declaration of independence. The Chinese side ignored the response, and Tibet had 30 years free of interference from China.

Mongolia independence

At the end of 1911 the Mongols took action with an armed revolt against the Manchu authorities, but was unsuccessful in the attempt. An independence movement took place that was not limited to just North (outer) Mongolia but was a pan-Mongolian phenomenon. On December 29, 1911 Bogd Khan
Bogd Khan
The Bogd Khan was enthroned as the Great Khaan of Mongolia on 29 December 1911, when Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty after the Xinhai Revolution. He was born in the Kham region of eastern Tibet, today's Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China...

 became the leader of the Mongol empire. Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern region of the country. Inner Mongolia shares an international border with the countries of Mongolia and the Russian Federation...

 became a contested terrain between Khan and the Republic. In general Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 supported the Independence of Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolian revolution of 1911
The Outer Mongolian revolution of 1911 occurred when the Chinese province of Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. A combination of factors including economic hardship and failure to resist Western imperialism led many in China to be unhappy...

 (including Tannu Uriankhai
Tannu Uriankhai
Tannu Uriankhai is a historic region of the Mongol Empire and, later, the Qing Dynasty. The realms of Tannu Uriankhai largely correspond to the Tuva Republic of the Russian Federation, neighboring areas in Russia, and a part of the modern state of Mongolia....

) during the time of the Xinhai revolution.
Tibet and Mongolia then recognized each other in a treaty.

Dihua and Yili Uprising

In Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Xinjiang is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2...

 on December 28 Liu Xianzun (劉先俊) and the revolutionaries started the "Dihua
Ürümqi
Ürümqi , formerly Tihwa , is the capital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, in the northwest of the country....

 Uprising" (迪化起義). This was led by more than 100 members of Geilaohui. This uprising would fail. On January 7, 1912 the "Yili
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture , in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the People's Republic of China.-Geography and coordinates:The following figures excludes both Tacheng Prefecture and Altay Prefecture....

 Uprising" (伊犁起義) with Feng Temin (馮特民) would begin. Qing governor Yuan Dahua (袁大化) fled and handed over his resignation to Yang Zengxin
Yang Zengxin
Yang Zengxin , born in Mengzi, Honghe, Yunnan in 1859, was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.-Life:...

 because he could not handle fighting the revolutionaries.

In the morning of January 8, a new Yili government would be established for the revolutionaries. But the revolutionaries would be defeated at Jinghe in January and February. Eventually because of the abdication to come, Yuan Shikai recognized Yang Zengxin's rule and appointed him Governor of Xinjiang and had the province join the Republic. But 11 more former Qing officials would be assasinated in Zhenxi, Karashahr, Aqsu, Kucha
Kucha
Kuchaor Kuche Uyghur , Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin Kùchē; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu from the traditional Chinese forms 屈支 屈茨; 龜玆; 龟兹, 丘玆, also Po ; Sanskrit: Kueina, Standard Tibetan: Kutsahiyui was an ancient Buddhist kingdom...

, Luntai and Kashgar
Kashgar
Kashgar or Kashi is an oasis city with approximately 350,000 residents in the western part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Kashgar is the administrative centre of Kashgar Prefecture which has an area of 162,000 km² and a population of approximately...

 in April and May 1912.

Taiwan Uprising

In 1911 as part of the Xinhai revolution, Tongmenghui sent Luo Fu-xing (羅福星) to Taiwan island to free it from being occupied by the Japanese. The goal was to bring Taiwan island back to the Chinese republic by having a "Taiwan Uprising" (台灣起義). Luo was caught and killed on March 3, 1914. What was left was known as the "Miaoli
Miaoli County
Miaoli County is a county in western Taiwan. The name Miaoli was coined using two Hakka words, cat and raccoon dog , which phonetically approximate Pali , a community of Taokas people...

 incident" (苗栗事件) where more than 1,000 Taiwanese were executed by the Japanese police. Luo's sacrifice is commemorated in Miaoli.

Change of government

North: Qing court last transformation attempt

On November 1, 1911 the Qing Government appointed Yuan Shikai as the prime minister of the imperial cabinet replacing Prince Qing
Yikuang, Prince Qing
Yikuang, the Prince Qing , was a Manchu prince of the late Qing Dynasty, who was the first premier of China...

. On November 3, the Qing court passed the Nineteen Articles (憲法重大信條十九條), which turned the Qing from an autocratic system with the emperor having unlimited power to a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

. On November 9, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 even cabled Yuan Shikai and invited him to join the Republic. The court changes were too late, and the emperor was about to have to step down.

South: Government in Nanking

On November 28, 1911 Wuchang and Hanyang
Hanyang
Hanyang was one of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, People's Republic of China. Currently, it is a district and stands between the Han River and the Yangtze River, where the former falls into the latter...

 had fallen back to the Qing army. So for safety the revolutionaries convened their first conference at the British concession in Hankou
Hankou
Hankou was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, China. It stands north of the Han and Yangtze Rivers where the Han falls into the Yangtze...

 on November 30. By December 2 the revolutionary forces were able to capture Nanking in the uprising, the revolutionaries decided to make it the site of the new provisional government. At the time Beijing was still the Qing capital.

North-South Conference

On December 18 the "North-South Conference" (南北議和) was held in Shanghai to discuss the north and south issues. Yuan Shikai selected Tang Shaoyi
Tang Shaoyi
Táng Shàoyí , was a Chinese diplomat, politician. He was the father-in-law of Wellington Koo and Lee Seng Gee.-Career:...

 as his representative. Tang left Beijing for Wuhan to negotiate with the revolutionaries. The revolutionaries chose Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang was a Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and briefly as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. He is also known under his Cantonese name Ng Choy -Biography:...

. With the intervention of six foreign powers, UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Russia
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Tang Shaoyi and Wu Tingfang began to negotiate a settlement at the British concession
Concession (territory)
In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it. This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.Usually, it is conceded, that...

. Foreign businessman Edward Selby Little (李德立) acted as the negotiator and facilitated the peace agreement. They agreed that Yuan Shikai would force the Qing Emperor to abdicate in exchange for the southern provinces' support of Yuan as the president of the Republic. After considering the possibility that the new republic might be defeated in a civil war or by foreign invasion, Sun Yat-sen agreed to Yuan's proposal to unify China under Yuan Shikai's Beijing government. Further decisions were made to let the emperor rule over his little court in the New Summer Palace. He would be treated as a ruler of a separate country and have expenses of several million taels in silver.

Establishment of the Republic

Republic of China declared and national flag issue

On December 29, 1911 Sun Yat-sen was elected as the first provisional president. January 1, 1912 was set as the first day
Epoch (reference date)
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instance in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. The "epoch" then serves as a reference point from which time is measured...

 of the First Year of the Republic of China. On January 3, the representatives recommended Li Yuanhong as the Provisional vice president.

During and after the Xinhai revolution, many groups that participated wanted their own pennant as the national flag. During the Wuchang uprising the military units of Wuchang wanted the 9-star flag with Taijitu
Taijitu
Taijitu is a term which refers to a Chinese symbol for the concept of yin and yang...

. Others in competition include Lu Hao-tung
Lu Hao-tung
Lu Hao-tung , born Lu Chung-gui , courtesy name Hsien-hsiang , was the first "revolutionary martyr" of the Republic of China...

's Blue Sky and White Sun flag. Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 favored a flag bearing the mythical "well-field" system of village agriculture. In the end, the assembly compromised: the national flag would be the banner of Five Races Under One Union
Five Races Under One Union
Five races under one union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was originally founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.-Description:...

. The Five Races Under One Union flag with horizontal stripes represented the five major nationalities of the republic. The red
Red
Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 630–740 nm. Longer wavelengths than this are called infrared , and cannot be seen by the naked eye...

 represented Han
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, the yellow
Yellow
Yellow is the color evoked by light that stimulates both the L and M cone cells of the retina about equally, with no significant stimulation of the S cone cells. Light with a wavelength of 570–590 nm is yellow, as is light with a suitable mixture of red and green...

 represented Manchus, the blue
Blue
Blue is a colour, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 440–490 nm. It is considered one of the additive primary colours. On the HSV Colour Wheel, the complement of blue is yellow; that is, a colour corresponding to an equal...

 for Mongols, the white
White
White is a color, the perception of which is evoked by light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells in the human eye in nearly equal amounts and with high brightness compared to the surroundings. A white visual stimulation will be void of hue and grayness.White light can be...

 for Tibetans
Tibetan people
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet, which is mostly in the People's Republic of China. They number 5.4 million and are the 10th largest ethnic group in the country. Significant Tibetan minorities also live in India, Nepal, and Bhutan...

, and black
Black
Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of light...

 for Muslim
Islam in China
Throughout the history of Islam in China, Chinese Muslims have influenced the course of Chinese history. Chinese Muslims have been in China for the last 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society...

. Despite the general target of the uprisings to be the Manchus, Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren and Huang Xing unanimously advocated racial integration
Racial integration
Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation . In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely...

 to be carried out on the frontiers.

Donghuamen incident

On January 16, while returning to his residence, Yuan Shikai was ambushed in a bomb attack organized by the Tongmenghui in Donghuamen (東華門), Tientsin, Beijing. A total of 18 revolutionaries were involved. About 10 of the guards died but Yuan himself was not seriously injured. He sent a message to the revolutionaries the next day pledging his loyalty and asking them to not organize any more assassination attempts against him.

Abdication of the emperor

On January 20 Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang was a Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and briefly as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. He is also known under his Cantonese name Ng Choy -Biography:...

 of the Nanking Provisional Government officially delivered the imperial edict of abdication to Yuan Shikai the terms for the abdication
Abdication
Abdication occurs when a monarch, such as a king or emperor, renounces his office.-Terminology:The word abdication comes derives from the Latin abdicatio. meaning to disown or renounce...

 of Qing Emperor Xuantong Puyi
Puyi
Puyi , of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China, and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty. He ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912. From 1 to 12 July 1917 he was briefly restored to the throne as a nominal emperor by the...

. It was drafted by Zhang Jian
Zhang Jian (politician)
Zhang Jian , courtesy name Jizhi , sobriquet Se'an , was a Chinese entrepreneur, politician and educationist.-Biography:Zhang was born in Haimen County, Jiangsu Province in 1853...

, and was approved by the Provisional senate. On January 22, Sun Yat-sen announced that if Yuan Shikai supported the emperor's abdication, he (Sun Yat-sen) would resign the presidency in favor of Yuan Shikai. After Yuan received this promise, he sped up the process. He threatened Empress Longyu that if the revolutionaries came to Beijing, the lives of the royal family would not be spared, but if they agree to abdicate, the terms for their abdication would be honored.

On February 3, Empress Longyu gave Yuan Shikai full permission to negotiate the terms for the abdication of the Qing Emperor. Yuan then drew up his own version and forwarded it back to the revolutionaries on February 3. His version consist of three sections instead of two. On February 12, 1912, after being persuaded and pressured by Yuan Shikai and other ministers, Puyi (age 6) and Empress Longyu accepted the terms for the Imperial family's abdication.

Dong'anmen gate incident

The revolutionaries were trying to lure Yuan Shikai to the south. By making Yuan the president of the southern Nanking-based provisional government, he would have to give up his military power base in the north. In February 1912, troops were looting shops and stealing from rich commercial areas. They then burned down the Dong'anmen gate (東安門) on the wall surrounding the Imperial City
Imperial City (Beijing)
The Imperial City is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties, with the Forbidden City at its center. It refers to the collection of gardens, shrines, and other service areas between the Forbidden City and the Inner City of ancient Beijing...

. Thousands of people were killed. This mutiny was actually ordered by Yuan and Cao Kun
Cao Kun
|-...

. Yuan intimidated the revolutionaries and made it clear that the new government would have to go to him in Beijing, he was not going to the south. This was an excuse to move the capital of the new republic from Nanking back to Beijing.

Government in Beijing

On March 10, 1912, Yuan Shikai was sworn as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China in Beijing. The government based in Beijing, called the Beiyang Government
Beiyang Government
The Beiyang government or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Government of the Republic of China. The name comes from the Beiyang Army which dominated...

, was internationally recognized as the legitimate government of the Republic of China until 1928, so the period from 1912 until 1928 was known simply as the "Beiyang Period". The first National assembly election
Republic of China National Assembly elections, 1912
The Republic of China National Assembly elections, 1912, held in December 1912 to January 1913, were the first elections for the new founded Republic of China Senate and House of Representatives....

 would take place according to the Provisional constitution
Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China
After the victory in Xinhai Revolution, the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China, led by Sun Yat-sen, framed the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China , which was an outline of basic regulations with the qualities of a formal constitution.On March 11, 1912, it...

. While in Beijing the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 (KMT) would be formed on August 25, 1912. The KMT would win the majority seats after the election. Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 would be elected as premier. However, Song was assassinated in Shanghai on March 20, 1913 under the secret order of Yuan Shikai.

Social influence

After the revolution there was a huge outpouring of anti-Manchu literature. Some include Wang Xiuchu
Wang Xiuchu
Wang Xiuchu was a 17th century Chinese middle-class scholar who lived through the conquest of the Ming Dynasty by the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty. Wang's most significant accomplishment is his writing of the "Yangzhou shiri ji" an account that details his survival of the notorious Massacre of...

's graphical account of the 10 day Chinese massacre in Yangzhou
Yangzhou massacre
The Yangzhou massacre took place in 1645 in Yangzhou, China, during the Qing Dynasty. Mass killings of residents in Yangzhou were conducted by Qing troops under the command of Prince Dodo after they conquered the city from forces loyal to the Southern Ming regime of the Hongguang Emperor.The...

. Another is "A Short History of Slaves
Nucai
Nucai is a Chinese term that can be translated as flunkey, lackey, yes-man, servant, slave, or a person of unquestioning obedience. It originated in the nomadic tribes of northern China as a negative and derogatory term, often reserved for insult for someone perceived to be useless or incompetent...

"
(奴才小史) and "The Biographies of Avaricious Officials and Corrupt Personnel" (貪官污吏傳) by Laoli (老吏). Many other literature wrote about the era. During the abdication of the last emperor, Empress Longyu, Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen all tried to adopt the concept of "Manchu and Han as one family" (滿漢一家). But people starting exploring and debating with themselves on the root cause of their national weakness. This new search of identity was the New Culture Movement
New Culture Movement
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems. Scholars like Chen Duxiu, Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, and Hu Shi, had...

. Manchu culture and language
Manchu language
Manchu is a Tungusic endangered language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus...

 on the contrary has become virtually extinct by 2007.

Unlike revolutions in the West, the Xinhai Revolution did not restructure society. The participants of Xinhai Revolution were mostly military personnel, old type bureaucrats, and local gentries. These people still held regional power after the Xinhai Revolution. Some became warlords. There were no major improvements in the standard of living
Standard of living
Standard of living is generally measured by standards such as real income per person and poverty rate. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth inequality and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods , or measures of health such as...

. The economic problems were not addressed until Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo , Kuomintang politician and leader, was the son of President Chiang Kai-shek and held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China...

 on Taiwan and Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician, statesman, and diplomat. As leader of the Communist Party of China, Deng was a reformer who led China towards a market economy...

 on the mainland.

The Xinhai Revolution mainly got rid of feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.Although derived from the...

 (fengjian
Fengjian
Fēngjiàn is the political ideology of the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. Fengjian is a "decentralized system of government," comparable to European feudalism, though recent scholarship has suggested that fengjian lacks some of the fundamental aspects of feudalism.-Ranks:The sizes of troops and...

) from Late Imperial China
Late Imperial China
Late Imperial China refers to the period between the end of Mongol rule in 1368 and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912 and includes the Ming and Qing Dynasties...

 era. In the usual view of historians there are two restorations of feudal power after the revolution: first was Yuan Shikai, second was Zhang Xun
Zhang Xun
Zhang Xun or Chang Hsün may refer to:*Zhang Xun , general serving under the warlord Yuan Shu during the late Han Dynasty*Zhang Xun , Tang Dynasty general involved in the Battle of Suiyang against An Lushan...

. Both were unsuccessful. But the "feudal remnants" returned to China with the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 in a concept called guanxi
Guanxi
Guanxi describes the basic dynamic in personalized networks of influence, and is a central idea in Chinese society. In Western media, the pinyin romanization of this Chinese word is becoming more widely used instead of the two common translations—"connections" and "relationships"—as neither of...

 where people relied not on feudal relationships, but personal relationships for survival. While guanxi is helpful in Taiwan, on the mainland guanxi is necessary to get anything done.

Historical significance

The Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing government and 2,000 years of monarchy. Throughout Chinese history, old dynasties had always been replaced by new dynasties. The Xinhai Revolution, however, was the first to overthrow a monarchy completely and attempt to establish a Republic to spread democratic ideas throughout China. Though in 1911 at the provisional government welcome ceremony Sun Yat-sen said "The revolution is not yet successful, the comrade
Comrade
Comrade means "friend", "colleague", or "ally". The word comes from French camarade. The term is frequently used by left-wing organizations around the globe. "Comrade" has often become a stock phrase and form of address. This word has its regional equivalents available in many...

s still need to strive for the future" (革命尚未成功,同志仍需努力).

After the 1920s, the two dominant parties—the KMT and CPC see the Xinhai Revolution quite differently. Both sides recognize Sun Yat-sen as the Father of the Nation
Father of the Nation
Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of their country, state or nation...

. But in Taiwan, they mean "Father of the Republic of China". The father of New China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 is seen as Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

. On the mainland, Sun Yat-sen was seen as the man who just help bring down the Qing, a pre-condition for the Communist state founded in 1949. The PRC views Sun's work as the first step towards the real revolution in 1949, when the communists set up a truly independent state that expelled foreigners and built a military and industrial power. In 1954 Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi was a Chinese revolutionary, statesman, and theorist. He was Chairman of the People's Republic of China, China's head of state, from 27 April 1959 to 31 October 1968, during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China...

 was quoted as saying that the "Xinhai Revolution inserted the concept of a republic into common people". Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976...

 pointed out that "Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing rule, ended 2000 years of monarchy, and liberated the mind of people to a great extent, and opened up the path for the development of future revolution. This is a great victory". Much of the differences between the two sides can be seen in the 100th Anniversary of the Republic of China
100th Anniversary of the Republic of China
The 100th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of China began on October 10, 2011 on the 100th anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. It was celebrated in Taiwan and mainland China, but the meaning of the celebration varies differently by region....

.

Modern evaluation

A change in the belief that the revolution had been a generally positive change began in late 1980s and 1990s. But Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao , courtesy name Xingyan, penname Huangzhonghuang, Qingtong or Qiutong, was a Chinese politician of the 20th century. He was the Minister of Justice and Minister of Education of the Beiyang Government, led by Duan Qirui during the Republic of China period...

 was quoted as arguing that "When talking about the Xinhai Revolution, the theorist these days tends to overemphasize. The word ‘success’ was way overused".

The success of the democracy gained from the revolution can vary depending on view. Even after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925, for 60 years the KMT controlled all five branches of the government; none was independent. Yan Jiaqi
Yan Jiaqi
Yan Jiaqi 嚴家其 is a Chinese political scientist, now a dissident and federalist.In 1959, he entered the University of Science and Technology of China, and then became the director of the Institute of Political Research of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, where he published several essays and...

 founder of the Federation for a Democratic China
Federation for a Democratic China
Federation for a Democratic China is an interest group that advocates the democratization of China through opposition of the Communist Party of China and support of human rights. It was founded on September 22, 1989 in Paris, France, following the June 4, 1989 Tiananmen Incident. It was a party of...

 have said that Sun Yat-sen is to be credited as founding China's first republic in 1912, and the second republic is the people of Taiwan and the political parties there now democratizing the region. In 2011 president Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou is the 12th term and current President of the Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan, and the Chairman of the Kuomintang Party, also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party. He formerly served as Justice Minister from 1993 to 1996, Mayor of Taipei from 1998 to 2006, and Chairman...

 praised the Western political model for the successful democratization of Taiwan.

Meanwhile the ideals of democracy is far from realised on the mainland. For example Chinese premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao is the sixth and current Premier and Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government and leading its cabinet. In his capacity as Premier, Wen is regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy...

 once said in a speech that without real democracy there is no guarantee of economic and political rights. But he led a 2011 crackdown
2011 crackdown on dissidents in the People's Republic of China
The 2011 crackdown on dissidents in the People's Republic of China refers to the arrest of dozens of mainland Chinese rights lawyers, activists and grassroots agitators in a response to the 2011 Chinese pro-democracy protests...

 against the peaceful Chinese jasmine protests. Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo is a Chinese literary critic, writer, professor, and human rights activist who called for political reforms and the end of communist single-party rule in China...

, a pro-democracy activist who received the global 2010 Nobel Peace Prize
2010 Nobel Peace Prize
The 2010 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to imprisoned Chinese human rights activist "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"...

 is in prison. Others such as Qin Yongmin (秦永敏) of the Democracy Party of China was only released from prison after 12 years doesn't praise the Xinhai Revolution. He said the revolution only replaced one dictator with another, that Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

 was not an emperor, but he is worse than the emperor.

See also

  • Timeline of Late Anti-Qing Rebellions
  • History of the Republic of China
    History of the Republic of China
    The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing Dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China put an end to over two thousand years of Imperial rule. The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1912...

  • Military of the Republic of China
    Military of the Republic of China
    The Republic of China Armed Forces encompass the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Military Police Force of the Republic of China . It is a military establishment, which accounted for 16.8% of the central budget in the fiscal year of 2003...

  • History of China
    History of China
    Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest...

  • National Revolutionary Army
    National Revolutionary Army
    The National Revolutionary Army , pre-1928 sometimes shortened to 革命軍 or Revolutionary Army and between 1928-1947 as 國軍 or National Army was the Military Arm of the Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMT's period of party rule...

  • Kuomintang
    Kuomintang
    The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

  • Taishō period
    Taisho period
    The , or Taishō era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Taishō Emperor. The health of the new emperor was weak, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen to the Diet...

  • Russian Revolution (1917)
  • German Revolution of 1918–19

Primary sources

  • Wu Xinghan , Three Day Journal of Wuchang Uprising

Contemporary accounts

  • Edwin J. Dingle, China's Revolution: 1911–1912. A Historical and Political Record of the Civil War (Shanghai, China: Commercial Press, 1912).
  • P. H. B. Kent, The Passing of the Manchus (London: E. Arnold, 1912).

English

The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution, also known as Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history.Chinese history is not as neat as is often described and it was rare for one dynasty to change peacefully into the next. Dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they...

, the Qing (1644–1912)
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

, and established the Republic of China
Republic of China (1912–1949)
In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism...

. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle
Sexagenary cycle
The Chinese sexagenary cycle , also known as the Stems-and-Branches , is a cycle of sixty terms used for recording days or years. It appears, as a means of recording days, in the first Chinese written texts, the Shang dynasty oracle bones from the late second millennium BC. Its use to record years...

 of the Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. It is not exclusive to China, but followed by many other Asian cultures as well...

.

The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point is the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 on October 10, 1911 that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
The Railway Protection Movement , also known as the "Railway Rights Protection Movement", was a political protest movement that erupted in 1911 in late Qing China against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks...

. The revolution ended with the abdication of the "Last Emperor
Emperor of China
The Emperor of China refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning between the founding of Qin Dynasty of China, united by the King of Qin in 221 BCE, and the fall of Yuan Shikai's Empire of China in 1916. When referred to as the Son of Heaven , a title that predates the Qin unification, the...

" Puyi on February 12, 1912, that marked the end of over 2,000 years of Imperial China
Imperial China
Imperial China may refer to:* Imperial era of Chinese history , divided into three major periods:** Early Imperial China** Mid-Imperial China** Late Imperial China...

 and the beginning of China's Republican era
History of the Republic of China
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing Dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China put an end to over two thousand years of Imperial rule. The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1912...

.

In general the revolution was a reaction to the declining Qing state and its inability to reform and modernize China to confront the challenges posed by foreign powers and reverse domestic decline, and the majority Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

's resentment of the ruling Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 minority. Many underground anti-Qing groups with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile had tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai was an important Chinese general and politician famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor of China, his autocratic rule as the second President of the Republic of China , and his short-lived...

, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

, the leader of the Tongmenghui (United League)
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

. After the Qing court transferred power to the newly-founded republic, the formation of a provisional coalition government
Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912)
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912...

 was created along with the National Assembly
National Assembly of the Republic of China
The National Assembly of the Republic of China refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the Republic of China. The National Assembly was originally founded in 1913 as the first legislature in Chinese history, but was disbanded less than a year later as President Yuan Shikai assumed...

. However, political power of the new national government
Beiyang Government
The Beiyang government or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Government of the Republic of China. The name comes from the Beiyang Army which dominated...

 in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and lead to decades of political division and warlordism
Warlord era
The Chinese Warlord Era was the period in the history of the Republic of China, from 1916 to 1928, when the country was divided among military cliques, a division that continued until the fall of the Nationalist government in the mainland China regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia,...

, including several attempts at imperial restoration.

Today, both the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 on Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 and the People's Republic of China on the mainland
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 consider themselves to be successors to the Xinhai Revolution and continue to pay homage to the ideals of the revolution including nationalism
Chinese nationalism
Chinese nationalism , sometimes synonymous with Chinese patriotism refers to cultural, historiographical, and political theories, movements and beliefs that assert the idea of a cohesive, unified Chinese people and culture in a unified country known as China...

, republicanism
Republicanism
Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, where the head of state is appointed by means other than heredity, often elections. The exact meaning of republicanism varies depending on the cultural and historical context...

, modernization of China and the national unity
Zhonghua minzu
Zhonghua minzu , usually translated as Chinese ethnic groups or Chinese nationality, refers to the modern notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions, with a central identity for China as a whole...

. October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 as Double Ten Day
Double Ten Day
Double Ten Day is the national day of the Republic of China and celebrates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of October 10, 1911, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912...

, the National Day of the Republic of China. In mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

, Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

, the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. Many overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the Greater China Area . People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves Overseas Chinese....

 also celebrate the anniversary in Chinatown
Chinatown
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of overseas Chinese people, although it is often generalized to include various Southeast Asian people. Chinatowns exist throughout the world, including East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. Binondo's Chinatown located in Manila,...

s across the world.

Background

After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War
First Opium War
The First Anglo-Chinese War , known popularly as the First Opium War or simply the Opium War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice...

 in 1842, the Qing court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a deeply conservative court culture where ethnic Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 rulers did not want to give too much authority to the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 group.

In the wars against the Taiping (1851–64)
Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty...

, Nian (1851–1868), Muslims of Yunnan (1856–1868) and the Northwest (1862–1877)
Dungan revolt
The Dungan Revolt was a mainly ethnic war with a few religious factors in 19th-century China. It is also known as the Hui Minorities' War. The term is sometimes used to include the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan which occurred during the same period...

, the traditional Manchu armies
Eight Banners
The Eight Banners were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. They provided the basic framework for the Manchu military organization...

 were proven incompetent and the court came to rely on Han local armies.

Following defeat in the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

 the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement
Self-Strengthening Movement
The Self-Strengthening Movement , c 1861–1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers....

 from 1861. In 1895 China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

. This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society also needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 Emperor Guangxu was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei , was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing Dynasty. He led movements to establish a constitutional monarchy and was an ardent Chinese nationalist. His ideas inspired a reformation movement that was supported by the Guangxu...

 and Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao |Styled]] Zhuoru, ; Pseudonym: Rengong) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty , who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and reform movements...

 for a drastic reform in education, military and economy under the Hundred Days Reforms. The reform was a failure as it was ended prematurely by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi1 , of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years from 1861 to her death in 1908....

. Emperor Guangxu, who have always been a puppet emperor dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898. Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society
Progressive Party (China)
- Origins :Chinese constitutionalism was a movement that originated after the First Sino-Japanese War . A young group of intellectuals in China led by Kang Youwei argued that China's defeat was due to its lack of modern institutions and legal framework which the Self-Strengthening Movement had...

 in an attempt to restore the emperor. Empress Cixi mainly controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

 prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions, gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by brutally suppressing, often at great costs, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas.

Organization for revolution

Earliest groups

There were many revolutionaries and many groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to reestablish a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 government. The earliest revolutionary organizations were established outside of China like Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan , was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. In 1890, Yeung started the Furen Literary Society in British colonial Hong Kong to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and to establish a republic in China...

's Furen Literary Society
Furen Literary Society
The Furen Literary Society, also known as the Chinese Patriotic Mutual Improvement Association, or the 'Furen Cultural Society Restoration Association ', was founded in Colonial Hong Kong in 1892 to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and establishing a republic in China.It was...

 created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members including Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai , styled Sing-on , art-named Hong-yu was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. Tse was the first Chinese to fly an airship, China in 1899...

, who did political satire like "The Situation in the Far East" one of the first ever Chinese manhua
Manhua
Manhua are Chinese comics originally produced in China. Possibly due to their greater degree of artistic freedom of expression and closer international ties with Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan have been the places of publication of most manhua thus far, often including Chinese translations of...

, and later became one of the core founders of South China morning post
South China Morning Post
The South China Morning Post , together with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is an English-language Hong Kong newspaper, published by the SCMP Group with a circulation of 104,000....

.

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society)
Revive China Society
The Hsing Chung Hui or Xingzhonghui translated as the Revive China Society, Society for Regenerating China, Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities...

 was established at Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of fund-raising revolutions. The two organizations were merged in 1894.

Smaller groups

The Huaxinghui (China Revival Society)
Huaxinghui
The Huaxinghui , translated as the China Revival Society or China Arise Society, was founded by Huang Xing and Zhang Shizhao on February 15, 1904, in Hunan for the explicit goal of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui. The Huaxinghui was...

 was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

, Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao , courtesy name Xingyan, penname Huangzhonghuang, Qingtong or Qiutong, was a Chinese politician of the 20th century. He was the Minister of Justice and Minister of Education of the Beiyang Government, led by Duan Qirui during the Republic of China period...

, Chen Tianhua
Chen Tianhua
Chen Tianhua , was a Chinese revolutionary born in Xinhua, Hunan province into a poor peasant family during the Qing dynasty.-Early life and education:Chen did not begin his education until he was fifteen...

 and Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 and 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, and inspire the other provinces to rise up".

The Guangfuhui (Restoration Society)
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 was also founded in 1904 in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei
Cai Yuanpei
Cai Yuanpei was a Chinese educator and the president of Peking University. He was known for his critical evaluation of the Chinese culture that led to the influential May Fourth Movement...

. Other notable members include Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin was a Chinese philologist, textual critic and anti-Manchu revolutionary.His philological works include Wen Shi , the first systematic work of Chinese etymology...

 and Tao Chengzhang. Despite having the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui is highly critical of Sun Yat-sen. One of the most famous female revolutionaries Qiu Jin
Qiu Jin
Qiū Jǐn Courtesy names: Xuánqīng and Jìngxióng Sobriquet: The Woman Knight of Mirror Lake was a Chinese anti-Qing Empire revolutionary, feminist and writer...

 who fought for women's rights
Women's rights
Women's rights are entitlements and freedoms claimed for women and girls of all ages in many societies.In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behaviour, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed...

 was also from Guangfuhui.

There were also many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui (勵志學會) in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

, Gongchanghui (公強會) in Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

, Yiwenhui (益聞會) and Hanzhudulihui (漢族獨立會) in Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

, Yizhihui (易知社) in Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

, Yuewanghui (岳王會) in Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

 and Qunzhihui (群智會/群智社) in Guangzhou.

Other criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu include Green Gang
Green Gang
The Green Gang was a Chinese criminal organization that operated in Shanghai in the early 20th century.-Origins:It was a secret society established originally by Fong Toh-tak of Shaolin Monastery to protect the Han Chinese who were oppressed by the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty, and to restore...

 and Hongmen Zhigongtang (致公堂). Sun Yat-sen himself came in contact with the Hongmen also known as Tiandihui (Heaven and Earth society)
Tiandihui
The Tiandihui is a fraternal organization that originated in China. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept, although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups.As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces, it...

.

Gelaohui (Elder Brother society)
Gelaohui
The Gelaohui , also called Futaubang, or Hatchet Gang , as every member allegedly carried a small hatchet inside the sleeve, was a secret society and underground resistance movement associated with the revolutionary Tongmenghui led by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren.Originating in western china,...

 was also another group with Zhu De
Zhu De
Zhu De was a Chinese militarist, politician, revolutionary, and one of the pioneers of the Chinese Communist Party. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, in 1955 Zhu became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the founder.-Early...

, Wu Yuzhang
Wu Yuzhang
Wu Yuzhang was a Chinese politician and educationist, President of Renmin University of China from 1950 to 1966.-Biography:...

, Liu Zhidan (劉志丹) and Helong. This is the revolutionary group that would eventually develop a strong link with the later Communist party
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

.

Tongmenghui

Sun Yat-sen successfully united the Revive China Society, Huaxingwui and Guangfuhui in the summer of 1905, thereby establishing the unified Tongmenghui (United League)
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

 in August 1905 in Tokyo. While it started in Tokyo, it has loose organizations distributed across the country and outside the country. Sun Yat-sen was the leader of this unified group. Other revolutionaries that worked with the Tongmenghui include Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

 and Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

. When the Tongmenhui was established, more than 90% of the Tongmenhui members were between age of 17 and 26 years of age. Some of the work in the era include manhua publications like the Journal of Current Pictorial
Journal of Current Pictorial
Journal of Current Pictorial was a manhua magazine published in 1905. It was authored and drawn by members of the Chinese Alliance. The magazine was banned in China in 1907...

.

Later groups

In February 1906 Rizhihui (日知會) also had many revolutionaries including Sun Wu (孫武), Zhang Nanxian (張難先), He Jiwei and Feng Mumin. A nucleus of attendees of this conference evolved into the Tongmenhui's establishment in Hubei.

In July 1907 several members of Tongmenhui in Tokyo advocated a revolution in the area of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

. Liu Quiyi (劉揆一), Jiao Dafeng (焦達峰), Zhang Boxiang (張伯祥) and Sun Wu (孫武) established Gongjinhui (Progressive Association) (共進會). In January 1911 revolutionary group Zhengwu Xueshe (振武學社) was renamed as Wenxueshe (Literary society) (文學社). Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) was chosen as the leader. These two organizations would play a big role in the Wuchang Uprising.

Political views

Many revolutionaries promoted anti-Qing / anti-Manchu sentiments, and revived memories of conflict between the ethnic minority Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 and the ethnic majority Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 from the late Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

. Leading intellectuals were influenced by books that had survived from the last years of Ming dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 (1368–1644), the last dynasty of Han Chinese. In 1904 Sun Yat-sen came about with the goal "to expel the Tatar barbarians
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people." (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權). Many of the underground groups promoted the ideas of "Resist Qing and restore Ming
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

" (反清復明) that has been around since the days of the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty...

. Others like Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin was a Chinese philologist, textual critic and anti-Manchu revolutionary.His philological works include Wen Shi , the first systematic work of Chinese etymology...

 supported straight up lines like "slay the manchus" and support concepts like Anti-Manchuism (興漢滅胡 / 排滿主義).

Strata and groups

The Xinhai Revolution was supported by many groups, including students and intellectuals who returned from abroad, as well as participants of the revolutionary organizations, overseas Chinese, soldiers of the new army, local gentry, farmers, and others.

Overseas Chinese

Assistance from overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the Greater China Area . People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves Overseas Chinese....

 was important in the Xinhai Revolution. In the first year of the Revive China Society in 1894, the first meeting ever held by the group was held in the home of Ho Fon, an overseas Chinese who was also the leader of the first Chinese church of Christ. Overseas Chinese support and actively participated in the funding of revolutionary activities, especially by the Southeast Asia Chinese of Malaya
British Malaya
British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries...

 (Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and Malaysia). Many of these groups were reorganized by Sun, who was referred to as the "mother of the Chinese revolution".

Newly emerged intellectuals

In 1906 after the abolition of the imperial examinations, the Qing Government established many new schools and encouraged students to study abroad. Many young people attended the new schools or went abroad to study to places like Japan. A new class of intellectuals emerged from those students who had studied overseas or at the new schools, in places like Japan. These Chinese students in Japan contributed immensely to the Xinhai Revolution. Besides Sun Yat-sen, key figures in the revolution such as Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

, Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

, Liao Zhongkai
Liao Zhongkai
Liao Zhongkai , Kuomintang leader and financier. Liao Zhongkai was the principal architect of the first Kuomintang-Chinese Communist Party United Front in the 1920s....

, Zhu Zhixin
Zhu Zhixin
Zhu Zhixin is a politician of the People's Republic of China. He currently serves as the vice chairman and vice Communist Party of China Party chief of the National Development and Reform Commission of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.-Early years and education:Zhu was born in...

, and Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

, were all Chinese students in Japan. Some young students like Zou Rong
Zou Rong
Zou Rong . Chinese nationalist and revolutionary martyr of the anti-Qing movement. Born in Chongqing, Sichuan Province, he was sent to Japan at an early age, where he studied the successful Japanese way of modernization...

 was known for writing the book "Revolutionary Army" where he talked about the extermination of the manchus for the 260 years of oppression and sorrow, cruelty and tyranny, and turn the sons and grandsons of Yellow Emperor into George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

s.

Before 1908, revolutionaries focused on coordinating these organizations in preparation for uprisings that these organizations would launch; hence, these groups would provide most of the manpower needed for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. After the Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen recalled the days of recruiting support for the revolution and said "The literati were deeply into the search for honors and profits, so they were regarded as having only secondary importance. By contrast, organizations like Sanhehui
Tiandihui
The Tiandihui is a fraternal organization that originated in China. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept, although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups.As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces, it...

 were able to sow widely the ideas of resisting the Qing and restoring the Ming."

Gentry and businessmen

The strength of the gentry in local politics had become apparent. From December 1908, the Qing Government created some government apparatus to allow the gentry and businessmen to participate in politics. These middle-class people were originally supporters of constitutionalism. However, they became disenchanted when the Qing Government created a cabinet with Prince Qing
Yikuang, Prince Qing
Yikuang, the Prince Qing , was a Manchu prince of the late Qing Dynasty, who was the first premier of China...

 as prime minister. By early 1911 an experimental cabinet had 13 members, 9 of which were Manchus selected from imperial family.

Foreigners

Besides Chinese and overseas Chinese, some of the supporters and participants of Xinhai Revolution were foreigners; among foreigners, the Japanese were the most active group. Some Japanese even became members of Tongmenghui. Miyazaki Touten was the closest Japanese supporter, others include Heiyama Shu or Ryōhei Uchida
Ryohei Uchida
was a Japanese ultranationalist political theorist. Pan-Asianist, and martial artist, active in the pre-war Empire of Japan.-Biography:Uchida was born in Fukuoka prefecture. He was the son of Shinto Muso-ryu practitioner Uchida Ryōgorō, and from an early age was interested in many forms of Japanese...

. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern also took part in the revolution. Some foreigners such as English explorer Arthur de Carle Sowerby
Arthur de Carle Sowerby
Arthur de Carle Sowerby was British naturalist, explorer, writer, and publisher in China. His father was Arthur Sowerby .-Background:...

 led expeditions to rescue many foreign missionaries between 1911 and 1912.

Soldiers of the new armies

The New Army
New Army
The New Armies were the modernized Qing armies, trained and equipped according to Western standards...

 was formed in 1901 after the defeat of the Qings from the First Sino-Japanese war
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

. They were launched by a decree from eight provinces. New Army were by far the best trained and equipped. They were better recruited than old formations and received regular promotions. Beginning in 1908, the revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies. Sun Yat-sen and the revolutionaries infiltrated the New Army.

Uprisings and incidents

The general focus of the uprisings are those that surround the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

 and Sun Yat-sen including the smaller groups within. Some uprisings below involve groups that never merged with the Tongmenghui. Sun Yat-sen may have participated in 8–10 uprisings; all uprisings prior to the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 had failed.

First Guangzhou Uprising

In spring 1895, the Revive China Society
Revive China Society
The Hsing Chung Hui or Xingzhonghui translated as the Revive China Society, Society for Regenerating China, Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities...

, which was based in Hong Kong, planned the first "Guangzhou uprising" (廣州起義). Lu Haodong was tasked with designing the revolutionaries' Blue Sky with a White Sun
Blue Sky with a White Sun
The Blue Sky with a White Sun serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang , the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China , and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy....

 flag. On October 26, 1895, Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan , was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. In 1890, Yeung started the Furen Literary Society in British colonial Hong Kong to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and to establish a republic in China...

 and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang and Lu Haodong to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the government. The Qing Government began to arrest revolutionaries, including Lu Haodong, who was later executed. The first Guangzhou uprising was admittedly a failure. Under the pressure from Qing Government, the government of Hong Kong forbade these two men to enter the territory for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile, promoting the Chinese revolution and raising funds in Japan, the United States, Canada and Britain on behalf of the revolution. In 1901, Yeung Kui-wan was assassinated by Qing agents in Hong Kong. After his death his family protected his identity on his tomb without his name, and just a number: 6348.

Independence Army Uprising

In 1900, after the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

 started, Tang Caichang (唐才常) and Tan Sitong
Tan Sitong
Tan Sitong , courtesy name Fusheng, pseudonym Zhuangfei , was a well-known Chinese politician, thinker and revolutionist in the late Qing Dynasty who was in support of reform; he was however, finally executed because of the failure of the reformation...

 of the previous Foot Emancipation Society
Foot Emancipation Society
Foot Emancipation Society , or Anti-footbinding Society , was a civil organization which opposed foot-binding in the late Qing Dynasty...

 organised the Independence Army. The "Independence Army Uprising" (自立軍起義) was planned to occur on August 23, 1900. Their goal was to overthrow Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi1 , of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years from 1861 to her death in 1908....

 to establish a constitutional monarchy under Emperor Guangxu. Their plot was discovered by the governor general of Hunan and Hubei. About 20 conspirators were arrested and executed.

Huizhou Uprising

On October 8, 1900, Sun Yat-sen ordered the launch of the "Huizhou Uprising" (惠州起義). The revolutionary army was led by Zheng Shiliang and initially included 20,000 men, who fought for half a month. However, after the Japanese Prime Minister prohibited Sun Yat-sen from carrying out revolutionary activities on Taiwan, Zheng Shiliang had no choice but to order the army to disperse. This uprising therefore also failed. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern participated in this uprising.

Great Ming Uprising

A very short uprising occurred from January 25 to 28 in 1903 to establish a "Great Ming Heavenly kingdom" (大明順天國). This involved Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai , styled Sing-on , art-named Hong-yu was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. Tse was the first Chinese to fly an airship, China in 1899...

, Li Jitong (李紀堂), Liang Muguang (梁慕光) and Hong Chunfu (洪全福) who formerly took part in the Jintian Uprising
Jintian Uprising
The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan on 11 February 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty. The uprising was named after Jintian , the place where it took place...

 during the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, established by Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion...

 era.

Ping-liu-li Uprising

Ma Fuyi (馬福益) and Huaxinghui
Huaxinghui
The Huaxinghui , translated as the China Revival Society or China Arise Society, was founded by Huang Xing and Zhang Shizhao on February 15, 1904, in Hunan for the explicit goal of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui. The Huaxinghui was...

 was involved in an uprising in three areas of Pingxiang
Pingxiang
Pingxiang may refer to:*Pingxiang, Jiangxi , prefecture-level city in Jiangxi, China*Pingxiang, Guangxi , county-level city in Guangxi, China*Pingxiang County , in Hebei, China...

, Liuyang
Liuyang
Liuyang is a county-level city in Changsha, the capital of Hunan province in China. Liuyang is well known for its fireworks industry. It has an area of 5,008 square kilometres and a population of 1,380,000 as of 2003....

 and Liling
Liling
Liling is a county-level city in the eastern part of Hunan province of the People's Republic of China. Liling is about 5 miles from Jiangxi province and it is south of Hunan's capital, Changsha. Liling has an area of 2,157km2 and a population of about 1,020,000....

 called "Ping-liu-li Uprising" (萍瀏醴起義) in 1905. The uprising recruited miners as early as 1903 to rise against the Qing ruling class. After the uprising failed, Ma Fuyi was executed.

Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway assassination attempt

Wu Yue (吳樾) of Guangfuhui
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 carried out an assassination attempt at the Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway station (正陽門車站) in an attack on five Qing officials on September 24, 1905.

Huanggang Uprising

The "Huanggang Uprising" (黃岡起義) was launched on May 22, 1907 in Chaozhou
Chaozhou
Chaozhou is a city in eastern Guangdong province of the People's Republic of China. It borders Shantou to the south, Jieyang to the southwest, Meizhou to the northwest, the province of Fujian to the east, and the South China Sea to the southeast...

. The Revolutionary party, along with Xu Xueqiu (許雪秋), Chen Yongpo (陳湧波), and Yu Tongshi (余通實) launched the uprising and captured Huanggang city. Other Japanese that followed include (萱野長知) and (池亨吉). After the uprising, Qing Government quickly and forcefully suppressed the uprising. Around 200 revolutionaries were killed with the uprising failing.

Huizhou seven women lake Uprising

In the same year, Sun Yat-sen sent more revolutionaries were in Huizhou to launch the "Huizhou seven women lake Uprising" (惠州七女湖起義). On June 2 Deng Zhiyu (鄧子瑜) and Chen Chuan (陳純) gathered a few members and together they seized Qing arms in the lake, 20 km from Huizhou. They killed several Qing soldiers and attacked Taiwei (泰尾) on the 5th. The Qing Army fled in disorder and the revolutionaries exploited the opportunity, capturing several towns. They defeated the Qing Army once again in Bazhiyie. Many organizations voiced their support after the uprising, and the number of troops increased to 200 men at its height. The uprising failed in the end.

Anqing Uprising

On July 6, 1907, Xu Xilin
Xu Xilin
Xu Xilin , was a Chinese revolutionary born in Dongpu, Shanyin, Shaoxing, Zhejiang during the Qing dynasty.Xu was sent to Japan in 1903 for study where he joined other Zhejiang students in rescuing Zhang Taiyan, who was arrested for spreading Anti Qing views...

 of Guangfuhui
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 led an uprising in Anqing
Anqing
Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

, Anhui, which became known as the "Anqing Uprising" (安慶起義). Xu Xilin at the time was the police commissioner as well as the supervisor of the police academy. He led an uprising that was to also assassinate the provincial governor of Anhui En Ming (恩銘). They were defeated after four hours of struggle. Xu was captured where bodyguards cut out his heart and liver and ate them. His cousin Qiu Jin
Qiu Jin
Qiū Jǐn Courtesy names: Xuánqīng and Jìngxióng Sobriquet: The Woman Knight of Mirror Lake was a Chinese anti-Qing Empire revolutionary, feminist and writer...

 was also executed a few days later.

Qinzhou Uprising

Between August to September 1907 was the "Qinzhou Uprising" (欽州防城起義)., caused to protest against heavy taxation from the government. Sun Yat-sen sent Wang Heshun (王和順) there to assist the revolutionary army and captured the county on September. After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Qinzhou, but they were unsuccessful. They eventually retreated to the area of Shiwandashan while Wang Heshun returned to Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

.

Zhennanguan Uprising

On December 1, 1907, the "Zhennanguan Uprising" (鎮南關起事) took place at Zhennanguan, a border on the Chinese-Vietnamese border. Sun Yat-sen sent Huang Mintang (黃明堂) to monitor the pass, which was guarded by a fort. With the assistance of supporters among the fort's defenders, the revolutionaries captured the cannon tower in Zhennanguan. Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 and Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

 personally went to the tower to command the battle. Qing Government sent armies to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into mountainous areas. After the failure of this uprising, Sun was forced to move to Singapore due to anti-Sun sentiments within the revolutionary groups. He would not return to the mainland until after the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

.

Qin-lian Uprising

On March 27, 1908, Huang Xing launched a raid, later known as the "Qin-lian Uprising" (欽廉上思起義), from a base in Vietnam and attacked the cities of Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Qinzhou is a municipal region in Guangxi, People's Republic of China.The municipality lies on the Gulf of Tonkin and has a population of 944, 000.-Administration:The Qinzhou municipal region comprises two districts and two counties....

 and Lianzhou
Lianzhou
Lianzhou is a county-level city of Guangdong Province, China, directly under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Qingyuan. Lianzhou has become famous for an international photography festival celebrated yearly in the city....

 in Guangdong. The struggle continued for 14 days, but was forced to terminate after the revolutionaries ran out of supplies.

Hekou Uprising

In April 1908, another uprising was launched in Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 Hekou called the "Hekou Uprising" (雲南河口起義). Huang Mingtang (黃明堂) led 200 men from Vietnam and attacked Hekou on April 30, 1908. Other revolutionaries that participated include Wang Heshun (王和順) and Guan Renfu (關仁甫). They were outnumbered and defeated, thus causing the uprising to fail.

Mapaoying Uprising

On November 19, 1908, the "Mapaiying Uprising" (馬炮營起義) was launched by revolutionary group Yuewanghui (岳王會) member Xiong Chenggei (熊成基) at Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

. Yuewanghui at this time is a subset of Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

. This uprising also failed.

Gengxu New Army Uprising

In February 1910, the "Gengxu New Army Uprising" (庚戌新軍起義) also known as "Guangzhou New Army Uprising" (廣州新軍起義) took place. This event involved a conflict between the citizens as well as the police enforcements and the New Army. After the revolutionary leader Ni Yingdian was killed by Qing forces, the remaining revolutionaries were quickly defeated, causing the uprising to fail. Despite this, it instilled great confidence among the people in the revolutionaries.

Second Guangzhou Uprising

On April 27, 1911, an uprising was held in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

 known as the "Second Guangzhou Uprising" (辛亥廣州起義) or "Yellow Flower Mound revolt" (黃花岡之役). The result was a disaster as only 72 bodies were ever found. The 72 revolutionaries were remembered as martyrs
Martyrdom in Chinese culture
The concept of martyrdom in China was largely developed by the Tongmenghui and the Kuomintang party during the Xinhai Revolution, Northern Expedition, and Second Sino-Japanese War.- Modern Development :...

. Revolutionary Lin Jue-min (林覺民) was one of the 72 heroes sacrificed. On the eve of battle he wrote the legendary "A Letter to My Wife" (與妻訣別書), later to be considered a Chinese literature masterpiece.

Wuchang Uprising


The Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會) were revolutionary organizations that were involved in the uprising that mainly started out from the Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
The Railway Protection Movement , also known as the "Railway Rights Protection Movement", was a political protest movement that erupted in 1911 in late Qing China against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks...

. In the late summer, some Hubei New Army units were ordered to neighboring Sichuan to quell the Railway Protection Movement, a mass protest of the Qing government's seizure and handover of local railway development ventures to foreign powers.

The New Army units of Hubei had originally been the "Hubei Army," which had been trained by Qing official Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong ; Pseudonyms: Xiāngtāo , Xiāngyán , Yīgōng , Wújìng-Jūshì , later Bàobīng ; Posthumous name: Wénxiāng ) was an eminent Chinese politician during the late Qing Dynasty who advocated for controlled reform...

. On September 24, the Literary Society and Progressive Association convened a conference in Wuchang along with 60 representatives from local New Army units. During the conference, they established a headquarters for the uprising. The leaders of the two organizations, Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) and Sun Wu (孫武), were elected as the commander and the chief of staff. Initially the date of the uprising was to be October 6, 1911. It was postponed to a later date due to insufficient preparations.

On October 9, Revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the Qing dynasty had built bombs and one accidentally exploded. Sun Yat-sen himself had no direct part in the uprising and was traveling in the United States at the time in an effort to recruit more support from among overseas Chinese. The Qing Viceroy of Huguang
Viceroy of Huguang
The Viceroy of Huguang , fully referred to as the Governor General of the Hubei and Hunan Provinces and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight viceroys in China proper during the Qing Dynasty of China. The Viceroy had...

 Rui Cheng (瑞澂) tried to track down and arrest the revolutionaries. Squad leader Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer and launched the revolt at October 10, 1911 at 7 pm. The revolt was a success; the entire city of Wuchang was captured by the revolutionaries by the morning of October 11. In the evening that day, they established a tactical headquarters and announced the establishment of the "Military Government of Hubei of Republic of China." The conference chose Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. He was twice president of the Republic of China.- Early history :...

 as the governor of the temporary government. The up and coming Battle of Yangxia
Battle of Yangxia
The Battle of Yangxia , also known as the Defense of Yangxia was fought from October 18 to December 1, 1911 between the revolutionaries of the Wuchang Uprising and the loyalist armies of the Qing Dynasty...

 led by Huang Xing would be a decisive battle of the uprising when the Qing responds.

After Wuchang, echoes from other provinces

After the success of the Wuchang uprising, many people followed in cities and towns in other provinces with more uprisings of their own. Many of the uprisings are followed up with restorations (光復). Some areas have more of an uprising tone, while others may have more of an independence tone depending on source. Essentially all province left the Qing to join the Republic of China.

Changsha restoration

On October 22, 1911 the Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 Tongmenghui members were led by Jiao Dafeng (焦達嶧) and Chen Zuoxin (陳作新). They led an armed group consisting partly revolutionaries from Hongjiang
Hongjiang
Hongjiang , formerly Qianyang County , is a county-level city of Huaihua, Hunan, China.-History:Hongjiang was established in 1997 by merging old Hongjiang and Qianyang. However, the residents of the old Hongjiang resisted this merge...

 and partly of New Army units in a campaign to extend the uprising into Changsha. They then captured the city and killed the local Imperial general. Then they announced the establishment of "Hunan Military Government of the Republic of China", and announced their opposition to the Qing Empire.

Shaanxi Uprising

On the same day, a member of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

's Tongmenghui, Jing Dingcheng (景定成), Qian ding (錢鼎) as well as Jing Wumu (井勿幕) and others including Gelaohui
Gelaohui
The Gelaohui , also called Futaubang, or Hatchet Gang , as every member allegedly carried a small hatchet inside the sleeve, was a secret society and underground resistance movement associated with the revolutionary Tongmenghui led by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren.Originating in western china,...

, launched an uprising and captured Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

 after two days of struggle. The Muslim General Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang , a Hui, was born in 1855, in Linxia, Gansu, China. He became a general in the Qing dynasty army, and of the Republic of China. His father was Ma Zhanao, and his younger brother was Ma Guoliang...

 led over 20 battalions of Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

 Muslim troops to defend the Qings by attacking Shaanxi against revolutionary Zhang Fenghui (張鳳翽). Ma Anliang attacked the revolutionaries successfully, but when news of the Qing emperor Puyi
Puyi
Puyi , of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China, and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty. He ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912. From 1 to 12 July 1917 he was briefly restored to the throne as a nominal emperor by the...

 was about to abdicate, Ma agreed to join the new Republic. The revolutionaries established the "Qinlong Fuhan Military Government", and elected Zhang Fenghui, a member of the Yuanrizhi Society (原日知會), as new governor. Xi'an Manchu city (滿城) finally fell on Oct 24 after basically a massacre of its manchus citizens. Many committed suicide including Qing general Wenrui (文瑞) who threw himself down a well.

Jiujiang Uprising

On October 23, Lin Sen
Lin Sen
Lin Sen , courtesy name Zichao , sobriquet Changren , was President of the National Government of the Republic of China from 1931 until his death.-Early life:...

, Jiang Qun (蔣群), Cai Hui (蔡蕙), and other members of the Tongmenghui in the province of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 plotted a revolt of New Army units in Jiujiang
Jiujiang
Jiujiang , formerly transliterated Kiukiang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, China. It is the second-largest prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province, the largest one being Nanchang...

. After they achieved victory, they announced their independence. The "Jiujiang Military Government" was then established.

Shanxi Taiyuan Uprising

On October 29, Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan, was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. Yan effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War...

 of the New Army led an uprising in Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China. At the 2010 census, it had a total population of 4,201,591 inhabitants on 6959 km² whom 3,212,500 are urban on 1,460 km². The name of the city literally means "Great Plains", referring to the location where the Fen River...

, the capital city of the province of Shanxi
Shanxi
' is a province in Northern China. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋" , after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period....

 along with Yao Yijie (姚以價), Huang Guoliang (黃國梁), Wen Shouquan (溫壽泉), Li Chenglin (李成林), Zhang Shuzhi (張樹幟), Qiao Xi (喬煦). They managed to kill the Qing Governor of Shanxi, Lu Zhongqi (陸鍾琦), which ended the last Qing governor history in Shanxi. They then announced the establishment of "Shanxi Military Government" with Yan Xishan as the military governor. After the revolution Yan Xishan would later become one of the warlords of the warlord era.

Kunming Double Ninth Uprising

On October 30, Li Genyuan (李根源) of the Tongmenghui in Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 province joined with Cai E
Cai E
Cai E or Tsai Ao was a Chinese revolutionary leader and warlord. He was born Cai Genyin in Shaoyang, Hunan, and his courtesy name was Songpo...

, Luo Peijin (羅佩金), Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao was a Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of Republican China. Tang Jiyao was military governor of Yunnan from 1913-1927.-Life:...

, and other officers of the New Army, and launched the "Double Ninth
Double Ninth Festival
The Double Ninth Festival , observed on the ninth day of the ninth month in the Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writing since before the East Han period ....

 Uprising" (重九起義). They captured Kunming
Kunming
' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

 the next day, and established the "Yunnan Military Government", electing Cai E
Cai E
Cai E or Tsai Ao was a Chinese revolutionary leader and warlord. He was born Cai Genyin in Shaoyang, Hunan, and his courtesy name was Songpo...

 as the military governor.

Nanchang restoration

On October 31, the Nanchang
Nanchang
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

 branch of the Tongmenghui led New Army units in a local uprising and succeeded. They established the Jiangxi Military Government. Li Liejun
Li Liejun
Li Liejun, 李烈钧, was a Chinese revolutionary leader and general.Li was born in Wuning, Jiangxi, China. He went on to get a higher education and was sent to the Imperial Japanese Army Academy where he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance...

 was elected as the military governor. Li declared Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 as independent and launched an expedition against Yuan Shikai.

Shanghai armed Uprising

On November 3, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

's Tongmenghui, guangfuhui, and merchants led by Chen Qimei
Chen Qimei
Chen Qimei was a Chinese revolutionary activist, close political ally of Sun Yat-sen, and early mentor of Chiang Kai-shek. He was as one of the founders of the Republic of China, and the uncle of Chen Guofu and Chen Lifu....

, Li Pingsu (李平書), Zhang Chengyou (張承槱), Li Yingshi (李英石), Li Xiehe (李燮和) and Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 organized an armed rebellion in Shanghai. They recruited various squads, and received the support of local police officers. The rebels captured the Jiangnan Workshop on the 4th, and captured Shanghai soon after. On November 8, they established the "Shanghai Military Government", and elected Chen Qimei as the military governor. Chen Qimei would eventually become one of the starter of the ROC four big families
Four big families of the Republic of China
The Four big families of the Republic of China are an initial group of families in the Republic of China era. They were responsible for much of China's management of finance, politics, economy and law. The four big families begin with the Chinese surname Chiang, Soong, Kung and...

, next to some of the most well known families of the era.

Guizhou Uprising

On November 4, Zhang Bailin (張百麟) of the revolutionary party in Guizhou
Guizhou
' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

 led an uprising along with New Army units and students from the military academy. They immediately captured Guiyang
Guiyang
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the centre of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters...

 and established the "Great Han Guizhou Military Government", electing Yang Jincheng (楊藎誠) and Zhao Dequan (趙德全) as the chief and vice governor.

Zhejiang Uprising

Also on November 4, the revolutionaries in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

 urged the New Army units in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 to launch an uprising. Zhu Rui (朱瑞), Wu Siyu (吳思豫), Lu Gongwang (吕公望) and many others of the New Army captured the military supplies workshop. Other dare-to-die squads led by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 and Yin Zhirei (尹銳志) along with others captured most of the government offices. Eventually Hangzhou was in the control of the revolutionaries, and the constitutionist Tang Shouqian (湯壽潛) was elected as the military governor.

Jiangsu restoration

On November 5, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

 constitutionists and gentry urged the Qing governor Cheng Dequan (程德全) to announce independence, and established the "Jiangsu Revolutionary Military Government" with Cheng himself as the governor. Unlike some of the other cities, the anti-Manchu violence began after the restoration on November 7 in Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Jiangsu province in the eastern People's Republic of China . Sitting on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, it borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the west, Changzhou to the east, and Yangzhou across the river to the north.Once...

. Qing clansman general Zaimu (載穆) agreed to surrender, but because of a misunderstanding, the revolutionaries were unware their safety were guaranteed. The Manchu quarters were ransacked and untold number of manchus were killed. Zaimu feeling betrayed, committed suicide. This is regarded as "Zhenjiang Uprising" (鎮江起義).

Anhui Uprising

Members of Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

's Tongmenghui also launched the uprising on that day, and laid siege on the provincial capital. The constitutionists persuaded Zhu Jiabao (朱家寶), the Qing Governor of Anhui, to announce independence.

Guangxi Uprising

On November 7, the Guangxi
Guangxi
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China along its border with Vietnam. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.Guangxi's location, in...

 politics department decided to secede from the Qing government, announcing Guangxi's independence. The Qing Governor, Shen Bingkun (沈秉堃) was allowed to remain governor, but Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting was born in Wuming, Guangxi, China. Originating as a common bandit, Lu became a military commander in Guangxi in the Qing dynasty and suppressed the revolutionary uprising at Zhennan Pass on the Sino-Vietnam border in Pingxiang, Guangxi led by Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing.However, when...

 would soon become the new governor. Lu Rongting would later become one of the warlord, while his bandits control Guangxi for more than a decade to follow.

Fujian independence

In November members of Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

's branch of the Tongmenghui along with Sun Daoren (孫道仁) of the New Army launched an uprising against the Qing Army. The Qing viceroy, Song Shou (松壽), committed suicide. On November 11 the entire Fujian province declared independence. The "Fujian Military Government" was established, and Sun Daoren was elected as the military governor.

Guangdong independence

Near the end of October, Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming was a revolutionary figure in the early periods of the Republic of China. Chen Jiongming was born in 1878 at Haifeng, Guangdong, China....

, Deng Keng (鄧鏗), Peng Reihai (彭瑞海) and other members of Guangdong's Tongmenghui organized local militias to led the uprising in Huazhou, Nanhai, Sunde and Sanshui in Guangdong province. On November 8, after being persuaded by Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

, general Li zhun (李準) and Long Jiguang (龍濟光) of the Guangdong Navy agreed to support the revolution. The Qing viceroy of Liangguang
Viceroy of Liangguang
The Viceroy of Liangguang , fully referred to as the Governor General of Liangguang and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Manager of Waterways; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight viceroys in China proper during the Qing Dynasty of China...

 Zhang Mingqi (張鳴岐) was forced to discuss with the local representatives a proposal for Guangdong's independence. They decided to announce Guangdong's independence the next day. Chen Jiongming then captured Huizhou. On November 9 Guangdong announced its independence, and established a Military Government. They elected Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming as the chief and vice governor. Qiu Fengjia
Qiu Fengjia
Qiu Fengjia was a Chinese patriot, educator and, poet. He was born in Miaoli County in Taiwan. He was given the command of militia forces in Taiwan during Japanese invasion of Taiwan in 1895, but soon fled to mainland China after President Tang Chin-sung of Republic of Formosa fled the island...

 is known to have help make the independence declaration more peaceful.

Shandong independence

On November 13, persuaded by revolutionary Din Weifen (丁惟汾) and several other officers of the New Army, the Qing Governor of Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 Sun Baoqi agreed to secede from the Qing Government and announced Shandong's independence.

Ningxia Uprising

On November 17, Ningxia
Ningxia
Ningxia, formerly transliterated as Ningsia, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Located in Northwest China, on the Loess Plateau, the Yellow River flows through this vast area of land. The Great Wall of China runs along its northeastern boundary...

 the Tongmenghui launched the "Ningxia Uprising" (寧夏會黨起義). The revolutionaries sent Yu Youren to Zhangjiachuan to meet Dungan Sufi master Ma Yuanzhang to persuade him not to support the Qing. But Ma didn't want to endanger his relationship with the Qings. He sent the eastern Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

 Muslim militia under the command of one of his son to help Ma Qi
Ma Qi
Ma Qi was a Chinese Muslim warlord in early 20th century China.-Early life:His grandfather Sa-la Ma , is a Salar. He was born in 1869 in Daohe, now part of Linxia, Gansu, China. His father was Ma Haiyan...

 crush the Ningxia Gelaohui. The "Ningxia Revolutionary Military Government" would be established on November 23. Some of the revolutionaries involved include Huang yue (黃鉞) and Xiang shen (向燊) who gathered New Armies at Qinzhou (秦州).

Sichuan independence

On November 21, Guang'an
Guang'an
Guang'an is a prefecture-level city in eastern Sichuan province. It is most famous as the birthplace of China's former paramount leader Deng Xiaoping. Guang'an lies between the hills of central Sichuan and the gorges area of the east...

 organized the "Great Han shu
Shu Han
Shu Han was one of the three states competing for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period, after the fall of the Han Dynasty. The state was based on areas around Sichuan, which was then known as Shu...

 northern Military Government".

On November 22, Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 and Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 began to declare independence. By the 27th, the "Great Han Sichuan Military Government" was established, headed by revolutionary Pu Dianzun (蒲殿俊). Qing official Duan fang (端方) would also be killed.

Nanking Uprising

On November 8, plotted and supported by the Tongmenghui, Xu Shaozhen (徐紹楨) of the New Army announced an uprising in Molin Pass (秣陵關), 30km away from Nanking City. Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei, and other generals decided to form a united army under Xu to strike Nanking together. On November 11, the united army headquarter was established in Zhenjiang. Between November 24 and December 1, under the command of Xu Shaozhen, the united army captured Wulongshan (烏龍山), Mufushan (幕府山), Yuhuatai (雨花臺), Tianbao City (天保城) and many other strongholds of the Qing Army. On December 2, the Nanking City was captured by the revolutionaries after the "Battle of Nanking". On December 3, revolutionary Su Liangbi led troops to massacre an incalculable number of manchus. He was then arrested with his troops disbanded.

Tibetan Independence

In 1905 the Qing sent Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng was a Qing official and Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. He is known for being the last amban in Tibet, appointed in March, 1908. Lien Yu , a Manchu, was appointed as the other amban...

 to Tibet to put down disorder
1905 Tibetan Rebellion
-Attacks on Christian Missionaries and Converts:Under pressure from foreigners, the Qing Dynasty government allowed Christian missionaries into Tibetan Buddhist areas in Yunnan province. The Tibetan Lamas had long defied the rule of the Qing authorities and officials, and the Qing dynasty fought...

. By 1908 Zhao was appointed imperial resident in Lhasa
Lhasa
Lhasa is the administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China and the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau, after Xining. At an altitude of , Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world...

. When the revolutionaries arrived to Tibet, Zhao would be beheaded in December 1911. The area that was historically known as Kham
Kham
Kham , is a historical region covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibetan Autonomous Region and Sichuan province, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China. During the Republic of China's rule over mainland China , most of the region was...

 was now the Xikang Administrative District
Xikang
Xikang or Sikang , is a defunct province of the Republic of China , comprising most of the Kham region of traditional Tibet, where Khampas, a subgroup of the Tibetan ethnicity, live. The area is also home to a small minority of Mongol ethnicity...

 created by the revolutionaries. By the end of 1912 the last Manchu troops were escorted out of Tibet. Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The name is a combination of the Mongolian word далай meaning "Ocean" and the Tibetan word bla-ma meaning "teacher"...

 returned to Tibet in January 1913 from Sikkim
Sikkim
Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayan mountains...

, where he had been residing. When the new ROC government apologised for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama to his former position. He replied that he was not interested in Chinese ranks and was assuming the spiritual and political leadership of Tibet. Because of this, many have read this reply as a formal declaration of independence. The Chinese side ignored the response, and Tibet had 30 years free of interference from China.

Mongolia independence

At the end of 1911 the Mongols took action with an armed revolt against the Manchu authorities, but was unsuccessful in the attempt. An independence movement took place that was not limited to just North (outer) Mongolia but was a pan-Mongolian phenomenon. On December 29, 1911 Bogd Khan
Bogd Khan
The Bogd Khan was enthroned as the Great Khaan of Mongolia on 29 December 1911, when Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty after the Xinhai Revolution. He was born in the Kham region of eastern Tibet, today's Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China...

 became the leader of the Mongol empire. Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern region of the country. Inner Mongolia shares an international border with the countries of Mongolia and the Russian Federation...

 became a contested terrain between Khan and the Republic. In general Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 supported the Independence of Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolian revolution of 1911
The Outer Mongolian revolution of 1911 occurred when the Chinese province of Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. A combination of factors including economic hardship and failure to resist Western imperialism led many in China to be unhappy...

 (including Tannu Uriankhai
Tannu Uriankhai
Tannu Uriankhai is a historic region of the Mongol Empire and, later, the Qing Dynasty. The realms of Tannu Uriankhai largely correspond to the Tuva Republic of the Russian Federation, neighboring areas in Russia, and a part of the modern state of Mongolia....

) during the time of the Xinhai revolution.
Tibet and Mongolia then recognized each other in a treaty.

Dihua and Yili Uprising

In Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Xinjiang is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2...

 on December 28 Liu Xianzun (劉先俊) and the revolutionaries started the "Dihua
Ürümqi
Ürümqi , formerly Tihwa , is the capital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, in the northwest of the country....

 Uprising" (迪化起義). This was led by more than 100 members of Geilaohui. This uprising would fail. On January 7, 1912 the "Yili
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture , in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the People's Republic of China.-Geography and coordinates:The following figures excludes both Tacheng Prefecture and Altay Prefecture....

 Uprising" (伊犁起義) with Feng Temin (馮特民) would begin. Qing governor Yuan Dahua (袁大化) fled and handed over his resignation to Yang Zengxin
Yang Zengxin
Yang Zengxin , born in Mengzi, Honghe, Yunnan in 1859, was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.-Life:...

 because he could not handle fighting the revolutionaries.

In the morning of January 8, a new Yili government would be established for the revolutionaries. But the revolutionaries would be defeated at Jinghe in January and February. Eventually because of the abdication to come, Yuan Shikai recognized Yang Zengxin's rule and appointed him Governor of Xinjiang and had the province join the Republic. But 11 more former Qing officials would be assasinated in Zhenxi, Karashahr, Aqsu, Kucha
Kucha
Kuchaor Kuche Uyghur , Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin Kùchē; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu from the traditional Chinese forms 屈支 屈茨; 龜玆; 龟兹, 丘玆, also Po ; Sanskrit: Kueina, Standard Tibetan: Kutsahiyui was an ancient Buddhist kingdom...

, Luntai and Kashgar
Kashgar
Kashgar or Kashi is an oasis city with approximately 350,000 residents in the western part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Kashgar is the administrative centre of Kashgar Prefecture which has an area of 162,000 km² and a population of approximately...

 in April and May 1912.

Taiwan Uprising

In 1911 as part of the Xinhai revolution, Tongmenghui sent Luo Fu-xing (羅福星) to Taiwan island to free it from being occupied by the Japanese. The goal was to bring Taiwan island back to the Chinese republic by having a "Taiwan Uprising" (台灣起義). Luo was caught and killed on March 3, 1914. What was left was known as the "Miaoli
Miaoli County
Miaoli County is a county in western Taiwan. The name Miaoli was coined using two Hakka words, cat and raccoon dog , which phonetically approximate Pali , a community of Taokas people...

 incident" (苗栗事件) where more than 1,000 Taiwanese were executed by the Japanese police. Luo's sacrifice is commemorated in Miaoli.

Change of government

North: Qing court last transformation attempt

On November 1, 1911 the Qing Government appointed Yuan Shikai as the prime minister of the imperial cabinet replacing Prince Qing
Yikuang, Prince Qing
Yikuang, the Prince Qing , was a Manchu prince of the late Qing Dynasty, who was the first premier of China...

. On November 3, the Qing court passed the Nineteen Articles (憲法重大信條十九條), which turned the Qing from an autocratic system with the emperor having unlimited power to a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

. On November 9, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 even cabled Yuan Shikai and invited him to join the Republic. The court changes were too late, and the emperor was about to have to step down.

South: Government in Nanking

On November 28, 1911 Wuchang and Hanyang
Hanyang
Hanyang was one of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, People's Republic of China. Currently, it is a district and stands between the Han River and the Yangtze River, where the former falls into the latter...

 had fallen back to the Qing army. So for safety the revolutionaries convened their first conference at the British concession in Hankou
Hankou
Hankou was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, China. It stands north of the Han and Yangtze Rivers where the Han falls into the Yangtze...

 on November 30. By December 2 the revolutionary forces were able to capture Nanking in the uprising, the revolutionaries decided to make it the site of the new provisional government. At the time Beijing was still the Qing capital.

North-South Conference

On December 18 the "North-South Conference" (南北議和) was held in Shanghai to discuss the north and south issues. Yuan Shikai selected Tang Shaoyi
Tang Shaoyi
Táng Shàoyí , was a Chinese diplomat, politician. He was the father-in-law of Wellington Koo and Lee Seng Gee.-Career:...

 as his representative. Tang left Beijing for Wuhan to negotiate with the revolutionaries. The revolutionaries chose Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang was a Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and briefly as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. He is also known under his Cantonese name Ng Choy -Biography:...

. With the intervention of six foreign powers, UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Russia
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Tang Shaoyi and Wu Tingfang began to negotiate a settlement at the British concession
Concession (territory)
In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it. This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.Usually, it is conceded, that...

. Foreign businessman Edward Selby Little (李德立) acted as the negotiator and facilitated the peace agreement. They agreed that Yuan Shikai would force the Qing Emperor to abdicate in exchange for the southern provinces' support of Yuan as the president of the Republic. After considering the possibility that the new republic might be defeated in a civil war or by foreign invasion, Sun Yat-sen agreed to Yuan's proposal to unify China under Yuan Shikai's Beijing government. Further decisions were made to let the emperor rule over his little court in the New Summer Palace. He would be treated as a ruler of a separate country and have expenses of several million taels in silver.

Establishment of the Republic

Republic of China declared and national flag issue

On December 29, 1911 Sun Yat-sen was elected as the first provisional president. January 1, 1912 was set as the first day
Epoch (reference date)
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instance in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. The "epoch" then serves as a reference point from which time is measured...

 of the First Year of the Republic of China. On January 3, the representatives recommended Li Yuanhong as the Provisional vice president.

During and after the Xinhai revolution, many groups that participated wanted their own pennant as the national flag. During the Wuchang uprising the military units of Wuchang wanted the 9-star flag with Taijitu
Taijitu
Taijitu is a term which refers to a Chinese symbol for the concept of yin and yang...

. Others in competition include Lu Hao-tung
Lu Hao-tung
Lu Hao-tung , born Lu Chung-gui , courtesy name Hsien-hsiang , was the first "revolutionary martyr" of the Republic of China...

's Blue Sky and White Sun flag. Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 favored a flag bearing the mythical "well-field" system of village agriculture. In the end, the assembly compromised: the national flag would be the banner of Five Races Under One Union
Five Races Under One Union
Five races under one union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was originally founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.-Description:...

. The Five Races Under One Union flag with horizontal stripes represented the five major nationalities of the republic. The red
Red
Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 630–740 nm. Longer wavelengths than this are called infrared , and cannot be seen by the naked eye...

 represented Han
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, the yellow
Yellow
Yellow is the color evoked by light that stimulates both the L and M cone cells of the retina about equally, with no significant stimulation of the S cone cells. Light with a wavelength of 570–590 nm is yellow, as is light with a suitable mixture of red and green...

 represented Manchus, the blue
Blue
Blue is a colour, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 440–490 nm. It is considered one of the additive primary colours. On the HSV Colour Wheel, the complement of blue is yellow; that is, a colour corresponding to an equal...

 for Mongols, the white
White
White is a color, the perception of which is evoked by light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells in the human eye in nearly equal amounts and with high brightness compared to the surroundings. A white visual stimulation will be void of hue and grayness.White light can be...

 for Tibetans
Tibetan people
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet, which is mostly in the People's Republic of China. They number 5.4 million and are the 10th largest ethnic group in the country. Significant Tibetan minorities also live in India, Nepal, and Bhutan...

, and black
Black
Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of light...

 for Muslim
Islam in China
Throughout the history of Islam in China, Chinese Muslims have influenced the course of Chinese history. Chinese Muslims have been in China for the last 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society...

. Despite the general target of the uprisings to be the Manchus, Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren and Huang Xing unanimously advocated racial integration
Racial integration
Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation . In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely...

 to be carried out on the frontiers.

Donghuamen incident

On January 16, while returning to his residence, Yuan Shikai was ambushed in a bomb attack organized by the Tongmenghui in Donghuamen (東華門), Tientsin, Beijing. A total of 18 revolutionaries were involved. About 10 of the guards died but Yuan himself was not seriously injured. He sent a message to the revolutionaries the next day pledging his loyalty and asking them to not organize any more assassination attempts against him.

Abdication of the emperor

On January 20 Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang was a Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and briefly as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. He is also known under his Cantonese name Ng Choy -Biography:...

 of the Nanking Provisional Government officially delivered the imperial edict of abdication to Yuan Shikai the terms for the abdication
Abdication
Abdication occurs when a monarch, such as a king or emperor, renounces his office.-Terminology:The word abdication comes derives from the Latin abdicatio. meaning to disown or renounce...

 of Qing Emperor Xuantong Puyi
Puyi
Puyi , of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China, and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty. He ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912. From 1 to 12 July 1917 he was briefly restored to the throne as a nominal emperor by the...

. It was drafted by Zhang Jian
Zhang Jian (politician)
Zhang Jian , courtesy name Jizhi , sobriquet Se'an , was a Chinese entrepreneur, politician and educationist.-Biography:Zhang was born in Haimen County, Jiangsu Province in 1853...

, and was approved by the Provisional senate. On January 22, Sun Yat-sen announced that if Yuan Shikai supported the emperor's abdication, he (Sun Yat-sen) would resign the presidency in favor of Yuan Shikai. After Yuan received this promise, he sped up the process. He threatened Empress Longyu that if the revolutionaries came to Beijing, the lives of the royal family would not be spared, but if they agree to abdicate, the terms for their abdication would be honored.

On February 3, Empress Longyu gave Yuan Shikai full permission to negotiate the terms for the abdication of the Qing Emperor. Yuan then drew up his own version and forwarded it back to the revolutionaries on February 3. His version consist of three sections instead of two. On February 12, 1912, after being persuaded and pressured by Yuan Shikai and other ministers, Puyi (age 6) and Empress Longyu accepted the terms for the Imperial family's abdication.

Dong'anmen gate incident

The revolutionaries were trying to lure Yuan Shikai to the south. By making Yuan the president of the southern Nanking-based provisional government, he would have to give up his military power base in the north. In February 1912, troops were looting shops and stealing from rich commercial areas. They then burned down the Dong'anmen gate (東安門) on the wall surrounding the Imperial City
Imperial City (Beijing)
The Imperial City is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties, with the Forbidden City at its center. It refers to the collection of gardens, shrines, and other service areas between the Forbidden City and the Inner City of ancient Beijing...

. Thousands of people were killed. This mutiny was actually ordered by Yuan and Cao Kun
Cao Kun
|-...

. Yuan intimidated the revolutionaries and made it clear that the new government would have to go to him in Beijing, he was not going to the south. This was an excuse to move the capital of the new republic from Nanking back to Beijing.

Government in Beijing

On March 10, 1912, Yuan Shikai was sworn as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China in Beijing. The government based in Beijing, called the Beiyang Government
Beiyang Government
The Beiyang government or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Government of the Republic of China. The name comes from the Beiyang Army which dominated...

, was internationally recognized as the legitimate government of the Republic of China until 1928, so the period from 1912 until 1928 was known simply as the "Beiyang Period". The first National assembly election
Republic of China National Assembly elections, 1912
The Republic of China National Assembly elections, 1912, held in December 1912 to January 1913, were the first elections for the new founded Republic of China Senate and House of Representatives....

 would take place according to the Provisional constitution
Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China
After the victory in Xinhai Revolution, the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China, led by Sun Yat-sen, framed the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China , which was an outline of basic regulations with the qualities of a formal constitution.On March 11, 1912, it...

. While in Beijing the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 (KMT) would be formed on August 25, 1912. The KMT would win the majority seats after the election. Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 would be elected as premier. However, Song was assassinated in Shanghai on March 20, 1913 under the secret order of Yuan Shikai.

Social influence

After the revolution there was a huge outpouring of anti-Manchu literature. Some include Wang Xiuchu
Wang Xiuchu
Wang Xiuchu was a 17th century Chinese middle-class scholar who lived through the conquest of the Ming Dynasty by the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty. Wang's most significant accomplishment is his writing of the "Yangzhou shiri ji" an account that details his survival of the notorious Massacre of...

's graphical account of the 10 day Chinese massacre in Yangzhou
Yangzhou massacre
The Yangzhou massacre took place in 1645 in Yangzhou, China, during the Qing Dynasty. Mass killings of residents in Yangzhou were conducted by Qing troops under the command of Prince Dodo after they conquered the city from forces loyal to the Southern Ming regime of the Hongguang Emperor.The...

. Another is "A Short History of Slaves
Nucai
Nucai is a Chinese term that can be translated as flunkey, lackey, yes-man, servant, slave, or a person of unquestioning obedience. It originated in the nomadic tribes of northern China as a negative and derogatory term, often reserved for insult for someone perceived to be useless or incompetent...

"
(奴才小史) and "The Biographies of Avaricious Officials and Corrupt Personnel" (貪官污吏傳) by Laoli (老吏). Many other literature wrote about the era. During the abdication of the last emperor, Empress Longyu, Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen all tried to adopt the concept of "Manchu and Han as one family" (滿漢一家). But people starting exploring and debating with themselves on the root cause of their national weakness. This new search of identity was the New Culture Movement
New Culture Movement
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems. Scholars like Chen Duxiu, Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, and Hu Shi, had...

. Manchu culture and language
Manchu language
Manchu is a Tungusic endangered language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus...

 on the contrary has become virtually extinct by 2007.

Unlike revolutions in the West, the Xinhai Revolution did not restructure society. The participants of Xinhai Revolution were mostly military personnel, old type bureaucrats, and local gentries. These people still held regional power after the Xinhai Revolution. Some became warlords. There were no major improvements in the standard of living
Standard of living
Standard of living is generally measured by standards such as real income per person and poverty rate. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth inequality and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods , or measures of health such as...

. The economic problems were not addressed until Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo , Kuomintang politician and leader, was the son of President Chiang Kai-shek and held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China...

 on Taiwan and Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician, statesman, and diplomat. As leader of the Communist Party of China, Deng was a reformer who led China towards a market economy...

 on the mainland.

The Xinhai Revolution mainly got rid of feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.Although derived from the...

 (fengjian
Fengjian
Fēngjiàn is the political ideology of the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. Fengjian is a "decentralized system of government," comparable to European feudalism, though recent scholarship has suggested that fengjian lacks some of the fundamental aspects of feudalism.-Ranks:The sizes of troops and...

) from Late Imperial China
Late Imperial China
Late Imperial China refers to the period between the end of Mongol rule in 1368 and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912 and includes the Ming and Qing Dynasties...

 era. In the usual view of historians there are two restorations of feudal power after the revolution: first was Yuan Shikai, second was Zhang Xun
Zhang Xun
Zhang Xun or Chang Hsün may refer to:*Zhang Xun , general serving under the warlord Yuan Shu during the late Han Dynasty*Zhang Xun , Tang Dynasty general involved in the Battle of Suiyang against An Lushan...

. Both were unsuccessful. But the "feudal remnants" returned to China with the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 in a concept called guanxi
Guanxi
Guanxi describes the basic dynamic in personalized networks of influence, and is a central idea in Chinese society. In Western media, the pinyin romanization of this Chinese word is becoming more widely used instead of the two common translations—"connections" and "relationships"—as neither of...

 where people relied not on feudal relationships, but personal relationships for survival. While guanxi is helpful in Taiwan, on the mainland guanxi is necessary to get anything done.

Historical significance

The Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing government and 2,000 years of monarchy. Throughout Chinese history, old dynasties had always been replaced by new dynasties. The Xinhai Revolution, however, was the first to overthrow a monarchy completely and attempt to establish a Republic to spread democratic ideas throughout China. Though in 1911 at the provisional government welcome ceremony Sun Yat-sen said "The revolution is not yet successful, the comrade
Comrade
Comrade means "friend", "colleague", or "ally". The word comes from French camarade. The term is frequently used by left-wing organizations around the globe. "Comrade" has often become a stock phrase and form of address. This word has its regional equivalents available in many...

s still need to strive for the future" (革命尚未成功,同志仍需努力).

After the 1920s, the two dominant parties—the KMT and CPC see the Xinhai Revolution quite differently. Both sides recognize Sun Yat-sen as the Father of the Nation
Father of the Nation
Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of their country, state or nation...

. But in Taiwan, they mean "Father of the Republic of China". The father of New China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 is seen as Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

. On the mainland, Sun Yat-sen was seen as the man who just help bring down the Qing, a pre-condition for the Communist state founded in 1949. The PRC views Sun's work as the first step towards the real revolution in 1949, when the communists set up a truly independent state that expelled foreigners and built a military and industrial power. In 1954 Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi was a Chinese revolutionary, statesman, and theorist. He was Chairman of the People's Republic of China, China's head of state, from 27 April 1959 to 31 October 1968, during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China...

 was quoted as saying that the "Xinhai Revolution inserted the concept of a republic into common people". Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976...

 pointed out that "Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing rule, ended 2000 years of monarchy, and liberated the mind of people to a great extent, and opened up the path for the development of future revolution. This is a great victory". Much of the differences between the two sides can be seen in the 100th Anniversary of the Republic of China
100th Anniversary of the Republic of China
The 100th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of China began on October 10, 2011 on the 100th anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. It was celebrated in Taiwan and mainland China, but the meaning of the celebration varies differently by region....

.

Modern evaluation

A change in the belief that the revolution had been a generally positive change began in late 1980s and 1990s. But Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao , courtesy name Xingyan, penname Huangzhonghuang, Qingtong or Qiutong, was a Chinese politician of the 20th century. He was the Minister of Justice and Minister of Education of the Beiyang Government, led by Duan Qirui during the Republic of China period...

 was quoted as arguing that "When talking about the Xinhai Revolution, the theorist these days tends to overemphasize. The word ‘success’ was way overused".

The success of the democracy gained from the revolution can vary depending on view. Even after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925, for 60 years the KMT controlled all five branches of the government; none was independent. Yan Jiaqi
Yan Jiaqi
Yan Jiaqi 嚴家其 is a Chinese political scientist, now a dissident and federalist.In 1959, he entered the University of Science and Technology of China, and then became the director of the Institute of Political Research of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, where he published several essays and...

 founder of the Federation for a Democratic China
Federation for a Democratic China
Federation for a Democratic China is an interest group that advocates the democratization of China through opposition of the Communist Party of China and support of human rights. It was founded on September 22, 1989 in Paris, France, following the June 4, 1989 Tiananmen Incident. It was a party of...

 have said that Sun Yat-sen is to be credited as founding China's first republic in 1912, and the second republic is the people of Taiwan and the political parties there now democratizing the region. In 2011 president Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou is the 12th term and current President of the Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan, and the Chairman of the Kuomintang Party, also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party. He formerly served as Justice Minister from 1993 to 1996, Mayor of Taipei from 1998 to 2006, and Chairman...

 praised the Western political model for the successful democratization of Taiwan.

Meanwhile the ideals of democracy is far from realised on the mainland. For example Chinese premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao is the sixth and current Premier and Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government and leading its cabinet. In his capacity as Premier, Wen is regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy...

 once said in a speech that without real democracy there is no guarantee of economic and political rights. But he led a 2011 crackdown
2011 crackdown on dissidents in the People's Republic of China
The 2011 crackdown on dissidents in the People's Republic of China refers to the arrest of dozens of mainland Chinese rights lawyers, activists and grassroots agitators in a response to the 2011 Chinese pro-democracy protests...

 against the peaceful Chinese jasmine protests. Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo is a Chinese literary critic, writer, professor, and human rights activist who called for political reforms and the end of communist single-party rule in China...

, a pro-democracy activist who received the global 2010 Nobel Peace Prize
2010 Nobel Peace Prize
The 2010 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to imprisoned Chinese human rights activist "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"...

 is in prison. Others such as Qin Yongmin (秦永敏) of the Democracy Party of China was only released from prison after 12 years doesn't praise the Xinhai Revolution. He said the revolution only replaced one dictator with another, that Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

 was not an emperor, but he is worse than the emperor.

See also

  • Timeline of Late Anti-Qing Rebellions
  • History of the Republic of China
    History of the Republic of China
    The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing Dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China put an end to over two thousand years of Imperial rule. The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1912...

  • Military of the Republic of China
    Military of the Republic of China
    The Republic of China Armed Forces encompass the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Military Police Force of the Republic of China . It is a military establishment, which accounted for 16.8% of the central budget in the fiscal year of 2003...

  • History of China
    History of China
    Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest...

  • National Revolutionary Army
    National Revolutionary Army
    The National Revolutionary Army , pre-1928 sometimes shortened to 革命軍 or Revolutionary Army and between 1928-1947 as 國軍 or National Army was the Military Arm of the Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMT's period of party rule...

  • Kuomintang
    Kuomintang
    The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

  • Taishō period
    Taisho period
    The , or Taishō era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Taishō Emperor. The health of the new emperor was weak, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen to the Diet...

  • Russian Revolution (1917)
  • German Revolution of 1918–19

Primary sources

  • Wu Xinghan , Three Day Journal of Wuchang Uprising

Contemporary accounts

  • Edwin J. Dingle, China's Revolution: 1911–1912. A Historical and Political Record of the Civil War (Shanghai, China: Commercial Press, 1912).
  • P. H. B. Kent, The Passing of the Manchus (London: E. Arnold, 1912).

English

The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution, also known as Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history.Chinese history is not as neat as is often described and it was rare for one dynasty to change peacefully into the next. Dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they...

, the Qing (1644–1912)
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

, and established the Republic of China
Republic of China (1912–1949)
In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism...

. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle
Sexagenary cycle
The Chinese sexagenary cycle , also known as the Stems-and-Branches , is a cycle of sixty terms used for recording days or years. It appears, as a means of recording days, in the first Chinese written texts, the Shang dynasty oracle bones from the late second millennium BC. Its use to record years...

 of the Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. It is not exclusive to China, but followed by many other Asian cultures as well...

.

The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point is the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 on October 10, 1911 that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
The Railway Protection Movement , also known as the "Railway Rights Protection Movement", was a political protest movement that erupted in 1911 in late Qing China against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks...

. The revolution ended with the abdication of the "Last Emperor
Emperor of China
The Emperor of China refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning between the founding of Qin Dynasty of China, united by the King of Qin in 221 BCE, and the fall of Yuan Shikai's Empire of China in 1916. When referred to as the Son of Heaven , a title that predates the Qin unification, the...

" Puyi on February 12, 1912, that marked the end of over 2,000 years of Imperial China
Imperial China
Imperial China may refer to:* Imperial era of Chinese history , divided into three major periods:** Early Imperial China** Mid-Imperial China** Late Imperial China...

 and the beginning of China's Republican era
History of the Republic of China
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing Dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China put an end to over two thousand years of Imperial rule. The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1912...

.

In general the revolution was a reaction to the declining Qing state and its inability to reform and modernize China to confront the challenges posed by foreign powers and reverse domestic decline, and the majority Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

's resentment of the ruling Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 minority. Many underground anti-Qing groups with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile had tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai was an important Chinese general and politician famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor of China, his autocratic rule as the second President of the Republic of China , and his short-lived...

, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

, the leader of the Tongmenghui (United League)
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

. After the Qing court transferred power to the newly-founded republic, the formation of a provisional coalition government
Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912)
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912...

 was created along with the National Assembly
National Assembly of the Republic of China
The National Assembly of the Republic of China refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the Republic of China. The National Assembly was originally founded in 1913 as the first legislature in Chinese history, but was disbanded less than a year later as President Yuan Shikai assumed...

. However, political power of the new national government
Beiyang Government
The Beiyang government or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Government of the Republic of China. The name comes from the Beiyang Army which dominated...

 in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and lead to decades of political division and warlordism
Warlord era
The Chinese Warlord Era was the period in the history of the Republic of China, from 1916 to 1928, when the country was divided among military cliques, a division that continued until the fall of the Nationalist government in the mainland China regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia,...

, including several attempts at imperial restoration.

Today, both the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 on Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 and the People's Republic of China on the mainland
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 consider themselves to be successors to the Xinhai Revolution and continue to pay homage to the ideals of the revolution including nationalism
Chinese nationalism
Chinese nationalism , sometimes synonymous with Chinese patriotism refers to cultural, historiographical, and political theories, movements and beliefs that assert the idea of a cohesive, unified Chinese people and culture in a unified country known as China...

, republicanism
Republicanism
Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, where the head of state is appointed by means other than heredity, often elections. The exact meaning of republicanism varies depending on the cultural and historical context...

, modernization of China and the national unity
Zhonghua minzu
Zhonghua minzu , usually translated as Chinese ethnic groups or Chinese nationality, refers to the modern notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions, with a central identity for China as a whole...

. October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 as Double Ten Day
Double Ten Day
Double Ten Day is the national day of the Republic of China and celebrates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of October 10, 1911, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912...

, the National Day of the Republic of China. In mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

, Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

, the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. Many overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the Greater China Area . People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves Overseas Chinese....

 also celebrate the anniversary in Chinatown
Chinatown
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of overseas Chinese people, although it is often generalized to include various Southeast Asian people. Chinatowns exist throughout the world, including East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. Binondo's Chinatown located in Manila,...

s across the world.

Background

After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War
First Opium War
The First Anglo-Chinese War , known popularly as the First Opium War or simply the Opium War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice...

 in 1842, the Qing court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a deeply conservative court culture where ethnic Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 rulers did not want to give too much authority to the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 group.

In the wars against the Taiping (1851–64)
Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty...

, Nian (1851–1868), Muslims of Yunnan (1856–1868) and the Northwest (1862–1877)
Dungan revolt
The Dungan Revolt was a mainly ethnic war with a few religious factors in 19th-century China. It is also known as the Hui Minorities' War. The term is sometimes used to include the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan which occurred during the same period...

, the traditional Manchu armies
Eight Banners
The Eight Banners were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. They provided the basic framework for the Manchu military organization...

 were proven incompetent and the court came to rely on Han local armies.

Following defeat in the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

 the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement
Self-Strengthening Movement
The Self-Strengthening Movement , c 1861–1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers....

 from 1861. In 1895 China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

. This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society also needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 Emperor Guangxu was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei , was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing Dynasty. He led movements to establish a constitutional monarchy and was an ardent Chinese nationalist. His ideas inspired a reformation movement that was supported by the Guangxu...

 and Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao |Styled]] Zhuoru, ; Pseudonym: Rengong) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty , who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and reform movements...

 for a drastic reform in education, military and economy under the Hundred Days Reforms. The reform was a failure as it was ended prematurely by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi1 , of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years from 1861 to her death in 1908....

. Emperor Guangxu, who have always been a puppet emperor dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898. Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society
Progressive Party (China)
- Origins :Chinese constitutionalism was a movement that originated after the First Sino-Japanese War . A young group of intellectuals in China led by Kang Youwei argued that China's defeat was due to its lack of modern institutions and legal framework which the Self-Strengthening Movement had...

 in an attempt to restore the emperor. Empress Cixi mainly controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

 prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions, gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by brutally suppressing, often at great costs, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas.

Organization for revolution

Earliest groups

There were many revolutionaries and many groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to reestablish a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 government. The earliest revolutionary organizations were established outside of China like Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan , was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. In 1890, Yeung started the Furen Literary Society in British colonial Hong Kong to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and to establish a republic in China...

's Furen Literary Society
Furen Literary Society
The Furen Literary Society, also known as the Chinese Patriotic Mutual Improvement Association, or the 'Furen Cultural Society Restoration Association ', was founded in Colonial Hong Kong in 1892 to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and establishing a republic in China.It was...

 created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members including Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai , styled Sing-on , art-named Hong-yu was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. Tse was the first Chinese to fly an airship, China in 1899...

, who did political satire like "The Situation in the Far East" one of the first ever Chinese manhua
Manhua
Manhua are Chinese comics originally produced in China. Possibly due to their greater degree of artistic freedom of expression and closer international ties with Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan have been the places of publication of most manhua thus far, often including Chinese translations of...

, and later became one of the core founders of South China morning post
South China Morning Post
The South China Morning Post , together with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is an English-language Hong Kong newspaper, published by the SCMP Group with a circulation of 104,000....

.

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society)
Revive China Society
The Hsing Chung Hui or Xingzhonghui translated as the Revive China Society, Society for Regenerating China, Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities...

 was established at Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of fund-raising revolutions. The two organizations were merged in 1894.

Smaller groups

The Huaxinghui (China Revival Society)
Huaxinghui
The Huaxinghui , translated as the China Revival Society or China Arise Society, was founded by Huang Xing and Zhang Shizhao on February 15, 1904, in Hunan for the explicit goal of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui. The Huaxinghui was...

 was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

, Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao , courtesy name Xingyan, penname Huangzhonghuang, Qingtong or Qiutong, was a Chinese politician of the 20th century. He was the Minister of Justice and Minister of Education of the Beiyang Government, led by Duan Qirui during the Republic of China period...

, Chen Tianhua
Chen Tianhua
Chen Tianhua , was a Chinese revolutionary born in Xinhua, Hunan province into a poor peasant family during the Qing dynasty.-Early life and education:Chen did not begin his education until he was fifteen...

 and Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 and 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, and inspire the other provinces to rise up".

The Guangfuhui (Restoration Society)
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 was also founded in 1904 in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei
Cai Yuanpei
Cai Yuanpei was a Chinese educator and the president of Peking University. He was known for his critical evaluation of the Chinese culture that led to the influential May Fourth Movement...

. Other notable members include Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin was a Chinese philologist, textual critic and anti-Manchu revolutionary.His philological works include Wen Shi , the first systematic work of Chinese etymology...

 and Tao Chengzhang. Despite having the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui is highly critical of Sun Yat-sen. One of the most famous female revolutionaries Qiu Jin
Qiu Jin
Qiū Jǐn Courtesy names: Xuánqīng and Jìngxióng Sobriquet: The Woman Knight of Mirror Lake was a Chinese anti-Qing Empire revolutionary, feminist and writer...

 who fought for women's rights
Women's rights
Women's rights are entitlements and freedoms claimed for women and girls of all ages in many societies.In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behaviour, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed...

 was also from Guangfuhui.

There were also many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui (勵志學會) in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

, Gongchanghui (公強會) in Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

, Yiwenhui (益聞會) and Hanzhudulihui (漢族獨立會) in Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

, Yizhihui (易知社) in Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

, Yuewanghui (岳王會) in Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

 and Qunzhihui (群智會/群智社) in Guangzhou.

Other criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu include Green Gang
Green Gang
The Green Gang was a Chinese criminal organization that operated in Shanghai in the early 20th century.-Origins:It was a secret society established originally by Fong Toh-tak of Shaolin Monastery to protect the Han Chinese who were oppressed by the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty, and to restore...

 and Hongmen Zhigongtang (致公堂). Sun Yat-sen himself came in contact with the Hongmen also known as Tiandihui (Heaven and Earth society)
Tiandihui
The Tiandihui is a fraternal organization that originated in China. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept, although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups.As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces, it...

.

Gelaohui (Elder Brother society)
Gelaohui
The Gelaohui , also called Futaubang, or Hatchet Gang , as every member allegedly carried a small hatchet inside the sleeve, was a secret society and underground resistance movement associated with the revolutionary Tongmenghui led by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren.Originating in western china,...

 was also another group with Zhu De
Zhu De
Zhu De was a Chinese militarist, politician, revolutionary, and one of the pioneers of the Chinese Communist Party. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, in 1955 Zhu became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the founder.-Early...

, Wu Yuzhang
Wu Yuzhang
Wu Yuzhang was a Chinese politician and educationist, President of Renmin University of China from 1950 to 1966.-Biography:...

, Liu Zhidan (劉志丹) and Helong. This is the revolutionary group that would eventually develop a strong link with the later Communist party
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

.

Tongmenghui

Sun Yat-sen successfully united the Revive China Society, Huaxingwui and Guangfuhui in the summer of 1905, thereby establishing the unified Tongmenghui (United League)
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

 in August 1905 in Tokyo. While it started in Tokyo, it has loose organizations distributed across the country and outside the country. Sun Yat-sen was the leader of this unified group. Other revolutionaries that worked with the Tongmenghui include Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

 and Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

. When the Tongmenhui was established, more than 90% of the Tongmenhui members were between age of 17 and 26 years of age. Some of the work in the era include manhua publications like the Journal of Current Pictorial
Journal of Current Pictorial
Journal of Current Pictorial was a manhua magazine published in 1905. It was authored and drawn by members of the Chinese Alliance. The magazine was banned in China in 1907...

.

Later groups

In February 1906 Rizhihui (日知會) also had many revolutionaries including Sun Wu (孫武), Zhang Nanxian (張難先), He Jiwei and Feng Mumin. A nucleus of attendees of this conference evolved into the Tongmenhui's establishment in Hubei.

In July 1907 several members of Tongmenhui in Tokyo advocated a revolution in the area of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

. Liu Quiyi (劉揆一), Jiao Dafeng (焦達峰), Zhang Boxiang (張伯祥) and Sun Wu (孫武) established Gongjinhui (Progressive Association) (共進會). In January 1911 revolutionary group Zhengwu Xueshe (振武學社) was renamed as Wenxueshe (Literary society) (文學社). Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) was chosen as the leader. These two organizations would play a big role in the Wuchang Uprising.

Political views

Many revolutionaries promoted anti-Qing / anti-Manchu sentiments, and revived memories of conflict between the ethnic minority Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 and the ethnic majority Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 from the late Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

. Leading intellectuals were influenced by books that had survived from the last years of Ming dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 (1368–1644), the last dynasty of Han Chinese. In 1904 Sun Yat-sen came about with the goal "to expel the Tatar barbarians
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people." (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權). Many of the underground groups promoted the ideas of "Resist Qing and restore Ming
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

" (反清復明) that has been around since the days of the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty...

. Others like Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin
Zhang Binglin was a Chinese philologist, textual critic and anti-Manchu revolutionary.His philological works include Wen Shi , the first systematic work of Chinese etymology...

 supported straight up lines like "slay the manchus" and support concepts like Anti-Manchuism (興漢滅胡 / 排滿主義).

Strata and groups

The Xinhai Revolution was supported by many groups, including students and intellectuals who returned from abroad, as well as participants of the revolutionary organizations, overseas Chinese, soldiers of the new army, local gentry, farmers, and others.

Overseas Chinese

Assistance from overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the Greater China Area . People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves Overseas Chinese....

 was important in the Xinhai Revolution. In the first year of the Revive China Society in 1894, the first meeting ever held by the group was held in the home of Ho Fon, an overseas Chinese who was also the leader of the first Chinese church of Christ. Overseas Chinese support and actively participated in the funding of revolutionary activities, especially by the Southeast Asia Chinese of Malaya
British Malaya
British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries...

 (Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and Malaysia). Many of these groups were reorganized by Sun, who was referred to as the "mother of the Chinese revolution".

Newly emerged intellectuals

In 1906 after the abolition of the imperial examinations, the Qing Government established many new schools and encouraged students to study abroad. Many young people attended the new schools or went abroad to study to places like Japan. A new class of intellectuals emerged from those students who had studied overseas or at the new schools, in places like Japan. These Chinese students in Japan contributed immensely to the Xinhai Revolution. Besides Sun Yat-sen, key figures in the revolution such as Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

, Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

, Liao Zhongkai
Liao Zhongkai
Liao Zhongkai , Kuomintang leader and financier. Liao Zhongkai was the principal architect of the first Kuomintang-Chinese Communist Party United Front in the 1920s....

, Zhu Zhixin
Zhu Zhixin
Zhu Zhixin is a politician of the People's Republic of China. He currently serves as the vice chairman and vice Communist Party of China Party chief of the National Development and Reform Commission of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.-Early years and education:Zhu was born in...

, and Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

, were all Chinese students in Japan. Some young students like Zou Rong
Zou Rong
Zou Rong . Chinese nationalist and revolutionary martyr of the anti-Qing movement. Born in Chongqing, Sichuan Province, he was sent to Japan at an early age, where he studied the successful Japanese way of modernization...

 was known for writing the book "Revolutionary Army" where he talked about the extermination of the manchus for the 260 years of oppression and sorrow, cruelty and tyranny, and turn the sons and grandsons of Yellow Emperor into George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

s.

Before 1908, revolutionaries focused on coordinating these organizations in preparation for uprisings that these organizations would launch; hence, these groups would provide most of the manpower needed for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. After the Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen recalled the days of recruiting support for the revolution and said "The literati were deeply into the search for honors and profits, so they were regarded as having only secondary importance. By contrast, organizations like Sanhehui
Tiandihui
The Tiandihui is a fraternal organization that originated in China. The Hongmen grouping is today more or less synonymous with the whole Tiandihui concept, although the title "Hongmen" is also claimed by some criminal groups.As the Tiandihui spread through different counties and provinces, it...

 were able to sow widely the ideas of resisting the Qing and restoring the Ming."

Gentry and businessmen

The strength of the gentry in local politics had become apparent. From December 1908, the Qing Government created some government apparatus to allow the gentry and businessmen to participate in politics. These middle-class people were originally supporters of constitutionalism. However, they became disenchanted when the Qing Government created a cabinet with Prince Qing
Yikuang, Prince Qing
Yikuang, the Prince Qing , was a Manchu prince of the late Qing Dynasty, who was the first premier of China...

 as prime minister. By early 1911 an experimental cabinet had 13 members, 9 of which were Manchus selected from imperial family.

Foreigners

Besides Chinese and overseas Chinese, some of the supporters and participants of Xinhai Revolution were foreigners; among foreigners, the Japanese were the most active group. Some Japanese even became members of Tongmenghui. Miyazaki Touten was the closest Japanese supporter, others include Heiyama Shu or Ryōhei Uchida
Ryohei Uchida
was a Japanese ultranationalist political theorist. Pan-Asianist, and martial artist, active in the pre-war Empire of Japan.-Biography:Uchida was born in Fukuoka prefecture. He was the son of Shinto Muso-ryu practitioner Uchida Ryōgorō, and from an early age was interested in many forms of Japanese...

. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern also took part in the revolution. Some foreigners such as English explorer Arthur de Carle Sowerby
Arthur de Carle Sowerby
Arthur de Carle Sowerby was British naturalist, explorer, writer, and publisher in China. His father was Arthur Sowerby .-Background:...

 led expeditions to rescue many foreign missionaries between 1911 and 1912.

Soldiers of the new armies

The New Army
New Army
The New Armies were the modernized Qing armies, trained and equipped according to Western standards...

 was formed in 1901 after the defeat of the Qings from the First Sino-Japanese war
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

. They were launched by a decree from eight provinces. New Army were by far the best trained and equipped. They were better recruited than old formations and received regular promotions. Beginning in 1908, the revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies. Sun Yat-sen and the revolutionaries infiltrated the New Army.

Uprisings and incidents

The general focus of the uprisings are those that surround the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

 and Sun Yat-sen including the smaller groups within. Some uprisings below involve groups that never merged with the Tongmenghui. Sun Yat-sen may have participated in 8–10 uprisings; all uprisings prior to the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 had failed.

First Guangzhou Uprising

In spring 1895, the Revive China Society
Revive China Society
The Hsing Chung Hui or Xingzhonghui translated as the Revive China Society, Society for Regenerating China, Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities...

, which was based in Hong Kong, planned the first "Guangzhou uprising" (廣州起義). Lu Haodong was tasked with designing the revolutionaries' Blue Sky with a White Sun
Blue Sky with a White Sun
The Blue Sky with a White Sun serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang , the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China , and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy....

 flag. On October 26, 1895, Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan
Yeung Kui-wan , was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. In 1890, Yeung started the Furen Literary Society in British colonial Hong Kong to spread ideas of revolution against the Qing Dynasty and to establish a republic in China...

 and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang and Lu Haodong to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the government. The Qing Government began to arrest revolutionaries, including Lu Haodong, who was later executed. The first Guangzhou uprising was admittedly a failure. Under the pressure from Qing Government, the government of Hong Kong forbade these two men to enter the territory for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile, promoting the Chinese revolution and raising funds in Japan, the United States, Canada and Britain on behalf of the revolution. In 1901, Yeung Kui-wan was assassinated by Qing agents in Hong Kong. After his death his family protected his identity on his tomb without his name, and just a number: 6348.

Independence Army Uprising

In 1900, after the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

 started, Tang Caichang (唐才常) and Tan Sitong
Tan Sitong
Tan Sitong , courtesy name Fusheng, pseudonym Zhuangfei , was a well-known Chinese politician, thinker and revolutionist in the late Qing Dynasty who was in support of reform; he was however, finally executed because of the failure of the reformation...

 of the previous Foot Emancipation Society
Foot Emancipation Society
Foot Emancipation Society , or Anti-footbinding Society , was a civil organization which opposed foot-binding in the late Qing Dynasty...

 organised the Independence Army. The "Independence Army Uprising" (自立軍起義) was planned to occur on August 23, 1900. Their goal was to overthrow Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi1 , of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic figure who became the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years from 1861 to her death in 1908....

 to establish a constitutional monarchy under Emperor Guangxu. Their plot was discovered by the governor general of Hunan and Hubei. About 20 conspirators were arrested and executed.

Huizhou Uprising

On October 8, 1900, Sun Yat-sen ordered the launch of the "Huizhou Uprising" (惠州起義). The revolutionary army was led by Zheng Shiliang and initially included 20,000 men, who fought for half a month. However, after the Japanese Prime Minister prohibited Sun Yat-sen from carrying out revolutionary activities on Taiwan, Zheng Shiliang had no choice but to order the army to disperse. This uprising therefore also failed. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern participated in this uprising.

Great Ming Uprising

A very short uprising occurred from January 25 to 28 in 1903 to establish a "Great Ming Heavenly kingdom" (大明順天國). This involved Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai
Tse Tsan-tai , styled Sing-on , art-named Hong-yu was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty. Tse was the first Chinese to fly an airship, China in 1899...

, Li Jitong (李紀堂), Liang Muguang (梁慕光) and Hong Chunfu (洪全福) who formerly took part in the Jintian Uprising
Jintian Uprising
The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan on 11 February 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty. The uprising was named after Jintian , the place where it took place...

 during the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, established by Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion...

 era.

Ping-liu-li Uprising

Ma Fuyi (馬福益) and Huaxinghui
Huaxinghui
The Huaxinghui , translated as the China Revival Society or China Arise Society, was founded by Huang Xing and Zhang Shizhao on February 15, 1904, in Hunan for the explicit goal of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui. The Huaxinghui was...

 was involved in an uprising in three areas of Pingxiang
Pingxiang
Pingxiang may refer to:*Pingxiang, Jiangxi , prefecture-level city in Jiangxi, China*Pingxiang, Guangxi , county-level city in Guangxi, China*Pingxiang County , in Hebei, China...

, Liuyang
Liuyang
Liuyang is a county-level city in Changsha, the capital of Hunan province in China. Liuyang is well known for its fireworks industry. It has an area of 5,008 square kilometres and a population of 1,380,000 as of 2003....

 and Liling
Liling
Liling is a county-level city in the eastern part of Hunan province of the People's Republic of China. Liling is about 5 miles from Jiangxi province and it is south of Hunan's capital, Changsha. Liling has an area of 2,157km2 and a population of about 1,020,000....

 called "Ping-liu-li Uprising" (萍瀏醴起義) in 1905. The uprising recruited miners as early as 1903 to rise against the Qing ruling class. After the uprising failed, Ma Fuyi was executed.

Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway assassination attempt

Wu Yue (吳樾) of Guangfuhui
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 carried out an assassination attempt at the Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway station (正陽門車站) in an attack on five Qing officials on September 24, 1905.

Huanggang Uprising

The "Huanggang Uprising" (黃岡起義) was launched on May 22, 1907 in Chaozhou
Chaozhou
Chaozhou is a city in eastern Guangdong province of the People's Republic of China. It borders Shantou to the south, Jieyang to the southwest, Meizhou to the northwest, the province of Fujian to the east, and the South China Sea to the southeast...

. The Revolutionary party, along with Xu Xueqiu (許雪秋), Chen Yongpo (陳湧波), and Yu Tongshi (余通實) launched the uprising and captured Huanggang city. Other Japanese that followed include (萱野長知) and (池亨吉). After the uprising, Qing Government quickly and forcefully suppressed the uprising. Around 200 revolutionaries were killed with the uprising failing.

Huizhou seven women lake Uprising

In the same year, Sun Yat-sen sent more revolutionaries were in Huizhou to launch the "Huizhou seven women lake Uprising" (惠州七女湖起義). On June 2 Deng Zhiyu (鄧子瑜) and Chen Chuan (陳純) gathered a few members and together they seized Qing arms in the lake, 20 km from Huizhou. They killed several Qing soldiers and attacked Taiwei (泰尾) on the 5th. The Qing Army fled in disorder and the revolutionaries exploited the opportunity, capturing several towns. They defeated the Qing Army once again in Bazhiyie. Many organizations voiced their support after the uprising, and the number of troops increased to 200 men at its height. The uprising failed in the end.

Anqing Uprising

On July 6, 1907, Xu Xilin
Xu Xilin
Xu Xilin , was a Chinese revolutionary born in Dongpu, Shanyin, Shaoxing, Zhejiang during the Qing dynasty.Xu was sent to Japan in 1903 for study where he joined other Zhejiang students in rescuing Zhang Taiyan, who was arrested for spreading Anti Qing views...

 of Guangfuhui
Guangfuhui
Guāngfùhuì , or the Restoration Society, was an anti-Qing organization established by Cai Yuanpei in 1904...

 led an uprising in Anqing
Anqing
Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

, Anhui, which became known as the "Anqing Uprising" (安慶起義). Xu Xilin at the time was the police commissioner as well as the supervisor of the police academy. He led an uprising that was to also assassinate the provincial governor of Anhui En Ming (恩銘). They were defeated after four hours of struggle. Xu was captured where bodyguards cut out his heart and liver and ate them. His cousin Qiu Jin
Qiu Jin
Qiū Jǐn Courtesy names: Xuánqīng and Jìngxióng Sobriquet: The Woman Knight of Mirror Lake was a Chinese anti-Qing Empire revolutionary, feminist and writer...

 was also executed a few days later.

Qinzhou Uprising

Between August to September 1907 was the "Qinzhou Uprising" (欽州防城起義)., caused to protest against heavy taxation from the government. Sun Yat-sen sent Wang Heshun (王和順) there to assist the revolutionary army and captured the county on September. After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Qinzhou, but they were unsuccessful. They eventually retreated to the area of Shiwandashan while Wang Heshun returned to Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

.

Zhennanguan Uprising

On December 1, 1907, the "Zhennanguan Uprising" (鎮南關起事) took place at Zhennanguan, a border on the Chinese-Vietnamese border. Sun Yat-sen sent Huang Mintang (黃明堂) to monitor the pass, which was guarded by a fort. With the assistance of supporters among the fort's defenders, the revolutionaries captured the cannon tower in Zhennanguan. Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 and Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

 personally went to the tower to command the battle. Qing Government sent armies to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into mountainous areas. After the failure of this uprising, Sun was forced to move to Singapore due to anti-Sun sentiments within the revolutionary groups. He would not return to the mainland until after the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

.

Qin-lian Uprising

On March 27, 1908, Huang Xing launched a raid, later known as the "Qin-lian Uprising" (欽廉上思起義), from a base in Vietnam and attacked the cities of Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Qinzhou is a municipal region in Guangxi, People's Republic of China.The municipality lies on the Gulf of Tonkin and has a population of 944, 000.-Administration:The Qinzhou municipal region comprises two districts and two counties....

 and Lianzhou
Lianzhou
Lianzhou is a county-level city of Guangdong Province, China, directly under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Qingyuan. Lianzhou has become famous for an international photography festival celebrated yearly in the city....

 in Guangdong. The struggle continued for 14 days, but was forced to terminate after the revolutionaries ran out of supplies.

Hekou Uprising

In April 1908, another uprising was launched in Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 Hekou called the "Hekou Uprising" (雲南河口起義). Huang Mingtang (黃明堂) led 200 men from Vietnam and attacked Hekou on April 30, 1908. Other revolutionaries that participated include Wang Heshun (王和順) and Guan Renfu (關仁甫). They were outnumbered and defeated, thus causing the uprising to fail.

Mapaoying Uprising

On November 19, 1908, the "Mapaiying Uprising" (馬炮營起義) was launched by revolutionary group Yuewanghui (岳王會) member Xiong Chenggei (熊成基) at Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

. Yuewanghui at this time is a subset of Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui, also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society, was a secret society and underground resistance movement formed when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups together by Sun Yat-sen, Song...

. This uprising also failed.

Gengxu New Army Uprising

In February 1910, the "Gengxu New Army Uprising" (庚戌新軍起義) also known as "Guangzhou New Army Uprising" (廣州新軍起義) took place. This event involved a conflict between the citizens as well as the police enforcements and the New Army. After the revolutionary leader Ni Yingdian was killed by Qing forces, the remaining revolutionaries were quickly defeated, causing the uprising to fail. Despite this, it instilled great confidence among the people in the revolutionaries.

Second Guangzhou Uprising

On April 27, 1911, an uprising was held in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

 known as the "Second Guangzhou Uprising" (辛亥廣州起義) or "Yellow Flower Mound revolt" (黃花岡之役). The result was a disaster as only 72 bodies were ever found. The 72 revolutionaries were remembered as martyrs
Martyrdom in Chinese culture
The concept of martyrdom in China was largely developed by the Tongmenghui and the Kuomintang party during the Xinhai Revolution, Northern Expedition, and Second Sino-Japanese War.- Modern Development :...

. Revolutionary Lin Jue-min (林覺民) was one of the 72 heroes sacrificed. On the eve of battle he wrote the legendary "A Letter to My Wife" (與妻訣別書), later to be considered a Chinese literature masterpiece.

Wuchang Uprising


The Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會) were revolutionary organizations that were involved in the uprising that mainly started out from the Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
The Railway Protection Movement , also known as the "Railway Rights Protection Movement", was a political protest movement that erupted in 1911 in late Qing China against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks...

. In the late summer, some Hubei New Army units were ordered to neighboring Sichuan to quell the Railway Protection Movement, a mass protest of the Qing government's seizure and handover of local railway development ventures to foreign powers.

The New Army units of Hubei had originally been the "Hubei Army," which had been trained by Qing official Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong ; Pseudonyms: Xiāngtāo , Xiāngyán , Yīgōng , Wújìng-Jūshì , later Bàobīng ; Posthumous name: Wénxiāng ) was an eminent Chinese politician during the late Qing Dynasty who advocated for controlled reform...

. On September 24, the Literary Society and Progressive Association convened a conference in Wuchang along with 60 representatives from local New Army units. During the conference, they established a headquarters for the uprising. The leaders of the two organizations, Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) and Sun Wu (孫武), were elected as the commander and the chief of staff. Initially the date of the uprising was to be October 6, 1911. It was postponed to a later date due to insufficient preparations.

On October 9, Revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the Qing dynasty had built bombs and one accidentally exploded. Sun Yat-sen himself had no direct part in the uprising and was traveling in the United States at the time in an effort to recruit more support from among overseas Chinese. The Qing Viceroy of Huguang
Viceroy of Huguang
The Viceroy of Huguang , fully referred to as the Governor General of the Hubei and Hunan Provinces and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight viceroys in China proper during the Qing Dynasty of China. The Viceroy had...

 Rui Cheng (瑞澂) tried to track down and arrest the revolutionaries. Squad leader Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer and launched the revolt at October 10, 1911 at 7 pm. The revolt was a success; the entire city of Wuchang was captured by the revolutionaries by the morning of October 11. In the evening that day, they established a tactical headquarters and announced the establishment of the "Military Government of Hubei of Republic of China." The conference chose Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. He was twice president of the Republic of China.- Early history :...

 as the governor of the temporary government. The up and coming Battle of Yangxia
Battle of Yangxia
The Battle of Yangxia , also known as the Defense of Yangxia was fought from October 18 to December 1, 1911 between the revolutionaries of the Wuchang Uprising and the loyalist armies of the Qing Dynasty...

 led by Huang Xing would be a decisive battle of the uprising when the Qing responds.

After Wuchang, echoes from other provinces

After the success of the Wuchang uprising, many people followed in cities and towns in other provinces with more uprisings of their own. Many of the uprisings are followed up with restorations (光復). Some areas have more of an uprising tone, while others may have more of an independence tone depending on source. Essentially all province left the Qing to join the Republic of China.

Changsha restoration

On October 22, 1911 the Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 Tongmenghui members were led by Jiao Dafeng (焦達嶧) and Chen Zuoxin (陳作新). They led an armed group consisting partly revolutionaries from Hongjiang
Hongjiang
Hongjiang , formerly Qianyang County , is a county-level city of Huaihua, Hunan, China.-History:Hongjiang was established in 1997 by merging old Hongjiang and Qianyang. However, the residents of the old Hongjiang resisted this merge...

 and partly of New Army units in a campaign to extend the uprising into Changsha. They then captured the city and killed the local Imperial general. Then they announced the establishment of "Hunan Military Government of the Republic of China", and announced their opposition to the Qing Empire.

Shaanxi Uprising

On the same day, a member of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

's Tongmenghui, Jing Dingcheng (景定成), Qian ding (錢鼎) as well as Jing Wumu (井勿幕) and others including Gelaohui
Gelaohui
The Gelaohui , also called Futaubang, or Hatchet Gang , as every member allegedly carried a small hatchet inside the sleeve, was a secret society and underground resistance movement associated with the revolutionary Tongmenghui led by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren.Originating in western china,...

, launched an uprising and captured Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

 after two days of struggle. The Muslim General Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang , a Hui, was born in 1855, in Linxia, Gansu, China. He became a general in the Qing dynasty army, and of the Republic of China. His father was Ma Zhanao, and his younger brother was Ma Guoliang...

 led over 20 battalions of Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

 Muslim troops to defend the Qings by attacking Shaanxi against revolutionary Zhang Fenghui (張鳳翽). Ma Anliang attacked the revolutionaries successfully, but when news of the Qing emperor Puyi
Puyi
Puyi , of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China, and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty. He ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912. From 1 to 12 July 1917 he was briefly restored to the throne as a nominal emperor by the...

 was about to abdicate, Ma agreed to join the new Republic. The revolutionaries established the "Qinlong Fuhan Military Government", and elected Zhang Fenghui, a member of the Yuanrizhi Society (原日知會), as new governor. Xi'an Manchu city (滿城) finally fell on Oct 24 after basically a massacre of its manchus citizens. Many committed suicide including Qing general Wenrui (文瑞) who threw himself down a well.

Jiujiang Uprising

On October 23, Lin Sen
Lin Sen
Lin Sen , courtesy name Zichao , sobriquet Changren , was President of the National Government of the Republic of China from 1931 until his death.-Early life:...

, Jiang Qun (蔣群), Cai Hui (蔡蕙), and other members of the Tongmenghui in the province of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 plotted a revolt of New Army units in Jiujiang
Jiujiang
Jiujiang , formerly transliterated Kiukiang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, China. It is the second-largest prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province, the largest one being Nanchang...

. After they achieved victory, they announced their independence. The "Jiujiang Military Government" was then established.

Shanxi Taiyuan Uprising

On October 29, Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan, was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. Yan effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War...

 of the New Army led an uprising in Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China. At the 2010 census, it had a total population of 4,201,591 inhabitants on 6959 km² whom 3,212,500 are urban on 1,460 km². The name of the city literally means "Great Plains", referring to the location where the Fen River...

, the capital city of the province of Shanxi
Shanxi
' is a province in Northern China. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋" , after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period....

 along with Yao Yijie (姚以價), Huang Guoliang (黃國梁), Wen Shouquan (溫壽泉), Li Chenglin (李成林), Zhang Shuzhi (張樹幟), Qiao Xi (喬煦). They managed to kill the Qing Governor of Shanxi, Lu Zhongqi (陸鍾琦), which ended the last Qing governor history in Shanxi. They then announced the establishment of "Shanxi Military Government" with Yan Xishan as the military governor. After the revolution Yan Xishan would later become one of the warlords of the warlord era.

Kunming Double Ninth Uprising

On October 30, Li Genyuan (李根源) of the Tongmenghui in Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 province joined with Cai E
Cai E
Cai E or Tsai Ao was a Chinese revolutionary leader and warlord. He was born Cai Genyin in Shaoyang, Hunan, and his courtesy name was Songpo...

, Luo Peijin (羅佩金), Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao was a Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of Republican China. Tang Jiyao was military governor of Yunnan from 1913-1927.-Life:...

, and other officers of the New Army, and launched the "Double Ninth
Double Ninth Festival
The Double Ninth Festival , observed on the ninth day of the ninth month in the Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writing since before the East Han period ....

 Uprising" (重九起義). They captured Kunming
Kunming
' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

 the next day, and established the "Yunnan Military Government", electing Cai E
Cai E
Cai E or Tsai Ao was a Chinese revolutionary leader and warlord. He was born Cai Genyin in Shaoyang, Hunan, and his courtesy name was Songpo...

 as the military governor.

Nanchang restoration

On October 31, the Nanchang
Nanchang
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

 branch of the Tongmenghui led New Army units in a local uprising and succeeded. They established the Jiangxi Military Government. Li Liejun
Li Liejun
Li Liejun, 李烈钧, was a Chinese revolutionary leader and general.Li was born in Wuning, Jiangxi, China. He went on to get a higher education and was sent to the Imperial Japanese Army Academy where he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance...

 was elected as the military governor. Li declared Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 as independent and launched an expedition against Yuan Shikai.

Shanghai armed Uprising

On November 3, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

's Tongmenghui, guangfuhui, and merchants led by Chen Qimei
Chen Qimei
Chen Qimei was a Chinese revolutionary activist, close political ally of Sun Yat-sen, and early mentor of Chiang Kai-shek. He was as one of the founders of the Republic of China, and the uncle of Chen Guofu and Chen Lifu....

, Li Pingsu (李平書), Zhang Chengyou (張承槱), Li Yingshi (李英石), Li Xiehe (李燮和) and Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 organized an armed rebellion in Shanghai. They recruited various squads, and received the support of local police officers. The rebels captured the Jiangnan Workshop on the 4th, and captured Shanghai soon after. On November 8, they established the "Shanghai Military Government", and elected Chen Qimei as the military governor. Chen Qimei would eventually become one of the starter of the ROC four big families
Four big families of the Republic of China
The Four big families of the Republic of China are an initial group of families in the Republic of China era. They were responsible for much of China's management of finance, politics, economy and law. The four big families begin with the Chinese surname Chiang, Soong, Kung and...

, next to some of the most well known families of the era.

Guizhou Uprising

On November 4, Zhang Bailin (張百麟) of the revolutionary party in Guizhou
Guizhou
' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

 led an uprising along with New Army units and students from the military academy. They immediately captured Guiyang
Guiyang
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the centre of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters...

 and established the "Great Han Guizhou Military Government", electing Yang Jincheng (楊藎誠) and Zhao Dequan (趙德全) as the chief and vice governor.

Zhejiang Uprising

Also on November 4, the revolutionaries in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

 urged the New Army units in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 to launch an uprising. Zhu Rui (朱瑞), Wu Siyu (吳思豫), Lu Gongwang (吕公望) and many others of the New Army captured the military supplies workshop. Other dare-to-die squads led by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 and Yin Zhirei (尹銳志) along with others captured most of the government offices. Eventually Hangzhou was in the control of the revolutionaries, and the constitutionist Tang Shouqian (湯壽潛) was elected as the military governor.

Jiangsu restoration

On November 5, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

 constitutionists and gentry urged the Qing governor Cheng Dequan (程德全) to announce independence, and established the "Jiangsu Revolutionary Military Government" with Cheng himself as the governor. Unlike some of the other cities, the anti-Manchu violence began after the restoration on November 7 in Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Jiangsu province in the eastern People's Republic of China . Sitting on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, it borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the west, Changzhou to the east, and Yangzhou across the river to the north.Once...

. Qing clansman general Zaimu (載穆) agreed to surrender, but because of a misunderstanding, the revolutionaries were unware their safety were guaranteed. The Manchu quarters were ransacked and untold number of manchus were killed. Zaimu feeling betrayed, committed suicide. This is regarded as "Zhenjiang Uprising" (鎮江起義).

Anhui Uprising

Members of Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

's Tongmenghui also launched the uprising on that day, and laid siege on the provincial capital. The constitutionists persuaded Zhu Jiabao (朱家寶), the Qing Governor of Anhui, to announce independence.

Guangxi Uprising

On November 7, the Guangxi
Guangxi
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China along its border with Vietnam. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.Guangxi's location, in...

 politics department decided to secede from the Qing government, announcing Guangxi's independence. The Qing Governor, Shen Bingkun (沈秉堃) was allowed to remain governor, but Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting was born in Wuming, Guangxi, China. Originating as a common bandit, Lu became a military commander in Guangxi in the Qing dynasty and suppressed the revolutionary uprising at Zhennan Pass on the Sino-Vietnam border in Pingxiang, Guangxi led by Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing.However, when...

 would soon become the new governor. Lu Rongting would later become one of the warlord, while his bandits control Guangxi for more than a decade to follow.

Fujian independence

In November members of Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

's branch of the Tongmenghui along with Sun Daoren (孫道仁) of the New Army launched an uprising against the Qing Army. The Qing viceroy, Song Shou (松壽), committed suicide. On November 11 the entire Fujian province declared independence. The "Fujian Military Government" was established, and Sun Daoren was elected as the military governor.

Guangdong independence

Near the end of October, Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming was a revolutionary figure in the early periods of the Republic of China. Chen Jiongming was born in 1878 at Haifeng, Guangdong, China....

, Deng Keng (鄧鏗), Peng Reihai (彭瑞海) and other members of Guangdong's Tongmenghui organized local militias to led the uprising in Huazhou, Nanhai, Sunde and Sanshui in Guangdong province. On November 8, after being persuaded by Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin was one of the early leaders of Kuomintang , and a very important right-winger in Kuomintang.-Biography:Hu Hanmin was qualified as juren at 21 years of age. He studied in Japan since 1902, and joined Tongmenghui as an editor of 《Minbao》 in 1905. From 1907-1910, he participated in...

, general Li zhun (李準) and Long Jiguang (龍濟光) of the Guangdong Navy agreed to support the revolution. The Qing viceroy of Liangguang
Viceroy of Liangguang
The Viceroy of Liangguang , fully referred to as the Governor General of Liangguang and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Manager of Waterways; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight viceroys in China proper during the Qing Dynasty of China...

 Zhang Mingqi (張鳴岐) was forced to discuss with the local representatives a proposal for Guangdong's independence. They decided to announce Guangdong's independence the next day. Chen Jiongming then captured Huizhou. On November 9 Guangdong announced its independence, and established a Military Government. They elected Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming as the chief and vice governor. Qiu Fengjia
Qiu Fengjia
Qiu Fengjia was a Chinese patriot, educator and, poet. He was born in Miaoli County in Taiwan. He was given the command of militia forces in Taiwan during Japanese invasion of Taiwan in 1895, but soon fled to mainland China after President Tang Chin-sung of Republic of Formosa fled the island...

 is known to have help make the independence declaration more peaceful.

Shandong independence

On November 13, persuaded by revolutionary Din Weifen (丁惟汾) and several other officers of the New Army, the Qing Governor of Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 Sun Baoqi agreed to secede from the Qing Government and announced Shandong's independence.

Ningxia Uprising

On November 17, Ningxia
Ningxia
Ningxia, formerly transliterated as Ningsia, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Located in Northwest China, on the Loess Plateau, the Yellow River flows through this vast area of land. The Great Wall of China runs along its northeastern boundary...

 the Tongmenghui launched the "Ningxia Uprising" (寧夏會黨起義). The revolutionaries sent Yu Youren to Zhangjiachuan to meet Dungan Sufi master Ma Yuanzhang to persuade him not to support the Qing. But Ma didn't want to endanger his relationship with the Qings. He sent the eastern Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

 Muslim militia under the command of one of his son to help Ma Qi
Ma Qi
Ma Qi was a Chinese Muslim warlord in early 20th century China.-Early life:His grandfather Sa-la Ma , is a Salar. He was born in 1869 in Daohe, now part of Linxia, Gansu, China. His father was Ma Haiyan...

 crush the Ningxia Gelaohui. The "Ningxia Revolutionary Military Government" would be established on November 23. Some of the revolutionaries involved include Huang yue (黃鉞) and Xiang shen (向燊) who gathered New Armies at Qinzhou (秦州).

Sichuan independence

On November 21, Guang'an
Guang'an
Guang'an is a prefecture-level city in eastern Sichuan province. It is most famous as the birthplace of China's former paramount leader Deng Xiaoping. Guang'an lies between the hills of central Sichuan and the gorges area of the east...

 organized the "Great Han shu
Shu Han
Shu Han was one of the three states competing for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period, after the fall of the Han Dynasty. The state was based on areas around Sichuan, which was then known as Shu...

 northern Military Government".

On November 22, Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 and Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 began to declare independence. By the 27th, the "Great Han Sichuan Military Government" was established, headed by revolutionary Pu Dianzun (蒲殿俊). Qing official Duan fang (端方) would also be killed.

Nanking Uprising

On November 8, plotted and supported by the Tongmenghui, Xu Shaozhen (徐紹楨) of the New Army announced an uprising in Molin Pass (秣陵關), 30km away from Nanking City. Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei, and other generals decided to form a united army under Xu to strike Nanking together. On November 11, the united army headquarter was established in Zhenjiang. Between November 24 and December 1, under the command of Xu Shaozhen, the united army captured Wulongshan (烏龍山), Mufushan (幕府山), Yuhuatai (雨花臺), Tianbao City (天保城) and many other strongholds of the Qing Army. On December 2, the Nanking City was captured by the revolutionaries after the "Battle of Nanking". On December 3, revolutionary Su Liangbi led troops to massacre an incalculable number of manchus. He was then arrested with his troops disbanded.

Tibetan Independence

In 1905 the Qing sent Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng was a Qing official and Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. He is known for being the last amban in Tibet, appointed in March, 1908. Lien Yu , a Manchu, was appointed as the other amban...

 to Tibet to put down disorder
1905 Tibetan Rebellion
-Attacks on Christian Missionaries and Converts:Under pressure from foreigners, the Qing Dynasty government allowed Christian missionaries into Tibetan Buddhist areas in Yunnan province. The Tibetan Lamas had long defied the rule of the Qing authorities and officials, and the Qing dynasty fought...

. By 1908 Zhao was appointed imperial resident in Lhasa
Lhasa
Lhasa is the administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China and the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau, after Xining. At an altitude of , Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world...

. When the revolutionaries arrived to Tibet, Zhao would be beheaded in December 1911. The area that was historically known as Kham
Kham
Kham , is a historical region covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibetan Autonomous Region and Sichuan province, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China. During the Republic of China's rule over mainland China , most of the region was...

 was now the Xikang Administrative District
Xikang
Xikang or Sikang , is a defunct province of the Republic of China , comprising most of the Kham region of traditional Tibet, where Khampas, a subgroup of the Tibetan ethnicity, live. The area is also home to a small minority of Mongol ethnicity...

 created by the revolutionaries. By the end of 1912 the last Manchu troops were escorted out of Tibet. Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The name is a combination of the Mongolian word далай meaning "Ocean" and the Tibetan word bla-ma meaning "teacher"...

 returned to Tibet in January 1913 from Sikkim
Sikkim
Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayan mountains...

, where he had been residing. When the new ROC government apologised for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama to his former position. He replied that he was not interested in Chinese ranks and was assuming the spiritual and political leadership of Tibet. Because of this, many have read this reply as a formal declaration of independence. The Chinese side ignored the response, and Tibet had 30 years free of interference from China.

Mongolia independence

At the end of 1911 the Mongols took action with an armed revolt against the Manchu authorities, but was unsuccessful in the attempt. An independence movement took place that was not limited to just North (outer) Mongolia but was a pan-Mongolian phenomenon. On December 29, 1911 Bogd Khan
Bogd Khan
The Bogd Khan was enthroned as the Great Khaan of Mongolia on 29 December 1911, when Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty after the Xinhai Revolution. He was born in the Kham region of eastern Tibet, today's Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China...

 became the leader of the Mongol empire. Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern region of the country. Inner Mongolia shares an international border with the countries of Mongolia and the Russian Federation...

 became a contested terrain between Khan and the Republic. In general Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 supported the Independence of Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolian revolution of 1911
The Outer Mongolian revolution of 1911 occurred when the Chinese province of Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. A combination of factors including economic hardship and failure to resist Western imperialism led many in China to be unhappy...

 (including Tannu Uriankhai
Tannu Uriankhai
Tannu Uriankhai is a historic region of the Mongol Empire and, later, the Qing Dynasty. The realms of Tannu Uriankhai largely correspond to the Tuva Republic of the Russian Federation, neighboring areas in Russia, and a part of the modern state of Mongolia....

) during the time of the Xinhai revolution.
Tibet and Mongolia then recognized each other in a treaty.

Dihua and Yili Uprising

In Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Xinjiang is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2...

 on December 28 Liu Xianzun (劉先俊) and the revolutionaries started the "Dihua
Ürümqi
Ürümqi , formerly Tihwa , is the capital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, in the northwest of the country....

 Uprising" (迪化起義). This was led by more than 100 members of Geilaohui. This uprising would fail. On January 7, 1912 the "Yili
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture , in northernmost Xinjiang, is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the People's Republic of China.-Geography and coordinates:The following figures excludes both Tacheng Prefecture and Altay Prefecture....

 Uprising" (伊犁起義) with Feng Temin (馮特民) would begin. Qing governor Yuan Dahua (袁大化) fled and handed over his resignation to Yang Zengxin
Yang Zengxin
Yang Zengxin , born in Mengzi, Honghe, Yunnan in 1859, was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.-Life:...

 because he could not handle fighting the revolutionaries.

In the morning of January 8, a new Yili government would be established for the revolutionaries. But the revolutionaries would be defeated at Jinghe in January and February. Eventually because of the abdication to come, Yuan Shikai recognized Yang Zengxin's rule and appointed him Governor of Xinjiang and had the province join the Republic. But 11 more former Qing officials would be assasinated in Zhenxi, Karashahr, Aqsu, Kucha
Kucha
Kuchaor Kuche Uyghur , Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin Kùchē; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu from the traditional Chinese forms 屈支 屈茨; 龜玆; 龟兹, 丘玆, also Po ; Sanskrit: Kueina, Standard Tibetan: Kutsahiyui was an ancient Buddhist kingdom...

, Luntai and Kashgar
Kashgar
Kashgar or Kashi is an oasis city with approximately 350,000 residents in the western part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Kashgar is the administrative centre of Kashgar Prefecture which has an area of 162,000 km² and a population of approximately...

 in April and May 1912.

Taiwan Uprising

In 1911 as part of the Xinhai revolution, Tongmenghui sent Luo Fu-xing (羅福星) to Taiwan island to free it from being occupied by the Japanese. The goal was to bring Taiwan island back to the Chinese republic by having a "Taiwan Uprising" (台灣起義). Luo was caught and killed on March 3, 1914. What was left was known as the "Miaoli
Miaoli County
Miaoli County is a county in western Taiwan. The name Miaoli was coined using two Hakka words, cat and raccoon dog , which phonetically approximate Pali , a community of Taokas people...

 incident" (苗栗事件) where more than 1,000 Taiwanese were executed by the Japanese police. Luo's sacrifice is commemorated in Miaoli.

Change of government

North: Qing court last transformation attempt

On November 1, 1911 the Qing Government appointed Yuan Shikai as the prime minister of the imperial cabinet replacing Prince Qing
Yikuang, Prince Qing
Yikuang, the Prince Qing , was a Manchu prince of the late Qing Dynasty, who was the first premier of China...

. On November 3, the Qing court passed the Nineteen Articles (憲法重大信條十九條), which turned the Qing from an autocratic system with the emperor having unlimited power to a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

. On November 9, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 even cabled Yuan Shikai and invited him to join the Republic. The court changes were too late, and the emperor was about to have to step down.

South: Government in Nanking

On November 28, 1911 Wuchang and Hanyang
Hanyang
Hanyang was one of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, People's Republic of China. Currently, it is a district and stands between the Han River and the Yangtze River, where the former falls into the latter...

 had fallen back to the Qing army. So for safety the revolutionaries convened their first conference at the British concession in Hankou
Hankou
Hankou was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, China. It stands north of the Han and Yangtze Rivers where the Han falls into the Yangtze...

 on November 30. By December 2 the revolutionary forces were able to capture Nanking in the uprising, the revolutionaries decided to make it the site of the new provisional government. At the time Beijing was still the Qing capital.

North-South Conference

On December 18 the "North-South Conference" (南北議和) was held in Shanghai to discuss the north and south issues. Yuan Shikai selected Tang Shaoyi
Tang Shaoyi
Táng Shàoyí , was a Chinese diplomat, politician. He was the father-in-law of Wellington Koo and Lee Seng Gee.-Career:...

 as his representative. Tang left Beijing for Wuhan to negotiate with the revolutionaries. The revolutionaries chose Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang was a Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and briefly as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. He is also known under his Cantonese name Ng Choy -Biography:...

. With the intervention of six foreign powers, UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Russia
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Tang Shaoyi and Wu Tingfang began to negotiate a settlement at the British concession
Concession (territory)
In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it. This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.Usually, it is conceded, that...

. Foreign businessman Edward Selby Little (李德立) acted as the negotiator and facilitated the peace agreement. They agreed that Yuan Shikai would force the Qing Emperor to abdicate in exchange for the southern provinces' support of Yuan as the president of the Republic. After considering the possibility that the new republic might be defeated in a civil war or by foreign invasion, Sun Yat-sen agreed to Yuan's proposal to unify China under Yuan Shikai's Beijing government. Further decisions were made to let the emperor rule over his little court in the New Summer Palace. He would be treated as a ruler of a separate country and have expenses of several million taels in silver.

Establishment of the Republic

Republic of China declared and national flag issue

On December 29, 1911 Sun Yat-sen was elected as the first provisional president. January 1, 1912 was set as the first day
Epoch (reference date)
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instance in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. The "epoch" then serves as a reference point from which time is measured...

 of the First Year of the Republic of China. On January 3, the representatives recommended Li Yuanhong as the Provisional vice president.

During and after the Xinhai revolution, many groups that participated wanted their own pennant as the national flag. During the Wuchang uprising the military units of Wuchang wanted the 9-star flag with Taijitu
Taijitu
Taijitu is a term which refers to a Chinese symbol for the concept of yin and yang...

. Others in competition include Lu Hao-tung
Lu Hao-tung
Lu Hao-tung , born Lu Chung-gui , courtesy name Hsien-hsiang , was the first "revolutionary martyr" of the Republic of China...

's Blue Sky and White Sun flag. Huang Xing
Huang Xing
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing , was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, was the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang and the Republic of China, his position was next to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as...

 favored a flag bearing the mythical "well-field" system of village agriculture. In the end, the assembly compromised: the national flag would be the banner of Five Races Under One Union
Five Races Under One Union
Five races under one union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was originally founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.-Description:...

. The Five Races Under One Union flag with horizontal stripes represented the five major nationalities of the republic. The red
Red
Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 630–740 nm. Longer wavelengths than this are called infrared , and cannot be seen by the naked eye...

 represented Han
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, the yellow
Yellow
Yellow is the color evoked by light that stimulates both the L and M cone cells of the retina about equally, with no significant stimulation of the S cone cells. Light with a wavelength of 570–590 nm is yellow, as is light with a suitable mixture of red and green...

 represented Manchus, the blue
Blue
Blue is a colour, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 440–490 nm. It is considered one of the additive primary colours. On the HSV Colour Wheel, the complement of blue is yellow; that is, a colour corresponding to an equal...

 for Mongols, the white
White
White is a color, the perception of which is evoked by light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells in the human eye in nearly equal amounts and with high brightness compared to the surroundings. A white visual stimulation will be void of hue and grayness.White light can be...

 for Tibetans
Tibetan people
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet, which is mostly in the People's Republic of China. They number 5.4 million and are the 10th largest ethnic group in the country. Significant Tibetan minorities also live in India, Nepal, and Bhutan...

, and black
Black
Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of light...

 for Muslim
Islam in China
Throughout the history of Islam in China, Chinese Muslims have influenced the course of Chinese history. Chinese Muslims have been in China for the last 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society...

. Despite the general target of the uprisings to be the Manchus, Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren and Huang Xing unanimously advocated racial integration
Racial integration
Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation . In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely...

 to be carried out on the frontiers.

Donghuamen incident

On January 16, while returning to his residence, Yuan Shikai was ambushed in a bomb attack organized by the Tongmenghui in Donghuamen (東華門), Tientsin, Beijing. A total of 18 revolutionaries were involved. About 10 of the guards died but Yuan himself was not seriously injured. He sent a message to the revolutionaries the next day pledging his loyalty and asking them to not organize any more assassination attempts against him.

Abdication of the emperor

On January 20 Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang was a Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and briefly as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. He is also known under his Cantonese name Ng Choy -Biography:...

 of the Nanking Provisional Government officially delivered the imperial edict of abdication to Yuan Shikai the terms for the abdication
Abdication
Abdication occurs when a monarch, such as a king or emperor, renounces his office.-Terminology:The word abdication comes derives from the Latin abdicatio. meaning to disown or renounce...

 of Qing Emperor Xuantong Puyi
Puyi
Puyi , of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China, and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty. He ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912. From 1 to 12 July 1917 he was briefly restored to the throne as a nominal emperor by the...

. It was drafted by Zhang Jian
Zhang Jian (politician)
Zhang Jian , courtesy name Jizhi , sobriquet Se'an , was a Chinese entrepreneur, politician and educationist.-Biography:Zhang was born in Haimen County, Jiangsu Province in 1853...

, and was approved by the Provisional senate. On January 22, Sun Yat-sen announced that if Yuan Shikai supported the emperor's abdication, he (Sun Yat-sen) would resign the presidency in favor of Yuan Shikai. After Yuan received this promise, he sped up the process. He threatened Empress Longyu that if the revolutionaries came to Beijing, the lives of the royal family would not be spared, but if they agree to abdicate, the terms for their abdication would be honored.

On February 3, Empress Longyu gave Yuan Shikai full permission to negotiate the terms for the abdication of the Qing Emperor. Yuan then drew up his own version and forwarded it back to the revolutionaries on February 3. His version consist of three sections instead of two. On February 12, 1912, after being persuaded and pressured by Yuan Shikai and other ministers, Puyi (age 6) and Empress Longyu accepted the terms for the Imperial family's abdication.

Dong'anmen gate incident

The revolutionaries were trying to lure Yuan Shikai to the south. By making Yuan the president of the southern Nanking-based provisional government, he would have to give up his military power base in the north. In February 1912, troops were looting shops and stealing from rich commercial areas. They then burned down the Dong'anmen gate (東安門) on the wall surrounding the Imperial City
Imperial City (Beijing)
The Imperial City is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties, with the Forbidden City at its center. It refers to the collection of gardens, shrines, and other service areas between the Forbidden City and the Inner City of ancient Beijing...

. Thousands of people were killed. This mutiny was actually ordered by Yuan and Cao Kun
Cao Kun
|-...

. Yuan intimidated the revolutionaries and made it clear that the new government would have to go to him in Beijing, he was not going to the south. This was an excuse to move the capital of the new republic from Nanking back to Beijing.

Government in Beijing

On March 10, 1912, Yuan Shikai was sworn as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China in Beijing. The government based in Beijing, called the Beiyang Government
Beiyang Government
The Beiyang government or warlord government collectively refers to a series of military regimes that ruled from Beijing from 1912 to 1928 at Zhongnanhai. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Government of the Republic of China. The name comes from the Beiyang Army which dominated...

, was internationally recognized as the legitimate government of the Republic of China until 1928, so the period from 1912 until 1928 was known simply as the "Beiyang Period". The first National assembly election
Republic of China National Assembly elections, 1912
The Republic of China National Assembly elections, 1912, held in December 1912 to January 1913, were the first elections for the new founded Republic of China Senate and House of Representatives....

 would take place according to the Provisional constitution
Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China
After the victory in Xinhai Revolution, the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China, led by Sun Yat-sen, framed the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China , which was an outline of basic regulations with the qualities of a formal constitution.On March 11, 1912, it...

. While in Beijing the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 (KMT) would be formed on August 25, 1912. The KMT would win the majority seats after the election. Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang . He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China's first democratic elections...

 would be elected as premier. However, Song was assassinated in Shanghai on March 20, 1913 under the secret order of Yuan Shikai.

Social influence

After the revolution there was a huge outpouring of anti-Manchu literature. Some include Wang Xiuchu
Wang Xiuchu
Wang Xiuchu was a 17th century Chinese middle-class scholar who lived through the conquest of the Ming Dynasty by the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty. Wang's most significant accomplishment is his writing of the "Yangzhou shiri ji" an account that details his survival of the notorious Massacre of...

's graphical account of the 10 day Chinese massacre in Yangzhou
Yangzhou massacre
The Yangzhou massacre took place in 1645 in Yangzhou, China, during the Qing Dynasty. Mass killings of residents in Yangzhou were conducted by Qing troops under the command of Prince Dodo after they conquered the city from forces loyal to the Southern Ming regime of the Hongguang Emperor.The...

. Another is "A Short History of Slaves
Nucai
Nucai is a Chinese term that can be translated as flunkey, lackey, yes-man, servant, slave, or a person of unquestioning obedience. It originated in the nomadic tribes of northern China as a negative and derogatory term, often reserved for insult for someone perceived to be useless or incompetent...

"
(奴才小史) and "The Biographies of Avaricious Officials and Corrupt Personnel" (貪官污吏傳) by Laoli (老吏). Many other literature wrote about the era. During the abdication of the last emperor, Empress Longyu, Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen all tried to adopt the concept of "Manchu and Han as one family" (滿漢一家). But people starting exploring and debating with themselves on the root cause of their national weakness. This new search of identity was the New Culture Movement
New Culture Movement
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems. Scholars like Chen Duxiu, Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, and Hu Shi, had...

. Manchu culture and language
Manchu language
Manchu is a Tungusic endangered language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus...

 on the contrary has become virtually extinct by 2007.

Unlike revolutions in the West, the Xinhai Revolution did not restructure society. The participants of Xinhai Revolution were mostly military personnel, old type bureaucrats, and local gentries. These people still held regional power after the Xinhai Revolution. Some became warlords. There were no major improvements in the standard of living
Standard of living
Standard of living is generally measured by standards such as real income per person and poverty rate. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth inequality and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods , or measures of health such as...

. The economic problems were not addressed until Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo , Kuomintang politician and leader, was the son of President Chiang Kai-shek and held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China...

 on Taiwan and Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician, statesman, and diplomat. As leader of the Communist Party of China, Deng was a reformer who led China towards a market economy...

 on the mainland.

The Xinhai Revolution mainly got rid of feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.Although derived from the...

 (fengjian
Fengjian
Fēngjiàn is the political ideology of the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. Fengjian is a "decentralized system of government," comparable to European feudalism, though recent scholarship has suggested that fengjian lacks some of the fundamental aspects of feudalism.-Ranks:The sizes of troops and...

) from Late Imperial China
Late Imperial China
Late Imperial China refers to the period between the end of Mongol rule in 1368 and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912 and includes the Ming and Qing Dynasties...

 era. In the usual view of historians there are two restorations of feudal power after the revolution: first was Yuan Shikai, second was Zhang Xun
Zhang Xun
Zhang Xun or Chang Hsün may refer to:*Zhang Xun , general serving under the warlord Yuan Shu during the late Han Dynasty*Zhang Xun , Tang Dynasty general involved in the Battle of Suiyang against An Lushan...

. Both were unsuccessful. But the "feudal remnants" returned to China with the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 in a concept called guanxi
Guanxi
Guanxi describes the basic dynamic in personalized networks of influence, and is a central idea in Chinese society. In Western media, the pinyin romanization of this Chinese word is becoming more widely used instead of the two common translations—"connections" and "relationships"—as neither of...

 where people relied not on feudal relationships, but personal relationships for survival. While guanxi is helpful in Taiwan, on the mainland guanxi is necessary to get anything done.

Historical significance

The Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing government and 2,000 years of monarchy. Throughout Chinese history, old dynasties had always been replaced by new dynasties. The Xinhai Revolution, however, was the first to overthrow a monarchy completely and attempt to establish a Republic to spread democratic ideas throughout China. Though in 1911 at the provisional government welcome ceremony Sun Yat-sen said "The revolution is not yet successful, the comrade
Comrade
Comrade means "friend", "colleague", or "ally". The word comes from French camarade. The term is frequently used by left-wing organizations around the globe. "Comrade" has often become a stock phrase and form of address. This word has its regional equivalents available in many...

s still need to strive for the future" (革命尚未成功,同志仍需努力).

After the 1920s, the two dominant parties—the KMT and CPC see the Xinhai Revolution quite differently. Both sides recognize Sun Yat-sen as the Father of the Nation
Father of the Nation
Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of their country, state or nation...

. But in Taiwan, they mean "Father of the Republic of China". The father of New China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 is seen as Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

. On the mainland, Sun Yat-sen was seen as the man who just help bring down the Qing, a pre-condition for the Communist state founded in 1949. The PRC views Sun's work as the first step towards the real revolution in 1949, when the communists set up a truly independent state that expelled foreigners and built a military and industrial power. In 1954 Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi was a Chinese revolutionary, statesman, and theorist. He was Chairman of the People's Republic of China, China's head of state, from 27 April 1959 to 31 October 1968, during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China...

 was quoted as saying that the "Xinhai Revolution inserted the concept of a republic into common people". Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976...

 pointed out that "Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing rule, ended 2000 years of monarchy, and liberated the mind of people to a great extent, and opened up the path for the development of future revolution. This is a great victory". Much of the differences between the two sides can be seen in the 100th Anniversary of the Republic of China
100th Anniversary of the Republic of China
The 100th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of China began on October 10, 2011 on the 100th anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. It was celebrated in Taiwan and mainland China, but the meaning of the celebration varies differently by region....

.

Modern evaluation

A change in the belief that the revolution had been a generally positive change began in late 1980s and 1990s. But Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao
Zhang Shizhao , courtesy name Xingyan, penname Huangzhonghuang, Qingtong or Qiutong, was a Chinese politician of the 20th century. He was the Minister of Justice and Minister of Education of the Beiyang Government, led by Duan Qirui during the Republic of China period...

 was quoted as arguing that "When talking about the Xinhai Revolution, the theorist these days tends to overemphasize. The word ‘success’ was way overused".

The success of the democracy gained from the revolution can vary depending on view. Even after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925, for 60 years the KMT controlled all five branches of the government; none was independent. Yan Jiaqi
Yan Jiaqi
Yan Jiaqi 嚴家其 is a Chinese political scientist, now a dissident and federalist.In 1959, he entered the University of Science and Technology of China, and then became the director of the Institute of Political Research of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, where he published several essays and...

 founder of the Federation for a Democratic China
Federation for a Democratic China
Federation for a Democratic China is an interest group that advocates the democratization of China through opposition of the Communist Party of China and support of human rights. It was founded on September 22, 1989 in Paris, France, following the June 4, 1989 Tiananmen Incident. It was a party of...

 have said that Sun Yat-sen is to be credited as founding China's first republic in 1912, and the second republic is the people of Taiwan and the political parties there now democratizing the region. In 2011 president Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou is the 12th term and current President of the Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan, and the Chairman of the Kuomintang Party, also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party. He formerly served as Justice Minister from 1993 to 1996, Mayor of Taipei from 1998 to 2006, and Chairman...

 praised the Western political model for the successful democratization of Taiwan.

Meanwhile the ideals of democracy is far from realised on the mainland. For example Chinese premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao is the sixth and current Premier and Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government and leading its cabinet. In his capacity as Premier, Wen is regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy...

 once said in a speech that without real democracy there is no guarantee of economic and political rights. But he led a 2011 crackdown
2011 crackdown on dissidents in the People's Republic of China
The 2011 crackdown on dissidents in the People's Republic of China refers to the arrest of dozens of mainland Chinese rights lawyers, activists and grassroots agitators in a response to the 2011 Chinese pro-democracy protests...

 against the peaceful Chinese jasmine protests. Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo is a Chinese literary critic, writer, professor, and human rights activist who called for political reforms and the end of communist single-party rule in China...

, a pro-democracy activist who received the global 2010 Nobel Peace Prize
2010 Nobel Peace Prize
The 2010 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to imprisoned Chinese human rights activist "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"...

 is in prison. Others such as Qin Yongmin (秦永敏) of the Democracy Party of China was only released from prison after 12 years doesn't praise the Xinhai Revolution. He said the revolution only replaced one dictator with another, that Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

 was not an emperor, but he is worse than the emperor.

See also

  • Timeline of Late Anti-Qing Rebellions
  • History of the Republic of China
    History of the Republic of China
    The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing Dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China put an end to over two thousand years of Imperial rule. The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1912...

  • Military of the Republic of China
    Military of the Republic of China
    The Republic of China Armed Forces encompass the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Military Police Force of the Republic of China . It is a military establishment, which accounted for 16.8% of the central budget in the fiscal year of 2003...

  • History of China
    History of China
    Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest...

  • National Revolutionary Army
    National Revolutionary Army
    The National Revolutionary Army , pre-1928 sometimes shortened to 革命軍 or Revolutionary Army and between 1928-1947 as 國軍 or National Army was the Military Arm of the Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMT's period of party rule...

  • Kuomintang
    Kuomintang
    The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

  • Taishō period
    Taisho period
    The , or Taishō era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Taishō Emperor. The health of the new emperor was weak, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen to the Diet...

  • Russian Revolution (1917)
  • German Revolution of 1918–19

Primary sources

  • Wu Xinghan , Three Day Journal of Wuchang Uprising

Contemporary accounts

  • Edwin J. Dingle, China's Revolution: 1911–1912. A Historical and Political Record of the Civil War (Shanghai, China: Commercial Press, 1912).
  • P. H. B. Kent, The Passing of the Manchus (London: E. Arnold, 1912).

English


  • Joseph Esherick. Reform and Revolution in China : The 1911 Revolution in Hunan and Hubei. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. ISBN 0520030842

  • Shinkichi Eto and Harold Z. Schiffrin. China's Republican Revolution. [Tokyo]: University of Tokyo Press, 1994. ISBN 4130270303.

  • Edmund S. K. Fung. The Military Dimension of the Chinese Revolution : The New Army and Its Role in the Revolution of 1911. Vancouver [B.C.]: University of British Columbia Press, 1980. ISBN 0774801298.


  • L. Eve Armentrout Ma. Revolutionaries, Monarchists, and Chinatowns : Chinese Politics in the Americas and the 1911 Revolution. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. ISBN 0824812395 9780824812393.

  • Mary Backus Rankin. Elite Activism and Political Transformation in China : Zhejiang Province, 1865–1911. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1986. ISBN 0804713219.

  • Mary Wright. China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900–1913. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968. xiii, 505p. ISBN 0300014600 (paper).

  • Winston Hsieh (Wensun Xie). Chinese Historiography on the Revolution of 1911 : A Critical Survey and a Selected Bibliography. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1975. ISBN 0817933417.

  • Ernest P. Young. The Presidency of Yuan Shih-K'ai : Liberalism and Dictatorship in Early Republican China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Michigan Studies on China, 1977. ISBN.
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