Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Overview
 
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 and to the education of marine researchers. Established in 1930, it is the largest independent oceanographic
Oceanography
Oceanography , also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean...

 research institution in the U.S., with staff and students numbering about 1,000. The Institution is organized into five departments, four interdisciplinary institutes—ocean life, coastal ocean, ocean and climate change, deep ocean exploration—the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, and a marine policy center.
Encyclopedia
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 and to the education of marine researchers. Established in 1930, it is the largest independent oceanographic
Oceanography
Oceanography , also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean...

 research institution in the U.S., with staff and students numbering about 1,000. The Institution is organized into five departments, four interdisciplinary institutes—ocean life, coastal ocean, ocean and climate change, deep ocean exploration—the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, and a marine policy center. Its shore-based facilities are located in the village of Woods Hole
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
Woods Hole is a census-designated place in the town of Falmouth in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, United States. It lies at the extreme southwest corner of Cape Cod, near Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands...

,http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=8958 Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

, and a mile and a half away on the Quissett Campus. The bulk of the Institution's funding comes from grants and contracts from the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health...

 and other government agencies, augmented by foundations and private donations.

In an interdisciplinary atmosphere that nurtures discovery, WHOI scientists, engineers, and students collaborate to explore the frontiers of knowledge about planet Earth. They develop theories, test ideas, build seagoing instruments, and collect data in diverse marine environments. Working in all the world’s oceans, their broad research agenda includes: geological activity deep within the earth; plant, animal, and microbial populations and their interactions in the ocean; coastal erosion; ocean circulation; ocean pollution; and global climate change.

Ships operated by WHOI carry research scientists throughout the world’s oceans. The WHOI fleet includes three large research vessels (R/V Atlantis, R/V Knorr
R/V Knorr
R/V Knorr is a research vessel owned by the U.S. Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for the U.S. research community in coordination with and as a part of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System fleet. Knorr is best known as the ship that supported...

, and R/V Oceanus
R/V Oceanus
RV Oceanus is a research vessel owned by the National Science Foundation and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as a part of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System fleet. Oceanus is described by WHOI as "the North Atlantic workhorse of the WHOI-UNOLS fleet" used...

), coastal craft including R/V Tioga
R/V Tioga
R/V Tioga is a coastal research vessel operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.Tioga is a fast coastal vessel designed to quickly take advantage of weather windows and breaking events, such as the 2004 Harmful Algae Bloom outbreak.Currently Tioga is heavily involved in the tagging and...

, the deep-diving human-occupied submersible Alvin
DSV Alvin
Alvin is a manned deep-ocean research submersible owned by the United States Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The vehicle was built by General Mills' Electronics Group in the same factory used to manufacture breakfast cereal-producing...

, the tethered, remotely-operated vehicle Jason/Medea, and autonomous underwater vehicles such as the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) and SeaBED
Seabed
The seabed is the bottom of the ocean.- Ocean structure :Most of the oceans have a common structure, created by common physical phenomena, mainly from tectonic movement, and sediment from various sources...

.

WHOI offers graduate and post-graduate studies in nearly all areas of marine science. There are several fellowship and traineeship programs, and graduate degrees are awarded through a joint program with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) or by the Institution itself. WHOI also offers other outreach programs and informal public education through its Exhibit Center and summer tours. The Institution has a volunteer program and a membership program, WHOI Associates.

Mission

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is dedicated to research and education to advance understanding of the ocean and its interaction with the Earth system, and to communicating this understanding for the benefit of society.

History

In 1927, a National Academy of Sciences
United States National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine." As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and...

 committee concluded that it was time to "consider the share of the United States of America in a worldwide program of oceanographic research." The committee's recommendation for establishing a permanent independent research laboratory on the East Coast to "prosecute oceanography in all its branches" led to the founding in 1930 of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

A $3 million grant from the Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
The Rockefeller Foundation is a prominent philanthropic organization and private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The preeminent institution established by the six-generation Rockefeller family, it was founded by John D. Rockefeller , along with his son John D. Rockefeller, Jr...

 supported the summer work of a dozen scientists, construction of a laboratory building and commissioning of a research vessel, the 142 feet (43.3 m) ketch Atlantis, whose profile still forms the Institution's logo.

WHOI grew substantially to support significant defense-related research during World War II, and later began a steady growth in staff, research fleet, and scientific stature. Over the years, WHOI scientists have made seminal discoveries about the ocean that have contributed to improving US commerce, health, national security, and quality of life.

In February 2008, Dr. Susan K. Avery became the new president and director of the institution. Avery, an atmospheric physicist, is the ninth director in WHOI's 77-year history, and the first woman to hold the position.

Research vessels

WHOI operates several research vessel
Research vessel
A research vessel is a ship designed and equipped to carry out research at sea. Research vessels carry out a number of roles. Some of these roles can be combined into a single vessel, others require a dedicated vessel...

s, owned by the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

, the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health...

, or the Institution: http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=8122
  • R/V Knorr (AGOR-15)
    R/V Knorr
    R/V Knorr is a research vessel owned by the U.S. Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for the U.S. research community in coordination with and as a part of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System fleet. Knorr is best known as the ship that supported...

  • R/V Atlantis (AGOR-25)
    R/V Atlantis (AGOR-25)
    R/V Atlantis is an oceanographic research vessel operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as part of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System fleet. It is the host vessel of DSV Alvin...

  • R/V Oceanus
    R/V Oceanus
    RV Oceanus is a research vessel owned by the National Science Foundation and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as a part of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System fleet. Oceanus is described by WHOI as "the North Atlantic workhorse of the WHOI-UNOLS fleet" used...

  • R/V Tioga
    R/V Tioga
    R/V Tioga is a coastal research vessel operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.Tioga is a fast coastal vessel designed to quickly take advantage of weather windows and breaking events, such as the 2004 Harmful Algae Bloom outbreak.Currently Tioga is heavily involved in the tagging and...


Underwater vehicles

WHOI also has developed numerous underwater autonomous and remotely operated vehicles for research:
  • ALVIN
    Alvin
    Alvin is a male given name.*Alvin Seville, Cartoon singing chipmunk from, "Alvin and the chipmunks "Alvin and the Chipmunks " and "Alvin and the Chipmunks The Squeakquel"*Alvin Adams, early 19th century businessman...

    - a Human-Occupied Vehicle.
  • Remus - Remote Environment Monitoring UnitS, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
    An autonomous underwater vehicle is a robot which travels underwater without requiring input from an operator. AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea systems known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles...

     (AUV).
  • ABE - Autonomous Benthic Explorer, another Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
    An autonomous underwater vehicle is a robot which travels underwater without requiring input from an operator. AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea systems known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles...

    .
  • SeaBED
    Seabed
    The seabed is the bottom of the ocean.- Ocean structure :Most of the oceans have a common structure, created by common physical phenomena, mainly from tectonic movement, and sediment from various sources...

     - An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
    An autonomous underwater vehicle is a robot which travels underwater without requiring input from an operator. AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea systems known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles...

     optimized for high-resolution seafloor imaging.
  • Jason - A Remotely Operated Vehicle
    Remotely operated vehicle
    A remotely operated vehicle is a tethered underwater vehicle. They are common in deepwater industries such as offshore hydrocarbon extraction. An ROV may sometimes be called a remotely operated underwater vehicle to distinguish it from remote control vehicles operating on land or in the air. ROVs...

     (ROV).
  • Nereus
    Nereus (underwater vehicle)
    Nereus is a hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle built by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution . Constructed as a research vehicle to operate at depths of up to , it was designed to explore Challenger Deep, the deepest surveyed point in the global ocean...

    (HROV, a type of Remotely Operated Vehicle) - A hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle.
  • Sentry
    Sentry (AUV)
    The Sentry is an autonomous underwater vehicle made by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Sentry is designed to descend to depths of and to carry a range of devices for taking samples, pictures and readings from the deep sea....

    An autonomous underwater vehicle
    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
    An autonomous underwater vehicle is a robot which travels underwater without requiring input from an operator. AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea systems known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles...

     and successor to ABE


WHOI also shares with MBL a large library of marine-related works.

See also

  • Marine Biological Laboratory
    Marine Biological Laboratory
    The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research and education in biology, biomedicine and ecology. Founded in 1888, the MBL is the oldest independent marine laboratory in the Americas, taking advantage of a coastal setting in the Cape Cod village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts...

    , a neighboring but administratively unrelated institution in Woods Hole
  • Liquid Jungle Lab, a tropical research station in Pacific Panama operated by WHOI
  • Scripps Institution of Oceanography
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and earth science research, graduate training, and public service in the world...

    , a similar research facility associated with the University of California, San Diego
    University of California, San Diego
    The University of California, San Diego, commonly known as UCSD or UC San Diego, is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, United States...

     and located in La Jolla, California
  • The Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences
    Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences
    The Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences focuses on marine science-related education and research. IMCS was founded in 1993 on the Cook Campus at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. IMCS is the home of LEO-15, more formally known as the Long-term Ecosystem Observatory...

    , a smaller oceanographic facility located at Rutgers University
    Rutgers University
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey , is the largest institution for higher education in New Jersey, United States. It was originally chartered as Queen's College in 1766. It is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine Colonial colleges founded before the American...

     in New Jersey
  • Stroud Water Research Center, a similar facility dedicated to freshwater rather than saltwater research

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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