Vostok rocket
Overview
 
Vostok was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 R-7 Semyorka
R-7 Semyorka
The R-7 was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7 made 28 launches between 1957 and 1961, but was never deployed operationally. A derivative, the R-7A, was deployed from 1960 to 1968...

 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight
Human spaceflight
Human spaceflight is spaceflight with humans on the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is manned, it can be piloted directly, as opposed to machine or robotic space probes and remotely-controlled satellites....

 programme
Vostok programme
The Vostok programme was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in putting a person into Earth's orbit for the first time. The programme developed the Vostok spacecraft from the Zenit spy satellite project and adapted the Vostok rocket from an existing ICBM design...

. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite ("sputnik") and the first manned spacecraft in human history. It was a subset of the R-7 family of rockets.

On March 18, 1980 a Vostok-2M rocket exploded on its launch pad at Plesetsk
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome is a Russian spaceport, located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, about 800 km north of Moscow and approximately 200 km south of Arkhangelsk.-Overview:...

 during a fueling operation, killing 48.
Encyclopedia
Vostok was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 R-7 Semyorka
R-7 Semyorka
The R-7 was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7 made 28 launches between 1957 and 1961, but was never deployed operationally. A derivative, the R-7A, was deployed from 1960 to 1968...

 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight
Human spaceflight
Human spaceflight is spaceflight with humans on the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is manned, it can be piloted directly, as opposed to machine or robotic space probes and remotely-controlled satellites....

 programme
Vostok programme
The Vostok programme was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in putting a person into Earth's orbit for the first time. The programme developed the Vostok spacecraft from the Zenit spy satellite project and adapted the Vostok rocket from an existing ICBM design...

. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite ("sputnik") and the first manned spacecraft in human history. It was a subset of the R-7 family of rockets.

On March 18, 1980 a Vostok-2M rocket exploded on its launch pad at Plesetsk
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome is a Russian spaceport, located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, about 800 km north of Moscow and approximately 200 km south of Arkhangelsk.-Overview:...

 during a fueling operation, killing 48. An investigation into a similar but avoided accident revealed that the substitution of lead-based for tin-based solder in hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide and an oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water. In dilute solution, it appears colorless. With its oxidizing properties, hydrogen peroxide is often used as a bleach or cleaning agent...

 filters had resulted in the breakdown of the H2O2 and the resulting explosion.

Versions

The major versions of the rocket were:
  • Luna
    Luna (rocket)
    The Luna 8K72 vehicles were carrier rockets used by the Soviet Union for nine space probe launch attempts in the Luna programme between 1958-09-23 and 1960-04-16...

     8K72 - used to launch the early Luna
    Luna programme
    The Luna programme , occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. Fifteen were successful, each designed as either an orbiter or lander, and accomplished many firsts in space exploration...

     spacecraft
  • Vostok-L
    Vostok-L
    The Vostok-L , GRAU index 8K72 was a rocket used by the Soviet Union to conduct several early tests of the Vostok spacecraft. It was derived from the Luna rocket, with a slightly enlarged second stage to accommodate the larger payload, and was a member of the R-7 family of rockets...

     8K72 - Variant of the Luna, used to launch prototype Vostok spacecraft
    Vostok spacecraft
    The Vostok was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union. The first human spaceflight in history was accomplished on this spacecraft on April 12, 1961, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin....

  • Vostok-K
    Vostok-K
    The Vostok-K , GRAU index 8K72K was an expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union for thirteen launches between 1960 and 1964, six of which were manned. It was derived from the earlier Vostok-L, however it featured uprated engines to improve performance, and enlarge its payload capacity...

     8K72K - a refined version of the above. This was the version actually used for human spaceflight
  • Vostok-2
    Vostok-2 (rocket)
    The Vostok-2 , GRAU index 8A92 was an expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union between 1962 and 1967. Forty five were launched, of which five failed. It was derived from the earlier Vostok-K, with uprated engines. It was a member of the R-7 family of rockets.The Vostok-2 made its maiden...

     8A92 - used for launching Zenit
    Zenit spy satellite
    Zenit is the name of a series of military spy satellites launched by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1994. To conceal their nature, all flights were given the public Kosmos designation...

     reconnaissance satellites throughout the 1960s
  • Vostok-2M
    Vostok-2M
    The Vostok-2M , GRAU index 8A92M was an expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union between 1964 and 1991. Ninety-three were launched, of which one failed. Another was destroyed before launch. It was originally built as a specialised version of the earlier Vostok-2, for injecting lighter...

     8A92M - modified version for launching Meteor
    Meteor (satellite)
    The Meteor craft are weather observation satellites launched by the USSR. The Meteor satellites were designed to monitor atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures, humidity, radiation, sea ice conditions, snow-cover, and clouds.-Meteor 2-21:...

     weather satellite
    Weather satellite
    The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth. Satellites can be either polar orbiting, seeing the same swath of the Earth every 12 hours, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on Earth by orbiting over the equator while...

    s into higher orbits.
  • Soyuz/Vostok
    Soyuz/Vostok
    The Soyuz/Vostok, also known as just Soyuz or Vostok, or by its GRAU index, 11A510 was an interim expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union in 1965 and 1966. Two were launched with prototype US-A satellites....

     11A110 - hybrid of Soyuz
    Soyuz (rocket)
    The Soyuz was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Samara, Russia. It was used to launch Soyuz spacecraft as part of the Soyuz programme, initially on unmanned test flights, followed by the first 19 manned launches of the...

     and Vostok rockets used as an interim for two launches

Vostok 8K72K

  • Stage Number: 1 - Strap-on Boosters; 4 x Vostok 8K72K-0
    • Gross Mass: 43,300 kg
    • Empty Mass: 3,710 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 4 x 99,000 kgf
      Kilogram-force
      A kilogram-force , or kilopond , is a gravitational metric unit of force. It is equal to the magnitude of the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in a gravitational field...

       (971 kN) = 3.88 MN
    • Isp: 313 s (3.07 kN·s/kg)
    • Burn time: 118 s
    • Isp(sl): 256 s (2.51 kN·s/kg)
    • Diameter: 2.68 m
    • Span: 8.35 m
    • Length: 19.00 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engines: 1 x RD-107
      RD-107
      The RD-107 is a type of rocket engine initially used to launch R-7 Semyorka missiles. RD-107 engines were later used on space launch vehicles based on the R-7...

      -8D74-1959 per booster = 4

  • Stage Number: 2 - Core stage; 1 x Vostok 8K72K-1
    • Gross Mass: 100,400 kg
    • Empty Mass: 6,800 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 912 kN
    • Isp: 315 s (3.09 kN·s/kg)
    • Burn time: 301 s
    • Isp(sl): 248 s (2.43 kN·s/kg)
    • Diameter: 2.99 m
    • Length: 28.00 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engine: 1 x RD-108-8D75-1959

  • Stage Number: 3 - Final stage; 1 x Vostok 8K72K-2
    • Gross Mass: 7,775 kg
    • Empty Mass: 1,440 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 54.5 kN
    • Isp: 326 s (3.20 kN·s/kg)
    • Burn time: 365 s
    • Diameter: 2.56 m
    • Span: 2.56 m
    • Length: 2.84 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engine: 1 x RD-0109

See also

  • Vostok spacecraft
    Vostok spacecraft
    The Vostok was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union. The first human spaceflight in history was accomplished on this spacecraft on April 12, 1961, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin....

  • Vostok programme
    Vostok programme
    The Vostok programme was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in putting a person into Earth's orbit for the first time. The programme developed the Vostok spacecraft from the Zenit spy satellite project and adapted the Vostok rocket from an existing ICBM design...

  • Vostok 1
    Vostok 1
    Vostok 1 was the first spaceflight in the Vostok program and the first human spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA spacecraft was launched on April 12, 1961. The flight took Yuri Gagarin, a cosmonaut from the Soviet Union, into space. The flight marked the first time that a human entered outer...

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