Volkswagen Passat
Overview
 
The Volkswagen Passat is a large family car
Large family car
A large family car, also known as a D-segment car, is a European automobile classification which is larger than a small family car and smaller than an executive car. Multi-purpose vehicles based on a large family car design are often called large MPVs, while similarly-priced models from luxury car...

 marketed by Volkswagen Passenger Cars
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

 through six design generations since 1973. Between the Volkswagen Golf
Volkswagen Golf
The Volkswagen Golf is a small family car manufactured by Volkswagen since 1974 and marketed worldwide across six generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada , and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico .The...

 / Volkswagen Jetta
Volkswagen Jetta
Although the Golf had reached considerable success, in the North American markets, Volkswagen observed that the hatchback body style lacked some of the appeal to those who preferred the traditional three-box configuration...

 and the Volkswagen Phaeton
Volkswagen Phaeton
The Volkswagen Phaeton is a full-size luxury sedan/saloon manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen, and is described by Volkswagen as their "premium class" vehicle...

 in the current Volkswagen line-up, the Passat and its derivatives have been badged variously as Dasher, Santana, Quantum, Magotan, Corsar and Carat. The successive generations of the Passat carry the VW internal designations B1, B2, etc.

In 2008, Volkswagen extended its range with the launch of the Passat CC
Volkswagen Passat CC
The Volkswagen Passat CC is a 4-door coupé version of the Volkswagen Passat. It debuted in January 2008 at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit...

, a "four-door coupé" version of the Passat.

Volkswagen is currently marketing two different Passats concurrently across the globe.
Encyclopedia
The Volkswagen Passat is a large family car
Large family car
A large family car, also known as a D-segment car, is a European automobile classification which is larger than a small family car and smaller than an executive car. Multi-purpose vehicles based on a large family car design are often called large MPVs, while similarly-priced models from luxury car...

 marketed by Volkswagen Passenger Cars
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

 through six design generations since 1973. Between the Volkswagen Golf
Volkswagen Golf
The Volkswagen Golf is a small family car manufactured by Volkswagen since 1974 and marketed worldwide across six generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada , and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico .The...

 / Volkswagen Jetta
Volkswagen Jetta
Although the Golf had reached considerable success, in the North American markets, Volkswagen observed that the hatchback body style lacked some of the appeal to those who preferred the traditional three-box configuration...

 and the Volkswagen Phaeton
Volkswagen Phaeton
The Volkswagen Phaeton is a full-size luxury sedan/saloon manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen, and is described by Volkswagen as their "premium class" vehicle...

 in the current Volkswagen line-up, the Passat and its derivatives have been badged variously as Dasher, Santana, Quantum, Magotan, Corsar and Carat. The successive generations of the Passat carry the VW internal designations B1, B2, etc.

In 2008, Volkswagen extended its range with the launch of the Passat CC
Volkswagen Passat CC
The Volkswagen Passat CC is a 4-door coupé version of the Volkswagen Passat. It debuted in January 2008 at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit...

, a "four-door coupé" version of the Passat.

Volkswagen is currently marketing two different Passats concurrently across the globe. On January 9, 2011, Volkswagen announced that the new mid-size sedan being built at the Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant
Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant
Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant is an automobile assembly plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee that began production in April 2011, was formally inaugurated in May 2011 and is expected to employ approximately 2,000 once fully operational...

 for the North American market would be named the Passat. Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive
Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive
Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co., Ltd. is a joint venture company between Volkswagen Group and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation established in 1984...

 also manufactures the Passat NMS in its Nanjing factory. The NMS is not going to be sold outside the North American and Chinese Markets, with no plans for a wagon/estate version. The different B7 Passat model is sold outside of these markets.

History

The Passat was placed in the middle of the sedan/saloon market segment at its introduction in 1973. Sales of the aging Beetle
Volkswagen Beetle
The Volkswagen Type 1, widely known as the Volkswagen Beetle or Volkswagen Bug, is an economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen from 1938 until 2003...

 were declining and larger air-cooled rear-engined
RR layout
In automotive design, a RR, or Rear-engine, Rear-wheel drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper....

 models like the Volkswagen Type 3
Volkswagen Type 3
The Volkswagen Type 3 was a range of small cars from German manufacturer Volkswagen , introduced at the 1961 Frankfurt Motor Show, Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung ....

 and 411 and 412
Volkswagen Type 4
The Volkswagen Type 4 is a mid-sized car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen of Germany from 1968-1974 in two-door and four-door sedan as well as two-door station wagon body styles...

 were based on older technology.

Following the Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group is a German multinational automobile manufacturing group. , Volkswagen was ranked as the world’s third largest motor vehicle manufacturer and Europe's largest....

's acquisition of Audi
Audi
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer, from supermini to crossover SUVs in various body styles and price ranges that are marketed under the Audi brand , positioned as the premium brand within the Volkswagen Group....

 in 1964, Volkswagen used new engineering expertise to develop a modern front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive is a form of engine/transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel drive vehicles feature a transverse engine, rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel drive and...

 car with a water-cooled
Watercooling
Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants,...

 engine, and thus the Passat and Golf (the latter being introduced in 1974) were the first of a new generation of Volkswagen cars. The first Passat was developed partly from the Audi 80/Fox
Audi 80
The Audi 80 is a compact executive car produced by the German car manufacturer Audi, from 1966 to 1996. It shared its platform with the Volkswagen Passat from 1973 to 1986 and was available as a saloon car/sedan, and an Avant...

 and, until 2005, the two shared a history.

During its development phase, the Passat was designated internally as EA400 (Entwicklungsauftrag 400, or "Development Order 400"), and well before its launch, production of the Volkswagen Type 3
Volkswagen Type 3
The Volkswagen Type 3 was a range of small cars from German manufacturer Volkswagen , introduced at the 1961 Frankfurt Motor Show, Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung ....

 at the Wolfsburg
Wolfsburg
Wolfsburg is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located on the River Aller northeast of Braunschweig , and is mainly notable as the headquarters of Volkswagen AG...

 plant had been stopped in order to free up capacity for the new car. Wolfsburg was able to ramp up production carefully: directly before Passat production started the lines were used to assemble small volumes of the car's Audi 80
Audi 80
The Audi 80 is a compact executive car produced by the German car manufacturer Audi, from 1966 to 1996. It shared its platform with the Volkswagen Passat from 1973 to 1986 and was available as a saloon car/sedan, and an Avant...

 sibling which had been launched a year earlier.

The nameplate Passat derives from the German word for tradewind
Tradewind
A trade wind is a wind pattern. Trade Wind or Tradewind can also refer to:* Trade Winds, 1938 film directed by Tay Garnett* Trade Wind, alternate name for the 1998 film At Sachem Farm* Trade Wind, a book by M. M...

 — and the period in its history when Volkswagen named vehicles after prominent winds, including also Golf (after the Gulf stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

), Jetta (after Jet stream
Jet stream
Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow air currents found in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth. The main jet streams are located near the tropopause, the transition between the troposphere and the stratosphere . The major jet streams on Earth are westerly winds...

), and Scirocco
Volkswagen Scirocco
The Scirocco is a 3-door Coupe manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen, undergoing two generations of development between 1974 and 1992 and reintroduced in a third generation in August 2008.-Etymology:...

 (after Sirocco
Sirocco
Sirocco, scirocco, , jugo or, rarely, siroc is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and reaches hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe. It is known in North Africa by the Arabic word qibli or ghibli Sirocco, scirocco, , jugo or, rarely, siroc is a Mediterranean wind...

).

B1 (Typ 32, 1973–1981)

The original Volkswagen Passat was launched in 1973. The body types offered originally were 2- and 4-door sedans and similar looking three- and five-door versions. Externally all four shared a modern fastback
Fastback
A fastback is a car body style whose roofline slopes continuously down at the back. The word can also designate the car itself. The style is seen on two-door coupés as well as four-door sedans.-History:...

 style design, styled by the Italian designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Giorgetto Giugiaro
Giorgetto Giugiaro is an Italian automobile designer responsible equally for a stable of supercars and several of the most popular everyday vehicles driven today...

. In essence, the first Passat was a fastback version of the mechanically identical Audi 80
Audi 80
The Audi 80 is a compact executive car produced by the German car manufacturer Audi, from 1966 to 1996. It shared its platform with the Volkswagen Passat from 1973 to 1986 and was available as a saloon car/sedan, and an Avant...

 sedan, introduced a year earlier. A five-door station wagon/estate
Station wagon
A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

 was introduced in 1974. In Europe, the Passat was equipped with 2 rectangular, 2 round 7", or 4 round 5.5" headlights depending on specification. The Passat was one of the most modern European family cars at the time, and was intended as a replacement for the aging Volkswagen Type 3 and Type 4.

The Passat originally used the 4 cylinder
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 OHC 1.3 l (55 PS) and 1.5 l (75 PS/85 PS) petrol engines also used in the Audi 80—longitudinally mounted
Longitudinal engine
In automotive engineering, a longitudinal engine is an internal combustion engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle, front to back....

 with front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive is a form of engine/transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel drive vehicles feature a transverse engine, rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel drive and...

, in Audi tradition, with either a 4-speed manual transmission
Manual transmission
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications...

 or 3-speed automatic
Automatic transmission
An automatic transmission is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually...

. It had a MacPherson strut
MacPherson strut
The MacPherson strut is a type of car suspension system which uses the axis of a telescopic damper as the upper steering pivot. It is widely used in modern vehicles and named after Earle S. MacPherson, who developed the design.-History:...

 front suspension
Suspension (vehicle)
Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the car's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants...

 with a solid axle/coil spring
Coil spring
A Coil spring, also known as a helical spring, is a mechanical device, which is typically used to store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces...

 setup at the rear.

The SOHC 1.5 was enlarged to 1.6 l in August 1975 with unchanged power ratings and slightly higher torque ratings. In July 1978 the Passat Diesel became available, equipped with the VW Golf`s 1.5  l Diesel (50 PS), followed in February 1979 by the Passat GLI with a fuel-injected version of the 1.6 l engine.

The whole range received a facelift in 1977 (launched 1978 outside Europe), featuring an interior upgrade and subtly revised styling including repositioned indicators and depending on model, either 4 round or 2 rectangular headlights.

In North America, the car was called the Volkswagen Dasher. The three- and five-door hatchback and a station wagon model were launched in North America for and during the 1974 model year
Model year
The model year of a product is a number used worldwide, but with a high level of prominence in North America, to describe approximately when a product was produced, and indicates the coinciding base specification of that product....

. Sole available engine was a carburetted 1.5 l inline-four developing 75 hp (or 70 hp in 1975), supplanted from model year 1976 by a Bosch
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH is a multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the world's largest supplier of automotive components...

 fuel-injected 1.6 l four 78 hp. North American cars were equipped with single DOT standard headlights.

In 1978 the Dasher received a facelift along the lines of the European Passat, with quad sealed beam headlights and big polyurethane covered bumpers. The trim was also upgraded and the ride softened. 1979 saw the introduction of the 1.5 l diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

, which produced just 48 PS (35 kW) in the 1130 kg (2500 lb) car. 0–100 km/h time for the Diesel was 19.4 seconds, 6.2 seconds slower than the gasoline (petrol) engine. All gasoline engines were dropped for North America in 1981 in preparation for the next generation.

In Brazil, the Passat B1 was produced from 1974 until 1988. Since the Audi 80 was not marketed in Brazil, there was no need to give the Passat a different front-end treatment. During its long life cycle many improvements from the B2 platform where introduced, like its 1.6 and 1.8-liter engines, a Brazil-specific face-lift in 1985, and a 5-speed gearbox. A sports version, named Passat TS 1.6 and later Passat GTS 1.8 Pointer was also introduced.

B2 (Typ 32B, 1981–1988)

The second generation Volkswagen Passat was launched in 1981. The platform, named B2, was slightly longer and the car's updated styling was instantly recognisable as a Passat, with the most obvious difference being the rectangular headlights.
In addition to the Passat hatchbacks and Variants (estate/wagon), there was also a conventional three-box
Three-box styling
Three-box design is a broad automotive styling term describing a coupé, sedan, notchback or hatchback where — when viewed in profile — principal volumes are articulated into three separate compartments or boxes: engine, passenger and cargo....

 saloon, which until the 1985 facelift was sold as the Volkswagen Santana in Europe. In North America, the Passat/Santana was sold as the Volkswagen Quantum, available in three-door hatchback, four-door sedan, and a wagon model, but the five-door hatchback was never sold there and the three-door hatchback was dropped after less than two years. The four-wheel drive Syncro version was introduced in October 1984, initially only with the more powerful 5-cylinder engine.

The Santana was also produced in China, Brazil, Mexico (as the Corsar, from 1984 and 1988) and Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 (as the Carat between 1987 and 1991). In Brazil, the Santana station wagon was sold as the Quantum. The Passat saloon and estate were produced in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 for their local market until 1987. the B2 Santana is still in production in China.

Like the previous generation, the B2 Passat was mainly sold with 4-cylinder petrol and diesel engines. Unlike its predecessor, however, top-of the line versions received 5 cylinder
Straight-5
The straight-five engine or inline-five engine is an internal combustion engine with five cylinders aligned in one row or plane, sharing a single engine block and crankcase...

 Audi or VW engines of 1.9–2.2 litres. In addition to four- and five-speed manuals and three-speed automatic gearboxes, the Passat/Santana was also available with the VW concern's interesting 4+E transmission. This, also called the "Formel E" had a particularly high top gear, which combined with a freewheeling mechanism, provided better gas mileage. An automatic stop/start was also available in some markets. The four-wheel drive system used in the Passat Variant Syncro shared the mechanics of the Audi 80 quattro
Audi 80
The Audi 80 is a compact executive car produced by the German car manufacturer Audi, from 1966 to 1996. It shared its platform with the Volkswagen Passat from 1973 to 1986 and was available as a saloon car/sedan, and an Avant...

 and not the Volkswagen Golf
Volkswagen Golf
The Volkswagen Golf is a small family car manufactured by Volkswagen since 1974 and marketed worldwide across six generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada , and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico .The...

 Syncro. The Syncro's bottomplate was almost entirely different, requiring a transmission tunnel, a relocated gas tank and no spare tire well (to make room for the complex rear axle assembly). Only the more popular estate was reengineered. Syncro was also available in the North American market, only with the 5 cylinder engine.

In 1985 the range received a slight facelift, consisting of new, larger bumpers, interior retouches, a new front grille and new taillights on the hatchback versions. The 2-door hatchback was discontinued while the Santana nameplate was dropped in Europe. The saloon's front end was now the same as the hatchback
Hatchback
A Hatchback is a car body style incorporating a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a top-hinged liftgate—and features such as fold-down rear seats to enable flexibility within the shared passenger/cargo volume. As a two-box...

 and estate. The North American version, still known as the Quantum, gained European-style composite headlamps.

On March 31, 1988 production ended (although Syncro models continued in production until June) with 3,345,248 built in Germany. World production totals amount to at least 4.5 million units.

B3 and B4 (Typ 35i, 1988–1996)

The third generation Passat was introduced in March 1988 in Europe, 1990 in North America, and 1995 in South America. The lack of a grille made the car's front end styling reminiscent of older, rear-engined Volkswagens such as the 411
Volkswagen Type 4
The Volkswagen Type 4 is a mid-sized car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen of Germany from 1968-1974 in two-door and four-door sedan as well as two-door station wagon body styles...

, and also doubled as a modern styling trend. The styling was developed from the 1981 aerodynamic (cd 0.25) Auto 2000 concept car.

At the time it was the first Passat to be built on a Volkswagen-designed platform, rather than sharing one with an Audi saloon. The car, although designated B3 in Volkswagen's platform nomenclature, was based largely on the A platform as used for the smaller Golf model, but was stretched in all directions. Many components are shared directly between these vehicles. Only 4-door saloon and 5-door estate versions were available, without the fastback
Fastback
A fastback is a car body style whose roofline slopes continuously down at the back. The word can also designate the car itself. The style is seen on two-door coupés as well as four-door sedans.-History:...

 option of previous models. It was marketed under the Passat name in all markets; in North America, this was a first.

The fuel injected petrol engine
Petrol engine
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels....

s gave better performance and refinement than the carburettor units previously used. They were mounted transverse
Transverse engine
A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the long axis of the vehicle. Many modern front wheel drive vehicles use this engine mounting configuration...

ly, and the floorpan was engineered to accept Volkswagen's 'Syncro
4motion
4motion is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG, used exclusively on Volkswagen-branded automobiles which utilise four-wheel drive systems. Volkswagen has previously used the term "Syncro" for its 4WD models....

' four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

 system. Engine options were the 2.0 litre
Litre
pic|200px|right|thumb|One litre is equivalent to this cubeEach side is 10 cm1 litre water = 1 kilogram water The litre is a metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre , to 1,000 cubic centimetres , and to 1/1,000 cubic metre...

 16 valve
Multi-valve
In automotive engineering a multi-valve or multivalve engine is one where each cylinder has more than two valves. A multi-valve engine has better breathing and can operate at higher revolutions per minute than a two-valve engine, delivering more power.- Multi-valve rationale :A multi-valve design...

 engine in the GL model, 1.8 litre engine in the CL model (not available in North America, all CLs, GLs, and GLSs had the 2.0 16v), Volkswagen's new 2.8 litre VR6 engine
VR6 engine
The VR6 engine is an internal combustion engine configuration, consisting of six cylinders. It was developed by the Volkswagen Group in the late 1980s, and evolutions of the original variant are still produced by them....

 (also used in the Golf and Corrado
Volkswagen Corrado
The Volkswagen Corrado is a hatchback coupé developed by German automaker Volkswagen and built by Karmann in Osnabrück, Germany, between 1 September 1988 and 31 July 1995....

) in the GLX/GLS model (introduced in 1991 in Europe and 1992 in North America), and the G60
G60
G60 refers to an inline-four cylinder automobile petrol engine, which uses a specific method of forced induction - by way of a specific type of supercharger...

 engine (only available on the Syncro model in Canada for the North American market). The VR6 engine gave the top-of-the-range Passat a top speed of 224 kilometres per hour (139 mph). The 1.9 litre diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

 was also available as an option.

1993 facelift (Passat B4)

The B3 Passat was heavily facelifted in 1993 and although it was designated B4, it was not an all-new model. The facelift revised external body panels except for the roof and glasshouse, with most obvious exterior change seeing the re-introduction of a grille to match the style of the other same-generation Volkswagen models of the era, such as the Mk3 Golf and Jetta. The interior was mildly updated and included safety equipment such as dual front airbag
Airbag
An Airbag is a vehicle safety device. It is an occupant restraint consisting of a flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly during an automobile collision, to prevent occupants from striking interior objects such as the steering wheel or a window...

s and seat belt pre-tensioners, although the basic dashboard design remain unchanged.

The car was available with a Turbocharged Direct Injection
Turbocharged Direct Injection
TDI or Turbocharged Direct Injection is a design of turbodiesel engines, which feature turbocharging and cylinder-direct fuel injection, developed and produced by Volkswagen Group. These TDI engines are widely used in all mainstream Volkswagen Group marques of passenger cars and light commercial...

 (TDI) diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

 - an inline four-cylinder 1.9 litre
Litre
pic|200px|right|thumb|One litre is equivalent to this cubeEach side is 10 cm1 litre water = 1 kilogram water The litre is a metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre , to 1,000 cubic centimetres , and to 1/1,000 cubic metre...

 turbodiesel
Turbodiesel
Turbodiesel refers to any diesel engine with a turbocharger. Turbocharging is the norm rather than the exception in modern car and truck diesel engines...

, generating 210 newton metres (155 ft·lbf) of torque
Torque
Torque, moment or moment of force , is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist....

 at 1,900 rpm, 66 kW at 3,750 rpm. It carried a U.S. EPA
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress...

 fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

 rating for the sedan of 45 miles per US gallon highway. Combined with a 70 l (15.4 imp gal; 18.5 US gal) fuel tank, it had a 1300+ km (800+ mi) range on a single tank of fuel. The B4 TDI wagon saw less than 1,000 sales in the U.S. during its 1996 to 1997 lifespan.

B5 and B5.5 (Typ 3B/3BG, 1996–2005)

An all-new Passat, based on the Volkswagen Group B5 platform, was launched in 1996 in Europe, and 1998 in North America. Its PL45 platform was shared with the first-generation "Typ 8D" Audi A4
Audi A4
The first generation Audi A4 debuted in 1994, with production starting November 1994. It was built on the Volkswagen Group B5 platform, which it shared with the fourth generation Volkswagen Passat . It had a front-mounted longitudinal engine and front-wheel drive...

, which was unveiled 2 years earlier, and saw a return to the Passat sharing its platform with Audi's equivalent model for the first time since the second-generation (B2) Passat, which shared its platform with the second-generation "Typ 81" Audi 80
Audi 80
The Audi 80 is a compact executive car produced by the German car manufacturer Audi, from 1966 to 1996. It shared its platform with the Volkswagen Passat from 1973 to 1986 and was available as a saloon car/sedan, and an Avant...

/Audi 90 (the A4 is the successor to the Audi 80 line).

The Passat introduced a new design language, first seen on the Concept 1 concept car, for the latest generation of Volkswagens such as the Mk4 Golf
Volkswagen Golf Mk4
Launched in 1999, the Volkswagen Golf Mk4 was the best selling car in Europe in 2001 . The Mk4 was a deliberate attempt to take the Volkswagen Golf series further upmarket, with a high-quality interior and higher equipment levels...

, Bora and Polo Mk4
Volkswagen Polo Mk4
The Volkswagen Polo Mk4 is the fourth generation of the Volkswagen Polo that has been sold by the German automaker Volkswagen from early 2002 to 2009 in most countries. It is still being manufactured in South Africa, where it is sold as the Polo Vivo. The MK4 replaced the Volkswagen Polo Mk3 in the...

. Aerodynamic work gave the B5 Passat a coefficient of drag of 0.27 (saloon model).

The car featured fully independent four-link front suspension
Suspension (vehicle)
Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the car's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants...

; and a semi-independent torsion beam for front-wheel-drive models or a fully independent suspension on the 4motion
4motion
4motion is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG, used exclusively on Volkswagen-branded automobiles which utilise four-wheel drive systems. Volkswagen has previously used the term "Syncro" for its 4WD models....

 4WD models. 4WD was introduced in 1997 as an option for the 1.8, 2.8 V6, 1.9 TDI and 2.5 V6 TDI engines, using a second-generation Torsen
Torsen
Torsen is a type of differential used in automobiles. It was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. Torsen is a contraction of Torque-Sensing...

 T-2 based 4WD system to minimise loss of traction. The 1.8 litre
Litre
pic|200px|right|thumb|One litre is equivalent to this cubeEach side is 10 cm1 litre water = 1 kilogram water The litre is a metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre , to 1,000 cubic centimetres , and to 1/1,000 cubic metre...

 petrol engine
Petrol engine
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels....

 in the Passat and Audi A4 has a lower oil
Motor oil
Motor oil or engine oil is an oil used for lubrication of various internal combustion engines. The main function is to lubricate moving parts; it also cleans, inhibits corrosion, improves sealing, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts.Motor oils are derived from...

 capacity than transverse applications of the same engine (4.6 quarts in transverse, 4.3 quarts longitudinal), and may suffer from oil sludge
Oil sludge
Oil sludge or black sludge is a solid or gel in motor oil caused by the oil gelling or solidifying, usually at temperatures lower than 100 degrees Celsius....

 problems as a result, if not changed at regular intervals with fully synthetic oils. Three transmission options were available: a 5-speed manual transmission, a 6-speed manual transmission (codename 01E) and a 5-speed automatic transmission with tiptronic.

2001 facelift (Passat B5.5)

B5 Passat models built after late 2000, also known as B5.5 models, received minor styling and mechanical revisions including revised projector-optic headlights, bumpers, tail lights, and chrome trim.

A 4.0 litre
Litre
pic|200px|right|thumb|One litre is equivalent to this cubeEach side is 10 cm1 litre water = 1 kilogram water The litre is a metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre , to 1,000 cubic centimetres , and to 1/1,000 cubic metre...

 W8 engine
W8 engine
A W8 engine is an eight-cylinder piston internal combustion engine in a W configuration.The W8 can be imagined as flat plane crank V8 engine combining two narrow-angle V4 engine blocks, mounted juxtaposed at 72 degrees to each other and coupled to one crankshaft...

 producing 275 PS was introduced in 2001 in a luxury version of the car that included standard 4motion
4motion
4motion is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG, used exclusively on Volkswagen-branded automobiles which utilise four-wheel drive systems. Volkswagen has previously used the term "Syncro" for its 4WD models....

 all-wheel drive. This engine was intended to be a test bed for Volkswagen Group's new W engine
W engine
A W engine is a type of reciprocating engine arranged with its cylinders in a configuration in which the cylinder banks resemble the letter W, in the same way those of a V engine resemble the letter V....

 technology, which would later make an appearance on the W12 in the Phaeton and Audi A8
Audi A8
The Audi A8 is a four-door, full-size, luxury sedan car manufactured and marketed by the German automaker Audi since 1994. Succeeding the Audi V8, the A8 has been offered with front wheel drive or permanent four-wheel drive, with multitronic or tiptronic automatic transmissions — and in short- and...

, and the W16 engine
W16 engine
A W16 engine is a sixteen cylinder piston internal combustion engine in a four-bank W configuration. All W16 engines consist of two 'offset double-row' banks of eight cylinders, coupled to a single crankshaft....

 in the Bugatti Veyron
Bugatti Veyron
The Bugatti Veyron EB 16.4 is a mid-engined grand touring car. The Super Sport version is the fastest road-legal production car in the world, with a top speed of . The original version has a top speed of...

. The engine was discontinued in 2004.

In 2003, a powerful 2.0 litre Turbocharged Direct Injection
Turbocharged Direct Injection
TDI or Turbocharged Direct Injection is a design of turbodiesel engines, which feature turbocharging and cylinder-direct fuel injection, developed and produced by Volkswagen Group. These TDI engines are widely used in all mainstream Volkswagen Group marques of passenger cars and light commercial...

 (TDI) diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

 producing 136 PS was added (making the Passat the only mid-sized diesel powered car sold in the U.S.). This variant was sold from 2004–2005.

A lengthened platform went on to underpin the 'Passat' that was introduced in China in late 1999 by Shanghai-Volkswagen. This long-wheelbase
Wheelbase
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.- Road :In automobiles, the wheelbase is the horizontal distance between the center of the front wheel and the center of the rear wheel...

 version was rebadged and launched in Europe as the Škoda Superb
Škoda Superb
The Škoda Superb is a large family car primarily built by the Czech car manufacturer Škoda Auto as its flagship car. The versions produced from 2001 to 2008 are based on the platform of the Volkswagen Passat, but are elongated by , and shares its major mechanicals and powertrain with the Passat,...

 in 2001. Both have a 100 millimetres (3.9 in) longer wheelbase and length than the standard B5 Passat. An updated version called the Passat Lingyu was released in 2005. This receives the 2.0 litre, 1.8 litre Turbo, and 2.8 litre V6 petrol engine
Petrol engine
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels....

s. At the 2009 Shanghai Motor Show, an updated Passat Lingyu was shown.

In the UK, Top Gear's 2005 survey rated the Passat as the third least satisfying large family car to own, with only the Fiat Marea
Fiat Marea
The Fiat Marea is a small family car available as a saloon and an estate , produced by the Italian automaker Fiat. Launched in 1996, the Marea models were essentially different body styles of Fiat's hatchback offerings, the Bravo and Brava. The Marea replaced the earlier Tipo-based Fiat Tempra...

 and Rover 45 Saloon receiving a worse rating. It fell behind most of its crucial rivals, namely the Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

, Vauxhall Vectra, Citroën C5
Citroën C5
The Citroën C5 is a large family car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën since early 2001. The C5 replaced the Citroën Xantia in the large family car class.-First generation :...

 and Peugeot 406
Peugeot 406
The Peugeot 406 was a large family car made by the French automaker Peugeot from 1995 to 2004. Available in saloon, estate and coupé bodystyles with a choice of petrol or turbodiesel engines, the 406 replaced the Peugeot 405 in Peugeot's lineup, and was itself replaced by the Peugeot 407...

.

B6 and B7 (Typ 3C, 2005–present)

The B6 Passat was first displayed at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2005, and launched in Europe in the summer of 2005. Unlike its predecessor, the B6 Passat no longer shared its platform with Audi's equivalent model (the Audi A4
Audi A4
The first generation Audi A4 debuted in 1994, with production starting November 1994. It was built on the Volkswagen Group B5 platform, which it shared with the fourth generation Volkswagen Passat . It had a front-mounted longitudinal engine and front-wheel drive...

). Based on a modified version of the Mk5 Golf's PQ46 platform, the B6 featured a transverse rather than longitundinal engine layout of its predecessor.

The transverse-engine layout of the four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

 version, marketed as 4motion
4motion
4motion is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG, used exclusively on Volkswagen-branded automobiles which utilise four-wheel drive systems. Volkswagen has previously used the term "Syncro" for its 4WD models....

, dictated a switch from the Torsen
Torsen
Torsen is a type of differential used in automobiles. It was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. Torsen is a contraction of Torque-Sensing...

 centre differential of the B5, to the Haldex Traction multi-plate clutch. The change to the Haldex system also changes the handling closer to a front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive is a form of engine/transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel drive vehicles feature a transverse engine, rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement generally found in rear-wheel drive and...

 car. Compared to the Torsen, the Haldex can direct torque
Torque
Torque, moment or moment of force , is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist....

 more unequally to the front wheels (from 100:0 to 50:50 front-to-rear bias), thus providing a wider bias range than the 75:25 to 25:75 of the B5 Passat. Haldex is a reactive-type system, behaving as a front-wheel-drive vehicle until slippage is detected, at which point up to a maximum of 50% of the torque can be transmitted to the rear axle. See the Audi
Audi
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer, from supermini to crossover SUVs in various body styles and price ranges that are marketed under the Audi brand , positioned as the premium brand within the Volkswagen Group....

-related quattro (four wheel drive system) article for more information.

Fuel Stratified Injection
Gasoline direct injection
In internal combustion engines, gasoline direct injection , also known as petrol direct injection or direct petrol injection, is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engines...

 is used in nearly every petrol engine
Petrol engine
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels....

d version of the Passat, ranging from 1.6 to 3.6 litre
Litre
pic|200px|right|thumb|One litre is equivalent to this cubeEach side is 10 cm1 litre water = 1 kilogram water The litre is a metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre , to 1,000 cubic centimetres , and to 1/1,000 cubic metre...

s (the 1.6 litre DOHC can reach 100 km/h (62.1 mph) in 11.5 seconds, and 200 km/h (124.3 mph) for manual transmission versions), but the multi-valve
Multi-valve
In automotive engineering a multi-valve or multivalve engine is one where each cylinder has more than two valves. A multi-valve engine has better breathing and can operate at higher revolutions per minute than a two-valve engine, delivering more power.- Multi-valve rationale :A multi-valve design...

 2.0 litre Turbocharged Direct Injection
Turbocharged Direct Injection
TDI or Turbocharged Direct Injection is a design of turbodiesel engines, which feature turbocharging and cylinder-direct fuel injection, developed and produced by Volkswagen Group. These TDI engines are widely used in all mainstream Volkswagen Group marques of passenger cars and light commercial...

 (TDI) diesel is the most sought after version in Europe (available in both 140 PS and 170 PS variants). In the U.S. market, a 200 PS 2.0 litre turbocharged I4 is the base engine, or a 280 PS 3.6 litre VR6 engine
VR6 engine
The VR6 engine is an internal combustion engine configuration, consisting of six cylinders. It was developed by the Volkswagen Group in the late 1980s, and evolutions of the original variant are still produced by them....

 as the upgrade, with six-speed manual (only available on the base 2.0 T model) and automatic transmissions. As of the 2009 model year, the VR6 engine and 4motion option were no longer available in the US on the Passat sedan and wagon, but are available on the Passat CC.
Volkswagen Passat CC
The Volkswagen Passat CC is a 4-door coupé version of the Volkswagen Passat. It debuted in January 2008 at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit...



In February 2008, the 2.0 FSI was replaced with the new Audi
Audi
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer, from supermini to crossover SUVs in various body styles and price ranges that are marketed under the Audi brand , positioned as the premium brand within the Volkswagen Group....

-developed 1.8 TSI engine and 6-speed automatic transmission. The 1.8 T is rated at 160 PS, 250 newton metres (184 ft·lbf) and reaches 0–100 km/h in 8.6 seconds, reaching a top speed of 220 kilometres per hour (136.7 mph). At the same time the 2.0 TDI engine from the Audi range incorporating common rail injection technology superseded the existing 2.0 TDI units. The common rail technology uses less fuel and is quieter in operation. This engine is part of the wider Volkswagen Group policy for engine sharing.

The Passat Estate won overall winner of Practical Caravans Towcar of the Year Awards 2008 for its array of towing features such as its Trailer Stability Programme.

In Asia, the PQ46 Passat was released by FAW-VW as the Magotan, after Volkswagen's other joint venture Shanghai Volkswagen
Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive
Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co., Ltd. is a joint venture company between Volkswagen Group and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation established in 1984...

 had decided to continue using the B5 platform for the Passat and the Passat Lingyu (long-wheelbase Passat). Since August 2010 the wagon version of Passat B6 will be offered in Asia, which is a fully imported model. But this car is simply called Volkswagen Variant in China, in order not to refer the name "Passat" or "Magotan".

In 2012, a 1.2 TSI engine will be available.

Passat CC

The CC ("Comfort Coupé") is a 4-door "coupé" version of the Passat. It debuted at the 2008 North American International Auto Show
North American International Auto Show
The North American International Auto Show is an annual auto show held in Detroit, Michigan at Cobo Center, usually in January. It is among the largest auto shows in North America.-History:...

 in Detroit. Originally aimed at competing with the similarly styled Mercedes CLS, the Passat CC intends to be more stylish and luxurious than the previously released Passat B6. In the U.S., the name "Passat" was dropped, and the car is being sold as "CC". Some options specific to the CC include hands-free parking, lane-departure prevention, intelligent cruise control, and adaptive suspension. Engines offered in the CC mirror those of the regular Passat, with options of the base 2.0 liter turbocharged four-cylinder, or the optional 3.6 liter V-6, which includes 4-motion all wheel drive. Although the CC is marketed as a more luxurious Passat B6, it comes in with a lower price tag. While the MSRP of a Passat B6 is $28,300, the CC comes with a base price of $27,100.

The Chinese-made CC was released by FAW-VW on July 15, 2010. Two engine options are provided: 1.8T and 2.0T.

2010 facelift (Passat B7)

The B6 Passat was facelifted by Klaus Bischoff and Walter de Silva, and was unveiled at the Paris Motor Show
2010 Paris Motor Show
The 2010 Paris Motor Show took place from 2 October to 17 October 2010, in Paris Expo, Porte de Versailles.For 2010, the theme of the special exhibition was "The Incredible Collection 2: automobile manufacturers collections and museums."- Production cars :...

 in September 2010. Although designated "B7", the car is not an all-new model. The facelift resulted in new external body panels except for the roof and glasshouse, with the prominent changes to the grille and headlights. Overall height and width dimensions are unchanged from the B6 Passat, while length increases by 4 mm. New features include a fatigue detection system and an automatic "city emergency braking" system. It arrived at dealerships in mid-November 2010.

The interior featured minor detail changes from the B6, although the basic dashboard design remain unchanged.

In India, the B6 version is supposed to be replaced with B7 version. Also the FAW-VW-built Magotan will also be replaced by a long-wheelbase version of the Passat B7. The new model will be exclusive to the Indian market, and at least 100 mm longer than the European B7. The Indian market is also likely to get the B7 which appears to be only a facelift of B6 and not a new platform.

In China, the FAW-VW-built Magotan will also be replaced by a long-wheelbase version of the Passat B7. The new model will be exclusive to the Chinese market, and at least 100 mm longer than the European B7. Engines avaible for Magotan B7L are ranging from 1.4T, 1.8T to 2.0T, a special-developed EA390 3.0L VR6 FSI engine is opted for the top model.

Passat (North American and China markets) (2011–present)

Known as the New Midsize Sedan (NMS) before its unveiling in January 2011, this unique larger model designed specifically for the North American market replaces the B6 Passat sedan and wagon for the 2012 model year in Canada, the United States and Mexico. It is also sold in China alongside the Passat Lingyu and Magotan. North American models will be built at its Chattanooga Assembly Plant
Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant
Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant is an automobile assembly plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee that began production in April 2011, was formally inaugurated in May 2011 and is expected to employ approximately 2,000 once fully operational...

, while Chinese market versions are built by 上海大众汽车Shanghai-VW
Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive
Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co., Ltd. is a joint venture company between Volkswagen Group and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation established in 1984...

in 2011.

External links

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