Vincennes is a commune
Communes of France
The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to incorporated municipalities or villages in the United States or Gemeinden in Germany...

 in the Val-de-Marne
Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region. The department is situated to the southeast of the city of Paris.- Geography :...

 department in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.7 km (4.2 mi) from the centre of Paris
Kilometre Zero
In many countries, Kilometre Zero or similar terms in other languages, is a particular location , from which distances are traditionally measured...

. It is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe.


The Marquis de Sade
Marquis de Sade
Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade was a French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer famous for his libertine sexuality and lifestyle...

 was imprisoned in Vincennes fortress in 1777, where he remained (mainly: he escaped for a little over a month in 1778), until February 1784, when Vincennes fortress was closed and de Sade was transferred to the Bastille
The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. It played an important role in the internal conflicts of France and for most of its history was used as a state prison by the kings of France. The Bastille was built in response to the English threat to the city of...

. In 1929, the commune of Vincennes lost about half of its territory when the city of Paris annexed the Bois de Vincennes
Bois de Vincennes
The Bois de Vincennes is a park in the English landscape manner to the east of Paris. The park is named after the nearby town of Vincennes....

, a large part of which belonged to the commune of Vincennes.

In 1849, a test was conducted on Claude-Étienne Minié's invention the Minié ball
Minié ball
The Minié ball is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilising rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle...

 which would prove successful and years later be adopted by the French army. Vincennes was also the site of some famous European colonial expositions in the 20th century in which fairs were held to showcase artifacts from former European colonies.


The city is famous for its castle, the Château de Vincennes
Château de Vincennes
The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal castle in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.-History:...

, and its park, the Bois de Vincennes
Bois de Vincennes
The Bois de Vincennes is a park in the English landscape manner to the east of Paris. The park is named after the nearby town of Vincennes....

 hosting the only zoo in Paris, Zoo de Vincennes (though these two are now within the limits of the City of Paris). It also features a large military fort, now housing various army
Military of France
The French Armed Forces encompass the French Army, the French Navy, the French Air Force and the National Gendarmerie. The President of the Republic heads the armed forces, with the title "chef des armées" . The President is the supreme authority for military matters and is the sole official who...

 services. This fort and an adjoining plain known as the "Polygon" has historically been an important proving ground for French armaments.


Vincennes is served by two stations on Paris Métro Line 1
Paris Metro Line 1
Paris Métro Line 1 is one of the sixteen lines composing the Paris Métro . It connects the La Défense – Grande Arche and Château de Vincennes stations. With a 16.5 km length, it constitutes an "East-West" route transportation important for the City of Paris...

: Bérault
Bérault (Paris Metro)
Bérault is a station on Paris Métro Line 1. It is situated at the boundary between the communes of Saint-Mandé and Vincennes. It is named after the Place Bérault of Vincennes, which honors its former deputy mayor . The station was the second station to be retrofitted with platform screen doors...

 and Château de Vincennes
Château de Vincennes (Paris Metro)
Château de Vincennes is a station of the Paris Métro. It is the eastern terminus of line 1 and serves the Château de Vincennes. It lies on the border between the commune of Vincennes and the Bois de Vincennes, which is part of the 12th arrondissement of Paris....


Vincennes is also served by Vincennes
Vincennes (Paris RER)
Vincennes is a station on line A of the RER in Paris, serving the community of Vincennes.-Service:Vincennes is served by both eastern branches of the RER A line, the A2 towards Boissy-Saint-Léger, and the A4 towards Marne-la-Vallée - Chessy...

 station on Paris RER line A
The RER A is one of the five lines in the RER rapid transit system serving :Paris, France.The line runs from the western terminuses Saint-Germain-en-Laye , Cergy Le Haut , and Poissy to the eastern terminuses Boissy-Saint-Léger and Marne-la-Vallée – Chessy .* First inauguration: 12 December 1969*...



In the old royal château, a porcelain
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between and...

 manufactory was established in 1740, specializing in imitations of Meissen
Meissen is a town of approximately 30,000 about northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany. Meissen is the home of Meissen porcelain, the Albrechtsburg castle, the Gothic Meissen Cathedral and the Meissen Frauenkirche...

 porcelain and naturalistic flowers, which were incorporated into bouquets under the direction of Parisian marchands-merciers. The Vincennes porcelain factory continued until 1756, when the production was transferred to new buildings at Sèvres
Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the centre of Paris.The town is known for its porcelain manufacture, the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, making the famous Sèvres porcelain, as well as being the location of the International Bureau of Weights...

, initiating the career of world-famous Sèvres porcelain.

Sister cities

Vincennes is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Castrop-Rauxel
-Geography:Castrop-Rauxel is between Dortmund to the east, Bochum , Herne , and to the north, Recklinghausen, Datteln and Waltrop.- Urban Area :The urban area of Castrop-Rauxel has an total expanse of...

, Germany
Lambeth is a district of south London, England, and part of the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated southeast of Charing Cross.-Toponymy:...

, United Kingdom Montigny-le-Tilleul
Montigny-le-Tilleul is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. On January 1, 2006 Montigny-le-Tilleul had a total population of 10,205. The total area is 15.10 km² which gives a population density of 676 inhabitants per km².-Sights:...

, Belgium Tomar
Tomar Municipality has a total area of 351.0 km² and a total population of 43,007 inhabitants.The municipality is composed of 16 parishes, and is located in Santarém District...

, Portugal Vincennes
Vincennes, Indiana
Vincennes is a city in and the county seat of Knox County, Indiana, United States. It is located on the Wabash River in the southwestern part of the state. The population was 18,701 at the 2000 census...

, Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

, United States

Vincennes University

In 1970 the "University of Paris VIII" was established in Vincennes as France's first major experiment in open admissions education, as a result of the academic reforms which followed the student risings of 1968. Intended to lessen the French university system's traditional emphasis on formal and elitist schooling, the school (generally known simply as Vincennes) admitted students without the usual entrance requirement of the baccalaureat degree and introduced courses such as the History of Cinema, Sexology, and Third World Economics. Enrollments peaked at 32,000 with more than 40% of students holding full time jobs off the campus. However problems associated with political unrest and alleged widespread drug usage amongst the student body led to the resignation of the Vincennes University President and the relocation of the campus to Saint-Denis by the French Government in 1980.

External links

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