Ugsarmal bair
Ugsarmal bair or just Ugsarmal is the Mongolia
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest...

n term for high rise panel buildings. Most of these buildings were built in the 1970s and 1980s with Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 funding and Soviet designs, in order to supply a greater share of Mongolia's population with flats equipped with modern amenities (tap water, sanitation, central heating). Ugsarmals in Ulaanbaatar
Ulan Bator or Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. An independent municipality, the city is not part of any province, and its population as of 2008 is over one million....

, Erdenet
Erdenet is the third-largest city in Mongolia and the capital of the aimag of Orkhon.Located in the northern part of the country, it lies in a valley between the Selenge and Orkhon rivers about 150 miles northwest of Ulan Bator, the capital...

 and Darkhan
Darkhan is handicraftsman or honorary privilege in Mongolian language. It also refers a common Mongolian place name, specifying:in Mongolia:* Darkhan-Uul Province, an aimag * Darkhan , the capital of Darkhan-Uul Province...

 are often high-rises, while those in the aimag
Aimags of Mongolia
Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags . Each aimag is subdivided into several sums. The name aimag is derived from the Mongolian and Turkic languages word for "tribe". The modern aimags were established since 1921...

centers usually have only four floors. Most public flats in Mongolia, including those in Ugsarmals, were privatized in the early 1990s. Nowadays, prices for a three-room apartment in the centre of Ulaanbaatar range from about 60,000 US dollars upwards.

Other countries

The term Ugsarmal bair refers specifically to buildings in Mongolia. However, similar buildings were built in other Communist countries and even in the West.
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