and Central Asia
. It is bordered by Russia
to the north and China
to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan
, its western-most point is only 38 kilometres (23.6 mi) from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system
is a parliamentary republic
The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu
, the Xianbei
, the Rouran
, the Gökturks
1229 Ögedei Khan was proclaimed Qaghan of the Mongol Empire in Kodoe Aral, Khentii: Mongolia.
1271 Kublai Khan renames his empire "Yuan" (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of Mongolia and China.
1287 Kublai Khan defeated the force of Nayan and other traditionalist Borjigin princes in East Mongolia and Manchuria.
1911 Mongolia gains independence from the Qing dynasty.
1921 Mongolia, under Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg, declares its independence from China.
1921 The Red Army captures Mongolia from the White Army and establishes the Mongolian People's Republic.
1971 People's Republic of China: Chairman Mao Zedong's second in command and successor Marshal Lin Biao flees the country via plane after the failure of alleged coup against Mao. The plane crashes in Mongolia, killing all aboard.
1989 Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announces the establishment of Mongolia's democratic movement that changes the second oldest communist country into a democracy.
1993 Mongolia holds its first direct presidential elections.
1997 Comet Hale-Bopp: Observers in China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia are treated to a rare double feature as an eclipse permits Hale-Bopp to be seen during the day.