Type 93 torpedo
Overview
 
The Type 93 was a 61 cm (24 in)-diameter torpedo
Torpedo
The modern torpedo is a self-propelled missile weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with it or in proximity to it.The term torpedo was originally employed for...

 of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

 (IJN), launched from surface ships. It is commonly referred to as the Long Lance by most modern English-language naval historians, a nickname given it after the war by Samuel E. Morison, the chief historian of the U.S. Navy, who spent much of the war in the Pacific Theater
Pacific Ocean theater of World War II
The Pacific Ocean theatre was one of four major naval theatres of war of World War II, which pitted the forces of Japan against those of the United States, the British Commonwealth, the Netherlands and France....

. It was by far the most advanced naval torpedo in the world at the time.
The Type 93's development (in parallel with a submarine model, the Type 95
Type 95 torpedo
The Type 95 torpedo was a torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy.It was based on the formidable Type 93 torpedo but had a smaller warhead, shorter range and a smaller diameter...

) began in Japan in 1928, under the auspices of Rear Admiral Kaneji Kishimoto and Captain Toshihide Asakuma.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The Type 93 was a 61 cm (24 in)-diameter torpedo
Torpedo
The modern torpedo is a self-propelled missile weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with it or in proximity to it.The term torpedo was originally employed for...

 of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

 (IJN), launched from surface ships. It is commonly referred to as the Long Lance by most modern English-language naval historians, a nickname given it after the war by Samuel E. Morison, the chief historian of the U.S. Navy, who spent much of the war in the Pacific Theater
Pacific Ocean theater of World War II
The Pacific Ocean theatre was one of four major naval theatres of war of World War II, which pitted the forces of Japan against those of the United States, the British Commonwealth, the Netherlands and France....

. It was by far the most advanced naval torpedo in the world at the time.

History and development

The Type 93's development (in parallel with a submarine model, the Type 95
Type 95 torpedo
The Type 95 torpedo was a torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy.It was based on the formidable Type 93 torpedo but had a smaller warhead, shorter range and a smaller diameter...

) began in Japan in 1928, under the auspices of Rear Admiral Kaneji Kishimoto and Captain Toshihide Asakuma. At the time, by far the most powerful potential enemy of the Japanese Navy was the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

's Pacific Fleet. The U.S. Navy's doctrine, presuming an invasion by Japan of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 (an American commonwealth at that time), called for the battle line to fight its way across the Pacific Ocean, relieve or recapture the Philippines, and destroy the Japanese fleet. Since the IJN had fewer battleship
Battleship
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns. Battleships were larger, better armed and armored than cruisers and destroyers. As the largest armed ships in a fleet, battleships were used to attain command of the sea and represented the apex of a...

s than the U.S. Navy, it planned to use light forces (light cruiser
Light cruiser
A light cruiser is a type of small- or medium-sized warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light armored cruiser", describing a small ship that carried armor in the same way as an armored cruiser: a protective belt and deck...

s, destroyer
Destroyer
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller, powerful, short-range attackers. Destroyers, originally called torpedo-boat destroyers in 1892, evolved from...

s, and submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

s) to whittle down the U.S. Navy's fleet in a succession of minor battles, mostly at night. After the number of American warships were sufficiently reduced, IJN would commit its own presumably fresh and undamaged battleships to finish off the U.S. remnants in one huge climactic battle. (This was essentially what the U.S. Navy's "War Plan Orange
War Plan Orange
War Plan Orange refers to a series of United States Joint Army and Navy Board war plans for dealing with a possible war with Japan during the years between the First and Second World Wars....

" expected.)

The Japanese Navy invested heavily in developing a large, heavy, and long-range torpedo, the Type 93. Torpedoes are one of the few naval weapons enabling small warships, such as destroyers, to damage battleships. IJN torpedo research and development focused on using highly-compressed oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

 instead of compressed air
Compressed air
Compressed air is air which is kept under a certain pressure, usually greater than that of the atmosphere. In Europe, 10 percent of all electricity used by industry is used to produce compressed air, amounting to 80 terawatt hours consumption per year....

 (which is about 21% oxygen) as the torpedo's fuel oxidizer in its propulsion system, feeding this into an otherwise normal wet-heater engine burning a fuel such as methanol or ethanol. Pure oxygen provides five times as much oxidizer in the same tank volume, increasing speed and range, and the absence of inert
Inert gas
An inert gas is a non-reactive gas used during chemical synthesis, chemical analysis, or preservation of reactive materials. Inert gases are selected for specific settings for which they are functionally inert since the cost of the gas and the cost of purifying the gas are usually a consideration...

 nitrogen reduced the gases emitted to carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

, which has significant solubility in water, and water vapor
Water vapor
Water vapor or water vapour , also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. It is one state of water within the hydrosphere. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously...

, much reducing the tell-tale bubble trail. However, like all torpedoes, when fired at night it produces an unavoidable wake of bioluminescence
Bioluminescence
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. Its name is a hybrid word, originating from the Greek bios for "living" and the Latin lumen "light". Bioluminescence is a naturally occurring form of chemiluminescence where energy is released by a chemical reaction in...

 in the ocean.

Compressed oxygen is dangerous to handle and required lengthy research and development, and extra training for the warship's torpedomen, for safe operational use. Eventually, IJN weapons development engineer
Engineer
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality,...

s found that by starting the torpedo's engine with compressed air, and then gradually switching over to pure oxygen, they were able to overcome the problem of uncontrollable explosions which had hampered it before. To conceal the use of pure oxygen from the ship's crew and any potential enemy, the oxygen tank was named the secondary air tank. The pure oxygen torpedo was first deployed by IJN in 1935.

The Type 93 had a maximum range of 40 km (21.6 nmi; 24.9 mi) at 38 kn (74 km/h; 46 mph) with a 490 kilogram (1,080 pound) high explosive warhead. Their long range, high speed, and heavy warheads provided a very formidable punch in surface battles. In contrast, the standard U.S. Navy's surface-launched torpedo of World War II, the 21 in (53.3 cm) Mark XV
Mark 15 torpedo
The standard U.S. destroyer-launched torpedo of World War II, the Mark 15 was very similar in design to the Mark 14 torpedo except that it was longer, lighter, and had longer range and larger warhead. 9,700 were produced during the war....

, had a maximum range of just 15,000 yards (13.5 km, 7.5 nm) at 26.5 kn (51.9 km/h; 32.3 mph), or 6,000 yards (5.5 km, 3 nm) at 45 kn (88 km/h; 55 mph), with a significantly smaller 375 kg (825 pound) warhead. The Type 93 was launched from 61 cm (24 in) racks of torpedo launch tubes mounted on the decks of IJN destroyers and cruiser
Cruiser
A cruiser is a type of warship. The term has been in use for several hundreds of years, and has had different meanings throughout this period...

s; some Japanese destroyers, unlike ships of other navies, mounted their banks of torpedo tubes in turrets offering protection against splinters, and had tube loaders. IJN armed nearly all of its cruisers with Type 93 torpedoes. Many, but not all, Allied cruisers were armed with torpedoes.
In the early surface battles of 1942–43, Japanese destroyers and cruisers were able to launch their torpedoes from about 20 km (10.8 nmi; 12.4 mi) at the unsuspecting Allied
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 warships attempting to approach to gun range. The American, Australian, and New Zealand warships were expecting enemy torpedoes to be fired at less than 10 km (5.4 nmi; 6.2 mi), their own typical torpedo range. The many torpedo hits suffered by Allied warships in such engagements led their officers to the belief that these torpedoes had been fired from Japanese submarines operating in concert with the surface warships. On rare occasions stray very long-range Type 93s struck ships much further away than their intended targets, leading the Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 on occasion to suspect their ships had been mined
Naval mine
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy surface ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, an enemy vessel...

. The capabilities of the Type 93 went mostly unrecognized by the Allies until one was captured intact in 1943.

A 17.7 in (450 mm) version, the Type 97
Type 97 torpedo
The Type 97 was a diameter torpedo used by the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Intended for use with Japan's Ko-hyoteki class midget submarines, the torpedo was based on the Type 93 "Long Lance" used by larger Japanese submarines, but redesigned to meet the smaller physical dimensions...

 was later developed for midget submarine
Midget submarine
A midget submarine is any submarine under 150 tons, typically operated by a crew of one or two but sometimes up to 6 or 8, with little or no on-board living accommodation...

s, but was not a success, and was replaced operationally by the Type 91
Type 91 torpedo
The Type 91 was an aerial torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy which was designed to be launched from an aircraft. It was used in the naval battles of carrier task forces in World War II.The Type 91 aerial torpedo rev.2 won the admiration of the world...

. A 21 in (53 cm) version for use by a few IJN submarines was designated the Type 95
Type 95 torpedo
The Type 95 torpedo was a torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy.It was based on the formidable Type 93 torpedo but had a smaller warhead, shorter range and a smaller diameter...

, and it was ultimately successful.

A disadvantage of the Type 93 was that it was far more likely to detonate due to shock than a compressed-air torpedo. The explosion from one Type 93, with its heavy warhead, was usually enough to sink the destroyer, or heavily damage the cruiser, carrying it. As American air strikes against IJN ships became more common, the captains of destroyers and cruisers under air attack had to decide whether to jettison torpedoes to prevent them from being detonated during the attack.

In one instance heavy cruiser Chikuma was fortunate to have jettisoned her Type 93s just before being hit by bombs from several USN dive bombers at the Battle of Santa Cruz Islands. During the Battle off Samar
Battle off Samar
The Battle off Samar was the centermost action of the Battle of Leyte Gulf, one of the largest naval battles in history, which took place in the Philippine Sea off Samar Island, in the Philippines on 25 October 1944...

 (in the eastern Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

) a five-inch (127 mm) shell from destroyer escort
Destroyer escort
A destroyer escort is the classification for a smaller, lightly armed warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships, primarily of the United States Merchant Marine in World War II. It is employed primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also provides some protection...

 USS Samuel B. Roberts
USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413)
USS Samuel B. Roberts was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy.Samuel B. Roberts was part of the Battle off Samar, an unlikely victory in which relatively light U.S. warships prevented a superior Japanese force from attacking the amphibious invasion fleet off the large...

 struck heavy cruiser Chokai. While in most circumstances a shell of this size would not seriously damage a heavy cruiser, this shell detonated the cruiser's torpedoes, disabling her rudder and engines; she was scuttled
Scuttling
Scuttling is the act of deliberately sinking a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull.This can be achieved in several ways—valves or hatches can be opened to the sea, or holes may be ripped into the hull with brute force or with explosives...

 the next day.

Specification

Specification examples of ranges by speeds: at 48 kn (94.1 km/h; 58.5 mph) at 37 kn (72.5 km/h; 45.1 mph) at 33 kn (64.7 km/h; 40.2 mph)

However, IJN announced officially the maximum performance of the Type 93 was 11 kilometre at 42 kn (82.3 km/h; 51.1 mph).

The stated range of over 10 km (5.4 nmi; 6.2 mi) was effective when the targeted warship steamed straight for more than a few minutes while the torpedo approached. This sometimes occurred when USN cruisers chased IJN destroyers breaking away from the scene of the battle at high speed during the night, or when American fleet carriers, engaged in flight operations, were targeted by IJN submarines in the South Pacific in 1942 - 43.

The Type 93 weighed about 2.9 short tons, with a high-explosive warhead weighing 490 kilograms (about 1,100 pounds).

Rear Admiral Jungo Rai explained this torpedo in the chapter Torpedo, in his book with a title that translates as "The Full Particulars of Secret Weapons", first published by Koyo-sha, Japan, in 1952.

The Type 93 torpedo has a main chamber filled with pure compressed oxygen, a joint regulator valve preventing reverse flow, and a small (approximately 13 liter) high-pressure air tank. First, compressed air is mixed with fuel, and the mixture is supplied to a heat starter. Ignition starts gently, with the mixture burning steadily in the engine (if oxygen is used at this stage explosions are common). As the compressed air is consumed and loses pressure, high-pressure oxygen is supplied from the main chamber through the joint valve into the compressed air tank. Soon the air tank is filled with pure oxygen, and powerful combustion continues in the engine.

The torpedo needs careful maintenance. Warships equipped with Type 93 torpedo launchers required an oxygen generator system to use this type of torpedo.

A design engineer officer of torpedo section, Kure naval arsenal of Imperial Japanese Navy, Ryozo Akagi (the 16th Class of the Imperial Japanese Navy Engineer Training School) explained the Type 93 with his notebook.

The structure of the Type 93 torpedo can be separated into several parts; from the front, warhead, air chamber, front float, engine compartment, rear float, tail rudders, screw propellers.

Type 93 rev.1 torpedo is equipped with an oil-fueled twin-cylinder reciprocating engine. The engine uses 2nd type air gas, a code name for 98% pure, high-pressure oxygen—the word "oxygen" was not used for secrecy. It can easily explode if an oil spot remains inside the anfractuous air pipes. Cleaning pipes is the most important maintenance task on the Type 93 torpedo, and takes 4 or 5 days. The practical use of the oxygen engine was the top secret in the Imperial Japanese Navy.

1st type air gas, a code name for air compressed to 230 atm, from a 13.5 liter tank, is used to start the engine.

The 2nd type air gas (oxygen) is stored at 225 atm in a 980-liter main chamber made by machining a block of nickel chromium-molybdenum steel, an alloy first developed for battleship armour.

The front of the torpedo contains the warhead, behind which is the shell of the 12mm (0.47 inch) thick main chamber. While the Type 93 is approximately 9 m (29 ft 7-1/4 in) long and 61 cm (24 in) in diameter, the 2nd type air main chamber is 348 cm (11 ft 5-3/8 in) long, occupying more than a third of the total length of the torpedo. Behind the main chamber is the rear section of the torpedo.

A pressure regulator reduces the decreasing pressure of compressed gas in the air chamber to the constant lower pressure needed to keep the torpedo running at constant speed.

Oxygen-fuel mixture is injected and exploded in combustion chambers of the engine heads, pushing pistons and rotating the single drive shaft. There are bevel gears on the shaft. The main shaft has an inner and outer drive shaft and drives coaxial double 4-bladed screws, contra-rotating so as not to rotate the torpedo.

The outer shell of the torpedo is made of steel panels 3.2 mm (0.126 inch) thick, but 1.8 mm (0.07 inch) thick at the rear, welded and water-tight. The plates at the engine section are designed to leak water to cool the engine.

There are two more controlling air tanks of total capacity 40.5 liters containing air compressed to 230 atm, to operate the rudders and stabilizers of the torpedo.

A depth meter controls the running depth. The water pressure board of the torpedo is manually set to 5 meters to set the running depth at 5 meters below the surface, and controls the side stabilizer to run at that depth.

The tail vertical rudder meter sets a vertical gyrocompass to control the vertical tail rudders. The gyrocompass guides the torpedo to the target, allowing even rear-launched torpedoes to turn around and hit a target in front. The tail rudders and side stabilizers are operated by air pressure.

The gyro is started when the torpedo is launched. The gyrocompass of Type 93 torpedo is 15 cm (5-7/8 in) in diameter and 7 or 8 cm (3 in) thick, spinning at 8,000 rpm. The Type 93 torpedo suffered from problems with this gyro speed when launched from a warship steaming at her top speed of around 35 knots.

The Imperial Japanese Navy initially tested the torpedoes at Dainyu, Aga-Minami of Kure city, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan, but the long-range Type 93 torpedo called for a relatively large area for launching tests. Subsequently, the test range at Otsu shima Island, Tokuyama city, Yamaguchi prefecture, next to Hiroshima prefecture was used. The base later became famous as the home base of the manned Kaiten "suicide torpedo".

Development of Kaiten from Type 93

The rotational speed of the gyrocompass was increased to 20,000 rpm for the Kaiten
Kaiten
The Kaiten were manned torpedos and suicide craft, they were used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.-History:...

. The warhead of the Type 93 torpedo is 480 kg (1,058.2 lb) (the same as the 1 ton 406 mm (16 in) gun of an Imperial Japanese battleship), increased to 1.6 tons for Kaiten. A single Type 93 torpedo was often sufficient to sink or heavily damage a battleship, although the U.S. Navy claimed in 1945 that in one instance an unidentified destroyer had not been sunk despite a clean hit from a Kaiten.

The Type 93 torpedo is 9.61 meters long and weighs about 3 tons, while the Kaiten was 15 meters long and weighed 8 tons. The maximum speed of the Type 93 is 52 knots and range 22,000 m (13.67 miles). Kaiten has range 23,000m (14.29 miles) at 30 knots (34.5 mile/h), 70,000 m (43.5 miles) at 12 knots (12.8mile/h). Kaiten had a stable slow cruising capability just beneath the surface.

Successes of the Long Lance

While the Type 93 torpedo was dangerous to both its user as well as its intended target, the Imperial Japanese Navy felt that its effectiveness outweighed its risks. During the course of the war 23 allied warships were sunk after Type 93 hits: 11 cruisers, 11 destroyer
Destroyer
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller, powerful, short-range attackers. Destroyers, originally called torpedo-boat destroyers in 1892, evolved from...

s, and 1 fleet aircraft carrier. 13 of these had been fatally hit solely by the Type 93, with the rest succumbing to a combination of bombs, gunfire, and torpedoes.

Battle of the Java Sea:
  • Dutch
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

     cruiser HNLMS Java
    Java class cruiser
    The Java class was a class of light cruisers of the Royal Netherlands Navy, named after the island of Java in the Dutch East Indies . Originally, three ships were planned: HNLMS Java, HNLMS Sumatra, and HNLMS Celebes...

     27 February 1942 by IJN cruisers Haguro
    Japanese cruiser Haguro
    |-External reference links: -External links:**...

     and Nachi
    Japanese cruiser Nachi
    was the second of four Myōkō-class heavy cruisers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy — the other ships of the class being , and . She was named after a mountain in Wakayama Prefecture....

  • Dutch cruiser HNLMS DeRuyter
    HNLMS De Ruyter (1935)
    HNLMS De Ruyter was a light cruiser of the Royal Netherlands Navy, the lead ship of her class. She was originally designed as a ship with a lighter armament due to financial problems and the pacifist movement. Later in the design stage, an extra gun turret was added and the armor was improved...

     27 February 1942 by Haguro and Nachi
  • Dutch destroyer HNLMS Kortenaer 27 February 1942 by IJN cruiser Haguro

Battle of the Java Sea: actions at Sunda Strait
Sunda Strait
The Sunda Strait is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. It connects the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean...

 entailing the hunting down of Allied stragglers by the IJN:
    • British
      United Kingdom
      The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

       cruiser 1 March 1942 by IJN destroyer Ikazuchi
      Japanese destroyer Ikazuchi
      was the twenty-third destroyer, or the third , built for the Imperial Japanese Navy in the inter-war period. When introduced into service, these ships were the most powerful destroyers in the world...

    • Australian cruiser 1 March 1942 by IJN cruisers Mogami
      Japanese cruiser Mogami
      was the lead ship in the four-vessel Mogami-class of heavy cruisers in the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was named after the Mogami River in Tohoku region of Japan. The Mogami class ships were constructed as "light" cruisers with 5 triple 6.1" DP guns...

       and Mikuma
      Japanese cruiser Mogami
      was the lead ship in the four-vessel Mogami-class of heavy cruisers in the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was named after the Mogami River in Tohoku region of Japan. The Mogami class ships were constructed as "light" cruisers with 5 triple 6.1" DP guns...

    • American
      United States
      The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

       cruiser 1 March 1942 by IJN cruisers Mogami and Mikuma


Battle of Savo Island:
  • 9 July 1942 by IJN cruisers Chōkai, Aoba
    Japanese cruiser Aoba
    was the lead ship in the two-vessel Aoba-class of heavy cruisers in the Imperial Japanese Navy. It is named after Mount Aoba, a volcano located behind Maizuru, Kyoto.-Background:...

    , Kako
    Japanese cruiser Kako
    was the second vessel in the two-vessel Furutaka-class of heavy cruisers in the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was named after the Kakogawa River in Hyogo prefecture, Japan.-Background:...

    , Kinugasa
    Japanese cruiser Kinugasa
    was the second vessel in the two-vessel Aoba-class of heavy cruisers in the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was named after Mount Kinugasa, located in Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.- Background :...

    , and Furutaka
    Japanese cruiser Furutaka
    was the lead ship in the two-vessel Furutaka-class of heavy cruisers in the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was named after Mount Furutaka, located on Etajima, Hiroshima immediately behind the Imperial Japanese Navy Academy.-Design:...

    :
    • Australian cruiser Canberra
    • U.S. cruisers , , and 9 July 1942


Battles of Solomons/Tassafaronga/Guadacanal/Kolombangara/Ormac Bay/Santa Cruz Islands/Vella Lavella:
  • Dutch
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

     destroyer HNLMS Piet Hein
    Piet Pieterszoon Hein
    Pieter Pietersen Heyn was a Dutch naval officer and folk hero during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain.-Early life:...

     19 February 1942 by IJN Asashio
    Japanese destroyer Asashio
    was the lead ship of the ten destroyers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy in the mid-1930s under the Circle Two Program .-History:...

  • Destroyer 22 August 1942 by IJN destroyer Kawakaze
    Japanese destroyer Kawakaze
    was the ninth of ten s, and the third to be built for the Imperial Japanese Navy under the Circle Two Program .-History:The Shiratsuyu class destroyers were modified versions of the , and were designed to accompany the Japanese main striking force and to conduct both day and night torpedo attacks...

  • Aircraft carrier 26 Oct 1942 by IJN destroyers Akigumo
    Japanese destroyer Akigumo
    Akigumo was a Imperial Japanese Navy destroyer of the .Shortly after the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands during the early hours of 27 October 1942, Akigumo along with the destroyer Makigumo sunk the heavily damaged and abandoned USS Hornet...

     and Makigumo
    Japanese destroyer Makigumo
    Makigumo was a of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Her name means "Cirrus Clouds" .Following the Battle of Midway in June 1942, downed American aircrew SBD Ensign Frank W. O'Flaherty and AMM1c Bruno P. Gaido were pulled from the water by Makigumo...

  • Cruiser 13 November 1942 by IJN destroyer Akatsuki
    Japanese destroyer Akatsuki
    was the twenty-first , or the lead ship of the Akatsuki-class destroyer , built for the Imperial Japanese Navy in the inter-war period. When introduced into service, these ships were the most powerful destroyers in the world...

     (also sunk later during the battle)
  • Destroyer 13 November 1942 by IJN destroyers
  • Destroyer 13 November 1942 by IJN destroyers
  • Destroyer 14 November 1942 by IJN destroyers, one of which, Ayanami was crippled and scuttled that night
  • Destroyer - later scuttled by 14 November 1942 by IJN destroyers
  • Cruiser 30 November 1942 by IJN destroyer Oyashio
    Japanese destroyer Oyashio
    was the fourth vessel to be commissioned in the 19-vessel destroyers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy in the late-1930s under the Circle Three Supplementary Naval Expansion Program .-Background:...

  • Destroyer 5 July 1943 by IJN destroyer
  • Cruiser 5 July 1943 by IJN destroyers Suzukaze
    Japanese destroyer Suzukaze
    was the tenth and final vessel of ten destroyers, and the fourth to be built for the Imperial Japanese Navy under the Circle Two Program .-History:...

     and Tanikaze
    Japanese destroyer Tanikaze
    Tanikaze was a of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Her name means "Wind from the Mountain to the Valley".In June 1942 the ship participated in the battle of Midway where she was damaged by air attacks...

  • Destroyer 12 July 1943 by IJN destroyer
  • Destroyer 6 October 1943 by IJN destroyer Yugumo (also sunk later during the battle)
  • Destroyer 3 December 1944 by probably IJN destroyer Take

Surviving examples

Several examples are displayed in museums. This is an incomplete list.
  • Imperial War Museum Duxford
    Imperial War Museum Duxford
    Imperial War Museum Duxford is a branch of the Imperial War Museum near the village of Duxford in Cambridgeshire, England. Britain's largest aviation museum, Duxford houses the museum's large exhibits, including nearly 200 aircraft, military vehicles, artillery and minor naval vessels in seven...

    , England
  • Papua New Guinea National Museum, Waigani, Papua New Guinea
  • USS Arizona Memorial
    USS Arizona Memorial
    The USS Arizona Memorial, located at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii, marks the resting place of 1,102 of the 1,177 sailors killed on the USS Arizona during the Attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 by Japanese imperial forces and commemorates the events of that day...

    , Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
  • U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland - displayed outside in small park in front of Dahlgren Hall. The torpedo flanks a pathway on the other side of which is a Type 91
    Type 91 torpedo
    The Type 91 was an aerial torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy which was designed to be launched from an aircraft. It was used in the naval battles of carrier task forces in World War II.The Type 91 aerial torpedo rev.2 won the admiration of the world...

     Japanese air-launched torpedo
  • Yūshūkan
    Yushukan
    The is a Japanese military and war museum located within Yasukuni Shrine in Chiyoda, Tokyo. As a museum maintained by the shrine, which is dedicated to the souls of soldiers who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan, the museum contains various artifacts and documents concerning Japanese...

    museum. Tokyo

External links

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