Tulsa, Oklahoma
Overview
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

 and 46th-largest city in the United States. With a population of 391,906 as of the 2010 census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 937,478 (2010) residents in the MSA
United States metropolitan area
In the United States a metropolitan statistical area is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are not legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like...

 and 988,454 (2010) in the CSA
Combined Statistical Area
The United States Office of Management and Budget defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas consist of one or more counties...

.
Encyclopedia
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

 and 46th-largest city in the United States. With a population of 391,906 as of the 2010 census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 937,478 (2010) residents in the MSA
United States metropolitan area
In the United States a metropolitan statistical area is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are not legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like...

 and 988,454 (2010) in the CSA
Combined Statistical Area
The United States Office of Management and Budget defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas consist of one or more counties...

. Tulsa's CSA is projected to reach one million between 2010 and 2012. The city serves as the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Tulsa County
Tulsa County, Oklahoma
Tulsa County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the population is 603,403. Its county seat is Tulsa.-History of Tulsa County:The history of Tulsa County greatly overlaps the history of the city of Tulsa...

, the most densely populated county in Oklahoma, and extends into Osage
Osage County, Oklahoma
Osage County is a county in the northern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Coterminous with the Osage Indian Reservation, it is the home of the federally recognized Osage Nation. As of the 2010 census, the population was 47,472 a 6.8 percent increase from 2000, when the population was 44,437...

, Rogers
Rogers County, Oklahoma
Rogers County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of 2010, the population was 86,905. Its county seat is Claremore. The county was originally created in 1906 and named Cooweescoowee...

, and Wagoner
Wagoner County, Oklahoma
Wagoner County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of 2010, the population was 73,085. Its county seat is Wagoner.-Early History:The area of Wagoner County was settled by the Creek after their forced removal in Alabama in the 1820's...

 counties.

Tulsa was first settled between 1828 and 1836 after the attack by the Lochapoka Band of Creek
Creek people
The Muscogee , also known as the Creek or Creeks, are a Native American people traditionally from the southeastern United States. Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling. The modern Muscogee live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida...

 Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 tribe. In 1921, it was the site of the infamous Tulsa Race Riot
Tulsa Race Riot
The Tulsa race riot was a large-scale racially motivated conflict, May 31 - June 1st 1921, between the white and black communities of Tulsa, Oklahoma, in which the wealthiest African-American community in the United States, the Greenwood District also known as 'The Negro Wall St' was burned to the...

, one of the largest and most destructive acts of racial violence in the history of the United States. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World
Oil Capital of the World
The title of "Oil Capital of the World" is often used to refer to Tulsa, Oklahoma, and more recently to Houston, Texas.In mid-19th century, when Pennsylvania was the first center of petroleum production, Pittsburgh and Titusville were considered oil capitals...

" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry. Tulsa, along with several other cities, claims to be the birthplace of U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66 was a highway within the U.S. Highway System. One of the original U.S. highways, Route 66 was established on November 11, 1926 -- with road signs erected the following year...

 and is also known for its Western Swing
Western swing
Western swing music is a subgenre of American country music that originated in the late 1920s in the West and South among the region's Western string bands...

 music.

Once heavily dependent on the oil industry
Petroleum industry
The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting , and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline...

, economic downturn and subsequent diversification efforts created an economic base in the energy
Energy
In physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

, finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

, aviation
Aviation
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

, telecommunications and technology
Technology
Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes ;...

 sectors. The Tulsa Port of Catoosa
Tulsa Port of Catoosa
The Tulsa Port of Catoosa is located near the city of Catoosa in Rogers County, just inside the municipal fenceline of Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States....

, at the head of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, is the most inland river port in the U.S. with access to international waterways. Two institutions of higher education
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

 within the city operate at the NCAA Division I level, Oral Roberts University
Oral Roberts University
Oral Roberts University , based in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in the United States, is an interdenominational, Charismatic Christian, comprehensive university with an enrollment of about 3,790 students from 49 U.S. states along with a significant number of international students from 70 countries...

 and the University of Tulsa
University of Tulsa
The University of Tulsa is a private university awarding bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. It is currently ranked 75th among doctoral degree granting universities in the nation by US News and World Report and is listed as one of the "Best 366 Colleges" by...

.

Located in Tornado Alley
Tornado Alley
Tornado Alley is a colloquial and popular media term that most often refers to the area of the United States where tornadoes are most frequent. Although an official location is not defined, the area between the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains is usually associated with it.The areas...

, the city frequently experiences severe weather
Severe weather
Severe weather phenomena are weather conditions that are hazardous to human life and property.- Examples Include :Severe weather can occur under a variety of situations, but three characteristics are generally needed: a temperature or moisture boundary, moisture, and , instability in the...

. It is situated on the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's initial basin starts in the Western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas...

 at the foothills of the Ozark Mountains in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "Green Country". Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma, Tulsa houses two world-renowned art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, and one of the nation's largest concentrations of art deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 architecture. The city has been called one of America's most livable large cities by Partners for Livable Communities, Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

, and Relocate America. People from Tulsa are called "Tulsans."

History

What was ultimately to become Tulsa was originally part of Indian Territory
Indian Territory
The Indian Territory, also known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land set aside within the United States for the settlement of American Indians...

 and was first settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836. They established a home under a large oak tree at the present day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street, and named their new settlement "Tallasi", meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which later became "Tulsa". On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was officially incorporated and elected its first mayor, Edward Calkins.

A small town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901, Tulsa's first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1, was established that year. By 1905, the discovery of the large Glenn Pool nearby (site of the present day town of Glenpool
Glenpool, Oklahoma
Glenpool is a city in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, United States. It is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area . As of 2010, the population was 10,808. This was an increase of 33.1 % since the 2000 census, which reported total population as 8,123....

) prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields; Tulsa's population swelled to over 140,000 between 1901 and 1930. By 1909, seven years after the discovery of oil in the area, Tulsa's population had sprouted to 18,000. Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular Art Deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 style of the time. Profits from the oil industry continued through the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.
In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "Black Wall Street", one of the most prosperous African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

 communities in the United States at the time. Located in the Greenwood
Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma
Greenwood was a district in Tulsa, Oklahoma. As one of the most successful and wealthiest African American communities in the United States during the early 20th Century, it was popularly known as America's "Black Wall Street" until the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921...

 neighborhood, it was the site of the Tulsa Race Riot, one of the nation's costliest acts of racial violence and civil disorder. Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921, resulted in over 800 people admitted to local hospitals with injuries, an estimated 10,000 left homeless, 35 city blocks composed of 1,256 residences destroyed by fire, and in property damage. Twenty-three black and 16 white citizens were reported killed, but estimates suggest as many as 300, mostly blacks, died. Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful.

In 1925, Tulsa businessman Cyrus Avery
Cyrus Avery
Cyrus Stevens Avery was known as the "Father of Route 66". He created the route while a member of the federal board appointed to create the Federal Highway System, then pushed for the establishment of the U.S. Highway 66 Association to pave and promote the highway.-Early life and move to...

, known as the "Father of Route 66," began his campaign to create a road linking Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 to California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 by establishing the U.S. Highway 66 Association
U.S. Highway 66 Association
The U.S. Highway 66 Association was organized in Tulsa, Oklahoma in 1927. Its purpose was to get U.S. Highway 66 paved from end to end and to promote tourism on the highway....

 in Tulsa, earning the city the nickname the "Birthplace of Route 66". Once completed, U.S. Route 66 took an important role in Tulsa's development as the city served as a popular rest stop for travelers, who were greeted by Route 66 icons such as the Meadow Gold Sign and the Blue Whale of Catoosa. During this period, Bob Wills
Bob Wills
James Robert Wills , better known as Bob Wills, was an American Western Swing musician, songwriter, and bandleader, considered by music authorities as the co-founder of Western Swing and universally known as the pioneering King of Western Swing.Bob Wills' name will forever be associated with...

 and his group The Texas Playboys began their long performing stint at a small ballroom in downtown Tulsa. In 1935, Cain's Ballroom
Cain's Ballroom
Cain's Ballroom is a historic music venue in Tulsa, Oklahoma, built in 1924 to serve as a garage for one of Tulsa's founders, Tate Brady. Madison W. "Daddy" Cain purchased the building in 1930 and named it , where he charged 10¢ for dance lessons. The academy was the site of the Texas Playboys'...

 became the base for the group, which is largely credited for creating Western Swing music. The venue continued to attract famous musicians through its history, and is still in operation today. For the remainder of the mid-20th century, a master plan called for the construction of parks, churches, museums, rose gardens, improved infrastructure, and increased national advertising. The Spavinaw Dam, built during this era to accommodate the city's water needs, was considered one of the largest public works projects of the era. In the 1950s, Time magazine dubbed Tulsa "America's Most Beautiful City."

A national recession greatly affected the city's economy in 1982, as areas of Texas and Oklahoma heavily dependent on oil witnessed a freefall in gas prices
1980s oil glut
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s Energy Crisis. The world price of oil, which had peaked in 1980 at over US$35 per barrel , fell in 1986 from $27 to below $10...

 and a mass exodus of oil industries. Tulsa, heavily dependent on the oil industry, was one of the hardest hit cities by the fall of oil prices. By 1992, the state's economy had fully recovered, but leaders would attempt to expand into sectors unrelated to oil and energy.

In 2003, the "Vision 2025
Vision 2025
Vision 2025 was a series of four propositions to increase Tulsa County's sales tax rate by $0.01 in order to fund capital improvements and provide economic development incentives....

" program was approved by voters with the purpose of enhancing and revitalizing Tulsa's infrastructure and tourism industry. The keystone project of the initiative, the BOK Center
BOK Center
The BOK Center, or Bank of Oklahoma Center, is a 19,100-seat multi-purpose arena and a primary indoor sports and event venue in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States. Designed to accommodate arena football, hockey, basketball, concerts, and similar events, the facility was built at a cost of $178 million...

, was designed to be a home for the city's minor league hockey and arena football teams, as well as a venue for major concerts and conventions. The multi-purpose arena, designed by famed architect Cesar Pelli
César Pelli
César Pelli is an Argentine architect known for designing some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. In 1991, the American Institute of Architects listed Pelli among the ten most influential living American architects...

, broke ground in 2005 and was opened on August 30, 2008.

Geography

Tulsa is located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma, 99 miles (159.3 km) northeast of Oklahoma City
Oklahoma city
Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.Oklahoma City may also refer to:*Oklahoma City metropolitan area*Downtown Oklahoma City*Uptown Oklahoma City*Oklahoma City bombing*Oklahoma City National Memorial...

; situated between the edge of the Great Plains
Great Plains
The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

 and the foot of the Ozarks
The Ozarks
The Ozarks are a physiographic and geologic highland region of the central United States. It covers much of the southern half of Missouri and an extensive portion of northwestern and north central Arkansas...

 in a generally forested region of rolling hills. The city touches the eastern extent of the Cross Timbers
Cross Timbers
The term Cross Timbers is used to describe a strip of land in the United States that runs from southeastern Kansas across Central Oklahoma to Central Texas...

, an ecoregion
Ecoregion
An ecoregion , sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than an ecozone and larger than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural...

 of forest and prairie
Prairie
Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type...

 transitioning from the drier plains of the west to the wetter forests of the east. With a wetter climate than points westward, Tulsa serves as a gateway to "Green Country", a popular and official designation for northeast Oklahoma that stems from the region's green vegetation and relatively large number of hills and lakes compared to central and western areas of Oklahoma, which lie largely in the drier Great Plains region of the Central United States. Located near the western edge of the U.S. Interior Highlands
U.S. Interior Highlands
The U.S. Interior Highlands is a mountainous region spanning eastern Oklahoma, western and northern Arkansas, southern Missouri, and the extreme southeast corner of Kansas. The name is designated by the United States Geological Survey to refer to the combined mountainous region of the Ozarks and...

, northeastern Oklahoma is the most topographically diverse part of the state, containing seven of Oklahoma's 11 eco-regions and more than half of its state parks. The region encompasses 30 lakes or reservoirs and borders the neighboring states of Kansas
Kansas
Kansas is a US state located in the Midwestern United States. It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south...

, Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

, and Arkansas
Arkansas
Arkansas is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Its name is an Algonquian name of the Quapaw Indians. Arkansas shares borders with six states , and its eastern border is largely defined by the Mississippi River...

. The geographic coordinates
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represent vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent horizontal position...

 of the city of Tulsa are 36°7′53"N 95°56′14"W (36.131294, -95.937332), with an elevation of 700 feet (213.4 m) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

.

Topography

The city is split by the prominent Arkansas River, which flows in a wide, sandy-bottomed channel. Its flow through the Tulsa area is controlled by upstream flood control reservoirs
Keystone Lake
Keystone Lake is a reservoir in northeastern Oklahoma on the Arkansas and Cimarron rivers. It is located upstream about from Tulsa. It was created in 1968 when the Keystone Dam was completed.Keystone Lake is about in size...

, but its width and depth can vary widely throughout the year, such as during periods of high rainfall or severe drought. However, a low-water dam maintains a full channel at all times in the area adjacent to downtown Tulsa. This portion of the river is known as Zink Lake. Heavily wooded and with abundant parks and water areas, the city holds several prominent hills with names such as "Shadow Mountain" and "Turkey Mountain", which create varied terrain, especially in its southern portions. While its central and northern sections are generally flat to gently undulating, the Osage Hills extension into the northwestern part of the city further varies the landscape. Holmes Peak, in the northwest corner of the city, is the tallest point in five counties at 1030 ft (314 m). According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 186.8 square miles (483.8 km²), of which 182.6 square miles (472.9 km²) of it is land and 4.2 square miles (10.9 km²) of it (2.24%) is water.

Climate

Tulsa is situated near the heart of Tornado Alley and has a temperate
Temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

 climate of the subtropical
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 variety with a yearly average temperature of 60.8 °F (16 °C) and an average precipitation of 42.4 inches (1,077 mm) As is typical of temperate zones, weather patterns vary by season with occasional extremes in temperature and rainfall. The highest temperature recorded in Tulsa was 115 °F (46.1 °C) on August 10, 1936.

Primarily in the spring and early summer months, the city is subjected to severe thunderstorms containing large hail
Hail
Hail is a form of solid precipitation. It consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice, each of which is referred to as a hail stone. Hail stones on Earth consist mostly of water ice and measure between and in diameter, with the larger stones coming from severe thunderstorms...

, damaging winds, and, occasionally, tornadoes, providing the area with a disproportionate share of its annual rainfall. Severe weather is not limited to this season, however. For instance, on December 5, 1975, and on December 24, 1982, Tulsa experienced tornadoes. Due to its potential for major flooding events, the city has developed one of the most extensive flood control systems in the nation. A comprehensive flood management plan was developed in 1984 following a severe flood caused by a stalled weather front
Surface weather analysis
Surface weather analysis is a special type of weather map that provides a view of weather elements over a geographical area at a specified time based on information from ground-based weather stations...

 that dropped 15 inches (381 mm) of rain overnight, killing 14, injuring 288, and destroying 7,000 buildings totaling in damage. In the early 1990s and again in 2000, the Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal Emergency Management Agency
The Federal Emergency Management Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, initially created by Presidential Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 and implemented by two Executive Orders...

 honored Tulsa as leading the nation in flood plain management.

Triple digit temperatures (>=38 °C) are observed on average 11 days per annum, sometimes exceeding 105 °F (41 °C) from July to early September, usually accompanied by high humidity brought in by southerly winds. Lack of air circulation due to heat and humidity during the summer months leads to higher concentrations of ozone
Ozone
Ozone , or trioxygen, is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope...

, prompting the city to release "Ozone Alerts", encouraging all parties to do their part in complying with the Clean Air Act
Clean Air Act
A Clean Air Act is one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of airborne contaminants, smog and air pollution in general. The use by governments to enforce clean air standards has contributed to an improvement in human health and longer life spans...

 and United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress...

 standards. The autumn season is usually short, consisting of pleasant, sunny days followed by cool nights. Winter temperatures, while generally mild, occasionally experience extremes below 0 °F (-18 °C) while annual snowfall averages about 9.1 inches (23 cm).

Cityscape

Architecture

A building boom in the early 20th century gave Tulsa one of the largest concentrations of art deco architecture in the United States. Most commonly in the zigzag and streamline
Streamline Moderne
Streamline Moderne, sometimes referred to by either name alone or as Art Moderne, was a late type of the Art Deco design style which emerged during the 1930s...

 styles, the city's art deco is dotted throughout its older neighborhoods, primarily in downtown and midtown. A collection of large art deco structures such as the Mid-Continent Tower
Mid-Continent Tower
The Mid-Continent Tower is a 36-story skyscraper located at 401 South Boston Avenue in downtown Tulsa, Oklahoma. At 156 meters in height, it is the fourth-tallest building in Tulsa and in Oklahoma...

, the Boston Avenue Methodist Church
Boston Avenue Methodist Church
The Boston Avenue United Methodist Church, located in downtown Tulsa, Oklahoma and completed in 1929, is considered to be one of the finest examples of ecclesiastical Art Deco architecture in the United States, and has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places...

, and the Philtower, have attracted events promoting preservation and architectural interest. In 2001, Tulsa served as the host city for the International Art Deco Congress, a semiannual event designed to promote art deco architecture internationally. Building booms in the 1970s and '80s gave the city a larger base of contemporary architectural styles. The BOK Tower
BOK Tower
BOK Tower, formerly One Williams Center, is a skyscraper in downtown Tulsa, Oklahoma. At 203 m in height, the 52-story tower was the tallest building in any of the five "Plains States": Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota, as well as the surrounding states of Missouri,...

, built during this period, is the 2nd tallest building in Oklahoma and the surrounding states of Missouri, New Mexico
New Mexico
New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. New Mexico is also usually considered one of the Mountain States. With a population density of 16 per square mile, New Mexico is the sixth-most sparsely inhabited U.S...

, Arkansas
Arkansas
Arkansas is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Its name is an Algonquian name of the Quapaw Indians. Arkansas shares borders with six states , and its eastern border is largely defined by the Mississippi River...

, and Kansas. Tulsa also has the second-, third-, and fourth-tallest buildings in the state, including the Cityplex Tower
CityPlex Towers
CityPlex Towers is a large office space complex located at 81st Street and Lewis Avenue in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The facility was originally constructed by Oral Roberts University as City of Faith Medical and Research Center and meant to be a major charismatic Christian hospital...

, which is located in South Tulsa across from Oral Roberts University, far from downtown. One of the area's unique architectural complexes, Oral Roberts University, is built in a Post-Modern Futuristic
Futurist architecture
Futurist architecture is an early-20th century form of architecture characterized by anti-historicism and long horizontal lines suggesting speed, motion and urgency. Technology and even violence were among the themes of the Futurists. The movement was founded by the poet Filippo Tommaso...

 style, incorporating bright gold structures with sharp, jetting edges and clear geometric shapes. The BOK Center, Tulsa's new arena, incorporates many of the city's most prominent themes, including Native American, art deco, and contemporary architectural styles. Intended to be an architectural icon, the building was designed by César Pelli
César Pelli
César Pelli is an Argentine architect known for designing some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. In 1991, the American Institute of Architects listed Pelli among the ten most influential living American architects...

, the architect of the Petronas Towers in Malaysia.

Neighborhoods

Downtown Tulsa is an area of approximately 1.4 square miles (3.6 km²) surrounded by an inner-dispersal loop created by Interstate 244, Highway 64, and Highway 75. The area serves as Tulsa's financial and business district, and is the focus of a large initiative to draw tourism, which includes plans to capitalize on the area's historic architecture. Much of Tulsa's convention space is located in downtown, such as the Tulsa Performing Arts Center
Tulsa Performing Arts Center
The Tulsa Performing Arts Center is a performing arts venue in the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma. It houses four theaters, including the 2,365-seat Chapman Music Hall. The building occupies half a city block in downtown Tulsa. The center hosts regular performances by the Tulsa Opera, Tulsa Ballet, and...

 and the Tulsa Convention Center
Tulsa Convention Center
The Maxwell Convention Center or Tulsa Convention Center is a 7,111-seat multi-purpose arena in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The civic arena was constructed in 1964 and named for Tulsa Mayor James L. Maxwell who was the driving force behind the planning and start of the venue...

, and the BOK Center. Prominent downtown sub-districts include the Blue Dome District, the Brady Arts district, and the Greenwood Historical District, Owen Park
Owen Park
Owen Park is a historic district in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Its borders are Edison Avenue on the north, the municipal Owen Park on the east, the Keystone Expressway on the south, and Zenith Avenue on the west.-History:...

 Historical Neighborhood, the site of ONEOK Field, a baseball stadium for the Tulsa Drillers
Tulsa Drillers
The Tulsa Drillers are a minor league baseball team based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The team, which plays in the Texas League, is the Double-A affiliate of the Colorado Rockies major-league club.-Stadium:...

 opened in 2010.

The city's historical residential core lies in an area known as Midtown, containing upscale neighborhoods built in the early 20th century with architecture ranging from art deco to Greek Revival. The University of Tulsa, the Swan Lake
Swan Lake (Tulsa)
Swan Lake is a historic district in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Its borders consist of 15th Street to the North, Utica Street to the East, 21st Street to the South, and Peoria Avenue to the west...

 neighborhood, Philbrook Museum, and the upscale shopping districts of Utica Square
Utica Square
Utica Square is an upscale outdoor shopping center located in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The center is anchored by locally-owned department store Miss Jackson's , and a branch of the Saks Fifth Avenue chain...

, Cherry Street, and Brookside are located in this region. A large portion of the city's southern half has developed since the 1970s, containing low density housing and retail developments. This region, marked by secluded homes and suburban neighborhoods, contains one of the state's largest shopping malls, Woodland Hills Mall
Woodland Hills Mall
Woodland Hills Mall, shopping mall located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States, is one of Oklahoma's largest shopping malls. It features several national as well as local chains....

, as well as Southern Hills Country Club
Southern Hills Country Club
Southern Hills Country Club is a private golf and country club in Tulsa, Oklahoma in the United States. It was established in 1936 from land donated by multimillionaire oilman Waite Phillips. The construction costs were raised by the founding members....

, and Oral Roberts University.
East of Highway 169 and north of 61st street, a diverse racial makeup marks the eastern portions of the city, with large Asian
Asian people
Asian people or Asiatic people is a term with multiple meanings that refers to people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.- Central Asia :...

 and Mexican
Mexican people
Mexican people refers to all persons from Mexico, a multiethnic country in North America, and/or who identify with the Mexican cultural and/or national identity....

 communities and much of the city's manufacturing industry.

Areas of Tulsa west of the Arkansas River are called West Tulsa, and are marked by large parks, wilderness reserves, and large oil refineries. The northern tier of the city is home to OSU-Tulsa, Gilcrease Museum
Gilcrease Museum
Gilcrease Museum is a museum located northwest of downtown Tulsa, Oklahoma. The museum now houses the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art of the American West as well as a growing collection of art and artifacts from Central and South America...

, Tulsa International Airport
Tulsa International Airport
Tulsa International Airport is a city-owned public-use airport located five miles northeast of downtown Tulsa, a city in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, United States. It was originally named Tulsa Municipal Airport, when the city acquired it in 1929...

, the Tulsa Zoo
Tulsa Zoo
The Tulsa Zoo and Living Museum is a zoo and living museum located in Tulsa, Oklahoma USA. The Tulsa Zoo is owned by the city of Tulsa and is part of the Tulsa Parks Department. The zoo is located in Mohawk Park, one of the largest municipal parks in the United States...

, the Tulsa Air and Space Museum
Tulsa Air and Space Museum
The Tulsa Air and Space Museum is an aerospace museum located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. It is located in the northwest corner of the Tulsa International Airport property. Visitors to the museum can explore of exhibits highlighting Tulsa's aviation history. Historic exhibits, hands-on activities,...

, and the nation's third-largest municipal park, Mohawk Park.

Walkability

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Tulsa 32nd most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.

Demographics


As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2006, there were 382,872 people, 165,743 households, and 99,114 families residing in the city, with a population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 of 2152 PD/sqmi. There were 179,405 housing units at an average density of 982.3 per square mile (379.2/km2). Of 165,743 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.2% were non-families. Of all households, 33.9% are made up of only one person, and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.3 people and the average family size was 3.0.

In the city proper, the age distribution was 24.8% of the population under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older, while the median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.5 males, while for every 100 females over the age of 17 there were 90.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,316, and the median income for a family was $44,518. Males had a median income of $32,779 versus $25,587 for females, and the per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $21,534. About 10.9% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. In 2006, the racial makeup of the city was 70.1% white
White American
White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

, 15.5% African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

, 4.7% Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, 1.8% Asian
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

, 0.1% Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander American
Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

, 3.5% from other races, and 4.4% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...

 of any race formed at least 7.2% of the population with possibly more unregistered persons living within the city.

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey by the U.S. Census Bureau, sent to approximately 250,000 addresses monthly . It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census...

, the racial composition of Tulsa was as follows:
  • White
    White American
    White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

    : 68.5% (Non-Hispanic Whites
    Non-Hispanic Whites
    Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity. Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is...

    : 61.6%)
  • Black or African American
    African American
    African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

    : 15.9%
  • Native American
    Native Americans in the United States
    Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

    : 3.6%
  • Asian
    Asian American
    Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

    : 2.0%
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
    Pacific Islander American
    Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

    : 0.1%
  • Some other race: 4.3%
  • Two or more races
    Multiracial American
    Multiracial Americans, US residents who identify themselves as of "two or more races", were numbered at around 9 million, or 2.9% of the population, in the census of 2010. However there is considerable evidence that the real number is far higher. Prior to the mid-20th century many people hid their...

    : 5.7%
  • Hispanic or Latino
    Hispanic and Latino Americans
    Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...

     (of any race): 12.1%


Source:

Religiously, Tulsa is overwhelmingly Protestant. The city is located in a geographic strip of high church attendance and widespread beliefs in biblical Christianity often called the "Bible Belt", and its history as a hub for televangelists such as Oral Roberts along with a predominance of Christian beliefs and values often lead Tulsa to be considered the "buckle of the Bible Belt". In 2000, the metropolitan area of Tulsa had 364,533 Protestant Christians, including 166,550 Southern Baptists and 78,221 Methodists. Meanwhile, the area had 43,854 Catholics, 2,650 Jews, 2,200 Muslims, and 1,590 Unitarian-Universalists, which includes the largest Unitarian Universalist one-church congregation in the world
All Souls Unitarian Church (Tulsa, Oklahoma)
All Souls Unitarian Church is a Unitarian Universalist church in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It is one of the largest UU congregations in the world....

.

Metropolitan area

The Tulsa Metropolitan Area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

, or the region immediately surrounding Tulsa with strong social and economic ties to the city, occupies a large portion of the state's northeastern quadrant. It is informally known as "Green Country", a name derived from the state's official tourism designation for all of northeastern Oklahoma, though its usage in relation to the Tulsa Metropolitan Area can be traced to the early part of the 20th century.

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

 defines the sphere of the city's influence as the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), spanning seven counties: Tulsa, Rogers
Rogers County, Oklahoma
Rogers County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of 2010, the population was 86,905. Its county seat is Claremore. The county was originally created in 1906 and named Cooweescoowee...

, Osage, Wagoner, Okmulgee
Okmulgee County, Oklahoma
Okmulgee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of 2000, the population was 39,685. Its county seat is Okmulgee.-Geography:According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,819 km²...

, Pawnee
Pawnee County, Oklahoma
Pawnee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of 2000, the population was 16,612. Its county seat is Pawnee.-History:The Osage Tribe used the area that contains present day Pawnee County as buffalo hunting grounds...

, and Creek
Creek County, Oklahoma
Creek County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of 2010, the population was 69,967. Its county seat is Sapulpa.-Geography:According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of , of which is land and is water....

. The 2009 U.S. Census Estimate shows the Tulsa MSA to have 929,015 residents The Tulsa-Bartlesville Combined Statistical Area
Combined Statistical Area
The United States Office of Management and Budget defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas consist of one or more counties...

 (CSA) is created by adding the nearby Bartlesville, Oklahoma
Bartlesville, Oklahoma
Bartlesville is a city in Osage and Washington counties in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The population was 43,070 at the 2010 census. Bartlesville is located forty-seven miles north of Tulsa and very close to Oklahoma's northern border with Kansas. It is the county seat of Washington County, in...

, micropolitan area, consisting of Washington County
Washington County, Oklahoma
Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. It is, in total area, the smallest county in Oklahoma, adjacent to the largest county in Oklahoma, Osage County. It is the second smallest county, by land only size, i.e., not including water. As of 2000, the population was...

 in Northeastern Oklahoma. In 2009, U.S. Census Estimates show the Tulsa-Bartlesville CMSA to have 979,721 residents. and is expected to reach one million residents between 2010 and 2012.

Economy

Though the oil industry has historically dominated Tulsa's economy, efforts in economic diversification have created a base in the sectors of aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

, finance, technology, telecommunications, high tech
High tech
High tech is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology currently available. It is often used in reference to micro-electronics, rather than other technologies. The adjective form is hyphenated: high-tech or high-technology...

, and manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

. The Tulsa International Airport
Tulsa International Airport
Tulsa International Airport is a city-owned public-use airport located five miles northeast of downtown Tulsa, a city in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, United States. It was originally named Tulsa Municipal Airport, when the city acquired it in 1929...

 (TUL) and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa, the nation's most inland seaport, connect the region with international trade and transportation. An American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 maintenance base at Tulsa International Airport is the city's largest employer and the largest maintenance facility in the world, serving as the airline's global maintenance and engineering headquarters, while the Tulsa Port of Catoosa and the Tulsa International Airport house extensive industrial parks.

Products from Tulsa manufacturers account for about 60% of Oklahoma's exports, and in 2001, the city's total gross product was in the top one-third of metropolitan areas, states, and countries, with more than in total goods, growing at a rate of each year. In 2006, Forbes magazine rated Tulsa as second in the nation in income growth, and one of the best cities in the country to do business with. Usually among the lowest in the nation in terms of cost of doing business, the Tulsa Metropolitan Area in 2005 was rated among the five lowest metropolitan areas in the United States for that category.

A number of large financial corporations are headquartered in Tulsa, the largest being the BOK Financial Corporation
BOK Financial Corporation
BOK Financial Corporation , based in Tulsa, Oklahoma, is a financial services company in the West South Central States region of the United States. The corporate headquarters is located in the BOK Tower in downtown Tulsa. BOK Financial's holdings include BOKF, NA, BOSC, Inc, Cavanal Hill Investment...

. The semi-national convenience store
Convenience store
A convenience store, corner store, corner shop, commonly called a bodega in Spanish-speaking areas of the United States, is a small store or shop in a built up area that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, toiletries, alcoholic and soft drinks, and may also offer money order and...

 chain QuikTrip
QuikTrip
QuikTrip is a Tulsa-based chain of convenience stores primarily found in the Midwestern and Southern United States....

, the international car rental company of Dollar Thrifty Automotive Group, Hilti, and Mazzio's
Mazzio's
Mazzio's Corporation is the parent company of Mazzio's Italian Eatery and the former parent company of Zio's Italian Kitchen. In November 2007 Zio's Italian Kitchen was sold to a private company....

 semi-national pizza chain also call Tulsa home. Many international oil and gas-related companies have headquarters in Tulsa, including Williams Companies
Williams Companies
The Williams Companies, Inc. is an energy company based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Its core business is natural gas exploration, production, processing, and transportation, with additional petroleum and electricity generation assets...

, SemGroup
SemGroup
SemGroup is a company based in Tulsa, Oklahoma that is involved in the transport of oil and natural gas from refineries to end users as well as the manufacture and sale of asphalt. As of 2007, it was the 18th largest private company in the US, but filed for bankruptcy in 2008...

, Syntroleum
Syntroleum
Syntroleum Corporation is a United States company engaged in development and commercialization of proprietary Gas to liquids and Coal to liquids processes known jointly as the Syntroleum Process.Syntroleum was incorporated in 1984 by Kenneth Agee...

, ONEOK
ONEOK
ONEOK, Inc. is a diversified Fortune 200 corporation based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Founded in 1906 as Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, it is one of the largest natural gas distributors in the United States. It changed its corporate name to ONEOK in December 1980...

, Samson and Excel Energy. Meanwhile, there are 30 companies in Tulsa that employ more than 1,000 people, though small businesses make up more than 80% of the city's companies.

During a national recession from 2001 to 2003, the city lost 28,000 jobs. In response, a development initiative, Vision 2025
Vision 2025
Vision 2025 was a series of four propositions to increase Tulsa County's sales tax rate by $0.01 in order to fund capital improvements and provide economic development incentives....

, promised to incite economic growth and recreate lost jobs. Projects spurred by the initiative promised urban revitalization, infrastructure improvement, tourism development, riverfront retail development, and further diversification of the economy. As of 2007, employment levels have surpassed pre-recession heights and the city is in a significant economic development and investment surge. This economic improvement is also seen in Tulsa’s housing trends which show an average of a 6% increase in rent in 2010.

Culture

Though Oklahoma is placed entirely in the Southern United States
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 by the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, Tulsa is influenced by the nearby Southwest
Southwestern United States
The Southwestern United States is a region defined in different ways by different sources. Broad definitions include nearly a quarter of the United States, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah...

, Midwest
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States is one of the four U.S. geographic regions defined by the United States Census Bureau, providing an official definition of the American Midwest....

, and Southern cultural regions, as well as a historical native American presence. These influences are expressed in the city's museums, cultural centers, performing arts venues, ethnic festivals, park systems, zoos, wildlife preserves, and large and growing collections of public sculptures, monuments, and artwork.

Arts and theatre

Located in the former estate of oil
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 pioneer Waite Phillips
Waite Phillips
Waite Phillips was an American petroleum businessman who created a fully integrated operation that combined petroleum producing, refining and marketing. With headquarters in Tulsa, Oklahoma, he also developed several office complexes and engaged in banking and ranching...

, Philbrook Museum is considered one of the top 50 fine art
Fine art
Fine art or the fine arts encompass art forms developed primarily for aesthetics and/or concept rather than practical application. Art is often a synonym for fine art, as employed in the term "art gallery"....

 museums in the United States, and is one of only five to offer a combination of a historic home, formal gardens, and an art collection. The collections of Thomas Gilcrease
Thomas Gilcrease
William Thomas Gilcrease was an American oilman, art collector and philanthropist. During his lifetime, Gilcrease collected more than 10,000 artworks, 250,000 Native American artifacts and 100,000 rare books and documents, including the only surviving certified copy of the Declaration of...

 are housed at the Gilcrease Museum, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West. With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism in Oklahoma, the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art
Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art
The Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was founded in 1966 as the Gershon & Rebecca Fenster Museum of Jewish Art. From its inception until 1998, Tulsa's Congregation B'nai Emunah Synagogue housed the museum. Sherwin Miller was the museum's first curator...

 preserves the largest collection of Judaica
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 in the Southwest United States. Other museums, such as the Tulsa Historical Society, the Tulsa Air and Space Museum, the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame, and the Tulsa Geosciences Center, document histories of the region, while the Greenwood Cultural Center preserves the culture of the city's African American heritage, housing a collection of artifacts and photography that document the history of the Black Wall Street prior to the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.
Since 1969, public displays of artwork in Tulsa have been funded by one percent of its annual city budget. Each year, a sculpture from a local artist is installed along the Arkansas River trail system, while other sculptures stand at local parks, such as an enlarged version of Cyrus Dallin's Appeal to the Great Spirit
Appeal to the Great Spirit
Appeal to the Great Spirit is a bronze equestrian sculpture by Cyrus Dallin, the last of a four-piece series called The Epic of the Indian.-History:...

 sculpture at Woodward Park
Woodward Park (Tulsa)
Woodward Park is a public park, botanical garden, and arboretum located between 21st Street and 24th Street east of South Peoria Avenue, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA...

. At the entrance to Oral Roberts University stands a large statue of praying hands, which, at 60 feet (18.3 m) high, is the largest bronze sculpture in the world. As a testament to the city's oil heritage, the 76 feet (23.2 m) Golden Driller
Golden Driller
The Golden Driller is a , statue of an oil worker, in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Although it is claimed to be the largest free-standing statue in the world, there are many taller statues. It is currently the third tallest statue in the United States.- Overview :...

 guards the front entrance to the Tulsa County Fairgrounds.

Tulsa contains several permanent dance, theater, and concert groups, including the Tulsa Ballet
Tulsa Ballet
Tulsa Ballet is a professional American Ballet company located in Tulsa, OK. The artistic mission of Tulsa Ballet is "To preserve the tradition of classical ballet, promote the appreciation of contemporary dance, create works of superior and enduring quality, and educate through exemplary...

, the Tulsa Opera
Tulsa Opera
The Tulsa Opera, located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, is the 18th oldest opera company in the United States and is ranked among the top 10 regional opera companies in the nation. The company produces three opera productions each season performed at the Tulsa Performing Arts Center...

, the Tulsa Symphony Orchestra
Tulsa Symphony Orchestra
The Tulsa Symphony Orchestra is a professional orchestra based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It was formed in 2005 by musicians from the Tulsa Philharmonic, which ended in 2002, and currently performs with Light Opera Oklahoma....

, Light Opera Oklahoma
Light Opera Oklahoma
Light Opera Oklahoma is a professional opera company based in Tulsa, Oklahoma and is a member of OPERA America. The organization, governed by an elected board of directors, follows a repertory model in presenting a summer festival program of comic operas and musicals...

, Tulsa Signature Symphony
Tulsa Signature Symphony
The Tulsa Signature Symphony is a professional orchestra-in-residence at Tulsa Community College . The orchestra initially started as a small professional chamber orchestra in 1978 called the Tulsa Little Symphony and in the early 80s became the Oklahoma Sinfonia, presenting a series of pops and...

, the Heller Theatre
Heller Theatre
The Heller Theatre in Tulsa, Oklahoma is the largest community theatre in Oklahoma. It was founded in October 1981 by Ken Spence with the partnership of Theatre Tulsa and has since produced more than one hundred shows including two dozen world premiers...

, American Theatre Company, which is a member of the Theatre Communications Group and Oklahoma's oldest resident professional theatre, and Theatre Tulsa
Theatre Tulsa
Theatre Tulsa, Inc. is a community theatre company in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. It is the oldest continuously operating company of its sort west of the Mississippi River and the seventh oldest in the nation....

, the oldest continuously operating community theatre
Community theatre
Community theatre refers to theatrical performance made in relation to particular communities—its usage includes theatre made by, with, and for a community...

 company west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

. Tulsa also houses the Tulsa Spotlight Theater, which shows the longest-running play in America (The Drunkard
The Drunkard
The Drunkard; or, The Fallen Saved is an American temperance play first performed in 1844. A drama in five acts, it was perhaps the most popular play produced in the United States before the dramatization of Uncle Tom's Cabin  in the 1850s. In New York City, P.T. Barnum presented it at his...

) every Saturday night. Large performing arts complexes include the Tulsa Convention Center, the Tulsa Performing Arts Center, Expo Square Pavilion
Expo Square Pavilion
The Expo Square Pavilion, sometimes called simply The Pavilion, and formerly known as the Tulsa Fairgrounds Pavilion, is a 6,311-seat multi-purpose arena, in Tulsa, Oklahoma.It was built in 1932; the architect was Leland I Shumway...

, the Mabee Center
Mabee Center
Mabee Center is an 11,300-seat multi-purpose arena, located on the campus of Oral Roberts University, in Tulsa, Oklahoma.An adjacent building, smaller but similar in shape, is known as "Baby Mabee" and houses a television production studio....

, the Tulsa Performing Arts Center for Education, and the River Parks Amphitheater and Tulsa's largest venue, the BOK Center. Ten miles west of the city, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" holds the official title of the world performance headquarters for the musical Oklahoma!
Oklahoma!
Oklahoma! is the first musical written by composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. The musical is based on Lynn Riggs' 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Set in Oklahoma Territory outside the town of Claremore in 1906, it tells the story of cowboy Curly McLain and his romance...

,
while Cain's Ballroom, considered the birthplace of Western Swing, housed the performance headquarters of Bob Wills
Bob Wills
James Robert Wills , better known as Bob Wills, was an American Western Swing musician, songwriter, and bandleader, considered by music authorities as the co-founder of Western Swing and universally known as the pioneering King of Western Swing.Bob Wills' name will forever be associated with...

 and the Texas Playboys during the 1930s. The centerpiece of the downtown Brady Arts District, the Brady Theater
Brady Theater
The Brady Theater is a theater and convention hall, in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States. It was originally completed in 1914 and remodeled in 1930 and 1952. The building was used as a detention center during the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot.-History:The Brady Theater has served Tulsa as a public assembly...

, is the largest of the city's five operating performing arts venues that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

. The city's film community hosts annual festivals such as the Tulsa United Film Festival and Tulsa Overground Film and Music Festival. The Blue Dome District is home to the annual Diversafest (DFest), an annual live event that showcases independent and emerging artists. Attendance at DFest in 2008 surpassed 60,000 people for the two days. DFest takes place in the last weekend of July. Due to economic reasons the 2010 DFest was cancelled.

Outdoor recreation

The City of Tulsa manages 140 parks spread over 6000 acres (2,428.1 ha). Most notably, Woodward Park, a 45 acres (18.2 ha) tract located in midtown Tulsa, doubles as a botanical gardens featuring the Tulsa Municipal Rose Garden and more than 6,000 rose plants in 250 varieties. Tulsa River Parks is a series of parks that run adjacent to the Arkansas River for about 10 miles (16.1 km) from downtown to the Jenks bridge. Since 2007 a significant portion of the River Parks area north of I-44 has been renovated with new trails, landscaping and playground equipment.
The city's zoo, the Tulsa Zoo and Living Museum, was voted "America's Favorite Zoo" in 2005 by Microsoft Game Studios
Microsoft Game Studios
Microsoft Studios is the video game production wing for Microsoft, responsible for the development and publishing of games for the Xbox, Xbox 360, Games for Windows and Windows Phone platforms. They were established in 2002 as Microsoft Game Studios to coincide with the release of the Xbox, before...

 in connection with a national promotion of its Zoo Tycoon 2
Zoo Tycoon 2
Zoo Tycoon 2 is a video game in which the player may create and operate a zoo by managing its finances, employees and animal exhibits. The goal is to become a "zoo tycoon". Originally released for Windows, Zoo Tycoon 2 is also available for Windows Mobile, PDA, Mac OS X and Nintendo DS...

 computer game. Doubling as a museum that documents the cultures and history of various climates in North America, the zoo encompasses a total of 78 acres (31.6 ha) with approximately 1,500 animals and 436 species. The zoo is located in Mohawk Park, the third largest municipal park in the United States. On the west bank of the Arkansas River in the suburb of Jenks
Jenks, Oklahoma
Jenks is a city in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, United States, and a suburb of Tulsa, in the northeastern part of the state. It is situated between the Arkansas River and U.S. Route 75. Jenks is one of the fastest growing cities in Oklahoma...

, the Oklahoma Aquarium
Oklahoma Aquarium
The Oklahoma Aquarium is located on a campus along the banks of the Arkansas River in Jenks , a southern suburb of Tulsa. The facility was built in 2002 with the expectation to bring nearly 500,000 visitors to the Tulsa metropolitan area annually...

 is the state's only freestanding aquarium, containing over 200 exhibits, including a shark tank.

The Tulsa State Fair
Tulsa State Fair
The Tulsa State Fair is a fair and exposition in Tulsa, Oklahoma that operates during an 11-day span starting at the end of September and ending early in October. Of Oklahoma's two state fairs, it had the smaller annual attendance by a small margin in 2010...

, operating in late September and early October, attracts over one million people during its 10 day run, and the city's Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest, or Wiesn, is a 16–18 day beer festival held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, running from late September to the first weekend in October. It is one of the most famous events in Germany and is the world's largest fair, with more than 5 million people attending every year. The...

 celebration was named one of the top 10 in the world by USA Today
USA Today
USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. It was founded by Al Neuharth. The newspaper vies with The Wall Street Journal for the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States, something it previously held since 2003...

 and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by Bon Appetit
Bon Appétit
Bon Appétit describes itself as "a food and entertaining magazine" and is published monthly. Named after the French phrase for "Enjoy your meal", it was started by M. Frank Jones in Kansas City in 1956...

 magazine. The annual Mayfest arts and crafts festival entertained more than 375,000 people in its four day run in downtown during 2007. On a smaller scale, the city hosts block parties during a city-wide "Block Party Day" each year, with festivals varying in size throughout city neighborhoods. Tulsa has one major amusement park attraction, Big Splash Water Park, featuring multi-story water slides and large wave pools. Until 2006, the city also hosted Bell's Amusement Park
Bell's Amusement Park
Bell's Amusement Park was a small amusement park located in Tulsa's Expo Square, part of the Tulsa County Fairground in Oklahoma. The park was founded in 1951 by Robert Bell with a small collection of rides and amusements including a three car train and a Shetland pony ride...

, which closed after Tulsa County officials declined to renew its lease agreement.

Sports

Tulsa supports a wide array of sports at the professional and collegiate levels. Currently, the city hosts two teams in first-tier professional leagues, the Tulsa Talons
Tulsa Talons
The San Antonio Talons are a professional arena football franchise in San Antonio, Texas that plays in the Arena Football League.The Talons began in 2000 in Tulsa, Oklahoma as the Tulsa Talons, a charter member of the defunct minor league Arena Football 2, also known as af2...

 of the Arena Football League, and the Tulsa Shock of the WNBA
Women's National Basketball Association
The Women's National Basketball Association is a women's professional basketball league in the United States. It currently is composed of twelve teams. The league was founded on April 24, 1996 as the women's counterpart to the National Basketball Association...

; two NCAA Division I colleges; and four professional, minor league
Minor league
Minor leagues are professional sports leagues which are not regarded as the premier leagues in those sports. Minor league teams tend to play in smaller, less elaborate venues, often competing in smaller cities. This term is used in North America with regard to several organizations competing in...

 sports teams, playing in basketball, baseball, hockey, and soccer. The city also contains one of the nation's top rated golf courses, Southern Hills Country Club, which is one of two courses that have hosted seven men's major championships
Men's major golf championships
The men's major golf championships, commonly known as the Major Championships, and often referred to simply as the majors, are the four most prestigious annual tournaments in professional golf...

: three U.S. Opens
U.S. Open (golf)
The United States Open Championship, commonly known as the U.S. Open, is the annual open golf tournament of the United States. It is the second of the four major championships in golf, and is on the official schedule of both the PGA Tour and the European Tour...

 and four PGA Championship
PGA Championship
The PGA Championship is an annual golf tournament conducted by the PGA of America as part of the PGA Tour. It is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, and is the golf season's final major, usually played in mid-August, customarily four weeks after The Open Championship...

s, the most recent in 2007. The course has held five amateur championships and from 2001 to 2008 the LPGA
LPGA
The LPGA, in full the Ladies Professional Golf Association, is an American organization for female professional golfers. The organization, whose headquarters is in Daytona Beach, Florida, is best known for running the LPGA Tour, a series of weekly golf tournaments for elite female golfers from...

 had a regular tour stop, most recently known as the SemGroup Championship at Cedar Ridge Country Club. The 18,000-seat BOK Center is the centerpiece of the Vision 2025 projects and was completed in August 2008. The BOK Center was in the top ten among indoor arenas worldwide in ticket sales for the first quarter of 2009. It is the home for the city's WNBA, arena football
Arena football
Arena football is a variety of gridiron football played by the Arena Football League . It is a proprietary game, the rights to which are owned by Gridiron Enterprises, and is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian outdoor football, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game....

, and hockey teams. From 1978 to 1984, the city hosted the Tulsa Roughnecks
Tulsa Roughnecks
-NASL:The Tulsa Roughnecks were a North American Soccer League team from Tulsa, Oklahoma. They played at Skelly Stadium on the campus of the University of Tulsa. The Roughnecks were a regular in the NASL playoffs, and won the NASL Soccer Bowl in 1983, defeating the Toronto Blizzard at B.C. Place...

, who played in the now-defunct North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League was a professional soccer league with teams in the United States and Canada that operated from 1968 to 1984.-History:...

 and won that league's championship in 1983. Also in 1984, the city hosted the Oklahoma Outlaws of the now-defunct United States Football League
United States Football League
The United States Football League was an American football league which was in active operation from 1983 to 1987. It played a spring/summer schedule in its first three seasons and a traditional autumn/winter schedule was set to commence before league operations ceased.The USFL was conceived in...

 for a single season.

Tulsa has two universities that compete at the NCAA Division I level: the University of Tulsa
University of Tulsa
The University of Tulsa is a private university awarding bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. It is currently ranked 75th among doctoral degree granting universities in the nation by US News and World Report and is listed as one of the "Best 366 Colleges" by...

 Golden Hurricane, and the Oral Roberts University Golden Eagles. The University of Tulsa's men's basketball program
Tulsa Golden Hurricane men's basketball
The University of Tulsa Golden Hurricane basketball team represents the University of Tulsa in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The team participates in Conference USA. The men’s team is currently coached by Doug Wojcik....

 has reached the Sweet Sixteen
NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship
The NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship is a single-elimination tournament held each spring in the United States, featuring 68 college basketball teams, to determine the national championship in the top tier of college basketball...

 three times, made an appearance in the Elite Eight
Elite Eight
The term Elite Eight, or less commonly called "Great Eight", refers to the final eight teams in the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship or the NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship; and, thus, represents the national quarterfinals. In Division I, the Elite Eight consists of the...

 in 2000
2000 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament
The 2000 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament involved 64 schools playing in single-elimination play to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division I college basketball. It began on March 16, 2000, and ended with the championship game on April 3 in Indianapolis, Indiana...

, won the NIT
National Invitation Tournament
The National Invitation Tournament is a men's college basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. There are two NIT events each season. The first, played in November and known as the Dick's Sporting Goods NIT Season Tip-Off , was founded in 1985...

 championship in 1981
1981 National Invitation Tournament
-Semifinals & Finals:*Third Place - Purdue 75, West Virginia 72...

 and 2001
2001 National Invitation Tournament
-Semifinals & Finals:*Third Place - Memphis 86, Detroit 71...

, and won the inaugural College Basketball Invitational
College Basketball Invitational
The College Basketball Invitational is a men's college basketball tournament created in 2007 by The Gazelle Group. The inaugural tournament occurred after the conclusion of the 2007–08 men's college basketball regular season. The CBI selects 16 teams that are not selected for the NCAA Tournament...

 in 2008
2008 College Basketball Invitational
The 2008 College Basketball Invitational was a single-elimination tournament of 16 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I teams that did not participate in the 2008 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament or the 2008 National Invitation Tournament...

. The Tulsa football team
Tulsa Golden Hurricane football
The University of Tulsa's Golden Hurricane football team represents Tulsa in Conference USA. Tulsa is currently coached by first-year head coach Bill Blankenship. The football team was coached by Todd Graham until he accepted the head coaching job at Pittsburgh....

 has played in 16 bowl game
Bowl game
In North America, a bowl game is commonly considered to refer to one of a number of post-season college football games. Prior to 2002, bowl game statistics were not included in players' career totals and the games were mostly considered to be exhibition games involving a payout to participating...

s, including the Sugar Bowl
Sugar Bowl
The Sugar Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game played in the Mercedes-Benz Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Sugar Bowl has been played annually since January 1, 1935, and celebrated its 75th anniversary on January 2, 2009...

 (twice) and the Orange Bowl
Orange Bowl
The Orange Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game played at Sun Life Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. It has been played annually since January 1, 1935 and celebrated its 75th playing on January 1, 2009...

. Oral Roberts University's men's basketball team
Oral Roberts Golden Eagles men's basketball
The Oral Roberts Golden Eagles Basketball team is the basketball team that represent Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The school's team currently competes in The Summit League. The team earned an automatic berth in the 2008 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. It was their third...

 reached the Elite Eight in 1974
1974 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament
The 1974 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament involved 25 schools playing in single-elimination play to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division I college basketball. It was the first tournament to officially be designated as a Division I championship—previously, NCAA member...

 and won the Mid-Continent Conference title three straight years, from 2005 to 2007. At the secondary level, the Tulsa area is home to several high school athletic programs that are frequently ranked among the best nationally.

In 2008 Tulsa funded 39.2 million to build a new ballpark in the Greenwood District near downtown for its Class AA Texas League
Texas League
The Texas League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the South Central United States. It is classified a Double-A league. The league was founded in 1888 and ran through 1892...

 baseball team, the Tulsa Drillers. The ground breaking was held on December 19, 2008. ONEOK bought the naming rights for for the next 25 years. The first game at ONEOK Field was held on April 8, 2010. Country music star Tim McGraw
Tim McGraw
Samuel Timothy "Tim" McGraw is an American country singer and actor. Many of McGraw's albums and singles have topped the country music charts with total album sales in excess of 40 million units in the US, making him the eighth best-selling artist, and the third best-selling country singer, in the...

 threw out the first pitch.

The city's running
Running
Running is a means of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot. It is simply defined in athletics terms as a gait in which at regular points during the running cycle both feet are off the ground...

 and cycling
Cycling
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, or for sport. Persons engaged in cycling are cyclists or bicyclists...

 communities support events such as the Tulsa Tough
Tulsa Tough
Saint Francis Tulsa Tough Ride and Race is a three-day cycling festival in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It features non-competitive riding through scenic areas around the Tulsa Metropolitan Area and professional level races...

 cycling race, the Route 66 Marathon, and the Tulsa Run
Tulsa Run
The Tulsa Run is a 15 kilometer running event in Tulsa, Oklahoma featuring over 8,000 runners in the annual October event....

, which features over 8000 participants annually. Gambling
Gambling
Gambling is the wagering of money or something of material value on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods...

 is supported by a community of Indian gaming venues that have been allowed to expand gambling options. In 2005, compacts
Treaty
A treaty is an express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention or exchange of letters, among other terms...

 between the state and various tribes allowed facilities to offer table card games and slot machines. Another popular gambling draw, Horse racing
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 events are housed by the Fair Meadows Race Track
Fair Meadows Race Track
Fair Meadows Race Track is a large race track and betting center located in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The track features horse races Thursday through Sunday from early June to late July at its facility in Expo Square.-External links:**...

 and Will Rogers Downs
Will Rogers Downs
The Will Rogers Downs is a gaming facility and race track located in Rogers County, east of Claremore, Oklahoma , that is owned and operated by the Cherokee Nation. The facility features a 2,700-seat grandstand along a one-mile long track...

 in nearby Claremore
Claremore, Oklahoma
Claremore is a city and the county seat of Rogers County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 18,581 at the 2010 census, a 17.1 percent increase from 15,873 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area and home to Rogers State University...

.
Club Sport League Stadium
Tulsa Shock Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

WNBA
Women's National Basketball Association
The Women's National Basketball Association is a women's professional basketball league in the United States. It currently is composed of twelve teams. The league was founded on April 24, 1996 as the women's counterpart to the National Basketball Association...

BOK Center
BOK Center
The BOK Center, or Bank of Oklahoma Center, is a 19,100-seat multi-purpose arena and a primary indoor sports and event venue in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States. Designed to accommodate arena football, hockey, basketball, concerts, and similar events, the facility was built at a cost of $178 million...

Tulsa Golden Hurricane
Tulsa Golden Hurricane
Tulsa Golden Hurricane athletics programs include the extramural and intramural sports team of the University of Tulsa. These teams are referred to as the Tulsa Golden Hurricane...

Various NCAA Division I Various, including Chapman Stadium (football) and Reynolds Center
Reynolds Center
Reynolds Center is an 8,355-seat multi-purpose arena in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The arena opened in 1998 and is named for Donald W. Reynolds. It is home to the University of Tulsa Golden Hurricane basketball and volleyball teams. It hosted the 2001-03 Western Athletic Conference men's basketball...

 (basketball)
Oral Roberts Golden Eagles
Oral Roberts Golden Eagles
The Oral Roberts Golden Eagles are the 16 intercollegiate teams representing the Oral Roberts University that compete in the U.S. National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I. Oral Roberts competes in The Summit League in all sports.-History:...

Various NCAA Division I Various, including Mabee Center
Mabee Center
Mabee Center is an 11,300-seat multi-purpose arena, located on the campus of Oral Roberts University, in Tulsa, Oklahoma.An adjacent building, smaller but similar in shape, is known as "Baby Mabee" and houses a television production studio....

 (basketball)
Tulsa Drillers
Tulsa Drillers
The Tulsa Drillers are a minor league baseball team based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The team, which plays in the Texas League, is the Double-A affiliate of the Colorado Rockies major-league club.-Stadium:...

Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

Texas League
Texas League
The Texas League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the South Central United States. It is classified a Double-A league. The league was founded in 1888 and ran through 1892...

ONEOK Field
Tulsa Oilers Ice Hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

Central Hockey League
Central Hockey League
The Central Hockey League is a mid-level professional hockey league, owned by Global Entertainment Corporation. Its current champions are the Bossier-Shreveport Mudbugs, which defeated the Colorado Eagles four games to three in the 2011 playoffs....

BOK Center
BOK Center
The BOK Center, or Bank of Oklahoma Center, is a 19,100-seat multi-purpose arena and a primary indoor sports and event venue in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States. Designed to accommodate arena football, hockey, basketball, concerts, and similar events, the facility was built at a cost of $178 million...

Tulsa Talons
Tulsa Talons
The San Antonio Talons are a professional arena football franchise in San Antonio, Texas that plays in the Arena Football League.The Talons began in 2000 in Tulsa, Oklahoma as the Tulsa Talons, a charter member of the defunct minor league Arena Football 2, also known as af2...

Arena Football
Arena football
Arena football is a variety of gridiron football played by the Arena Football League . It is a proprietary game, the rights to which are owned by Gridiron Enterprises, and is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian outdoor football, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game....

AFL BOK Center
BOK Center
The BOK Center, or Bank of Oklahoma Center, is a 19,100-seat multi-purpose arena and a primary indoor sports and event venue in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States. Designed to accommodate arena football, hockey, basketball, concerts, and similar events, the facility was built at a cost of $178 million...

Tulsa 66ers
Tulsa 66ers
The Tulsa 66ers are an NBA Development League team based in Tulsa, Oklahoma and the minor league affiliate of the Oklahoma City Thunder. Their logo design is a basketball behind mountains with a road leading up to them, all on a U.S...

Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

NBADL
NBA Development League
The NBA Development League, or NBA D-League, is the National Basketball Association's official minor league basketball organization. Known until summer 2005 as the National Basketball Development League , the NBA D-League started with eight teams in the fall of 2001...

Tulsa Convention Center
Tulsa Convention Center
The Maxwell Convention Center or Tulsa Convention Center is a 7,111-seat multi-purpose arena in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The civic arena was constructed in 1964 and named for Tulsa Mayor James L. Maxwell who was the driving force behind the planning and start of the venue...

Tulsa Tornadoes Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

UBL
United Basketball League
The United Basketball League is a spring professional minor basketball league in the Southern United States. Originally founded by Mac Claire in 2006 as the Regional Basketball League, the UBL is scheduled to begin its inaugural season in the spring of 2008...

Will Rogers High School
Will Rogers High School
Will Rogers High School, located on 3909 E. 5th Place in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was built by Tulsa Public Schools in 1939 using WPA workers and designed by Joseph R. Koberling, Jr. and Leon B. Senter. It was named for the humorist Will Rogers, who died in 1935 along with Wiley Post in a plane crash...

Tulsa Revolution
Tulsa Revolution
The Tulsa Revolution is a professional soccer team from Tulsa, Oklahoma that played in the Central Division of the American Indoor Soccer League.- History :...

Soccer NPSL
National Premier Soccer League
The National Premier Soccer League is a United States soccer league recognized by the United States Soccer Federation and FIFA as a Division IV league...

Soccer City Indoor Sports Complex

Media

Tulsa's leading newspaper is the daily Tulsa World
Tulsa World
Tulsa World is the daily newspaper for the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, is the primary newspaper for the northeastern and eastern portions of Oklahoma, and is the second-most widely circulated newspaper in the state, after The Oklahoman. It was founded in 1905 and remains an independent newspaper,...

, the second most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma with a Sunday circulation of 189,789. Urban Tulsa, another large publication, is a weekly newspaper covering entertainment and cultural events. Covering primarily economic events and stocks, the Tulsa Business Journal caters to Tulsa's business sector. Other publications include the Oklahoma Indian Times, the Tulsa Daily Commerce and Legal News, the Tulsa Beacon, and the Tulsa Free Press. Until 1992, the Tulsa Tribune
Tulsa Tribune
The Tulsa Tribune was an afternoon daily newspaper published in Tulsa, Oklahoma from 1919 to 1992. Owned and run by three generations of the Jones family, the Tribune closed in 1992 after the termination of its joint operating agreement with the morning Tulsa World.-Antecedents:In 1895, a group of...

served as a daily major newspaper competing with the Tulsa World. The paper was acquired by the Tulsa World that year. Tulsa is also home to The Oklahoma Eagle Newspaper, an African-American based paper which starting publishing in 1921 as the Tulsa Star.

Tulsa is also served by television and radio broadcasting networks. All major U.S. television networks are represented in Tulsa. Cable television
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

 service in the area is provided by Cox Communications
Cox Communications
Cox Communications is a privately owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television, telecommunications and wireless services in the United States...

. As in most major American cities, local radio stations in the Tulsa area are controlled by a small handful of large broadcasting
Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

 companies. The late radio personality Paul Harvey
Paul Harvey
Paul Harvey Aurandt , better known as Paul Harvey, was an American radio broadcaster for the ABC Radio Networks. He broadcast News and Comment on weekday mornings and mid-days, and at noon on Saturdays, as well as his famous The Rest of the Story segments. His listening audience was estimated, at...

 was born in Tulsa and worked at local radio station KVOO
KFAQ
KFAQ is a news/talk radio station in the Tulsa, Oklahoma, area. The station is owned by Journal Broadcast Group and airs a mix of local and national talk shows. The station is an ABC News Radio affiliate...

 in his early career.

Western Swing, a musical genre with roots in Country Music
Country music
Country music is a popular American musical style that began in the rural Southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from Western cowboy and folk music...

, was made popular at Tulsa's Cain's Ballroom. The Tulsa Sound
The Tulsa Sound
The Tulsa Sound is a musical style that originated in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It was a mix of Rockabilly, Country, Rock 'n' Roll, and Blues sounds of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Tulsa Sound artists include JJ Cale, Rocky Frisco, Leon Russell, Elvin Bishop, Roger Tillison, Gene Crose, David Gates,...

, a variation of Rockabilly
Rockabilly
Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating to the early 1950s.The term rockabilly is a portmanteau of rock and hillbilly, the latter a reference to the country music that contributed strongly to the style's development...

, Blues
Blues
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads...

, and Rock 'n' Roll, was started and largely developed by local musicians J. J. Cale and Leon Russell
Leon Russell
Claude Russell Bridges , known professionally as Leon Russell, is an American musician and songwriter, who has recorded as a session musician, sideman, and maintained a solo career in music....

 in the 1960s and 1970s. The Tulsa Sound heavily influenced musician and songwriter Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE, is an English guitarist and singer-songwriter. Clapton is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist, and separately as a member of The Yardbirds and Cream. Clapton has been referred to as one of the most important and...

, among others.
Musicians from Tulsa or that started their musical careers in Tulsa include Garth Brooks
Garth Brooks
Troyal Garth Brooks , best known as Garth Brooks, is an American country music artist who helped make country music a worldwide phenomenon. His eponymous first album was released in 1989 and peaked at number 2 in the US country album chart while climbing to number 13 on the Billboard 200 album chart...

, The Gap Band, Hanson
Hanson (band)
Hanson are an American pop rock band formed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, by brothers Isaac , Taylor , and Zac Hanson . They are best known for the 1997 hit song "MMMBop" from their major label debut album Middle of Nowhere, which earned three Grammy nominations...

, Caroline's Spine
Caroline's Spine
Caroline's Spine is an alternative rock band based in Phoenix, Arizona. The group's touring schedule in the mid 1990s landed them a record deal with Hollywood Records. They have released several studio albums and shared billings with such bands as Aerosmith, Kiss, and Queensrÿche...

, Ronnie Dunn
Ronnie Dunn
Ronnie Gene Dunn is an American country music singer-songwriter, known for being one half of the duo Brooks & Dunn. In 2011, Dunn began working as a solo artist following the breakup of Brooks & Dunn...

, Gene Autry
Gene Autry
Orvon Grover Autry , better known as Gene Autry, was an American performer who gained fame as The Singing Cowboy on the radio, in movies and on television for more than three decades beginning in the 1930s...

, David Gates
David Gates
David Gates is an American singer-songwriter, best known as the lead singer of the group Bread, which reached the tops of the musical charts in Europe and North America on several occasions in the 1970s. The band was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame...

, Jim Keltner
Jim Keltner
James Lee "Jim" Keltner is an American drummer known primarily for his session work. He has contributed to the work of many well-known artists...

, Bob Wills, David Cook
David Cook (singer)
David Roland Cook is an American rock singer-songwriter, who rose to fame after winning the seventh season of the reality television show American Idol...

.

Government

A mayor-council government
Mayor-council government
The mayor–council government system, sometimes called the mayor–commission government system, is one of the two most common forms of local government for municipalities...

 has been in place in Tulsa since 1989 when the city converted from a city commission government
City commission government
City commission government is a form of municipal government which once was common in the United States, but many cities which were formerly governed by commission have since switched to the council-manager form of government...

 deemed wasteful and less efficient. Since the change, Tulsa mayors have been given more power in accordance with a strong mayoral system and have greater control of a more consolidated array of governmental branches. Plurality voting
Plurality voting system
The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member constituencies...

 is used to elect mayors, who serve a term in office of four years. The present mayor of Tulsa is Republican Dewey F. Bartlett, Jr.
Dewey F. Bartlett, Jr.
Dewey F. Bartlett, Jr. is the mayor of Tulsa, Oklahoma. An oil industry executive and political figure in Tulsa, Bartlett was the Republican nominee for mayor of Tulsa in the 2009 election, and was elected as Tulsa's 39th Mayor on November 10, 2009.Bartlett's father, Dewey F...

 who won the 2009 election
Tulsa, Oklahoma mayoral election, 2009
The 2009 Tulsa mayoral election took place on November 10, 2009, and resulted in the election of Dewey F. Bartlett, Jr., the Republican candidate, as Tulsa's 39th mayor....

 and took office on December 7, 2009. Another Tulsa political figure, Jim Inhofe
Jim Inhofe
James Mountain "Jim" Inhofe is the senior Senator from Oklahoma and a member of the Republican Party. First elected to the Senate in 1994, he is the ranking member of the United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works and was its chairman from 2003 to 2007. Inhofe served eight...

, who now represents Oklahoma in the United States Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

, served as the mayor of Tulsa early in his political career.

A city councilor from each of the city's nine council districts is elected every two years, each serving a term of two years. Councilors are elected from their own respective districts based on a plurality voting system, and serve on the Tulsa City Council. Roscoe Turner of District Three currently serves as the council chairman along with Vice Chairman John Eagleton of District Seven. As a whole, the council acts as the legislative body of city government, which aims to pass laws, approve the city budget, and manage efficiency in city government. In accordance with the mayor-council form of government, the Tulsa City Council and the office of the Mayor coordinate in city government operations. A third body of the government, the city auditor, is elected independently of the city council and mayor to ensure that the auditor can act in an objective manner. The auditor is elected for a term of two years. Phil Wood, a Democrat, held the position for 21 years before being defeated by Republican Preston Doerflinger in the 2009 election. The city serves as the seat of county government for Tulsa County, and lies mostly within Oklahoma's 1st congressional district
Oklahoma's 1st congressional district
Oklahoma's First Congressional District is in the northeastern corner of the state and borders Kansas. It is largely coextensive with the Tulsa metropolitan area. It includes all of Tulsa County Washington County, Wagoner County, and parts of Rogers County and Creek County...

, with its far northwestern areas in southern Osage County in Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district
Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district
Oklahoma's Third Congressional District is the largest congressional district in Oklahoma and also one of the largest congressional districts in the United States. It borders New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, and the Texas panhandle...

.

Municipal and State laws are enforced in Tulsa by the Tulsa Police Department
Tulsa Police Department
The Tulsa Police Department is the principal law enforcement agency of the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma. It is nationally accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies It is the second largest municipal law enforcement agency in the state.The TPD was officially organized in...

, an organization of about 770 officers as of 2006. In 2004, Tulsa's crime rate was 7806.1 per 100,000 people, about 1.5 times the national average. There were 58 murders, 1096 robberies, and 6,592 burglaries in 2004.

Education

Public Schools

The Presbyterian Church (PCUSA)
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
The Presbyterian Church , or PC, is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. Part of the Reformed tradition, it is the largest Presbyterian denomination in the U.S...

 established the Presbyterian Mission Day School, a one-story building at what would become 4th Street and Boston Avenue in 1884. A second story was soon added to accommodate the number of children who were to attend. This school operated until 1889. When Tulsa incorporated in 1899, it took over the school and became the first public school. James M. Hall and three other men bought the property with their own funds and held the title until the city could reimburse them.

Tulsa built its first two public schools in 1905. Construction of more schools began accelerating in 1906. In December 1907, control of the public schools passed from the city government to the Tulsa Board of Education.

Tulsa High School opened in 1906 on the same block formerly occupied by the Presbyterian mission school, which had been razed. The new school was a three-story cream colored brick building with a dome. The school was accredited by the North Central Association of Schools and Colleges in 1913. It proved too small by 1916, when Tulsa voters approved a bond issue to construct a new high school at Sixth Street and Cincinnati Avenue, which was renamed Central High School
Central High School (Tulsa, Oklahoma)
Central High School is the oldest high school in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It was founded in 1906 as Tulsa High School, and located in downtown Tulsa until 1976. The school now has a campus in northwest Tulsa. Tulsa Central is part of the Tulsa Public Schools, Oklahoma's largest school district, and is a...

. The north half of this facility opened in 1917, while the south half opened in 1922. This building remained in this service until 1976, when it was replaced by a new building on West Edison Street. The old building was taken over by the Public Service Company of Oklahoma.

There are three primary public school districts in the city of Tulsa. Tulsa Public Schools
Tulsa Public Schools
Tulsa Public Schools is an independent school district serving the Tulsa, Oklahoma area in Northeastern Oklahoma. It is the 2nd largest school district in Oklahoma. As of 2010 the district serves approximately 41,224 students, up slightly from 41,200 students from Kindergarten through Twelfth grade...

, with nine high schools and over 41,000 students, is the second-largest school district in Oklahoma and includes Booker T. Washington High School, a magnet school
Magnet school
In education in the United States, magnet schools are public schools with specialized courses or curricula. "Magnet" refers to how the schools draw students from across the normal boundaries defined by authorities as school zones that feed into certain schools.There are magnet schools at the...

 judged to be the 65th best high school in the United States by Newsweek
Newsweek
Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It is distributed throughout the United States and internationally. It is the second-largest news weekly magazine in the U.S., having trailed Time in circulation and advertising revenue for most of its existence...

 Magazine in 2008. Each with one upper high school, Jenks
Jenks public schools
Jenks Public Schools is a K-12 public school system located in Jenks, Oklahoma.Kirby Lehman is the superintendent of the district, which had 9,982 students in October 2008. Jenks and large parts of south and west Tulsa, Oklahoma are part of the Jenks school district, covering .The school district...

 and Union
Union Public Schools
Union Public Schools is a public school district located in southeast Tulsa, and northwest Broken Arrow, Oklahoma. The school district is the eleventh largest in Oklahoma. Union is notable among school districts in the area because Union does not encompass a particular city...

 schools are the city's two other primary districts, covering the southern portion of the city near the towns of Jenks and Broken Arrow
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, primarily in Tulsa County but also with a small section of the city in western Wagoner County. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2010 US Census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents...

. In 2006, there were more than 90,000 students attending Tulsa County's public schools. The Catholic Diocese of Tulsa supports a system of parochial and diocesan schools, including Bishop Kelley High School
Bishop Kelley High School
Bishop Kelley High School is a Lasallian Catholic high school with over 800 students, grades 9 to 12, located at 41st and Hudson Avenue, in the center of the Tulsa metropolitan area, on a campus spanning just over 37 acres...

. Another Catholic high school, Cascia Hall Preparatory School
Cascia Hall Preparatory School
Cascia Hall Preparatory School is an Augustinian Roman Catholic coeducational college-preparatory day school in Tulsa, Oklahoma.-History:Cascia Hall was founded by the Order of Saint Augustine in 1926 at its current location, a campus at 2520 South Yorktown Avenue in midtown Tulsa. The school's...

, is administered by Augustinians
Augustinians
The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo , applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders:...

. Most other private schools have religious affiliations with various Jewish and Protestant denominations, including Holland Hall School
Holland Hall School
Holland Hall is affiliated with the Episcopal Diocese of Oklahoma and the Episcopal Church. Founded in 1922, the school is named after the first Headmistress, Winnifred Shureman, who was of Dutch background....

, affiliated with the Episcopal Church.

Public libraries

The largest library system in the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, the Tulsa City-County Library
Tulsa City-County Library
The Tulsa City-County Library is the major public library system in Tulsa County, Oklahoma.-Overview:The library system serves those who live, work, go to school in, own land in, or pay property taxes on land in Tulsa County. There are 25 branches in the system: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,...

, contains over volumes in 25 library facilities. The library is active in the community, holding events and programs at most branches, including free computer classes, children's storytimes, business and job assistance, and scholarly databases with information on a variety of topics. The McFarlin Library at the University of Tulsa is a federal depository library holding over three million items. Founded in 1930, the library is known for its collection of Native American works and the original works of Irish author James Joyce
James Joyce
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century...

. The Tulsa City-County Library and the University of Tulsa's Law Library are also federal depository libraries, making Tulsa the only city in Oklahoma with more than two federal depository libraries.

Higher education

Kendall College, a Presbyterian school, moved to Tulsa from Muskogee
Muskogee, Oklahoma
Muskogee is a city in Muskogee County, Oklahoma, United States. It is the county seat of Muskogee County, and home to Bacone College. The population was 38,310 at the 2000 census, making it the eleventh-largest city in Oklahoma....

 in 1907. This became the start of higher education in Tulsa. In 1920, the school merged with a proposed Mc Farlin College to become Tulsa University. The McFarlin library of Tulsa University was named for the principal donor of the proposed college, oilman Robert M. McFarlin
Robert M. McFarlin
Robert M. McFarlin was an American oilman, cattle rancher, philanthropist, and businessman who is best known for amassing a fortune by drilling for oil near Glenpool, Oklahoma with his nephew and son-in-law, James A. Chapman...

.

Tulsa has 15 institutions of higher education, including two private universities: the University of Tulsa, a school founded in 1894; and Oral Roberts University, a school founded by evangelist Oral Roberts
Oral Roberts
Granville "Oral" Roberts was an American Pentecostal televangelist and a Christian charismatic. He founded the Oral Roberts Evangelistic Association and Oral Roberts University....

 in 1963. The University of Tulsa has an enrollment of 4,192 undergraduate and graduate students and is ranked 83rd among national doctoral universities in U.S. News and World Report's 2009 edition of America's Best Colleges and among the best 123 Western Colleges by the Princeton Review in 2007, which also ranks it in the top ten schools nationally for quality of life, overall happiness of students, and relationship with the community. Oral Roberts University, a charismatic Christian institution with an enrollment of 5,109 undergraduate and graduate students, was rated in 2007 by the Princeton Review one of the 123 best in the Western United States and among the West's top 50 Master's Universities by U.S. News and World Report in 2005.

Rogers State University
Rogers State University
Rogers State University is a public, co-educational university located in Claremore, Oklahoma with branch campuses in Bartlesville, Oklahoma and Pryor Creek, Oklahoma. Since it began offering bachelor's degrees in 2000, it has outpaced the growth of all other public universities in Oklahoma...

 is the Tulsa area's only public four-year university, though Tulsa Community College has a partnership allowing students to complete four-year Bachelor's degrees through OU-Tulsa, OSU-Tulsa, LU-Tulsa and NSU-Broken Arrow. The largest community college in Oklahoma, Tulsa Community College
Tulsa Community College
Tulsa Community College, formerly known as Tulsa Junior College, was founded in 1970 to serve Tulsa and the surrounding community. It is the largest two-year college in Oklahoma and serves approximately 30,000 students per semester in credit and continuing education classes...

 (TCC) operates four campuses spread across the area as well as a conference center in Midtown. Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University System
The Oklahoma State University System is a university system comprising six educational institutes across Oklahoma: four general academic universities and two health institutions. Its flagship institute is the Oklahoma State University - Stillwater. The Oklahoma State University System has a total...

 houses three campuses in the city, the OSU Center for Health Sciences
Oklahoma State University - Center for Health Sciences
The Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences is located in Tulsa, Oklahoma and is part of the Oklahoma State University System. The Center founded by the Oklahoma State Legislature in 1972 and merged with OSU in 1988....

, the OSU College of Osteopathic Medicine
Oklahoma State University Medical Center
Oklahoma State University Medical Center is a health institution located in Tulsa, Oklahoma. OSU Medical Center was known as Tulsa Regional Medical Center prior to the hospital's rebranding on November 2, 2006...

, and OSU – Tulsa, accommodating upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses. The University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a coeducational public research university located in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. the university had 29,931 students enrolled, most located at its...

 operates what is known as the OU-Tulsa Schusterman Center, offering bachelors, master's and doctoral degree programs in conjunction with the main campus in Norman and the OU Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma City. The OU-Tulsa Schusterman Center also houses the OU School of Community Medicine
OU School of Community Medicine
The OU School of Community Medicine located in Tulsa, OK is a clinical campus of the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine. It is the first medical school of its kind in the nation. The OU School of Community Medicine is designed to serve the healthcare needs of entire communities, especially...

, the first medical school of its kind in the nation. Tulsa also has a Tulsa branch of Langston University
Langston University
Langston University is an institution of higher learning located in Langston, Oklahoma, USA. It is the only historically black college in the state, and the westernmost historically black college in the United States...

, the only HBCU in the state, founded in 1897. The Spartan School of Aeronautics
Spartan School of Aeronautics
Spartan College of Aeronautics and Technology is a private college in Tulsa, Oklahoma that offers training in aviation and aircraft maintenance. Originally established to augment sales of Spartan Aircraft Company, it outlived its parent company and continues to train pilots and mechanics into the...

 enrolls 1,500 students at its flight programs near Tulsa International Airport and the city's vocational education
Vocational education
Vocational education or vocational education and training is an education that prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation...

 is headed by Tulsa Technology Center
Tulsa Technology Center
- Tulsa Technology Center :Tulsa Tech is a public independent school district affiliated with the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education. Tulsa Tech is dedicated to preparing people for success in the workplace, and helps high school and adult students from across the Tulsa region...

, the oldest and largest vocational technology institution in the state.

Transportation

Transportation in Tulsa is aided by Tulsa Transit's bus network of 97 vehicles and two primary airports, while the Tulsa Port of Catoosa provides transportation of goods and industry through international trade routes. Though internal transportation is largely dependent on automobiles, the city is consistently ranked in the five lowest metropolitan areas for average price of gas at the pump. As reported by the Oklahoma Department of Transportation
Oklahoma Department of Transportation
The Oklahoma Department of Transportation is an agency of the government of Oklahoma responsible for the construction, maintenance, and regulation the use of the state's transportation infrastructure...

 in 2005, Tulsa's busiest freeway is U.S. 169
U.S. Route 169
U.S. Route 169 currently runs for 966 miles from the city of Virginia, Minnesota to Tulsa, Oklahoma at U.S. Route 64.-Oklahoma:U.S. Highway 169 is a major south–north highway spanning in Oklahoma. The southern terminus for US-169 is Memorial Drive...

 with about 106,000 vehicles daily between 51st and 61st Streets, and its second busiest freeway is Interstate 44
Interstate 44
Interstate 44 is a major highway in the central United States. Its western terminus is in Wichita Falls, Texas at a concurrency with US 277, US 281 and US 287; its eastern terminus is at the Illinois state line on the Poplar Street Bridge over the Mississippi River in St...

 with about 88,000 vehicles between Yale and Sheridan Avenues. Currently, there are no mass transit rail lines in Tulsa, though the prospect of passenger rail lines from downtown Tulsa to the suburb of Broken Arrow is currently being studied. Freight railways bisect the city in every direction, and include BNSF, UP
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad , headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, is the largest railroad network in the United States. James R. Young is president, CEO and Chairman....

, SK&O, and OSRR rail lines.

The Tulsa International Airport, home to ten commercial airlines, seven cargo carriers, and several charter airlines, serves more than three million travelers annually with almost 80 departures every day, contributing nearly to the economy. In 2007, the airport completed most of an expansion project, which included larger terminal sizes and the addition of restaurants and shops. Riverside-Jones airport, a general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 airport in West Tulsa, saw 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008, making it the busiest airport in Oklahoma and fifth busiest general aviation airport in the nation. Its operations contribute over to the economy annually. At the head of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, the Tulsa Port of Catoosa is the most inland ocean-going port in the United States and connects barge
Barge
A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Some barges are not self-propelled and need to be towed by tugboats or pushed by towboats...

 traffic from Tulsa to the Mississippi River via the Verdigris
Verdigris River
The Verdigris River is a tributary of the Arkansas River in southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma in the United States. It is about long...

 and Arkansas rivers. The port is one of the largest in the United States and contributes to one of the busiest waterways in the world via its course to the Gulf of Mexico. Long distance passenger rail transportation serves Tulsa only through Greyhound bus lines
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

, which provides bus connections to nearby cities with Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 stations.

Medical facilities

The Saint Francis Health System owns several hospitals with a central location at Saint Francis Hospital in the southern part of the city. The facility contains 700 doctors and 918 beds, and with more than 3,000 employees, the network is the second largest healthcare employer in the state. The health system also operates a heart hospital, which was named by General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

 in 2004 one of the most advanced heart hospitals in the nation. St. John Medical Center, located in an 11-story midtown center, employs nearly 700 doctors. Other networks, such as Hillcrest Health System, operate a number of facilities in varying sizes. Beginning in 2007, the city elected to renew a five-year contract with EMSA
Emergency Medical Services Authority
EMSA - the Emergency Medical Services Authority - is Oklahoma's largest provider of pre-hospital emergency medical care. EMSA provides ambulance service to more than 1.1 million residents in central and northeast Oklahoma....

 for ambulance service after a period of consideration to switch to the Tulsa Fire Department for providing such services.

Sister cities

In accordance with the Tulsa Global Alliance, which operates in conjunction with Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between United States and international communities. More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries around the world...

, an organization that began under President Dwight Eisenhower in 1956, Tulsa has been given eight international sister cities
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding:
Beihai
Beihai
Beihai is a prefecture-level city of Guangxi, China. Beihai means "north of the sea" in Chinese, signifying its status as a seaport on the north shore of the Gulf of Tonkin. Between the years 2006 and 2020, Beihai is predicted to be the world's fastest growing city...

, China Celle
Celle
Celle is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany. The town is situated on the banks of the River Aller, a tributary of the Weser and has a population of about 71,000...

, Germany Amiens
Amiens
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Picardy...

, France

San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí, commonly called SLP or simply San Luis, is the capital of, and most populous city in the Mexican state of the same name. The city lies at an elevation of 1,850 meters...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 Tiberias, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 Utsunomiya, Japan
Zelenograd
Zelenograd
Zelenograd is a city, which, along with the territories and settlements under its jurisdiction, forms one of the administrative okrugs of Moscow - Zelenograd Administrative Okrug...

, Russia Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung is a city located in southwestern Taiwan, facing the Taiwan Strait on the west. Kaohsiung, officially named Kaohsiung City, is divided into thirty-eight districts. The city is one of five special municipalities of the Republic of China...

, Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 Dąbrowa Górnicza
Dabrowa Górnicza
Dąbrowa Górnicza is a city in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie in southern Poland, nearby Katowice. The north-east district of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - metropolis with the population of almost 3 millions...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...


See also

  • List of people from Tulsa, Oklahoma
  • Tulsa (book)
    Tulsa (book)
    Tulsa is a collection of black-and-white photographs by Larry Clark of the life of young people in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Its publication in 1971 "caused a sensation within the photographic community", leading to a new interest in autobiographical work....

  • Tulsa (movie)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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