Truck driver
Overview
A truck driver is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck
Truck
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile...

, usually a semi truck, box truck
Box truck
A box truck, also known as a cube truck, cube van, bob truck, box van, or straight truck, is a truck with a cuboid-shaped cargo area.-Road vehicles:...

, or dump truck
Dump truck
A dump truck is a truck used for transporting loose material for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear, the front of which can be lifted up to allow the contents to be deposited on the ground behind the truck at the site of...

.

Truck drivers provide an essential service to industrialized societies by transporting finished goods and raw materials over land, typically to and from manufacturing plants, retail
Retail
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

 and distribution
Distribution (business)
Product distribution is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. An organization or set of organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by a consumer or business user.The other three parts of the marketing mix are product, pricing,...

 centers. Truck drivers are also responsible for inspecting their vehicles for mechanical items or issues relating to safe operation.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
A truck driver is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck
Truck
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile...

, usually a semi truck, box truck
Box truck
A box truck, also known as a cube truck, cube van, bob truck, box van, or straight truck, is a truck with a cuboid-shaped cargo area.-Road vehicles:...

, or dump truck
Dump truck
A dump truck is a truck used for transporting loose material for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear, the front of which can be lifted up to allow the contents to be deposited on the ground behind the truck at the site of...

.

Truck drivers provide an essential service to industrialized societies by transporting finished goods and raw materials over land, typically to and from manufacturing plants, retail
Retail
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

 and distribution
Distribution (business)
Product distribution is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. An organization or set of organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by a consumer or business user.The other three parts of the marketing mix are product, pricing,...

 centers. Truck drivers are also responsible for inspecting their vehicles for mechanical items or issues relating to safe operation. Others, such as driver/sales workers, are also responsible for sales
Sales
A sale is the act of selling a product or service in return for money or other compensation. It is an act of completion of a commercial activity....

 and customer service
Customer service
Customer service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase.According to Turban et al. , “Customer service is a series of activities designed to enhance the level of customer satisfaction – that is, the feeling that a product or service has met the customer...

.

Types of truck drivers

There are three major types of truck driver employment:
  • Owner-operator
    Owner-operator
    In the United States and Canada, an owner-operator is any small business owned by the same person who is running day-to-day operations. Owner operators are found in many business models and franchising companies in many different industries like restaurant chains, health care, logistics,...

    s (also known as O/Os, or "doublestuffs") are individuals who own the trucks they drive and can either lease
    Lease
    A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee to pay the lessor for use of an asset. A rental agreement is a lease in which the asset is tangible property...

     their trucks by contract with a trucking company to haul freight for that company using their own trucks, or they haul loads for a number of companies and are self-employed
    Self-employment
    Self-employment is working for one's self.Self-employed people can also be referred to as a person who works for himself/herself instead of an employer, but drawing income from a trade or business that they operate personally....

     independent contractors. There are also ones that lease a truck from a company and make payments on it to buy it in two to five years.
  • Company drivers are employees of a particular trucking company and drive trucks provided by their employer.

  • Independent Owner-Operators are those who own their own authority to haul goods and often drive their own truck, possibly owning a small fleet anywhere from 1-10 trucks, maybe as few as only 2 or 3 trucks.

Job categories

Both owner operators/owner driver and company drivers can be in these categories.
  • Auto haulers work hauling cars on specially built trailers and require specific skills loading and operating this type of specialized trailer.
  • Boat haulers work moving boats ranging in size from 10 feet (3 m) bass boats to full-size yachts up to 60 ft (18.3 m) using a specialized low boy trailer that can be set up for each size of boat. Boats wider than 8 in 6 in (2.59 m) wide or 13 in 6 in (4.11 m) high have to have a permit to move and are an oversize load.
  • Dry Van drivers haul the majority of goods over highways in large trailers. Contents are generally non perishable goods.
  • Dry Bulk Pneumatic drivers haul bulk sand, salt, and cement, among other things. They have specialized trailers that allow them use pressurized air to unload their product.
  • Flat Bed drivers haul an assortment of large bulky items. A few examples are tanks, steel pipes and lumber. Drivers require the ability to balance the load correctly.
  • LTL drivers or "less than truck load" are usually local delivery jobs where goods are delivered and unloaded by the driver at multiple locations, usually involving the pulling of double or triple trailer combinations.
  • Reefer drivers haul refrigerated or frozen goods.
  • Local drivers work only within the limits of their hometowns or only to nearby towns. They return home nightly.
  • Household Goods drivers, or Bedbuggers haul personal effects for families who are moving from one home to another.

  • Regional drivers may work over several states near their homes. They are usually away from home for short periods.
  • Interstate drivers (otherwise known as "over the road" or "long-haul" drivers) often cover distances of thousands of miles and are away from home for a week or more. To help keep drivers, companies can employ team drivers.
  • Team drivers are two drivers who take turns driving the same truck in shifts (sometimes husband and wife), or several people in different states that split up the haul to keep from being away from home for such long periods.
  • Tanker drivers (in truck driver slang tanker yankers) haul liquids, such as gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel, milk, & crude oil, and dry bulk materials, such as plastics, sugar, flour, & cement in tanks. Liquid tanker drivers need special driving skills due to the load balance changing from the liquid movement. This is especially true for food grade tankers, which do not contain any baffles and are a single compartment (due to sanitation requirements).
  • Vocational drivers drive a vocational truck such as a dump truck
    Dump truck
    A dump truck is a truck used for transporting loose material for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear, the front of which can be lifted up to allow the contents to be deposited on the ground behind the truck at the site of...

    , garbage truck, or cement mixer
    Concrete mixer
    A concrete mixer is a device that homogeneously combines cement, aggregate such as sand or gravel, and water to form concrete. A typical concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to mix the components...

    .
  • Container Intermodal drivers do all of the above, except their cargo containers are lifted on or off the chassis, at special intermodal stations
    Intermodal freight transport
    Intermodal freight transport involves the transportation of freight in an intermodal container or vehicle, using multiple modes of transportation , without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. The method reduces cargo handling, and so improves security, reduces damages and...

    .
  • Bullrack haul livestock locally around their hometowns, or haul regionally all over the USA. The term bullrack comes from a double deck trailer used strictly to haul cattle.

Australia

In Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, drivers of trucks and truck and trailer combinations with gross vehicle mass greater than 12 tonnes must rest for 30 minutes every 5 hours and stop for 10 hours of sleep for every 14 hours of work (includes driving and non-driving duties). After 72 working hours (not including time spent resting or sleeping) a driver must spend 24 hours away from his/her vehicle. Truck drivers must complete a logbook documenting hours and kilometres spent driving.

Canada

In Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, driver hours of service regulations are enforced for any driver who operates a "truck, tractor, trailer or any combination of them that has a gross vehicle weight in excess of 4,500 kg or a bus that is designed and constructed to have a designated seating capacity of more than 24 persons, including the driver." However, there are two sets of hours of service rules, one for above 60th parallel north
60th parallel north
The 60th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean....

, and one for below. Below latitude 60 degrees drivers are limited to 14 hours on duty in any 24 hour period. This 14 hours includes a maximum of 13 hours driving time. Rest periods are 8 consecutive hours in a 24 hour period, as well as an additional 2 hour period of rest that must not be taken in less than 30 minute blocks.

Additionally, there is the. concept of "Cycles". Cycles, in effect, put a limit on the total amount of time a driver can be on duty in a given period before he must take time off. Cycle 1 is 70 hours in a 7 day period, and cycle 2 is 120 hours in a 14 day period. A driver who uses cycle 1 must take off 36 hours at the end of the cycle before being allowed to restart the cycle again. Cycle 2 is 72 hours off duty before being allowed to start again.

Receipts for fuel, tolls, etc., must be retained as a DOT officer can ask to see them in order to further verify the veracity of information contained in a drivers logbook during an inspection.

European Union

In the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

, drivers' working hours
Drivers' working hours
Drivers' working hours is the commonly used term for regulations that govern the activities of the drivers of commercial goods vehicles and passenger carrying vehicles....

 are regulated by EU regulation (EC) No 561/2006 which entered into force on April 11, 2007. The non-stop driving time may not exceed 4.5 hours. After 4.5 hours of driving the driver must take a break period of at least 45 minutes. However, this can be split into 2 breaks, the first being at least 15 minutes, and the second being at least 30 minutes in length. The daily driving time shall not exceed 9 hours. The daily driving time may be extended to at most 10 hours not more than twice during the week. The weekly driving time may not exceed 56 hours. In addition to this, a driver cannot exceed 90 hours driving in a fortnight
Fortnight
The fortnight is a unit of time equal to fourteen days, or two weeks. The word derives from the Old English fēowertyne niht, meaning "fourteen nights"....

. Within each period of 24 hours after the end of the previous daily rest period or weekly rest period a driver must take a new daily rest period.

United States

In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, the Hours of service
Hours of service
The hours of service are regulations issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration governing the working hours of anyone operating a commercial motor vehicle in the United States for the purpose of "interstate commerce"— moving commercial goods from one U.S. state to another...

 (HOS) of commercial drivers are regulated by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration , established January 1, 2000, regulates the trucking industry in the United States. FMCSA is headquartered in Washington, DC and employs more than 1,000 people in all 50 States and the District of Columbia...

 (FMCSA). Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers are limited to 11 cumulative hours driving in a 14-hour period, following a rest period of no less than 10 consecutive hours. Drivers employed by carriers in "daily operation" may not work more than 70 hours within any period of 8 consecutive days.

Drivers must maintain a daily 24-hour logbook Record of Duty Status documenting all work and rest periods. The record of duty status must be kept current to the last change of duty status and records of the previous 7 days retained by the driver in the truck and presented to law enforcement officials on demand.

Electronic on-board recorders (EOBR) can automatically record, among other things, the time the vehicle is in motion or stopped. The FMCSA is considering making EOBRs mandatory for all motor carriers.

Australia

In Australia heavy vehicle licences are issued by the states but are a national standard; there are 5 classes of licence required by drivers of heavy vehicles:
  • A Light Rigid (LR class) licence covers a rigid vehicle with a gross vehicle mass (GVM) not more than 8 tonnes, with a towed trailer not weighing more than 9 tonnes GTM (Gross Trailer Mass). Also buses with a GVM up to 8 tonnes which carry more than 12 adults including the driver.

  • A Medium Rigid (MR class) licence covers a rigid vehicle with 2 axles and a GVM of more than 8 tonnes, with a towed trailer not weighing more than 9 tonnes GTM.

  • A Heavy Rigid (HR class) licence covers a rigid vehicle with 3 or more axles with a towed trailer not weighing more than 9 tonnes GTM. Also articulated bus
    Articulated bus
    An articulated bus is an articulated vehicle used in public transportation. It is usually a single-deck design, and comprises two rigid sections linked by a pivoting joint...

    es.

  • A Heavy Combination (HC class) licence covers semi-trailers
    Semi-trailer truck
    A semi-trailer truck, also known as a semi, tractor-trailer, or articulated truck or articulated lorry, is an articulated vehicle consisting of a towing engine , and a semi-trailer A semi-trailer truck, also known as a semi, tractor-trailer, or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) articulated truck...

    , or rigid vehicles towing a trailer with a GTM of more than 9 tonnes.

  • A Multi-Combination (MC class) licence covers multi-combination vehicles like Road Trains and B-Double Vehicles.


A person must have a C class (car) licence for 1 year before they can apply for an LR or MR class licence and 2 years before they can apply for an HR, to upgrade to an HC class licence a person must have an MR or HR class licence for 1 year and to upgrade to an MC class licence a person must have an HR or HC class licence for 1 year.

Canada

A driver's licence in Canada
Driver's licence in Canada
In Canada, driver's licences are issued by the government of the province and territory in which the driver is residing. Thus, specific regulations relating to driver's licences vary province to province, though overall they are quite similar...

, including commercial vehicle
Commercial vehicle
A commercial vehicle is a type of motor vehicle that may be used for transporting goods or passengers. The European Union defines "commercial motor vehicle" as any motorised road vehicle, which by its type of construction and equipment is designed for, and capable of transporting, whether for...

 licences, are issued and regulated provincially.

United Kingdom

In the UK, one or more of the categories of Large Goods Vehicle
Large Goods Vehicle
A large goods vehicle , is the European Union term for any truck with a gross combination mass of over...

 (LGV) licenses is required.

Medium Sized Vehicles:

C1 Lorries between 3500 kg and 7500 kg with a trailer up to 750 kg.

Medium Sized vehicles with trailers:

C1+E Lorries between 3500 kg and 7500 kg with a trailer over 750 kg - total weight not more than 12000 kg (if you passed your category B test prior to 1.1.1997 you will be restricted to a total weight not more than 8250 kg).

Large Vehicles:

C Vehicles over 3500 kg with a trailer up to 750 kg.

Large Vehicles with trailers:

C+E Vehicles over 3500 kg with a trailer over 750 kg.

In Australia for example a HC licence covers buses as well as goods vehicles in the UK and most of the EU however a separate licence is needed.

Minibuses:

D1 Vehicles with between 9 and 16 passenger seats with a trailer up to 750 kg.

Minibuses with trailers:

D1+E Combinations of vehicles where the towing vehicle is in subcategory D1 and its trailer has a MAM of over 750 kg, provided that the MAM of the combination thus formed does not exceed 12000 kg, and the MAM of the trailer does not exceed the unladen mass of the towing vehicle.

Buses:

D Any bus with more than 8 passenger seats with a trailer up to 750 kg.

Buses with trailers:

D+E Any bus with more than 8 passenger seats with a trailer over 750 kg.

United States

The United States employs a truck classification
Truck classification
In the United States, commercial truck classification is determined based on the vehicle's gross vehicle weight rating . The classes range from 1-8...

 system, and truck drivers are required to have a Commercial Driver's License
Commercial driver's license
A Commercial Driver's License is a driver's license required in the United States to operate any type of vehicle which has a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 lb or more for commercial use, or transports quantities of hazardous materials that require warning placards under Department of...

 (CDL) to operate a CMV with a gross vehicle weight rating in excess of 26,000 pounds.

Acquiring a CDL requires a skills test (pre-trip inspection and driving test), and knowledge test (written) covering the unique handling qualities of driving a large, heavily loaded commercial vehicle, and the mechanical systems required to operate such a vehicle (air brakes, suspension, cargo securement, et al.), plus be declared fit by medical examination no less than every two years.
For passenger bus drivers, a current passenger endorsement is also required.

A person must be at least 18 years of age to obtain a CDL. Drivers under age 21 are limited to operating within their state of licensing (intrastate operation). Many major trucking companies require driver applicants to be at least 23 years of age, with a year of experience, while others will hire and train new drivers as long as they have a clean driving history.

The U.S. Department of Transportation (US DOT) stipulates the various classes of CDLs and associated licensing and operational requirements and limitations.
  • Class A - Any combination of vehicles with a GVWR (gross vehicle weight rating) of 26,001 or more pounds provided the GVWR of the vehicle(s) being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds.

  • Class B - Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 or more pounds, or any such vehicle towing a vehicle not in excess of 10,000 pounds GVWR.

  • Class C - Any single vehicle, or combination of vehicles, that does not meet the definition of Class A or Class B, but is either designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver, or is placard
    Placard
    A placard is a notice installed in a public place, like a small card, sign, or plaque. It can be attached to or hung from a vehicle or building to indicate information about the vehicle operator or contents of a vehicle or building.- Buildings :...

    ed for hazardous materials.


A CDL can also contain separate endorsements required to operate certain trailers or to haul certain cargo. These endorsements are noted on the CDL and often appear in advertisements outlining the requirements for employment.
  • T - Double/Triple Trailers
    Road train
    A road train or roadtrain is a trucking concept used in remote areas of Argentina, Australia, Mexico, the United States and Canada to move freight efficiently. The term "road train" is most often used in Australia. In the U.S. and Canada the terms "triples," "turnpike doubles" and "Rocky Mountain...

     (Knowledge test only)

  • P - Passenger (Knowledge test; skills test may be required for some operations. Required for Bus driver
    Bus driver
    A bus driver, bus operator or omnibus driver is a person who drives buses professionally. Bus drivers typically drive their vehicles between bus stations or stops. They often drop off and pick up passengers on a predetermined route schedule. In British English a different term, coach drivers, is...

    s.)

  • N - Tank Vehicle
    Tank truck
    A tank truck or road tanker is a motor vehicle designed to carry liquefied loads, dry bulk cargo or gases on roads. The largest such vehicles are similar to railroad tank cars which are also designed to carry liquefied loads...

     (Knowledge Test only)

  • H - Hazardous Materials
    Dangerous goods
    Dangerous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. They are often subject to chemical regulations. "HazMat teams" are personnel specially trained to handle dangerous goods...

     (Knowledge Test only, also requires fingerprint and background check since the 9/11 terrorist attacks)

  • X - Combination of Tank Vehicle and Hazardous Materials


Other endorsements are possible, e.g. M endorsement to transport metal coils weighing more than 5000 pounds (2,268 kg), but are tested and issued by individual states and are not consistent throughout all states (as of this writing, the M endorsement is peculiar to the state of New York). The laws of the state from whence a driver's CDL is issued are considered the applicable laws governing that driver.

If a driver either fails the air brake
Air brake (road vehicle)
Air brakes are used in trucks, buses, trailers, and semi-trailers. George Westinghouse first developed air brakes for use in railway service. He patented a safer air brake on March 5, 1872. Originally designed and built for use on railroad train application, air brakes remain the exclusive systems...

 component of the general knowledge test or performs the skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the driver is issued an air brake restriction, restricting the driver from operating a CMV equipped with air brakes.

Specifically, the five-axle tractor-semitrailer combination that is most commonly associated with the word "truck" requires a Class A CDL to drive. Beyond that, the driver's employer (or shipping customers, in the case of an independent owner-operator) generally specifies what endorsements their operations require a driver to possess.

U.S.

Truck drivers are responsible for checking the axle and gross weights of their vehicles, usually by being weighed at a truck stop scale. Truck weights are monitored for limits compliance by state authorities at a weigh station
Weigh station
A weigh station is a checkpoint along a highway to inspect vehicular weights. Usually, trucks and commercial vehicles are subject to the inspection....

.

Commercial motor vehicles are subject to various state and federal laws regarding limitations on truck length (measured from bumper to bumper), width, and truck axle length (measured from axle to axle or fifth wheel to axle for trailers).

The relationship between axle weight and spacing, known as the Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula
Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula
The Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula is a mathematical formula in use in the United States by truck drivers and Department of Transportation officials to determine the appropriate maximum gross weight for a commercial motor vehicle based on axle number and spacing...

, is designed to protect bridges.

A standard 18-wheeler consists of three axle groups: a single front (steering) axle, the tandem (dual) drive axles, and the tandem trailer axles. Federal weight limits for NN traffic are:
  1. 20,000 pounds for a single axle.
  2. 34,000 pounds for a tandem axle.
  3. 80,000 pounds for total weight.


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) division of the US Department of Transportation (US DOT) regulates the length, width, and weight limits of CMVs.

Interstate commercial truck traffic is generally limited to a network of interstate freeways and state highways known as the National Network (NN). The National Network consists of (1) the Interstate Highway System and (2) highways, formerly classified as Primary System routes, capable of safely handling larger commercial motor vehicles, as certified by states to FHWA.

State weight and length limits (which may be lesser or greater than federal limits) affect only operation off the NN. There is no federal height limit, and states may set their own limits which range from 13 feet 6 inches to 14 feet. As a result, the height of most trucks range between 13' and 14'.

Turnover and driver shortage

In 2006, the U.S. trucking industry as a whole employed 3.4 million drivers. A major problem for the long-haul trucking industry is that a large percentage of these drivers are aging, and are expected to retire. Very few new hires are expected in the near future, resulting in a driver shortage. Currently, within the long-haul sector, there is an estimated shortage of 20,000 drivers. That shortage is expected to increase to 111,000 by 2014. Trucking (especially the long-haul sector) is also facing an image crisis due to the long working hours, long periods of time away from home, the dangerous nature of the work, the relatively low pay (compared to hours worked), and a "driver last" mentality that is common throughout the industry.

Employee turnover within the long-haul trucking industry is notorious for being extremely high. In the 4th quarter of 2005, turnover within the largest carriers in the industry reached a record 136%, meaning a carrier that employed 100 drivers would lose an average of 136 drivers each year.

Time off

Due to the high demands of the job, drivers are known to work for months at a time, without taking any days off to go home. Some even prefer to forgo a traditional house, and take up permanent residence within the truck, usually with a large and well-equipped sleeper berth
Berth (sleeping)
The word berth was originally used to describe beds and sleeping accommodation on boats and ships and has now been extended to refer to similar facilities on trains, aircraft and buses.-Beds in boats or ships:...

, equivalent to a small RV. Long-haul company drivers typically earn as little as one day off for every week of work, such as working for four weeks and taking four days off. Regional drivers (who often drive dedicated routes between the same locations) usually work five days a week, and receive weekends off. LTL (Less Than Truckload) drivers often work normal hours and do not sleep in their trucks, having nights (or days, depending on the shift worked) and weekends off.

Safety

From 1992–1995, truck drivers had a higher total number of fatalities than any other occupation, accounting for 12% of all work-related deaths. Truck drivers are five times more likely to die in a work-related accident than the average worker. Highway accidents accounted for a majority of truck driver deaths, most of them caused by confused drivers in passenger vehicles who are unfamiliar with large trucks.
The safety of truck drivers and their trucks is monitored and statistics compiled by the FMCSA or Federal Motor Carriers Safety Administration who provides online information on safety violations. If a truck is stopped by a law enforcement agent or at an inspection station, information on the truck is complied and OOS violations are logged. A violation out of service is defined by federal code as an imminent hazard under 49 U.S.C. § 521(b)(5)(B), "any condition likely to result in serious injury or death". National statistics on accidents published in the FMCSA Analysis and Information online website provides the key driver OOS categories for year 2009 nationally: 17.6% are log entry violations, 12.6% are speeding violations, 12.5% drivers record of duty not current, and 6.5% requiring driver to drive more than 14 hours on duty. This has led to some insurance companies wanting to monitor driver behavior and requiring electronic log and satellite monitoring.

In 2009 there were 3380 fatalities involving large trucks, of which 2470 were attributed to combination unit trucks (defined as any number of trailers behind a tractor). In a November 2005 FMCSA report to Congress, the data for 33 months of large truck crashes was analyzed. 87 percent of crashes were driver error. In cases where two vehicles, a car and a truck, were involved, 46 percent of the cases involved the truck's driver and 56 percent involved the car's driver. While the truck and car in two vehicle accidents share essentially half the burden of the accidents (not 70 percent as stated above), the top six driver factors are essentially also the same and in approximately equivalent percentages: Prescription drug use, over the counter drug use, unfamiliarity with the road, speeding, making illegal maneuvers, inadequate surveillance. This suggests that the truck driver makes the same errors as the car driver and vice versa. This is not true of the vehicle caused crashes (about 30 percent of crashes) where the top failure for trucks is caused by the brakes (29 percent of the time compared to 2% of the time for the car).

Truck drivers often spend their nights parked at a truck stop
Truck stop
A truck stop is a commercial facility predicated on providing fuel, parking, and often food and other services to motorists and truck drivers...

, rest area
Rest area
A rest area, travel plaza, rest stop, or service area is a public facility, located next to a large thoroughfare such as a highway, expressway, or freeway at which drivers and passengers can rest, eat, or refuel without exiting on to secondary roads...

, or on the shoulder of a freeway ramp. Sometimes these are in secluded areas or dangerous neighborhoods, which account for a number of deaths due to drivers being targeted by thieves for their valuable cargo or money. Drivers of trucks towing flatbed trailers are responsible for securing and strapping down their cargo (which often involves climbing onto the cargo itself), and if the load requires tarping necessitates climbing on the load to spread out tarps. Tarps can weigh up to 200 lbs each and the cargo can require up to 3 tarps per load which accounts for a number of deaths and injuries from falling. Drivers spend long hours behind the wheel, which can cause strain on the back muscles. Some drivers are responsible for unloading their cargo, which can lead to many back strains
Strain (injury)
A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibres tear as a result of overstretching. A strain is also colloquially known as a pulled muscle...

 and sprain
Sprain
A sprain is an injury in a joint, caused by the ligament being stretched beyond its capacity. A muscular tear caused in the same manner is referred to as a strain. In cases where either ligament or muscle tissue is torn, immobilization and surgical repair may be necessary...

s due to overexertion and improper lifting techniques
Back injury
Back injuries result from damage, wear, or trauma to the bones, muscles, or other tissues of the back. Common back injuries include sprains and strains, herniated disks, and fractured vertebrae. The lumbar is often the site of back pain. The area is susceptible because of its flexibility and the...

.

The prevalence of sleep apnea among commercial drivers

Truck drivers are also sensitive to sleep disorders. Driver fatigue is a contributing factor in 12% of all crashes and 10% of all near crashes. Traffic fatalities are high and many of them are due to driver fatigue. Drivers with obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by obstruction of the upper airway. It is characterized by repetitive pauses in breathing during sleep, despite the effort to breathe, and is usually associated with a reduction in...

 have a sevenfold increased risk of being involved in a motor vehicle crash. It is estimated that 2.4-3.9 million licensed commercial drivers in the US have obstructive sleep apnea out of the estimated 18 million total Americans. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration , established January 1, 2000, regulates the trucking industry in the United States. FMCSA is headquartered in Washington, DC and employs more than 1,000 people in all 50 States and the District of Columbia...

 says that as many 28 percent of commercial driver's license
Commercial driver's license
A Commercial Driver's License is a driver's license required in the United States to operate any type of vehicle which has a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 lb or more for commercial use, or transports quantities of hazardous materials that require warning placards under Department of...

 holders have sleep apnea.
  • Total costs attributed to sleep apnea-related crashes:
    • 2000: $15.9 billion and 1,400 lives
  • Treatment:
    • Cost: $3.18 billion with 70% effectiveness of CPAP treatment
    • Savings: $11.1 billion in collision costs and 980 lives annually (national safety council)


Research sponsored by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration and American Trucking Associations found:
  • Almost one-third (28%) of commercial truck drivers have some degree of sleep apnea
  • 17.6% have mild sleep apnea
  • 5.8% have moderate sleep apnea
  • 4.7% have severe sleep apnea

Compensation/wages

Truck drivers are paid according to many different methods. A driver who owns and operates a dump truck locally and works casually or contractually may be paid per hour, and/or per load or ton hauled. Few if any opt to be compensated per mile.

A company driver who makes a number of "less than truckload" (LTL) deliveries via box truck or conventional tractor-trailer may be paid an hourly wage and/or a certain amount per mile, and/or per stop (aka "drop" or "dock bump"), and/or per piece delivered, unloaded, or "tailgated" (moved to the rear of the trailer). LTL are most always paid more than long hauled or dedicated drivers in the US and they get to be at home at night and on the weekends. This article is oriented toward the majority of truck drivers who operate "long haul", aka "over the road" (OTR) who are most often paid according to 4 major criteria, 3 of which are directly related to mileage, more or less.

The main advantage of being paid per mile may be that a driver is rewarded according to measurable accomplishment. The main disadvantage is that what a driver may accomplish is not so directly related to the effort and, perhaps especially, the time required for completion.)

1. Household Goods (HHG) Miles

HHG miles, from the Household Goods Mileage Guide (aka "short miles") was the first attempt at standardizing motor carrier
Trucking industry in the United States
The trucking industry involves the transport and distribution of commercial and industrial goods using commercial motor vehicles . In this case, CMVs are most often trucks; usually semi trucks, box trucks, or dump trucks...

 freight rates for movers of household goods, some say at the behest of the Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

 for moving soldiers around the country, long a major source of steady and reliable revenue. Rand McNally
Rand McNally
Rand McNally is an American publisher of maps, atlases, textbooks, and globes for travel, reference, commercial, and educational uses. It also provides online consumer street maps and directions, as well as commercial transportation routing software and mileage data...

, in conjunction with the precursor of the National Moving & Storage Association developed the first Guide published in 1936, at which point it contained only about 300 point-to-point mileages.

Today, the 19th version of the Guide has grown to contain distances between more than 140,000 cities, zip codes, or highway junctions.

Therein, if you ask many drivers, lies the inherent unfairness of HHG-based mileage pay; miles are driven point-to-point, not from "city" to "zip code" or "highway junction".

Occam's Razor
Occam's razor
Occam's razor, also known as Ockham's razor, and sometimes expressed in Latin as lex parsimoniae , is a principle that generally recommends from among competing hypotheses selecting the one that makes the fewest new assumptions.-Overview:The principle is often summarized as "simpler explanations...

 may suggest it is safe to assume that distances provided by the HHG Guide have been thoroughly examined to ensure drivers are not "overpaid" for miles not driven. Given the obvious accuracy limitations of computing mileage between fewer than 150,000 points and the availability of less expensive consumer-grade map and routing software such as Microsoft Streets & Trips many magnitudes more inclusive and therefore accurate than such a crude method, it may also be safe to assume HHG miles are shorter than those of a "real world" practical route.
most companies do not use streets and trips but use a program called PC*MILER as it is set up for trucking using truck routes and tends to be more accurate than the HMG or Microsoft streets and trips. The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), the General Services Administration (GSA) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Association (FMCSA) rely on PC*MILER as their worldwide distance standard.

How much shorter is a matter of contention, but it is not uncommon to hear drivers report 5-12 percent, and carriers to claim the miles vary from shorter to longer and it all works out in the end to be a wash, or that drivers are paid more per mile to compensate. Drivers may then point out that not only do they drive more miles, those additional miles require additional time which is extracted from the hours available to the driver for driving permitted by the federal hours of service
Hours of service
The hours of service are regulations issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration governing the working hours of anyone operating a commercial motor vehicle in the United States for the purpose of "interstate commerce"— moving commercial goods from one U.S. state to another...

.

The argument continues, but drivers are always free to seek another employer who calculates compensation by the preferred method of the driver, and many do not simply because all major and most minor carriers use this less than accurate method for computing miles.

2. Practical Miles

"Practical miles" are where the company of the driver gives them a certain route to follow and will only pay them for those miles. This is usually the shortest route from start to finish.
One version of practical miles includes routing shorter toll roads. Trucking companies sometimes route trucks through toll roads while using an electronic device to bypass paying straight up. This later comes out of the drivers paycheck.

3. Hub Miles

Odometer
Odometer
An odometer or odograph is an instrument that indicates distance traveled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or automobile. The device may be electronic, mechanical, or a combination of the two. The word derives from the Greek words hodós and métron...

 miles. "Hub" refers to hubometer
Hubometer
A hubometer , or hubodometer or simply hubo, is a device mounted on the axle of an automobile or other vehicle that measures distance traveled....

, a mechanical odometer mounted to an axle.

Pays the driver for every mile; generally limited to no more than 3-5% above the estimates of mileage by the carrier before red flags appear, depending on the generosity of the carrier or how it rates the mileage estimation capabilities of the software used.

One version of hub miles includes only those per carrier designated route, i.e., a set number of miles. "Out of route" miles of any incentive are provided by the driver to the carrier for free.

4. Percentage (of load)

Pays the driver a set or variable percentage of whatever the carrier says was their quoted rate.

Parking



A study published in 2002 by the Federal Highway Administration
Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway Administration is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two "programs," the Federal-aid Highway Program and the Federal Lands Highway Program...

 (FHWA) division of the U.S. Department of Transportation (US DOT) - "shows that parking areas for trucks and buses along major roads and highways are more than adequate across the nation when both public (rest areas) and commercial parking facilities are factored in."

A 2000 Highway Special Investigation Report by the National Transportation Safety Board
National Transportation Safety Board
The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation. In this role, the NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes, ship and marine...

 (NTSB) forwards the following statistics:
  1. Parking spaces at private truck stops- 185,000 (estimate)
  2. Number of trucks parked at private truck stops at night- 167,453 (estimate)
  3. Private truck stops that are full on any given night nationwide- 53 percent
  4. Shortfall of truck parking spaces- 28,400 (estimate)
  5. Public rest areas with full or overflowing parking at night 80 percent


One challenge of finding truck parking is made difficult perhaps not because there are insufficient parking spaces "nationwide", but where the majority of those spaces are not located, and most needed; near the most densely populated areas where demand for trucked goods is greatest.

As urban areas continue to sprawl, land for development of private truck stops nearby becomes prohibitively expensive and there seems to be an understandable reluctance on the part of the citizenry to live near a facility where a large number of trucks may be idling their engines all night, every night, or to experience the associated increase of truck traffic on local streets.

Exacerbating the problem are parking restrictions or prohibitions in commercial areas where plenty of space exists and the fact that shippers and receivers of freight tend to prefer to ship and receive truckloads in the early and late portions of the business day.

The end result is an increase in truck traffic during the morning and evening rush hours when traffic is most dense, commuters exhibit least patience, and safety is compromised.

Adding to the challenge of finding parking are:
  1. A driver can only become familiar with locations of public and commercial parking spaces and their capacity and traffic by visiting them.
  2. The parking shortage, real or perceived, nearest the most dense urban areas incites drivers to arrive early and many of those truck stops are full by 7pm leaving even drivers who carefully plan their trips in detail few if any options.

Idling restrictions

Idling restrictions further complicate the ability of drivers to obtain adequate rest, as this example from California may illustrate:

Commercial diesel-fueled vehicles with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds are subject to the following idling restrictions effective February 1, 2005. You may not:
  • idle the vehicle’s primary diesel engine for greater than five minutes at any location.
  • operate a diesel-fueled auxiliary power system which powers a heater, air conditioner, or any additional equipment for sleeper-berth equipped vehicles during sleeping or resting periods for greater than five minutes at any location within 100 feet of a restricted area.


Drivers are subject to both civil and criminal penalties for violations of this regulation."

False DAC Reporting

A truck driver's “DAC Report” refers to the employment history information submitted by former employers to HireRight & USIS Commercial Services Inc. (formerly called DAC Services, or “Drive-A-Check”). Among other things, a truck driver’s DAC Report contains the driver’s identification (Name, DOB, SSN), the name and address of the contributing trucking company, the driver’s dates of employment with that company, the driver’s reason for leaving that company, whether the driver is eligible for rehire, and comments about the driver’s work record (e.g. good, satisfactory, too many late deliveries, etc.). It will also indicate whether the company stored drug and alcohol testing information with USIS. A separate section of the DAC report contains incident/accident information.

The DAC report is as critical to the livelihood of a professional truck driver as the credit report is to a consumer. When a trucking company reports negative information about a truck driver, it can ruin the driver’s career by preventing him or her from finding a truck driving job for several years or more. It is widely known that trucking companies often abuse this power by willfully and maliciously reporting false information on truckers’ DAC reports, either in retaliation for seeking better paying trucking jobs elsewhere, or for any number of other fraudulent, anti-competitive reasons. As long as truck drivers can be threatened with a false DAC report for standing up to management or leaving their company for a better job elsewhere, working conditions at truck driver jobs will not improve.

Satellite tracking

Many companies today utilize some type of satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

 vehicle tracking
Vehicle tracking system
A vehicle tracking system combines the installation of an electronic device in a vehicle, or fleet of vehicles, with purpose-designed computer software at least at one operational base to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location, collecting data in the process from the...

 or trailer tracking
Trailer tracking
The term trailer tracking refers to the concept of tracking the position of an articulated vehicle’s trailer unit. This position is determined through a tracking device fitted to the trailer. A communication network or satellite network is then used to transfer this positional data to a...

 to assist in fleet management
Fleet management
Fleet management is the management of a company's vehicle fleet.Fleet management includes commercial motor vehicles such as cars, vans and trucks. Fleet management can include a range of functions, such as vehicle financing, vehicle maintenance, vehicle telematics , driver management, speed...

. In this context "tracking" refers to a location tracking
GPS tracking
A GPS tracking unit is a device that uses the Global Positioning System to determine the precise location of a vehicle, person, or other asset to which it is attached and to record the position of the asset at regular intervals...

 and "satellite" refers either to a GPS or GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites system providing location information or communications satellite
Communications satellite
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications...

s used for location data transmission. A special location tracking device also known as tracker or an AVL unit
Automatic vehicle location
Automatic vehicle location is a means for automatically determining the geographic location of a vehicle and transmitting the information to a requester....

 is installed on a truck and automatically determines its position in real-time and sends it to a remote computer database for visualizing and analysis.

An "in cab" communication device AVL unit
Automatic vehicle location
Automatic vehicle location is a means for automatically determining the geographic location of a vehicle and transmitting the information to a requester....

 often allows a driver to communicate with their dispatcher
Dispatcher
Dispatchers are communications personnel responsible for receiving and transmitting pure and reliable messages, tracking vehicles and equipment, and recording other important information...

, who is normally responsible for determining and informing the driver of their pick-up and drop-off locations. If the AVL unit is connected to a Mobile data terminal
Mobile data terminal
A mobile data terminal is a computerized device used in public transit vehicles, taxicabs, courier vehicles, service trucks, commercial trucking fleets, military logistics, fishing fleets, warehouse inventory control, and emergency vehicles to communicate with a central dispatch office...

 or a computer it also allows the driver to input the information from a bill of lading
Bill of lading
A bill of lading is a document issued by a carrier to a shipper, acknowledging that specified goods have been received on board as cargo for conveyance to a named place for delivery to the consignee who is usually identified...

 (BOL) into a simple dot matrix
Dot matrix
A dot matrix is a 2-dimensional array of LED used to represent characters, symbols and images.Typically the dot matrix is used in older computer printers and many digital display devices. In printers, the dots are usually the darkened areas of the paper...

 display screen
Display device
A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form...

 (commonly called a "Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Qualcomm is an American global telecommunication corporation that designs, manufactures and markets digital wireless telecommunications products and services based on its code division multiple access technology and other technologies. Headquartered in San Diego, CA, USA...

" for that company's ubiquitous OmniTRACS system).

The driver inputs the information, using a keyboard, into an automated system of pre-formatted messages known as macros. There are macros for each stage of the loading and unloading process, such as "loaded and leaving shipper" and "arrived at final destination." This system also allows the company to track the driver's fuel usage, speed, gear optimization, engine idle
Idle
Idle is a term which generally refers to a lack of motion and/or energy.- Uses :In describing a person or machine, idle means the act of nothing or no work...

 time, location, direction of travel, and amount of time spent driving.

Werner Enterprises
Werner Enterprises
Werner Enterprises, Inc. was founded in 1956 by Clarence L. Werner. It is a transportation and logistics company, headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, United States. It ships to the USA, Canada, Mexico, Asia, Europe and South America. Werner has regional offices throughout North America, in China...

, a U.S. company based in Omaha
Omaha
Omaha may refer to:*Omaha , a Native American tribe that currently resides in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Nebraska-Places:United States* Omaha, Nebraska* Omaha, Arkansas* Omaha, Georgia* Omaha, Illinois* Omaha, Texas...

, Nebraska
Nebraska
Nebraska is a state on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States. The state's capital is Lincoln and its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River....

, has utilized this system to implement a "paperless log" system. Instead of keeping track of working hours on a traditional pen and paper based logbook, the driver informs the company of his status using a macro.

Working conditions

Most truck drivers are employed as over-the-road drivers, meaning they are hired to drive long distances from the place of pickup to the place of delivery. During the short times while they are in heavily polluted urban areas, being inside the cab of the truck contributes much to avoiding the inhalation of toxic emissions, and on the majority of the trip, while they are passing through vast rural areas where there is little air pollution, truck drivers in general enjoy less exposure to toxic emissions in the air than the inhabitants of large cities, where there is an increased exposure to emissions
Motor vehicle emissions
Motor vehicle emissions are composed of the by-products that comes out of the exhaust systems or other emissions such as gasoline evaporation...

 from engines
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high -pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine...

, factories
Factory
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial building where laborers manufacture goods or supervise machines processing one product into another. Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production...

, etc., which may increase the risk of cancer and can aggravate certain lung diseases, such as asthma in the general public who inhabit these cities. However, the few drivers who are hired to drive only within urban areas do not have this advantage of spending more time away from toxic emissions that is enjoyed by over-the-road drivers.

In order to address the hazards relative to driver fatigue, many countries have laws limiting the amount of time truck drivers can work. Many underdeveloped countries either lack such laws or do not enforce them.

Australia health requirements

A new law was passed in Australia requiring that all "over the road" drivers carry their medical information with them when they "are on the clock". This will help drivers comply with this new law and can also help deliver quick, accurate medical assistance if and when needed.

Implementation of drug detection

I, Ronald Reagan, President of the United States of America, find that: Drug use is having serious adverse effects upon a significant proportion of the national work force and results in billions of dollars of lost productivity each year; The Federal government, as an employer, is concerned with the well-being of its employees, the successful accomplishment of agency missions, and the need to maintain employee productivity; The Federal government, as the largest employer in the Nation, can and should show the way towards achieving drug-free workplaces through a program designed to offer drug users a helping hand and, at the same time, demonstrating to drug users and potential drug users that drugs will not be tolerated in the Federal workplace; The profits from illegal drugs provide the single greatest source of income for organized crime, fuel violent street crime, and otherwise contribute to the breakdown of our society; [...] By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America [...] deeming such action in the best interests of national security, public health and safety, law enforcement and the efficiency of the Federal service, and in order to establish standards and procedures to ensure fairness in achieving a drug-free Federal workplace and to protect the privacy of Federal employees, it is hereby ordered [....]

Sec. 8. Effective Date. This Order is effective immediately.
Excerpt of Reagan's Executive Order 12564
September 15, 1986


In the 1980s, the administration of President
President
A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

 Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 proposed to put an end to drug abuse
Drug abuse
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance that is not considered dependent. The term "drug abuse" does not exclude dependency, but is otherwise used in a similar manner in nonmedical contexts...

 in the trucking industry by means of the then-recently developed technique of urinalysis
Urinalysis
A urinalysis , also known as Routine and Microscopy , is an array of tests performed on urine, and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis...

. Regan signed Executive Order 12564, requiring regular random drug test
Drug test
A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen – for example urine, hair, blood, sweat, or oral fluid / saliva – to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites...

ing of all truck drivers nationwide, as well as passenger-bus drivers and employees of other DOT
Department of Transportation
The Department of Transportation is the most common name for a government agency in North America devoted to transportation. The largest is the United States Department of Transportation, which oversees interstate travel. All U.S. states, Canadian provinces, and many local agencies also have...

-regulated industries specified in the order, though considerations had to be made concerning the effects of an excessively rapid implementation of the measure. To avoid disruption to trucking infrastructure, the implementation of random drug testing and pre-employment drug screening of truck drivers was kept down to a gradual increase, out of concern for the dangers of excessively rapid change in economic infrastructure.

Since then, a large number of tractor-trailer operators have left the industry in search of other employment, and a new generation of drivers has come in.

U.S.

Truck drivers once had a highly elaborate and colorful vocabulary
Vocabulary
A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person. A vocabulary usually develops with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge...

 of slang
Slang
Slang is the use of informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's language or dialect but are considered more acceptable when used socially. Slang is often to be found in areas of the lexicon that refer to things considered taboo...

 for use over their CB radios, but with the high turnover
Turnover (employment)
In a human resources context, turnover or staff turnover or labour turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and loses employees. Simple ways to describe it are "how long employees tend to stay" or "the rate of traffic through the revolving door." Turnover is measured for individual companies...

 in the industry in recent decades, due largely to the Reagan-era drug purge, this has all but vanished. Most of the newer generation of drivers in the U.S. today speak to one another over their CB radios in more or less standard English
Standard English
Standard English refers to whatever form of the English language is accepted as a national norm in an Anglophone country...

 (as understood in the various regions of the country), although a few of the slang words and phrases have remained, and many of these have passed into use in the colloquial language of the general public.

"Smokey" and/or "bear" are still used to refer to police officer
Police officer
A police officer is a warranted employee of a police force...

s, especially state patrolmen, and sometimes "diesel bear" for a DOT officer, though many new-school drivers merely say "police," "policeman" and "cop." "Hammer" refers to the accelerator pedal
Throttle
A throttle is the mechanism by which the flow of a fluid is managed by constriction or obstruction. An engine's power can be increased or decreased by the restriction of inlet gases , but usually decreased. The term throttle has come to refer, informally and incorrectly, to any mechanism by which...

, and "hammer lane" the left lane or passing lane
Passing lane
A passing lane or overtaking lane is the lane on a multi-lane highway or motorway closest to the center of the road ....

 on a freeway, in which traffic generally travels faster. "Handle", meaning a nickname
Nickname
A nickname is "a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place, as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name.", or a name similar in origin and pronunciation from the original name....

, was once exclusively truck-driver slang, but has now passed into common use by the public, especially for pseudonyms used on the Internet
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

.

Most of the "ten codes" have fallen nearly or completely into disuse, except "10/4," meaning "message received," "affirmative," "okay," "understood," and occasionally "10/20," referring to the driver's location, (e.g., "What's your 20?")

Often old-school truck drivers speaking over their CB radios are frustrated at new-school truck drivers' lack of understanding of the trucking slang of the '60s, '70s and '80s, and grudgingly resort to standard English when communicating with them.

Some truck-driver slang:

  • gator- a section of tire casing constituting a hazard
  • barbershop- a bridge lower than 13' 6" [4m 11.48 cm] (standard minimum height on all Interstates and state highway systems with controlled-access designation) that could scrape off the top portions of a tractor-trailer rig
  • big sign- the "Closed" sign for weigh stations
  • bobtail- tractor without a trail
  • city kitty- a city police.
  • cab-over- truck designed with the cab positioned over the motor, instead of behind it
  • coop- (re: "chicken coop") a weigh station
    Weigh station
    A weigh station is a checkpoint along a highway to inspect vehicular weights. Usually, trucks and commercial vehicles are subject to the inspection....

    , due to the resemblance of the small offices to chicken coop
    Chicken coop
    A chicken coop is a building where female chickens are kept. Inside there are often nest boxes for egg laying and perches on which the birds can sleep, although coops for meat birds seldom have either of these features....

    s
  • county mounty- a constable, county sheriff or sheriff's deputy (possibly influenced by "Mounties", Canadian slang for "Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

    ")
  • deadhead- a tractor pulling an empty trailer; miles covered while pulling an empty trailer are called "deadhead miles"
  • double-nickel- 55 mph [90 km/h] (in more common use during the 1974-87 era of the National Maximum Speed Law
    National Maximum Speed Law
    The National Maximum Speed Law in the United States was a provision of the 1974 Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act that prohibited speed limits higher than . It was drafted in response to oil price spikes and supply disruptions during the 1973 oil crisis...

    ; the U.S. five-cent coin is called a "nickel
    Nickel (United States coin)
    The nickel is a five-cent coin, representing a unit of currency equaling five hundredths of one United States dollar. A later-produced Canadian nickel five-cent coin was also called by the same name....

    " because of its metallic content)
  • four-wheeler- a passenger vehicle, even a pickup truck
  • full grown- state trooper or dmv
  • Freightshaker- a truck designed by Freightliner Trucks
    Freightliner Trucks
    Freightliner Trucks is an American manufacturer of heavy duty trucks, chassis and semi-trailer trucks in the United States. The company was founded as Freightliner Inc in 1942 and is now a division of Daimler Trucks North America, a subsidiary of the German Daimler AG...

  • granny lane- the lane farthest to the right usually designated for slower traffic
  • hammer lane- the lane farthest to the left.
  • hammer down- traveling extremely fast.
  • in the middle- parked on the median
    Central reservation
    On divided roads, such as divided highways or freeways/motorways, the central reservation , median, parkway , median strip or central nature strip is the area which separates opposing lanes of traffic...

    , usually the location of a speed trap or broken-down vehicle
  • in the face- associated with a police pointing your direction (shooting you) using radar.
  • little sign- the "Open" sign for weigh stations, also referred to as "the little word".
  • lot lizard- a prostitute, especially one that frequents truck stops.
  • on your back door- a vehicle behind you, commonly referred to as "on your tail".
  • parking lot- an auto-transport truck, usually referred to as a "portable parking lot".
  • piggy bank/cash box- a toll plaza
  • pickle park- a state highway rest area
    Rest area
    A rest area, travel plaza, rest stop, or service area is a public facility, located next to a large thoroughfare such as a highway, expressway, or freeway at which drivers and passengers can rest, eat, or refuel without exiting on to secondary roads...

  • plain wrapper- unmarked law enforcement vehicle, most commonly referred to with the color of the wrapper such as a "plain brown wrapper".
  • Smokey Bear- a police officer, used because of the resemblance between police officer's campaign hat
    Campaign hat
    A campaign cover is a broad-brimmed felt or straw hat, with a high crown, pinched symmetrically at the four corners .It is associated with the New Zealand Army, the Royal Canadian...

    , and that of the Forest Service's Smokey Bear
    Smokey Bear
    Smokey Bear is a mascot of the United States Forest Service created to educate the public about the dangers of forest fires. An advertising campaign featuring Smokey was created in 1944 with the slogan, "Smokey Says – Care Will Prevent 9 out of 10 Forest Fires". Smokey Bear's later slogan,...

     mascot, commonly just referred to as a bear.
  • shooting you- a law-enforcement officer using any speed-detection device or radar gun
    Radar gun
    A radar speed gun is a small doppler radar unit used to measure the speed of moving objects, including vehicles, pitched baseballs, runners and other moving objects. Radar speed guns may be hand-held, vehicle-mounted or static...

    , example: "shooting you in the face", or "shooting you up the exhaust" (from the rear).
  • six wheeler- any vehicle with single rear axle with duel tires.
  • Skate Board- a Flatbed trailer
  • taking pictures - a law-enforcement officer using any speed-detection device or radar gun, but most commonly when using a camera radar.
  • tanker yanker- a tanker rig or its driver
  • train - a rig pulling double/triple trailers
  • yardstick- a mile marker
  • the zipper- the dashed lane markings

Australia

  • candy car– Highway Patrol
    Highway patrol
    A highway patrol is either a police unit created primarily for the purpose of overseeing and enforcing traffic safety compliance on roads and highways, or a detail within an existing local or regional police agency that is primarily concerned with such duties.Duties of highway patrols or traffic...

     police car, usually with high-visibility police decals
  • dollar - 100 kilometres per hour (60 mph)
  • Evel Knievel– a police motorcycle
  • flash for cash– speed camera (not to be confused with a manned radar gun)
  • hot plate– weigh station
  • the scalies or coneheads– Transport Safety
    Australian Transport Safety Bureau
    The Australian Transport Safety Bureau is Australia’s national transport safety investigator. The ATSB is the federal government body responsible for investigating transport-related accidents and incidents within Australia. It covers air, sea and rail travel. The Australian Transport Safety...

     inspectors who man checking/weigh stations
  • Sesame Street - Hume Highway
    Hume Highway
    The Hume Highway/Hume Freeway is one of Australia's major inter-city highways, running for 880 km between Sydney and Melbourne. It is part of the Auslink National Network and is a vital link for road freight to transport goods to and from the two cities as well as serving Albury-Wodonga and...

     (Sydney
    Sydney
    Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

     to Melbourne
    Melbourne
    Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

    )
  • turd herder - carrier of stock (animal freight)
  • tyregator - tyre stripped off the rim and usually left lying on the road

U.S.

One form of unspoken communication between drivers is to flash headlights or high beams on or off once or twice to indicate that a passing truck has cleared the passed vehicle and may safely change lanes in front of the signaling vehicle. The passing driver may then flash the trailer or marker lights to indicate thanks. This signal is also sometimes used by other motorists to signal truck drivers.

Continual flashing of headlights or high beams after emerging from around a corner beside a high wall or from any roadway out of sight to oncoming traffic will alert a truck driver in the oncoming lanes to an accident or other obstruction ahead, and will warn him to reduce speed or to proceed with caution.
Since truck-driver language has no signal for "Do not move in front of me," nor has any understood length of time for turning headlights or high beams on or off, flashing the high-beams to say "Do not move in front of me" may be misinterpreted to mean that the truck is clear to proceed with the lane change in front of the vehicle giving the signal.

Europe

As a rule, "thanks" is signaled to the vehicle behind by switching between the left- and right-turn signal several times, whereas turning on the hazard-warning lights (both turn signals) means "Slow down; danger ahead". As cars would normally use the hazard-warning lights for "thanks", in trucks distinction is necessary. The truck blocks the view of drivers behind it, hence a distinction must be made between "Thanks for letting me pass" and "Danger in front, I may brake hard!" Turning on the left-turn signal (in a right-hand traffic country) when a vehicle behind attempts to overtake means "Back off; lane not clear", and turning on the right-turn signal means "Go ahead; lane clear".

Truck drivers also use flashing headlights to warn drivers in the oncoming lane(s) of a police patrol down the road. Though not official, two consecutive flashes indicate a police patrol, whereas a rapid series of flashing indicates DMV or other law-enforcement agency that only controls truck drivers. During the day time, the latter is sometimes accompanied by the signaling driver making a circle with both hands (as if holding a tachograph
Tachograph
A tachograph is a device fitted to a vehicle that automatically records its speed and distance, together with the driver's activity selected from a choice of modes. The drive mode is activated automatically when the vehicle is in motion, and modern tachograph heads usually default to the other work...

 ring).

Flashing headlights to the vehicle in front (intended for the other driver to see in their mirror) has two meanings. Long flashes are used to signal a truck driver that they are clear to return to the lane. A series of rapid flashes generally means "You're doing something stupid and/or dangerous" as in "Do not move in front, trailer not clear!" or "I'm overtaking, move aside".

Truckers also use their 4 ways flashing up a steep hills, mountain roads and on ramps on express ways to let others know that they are traveling at a slow speed and to be cautious approaching them.

"V" greeting

Additionally, there is variation in the meanings of hand gestures within the industry. In the U.S., for example, it is common for truck drivers while passing to greet one another by lifting a hand off the steering wheel, backhand facing the other driver, with the index and middle fingers extended (similar to the "peace sign" or V sign
V sign
The V sign is a hand gesture in which the index and middle fingers are raised and parted, while the other fingers are clenched. It has various meanings, depending on the cultural context and how it is presented...

, only reversed). In the UK, however, the same gesture is equivalent to the raising of the middle finger
Finger (gesture)
In Western culture, the finger , also known as the middle finger, is an obscene hand gesture, often meaning the phrases "fuck off" , "fuck you" or "up yours"...

 in the U.S. As the British interpretation of the "backwards peace sign" is generally unknown in America, it is intended only as a friendly greeting amongst U.S. truck drivers.

In the days before CB radios, the V sign was the hand signal to passing truckers that there was a police officer down the road. There were also other hand gestures used in those days, but generally they have been forgotten.

Truck drivers are a constant presence on the Nation's highways and interstates, delivering everything from automobiles to canned foods. Firms of all kinds rely on trucks for pickup and delivery of goods because no other form of transportation can deliver goods door to door. Even if goods travel in part by ship, train, or airplane, trucks carry nearly all goods at some point in their journey from producer to consumer.

Before leaving the terminal or warehouse, truck drivers check the fuel level and oil in their trucks. They also inspect the trucks to make sure the brakes, windshield wipers, and lights are working and that a fire extinguisher, flares, and other safety equipment are aboard and in working order. Drivers make sure their cargo is secure and adjust their mirrors so that both sides of the truck are visible from the driver's seat. Drivers report equipment that is inoperable, missing, or loaded improperly to the dispatcher.

Once under way, drivers must be alert to prevent accidents. Drivers can see farther down the road, because large trucks sit higher than most other vehicles. This allows drivers to seek traffic lanes that allow for a steady speed, while keeping sight of varying road conditions.

Delivery time varies according to the type of merchandise and its final destination. Local drivers may provide daily service for a specific route, while other drivers make intercity and interstate deliveries that take longer and may vary from job to job. The driver's responsibilities and assignments change according to the time spent on the road, the type of payloads transported, and vehicle size.

With the introduction of satellite radio and low cost cell phone packages, use of the CB radio has greatly diminished in the trucking community. Most drivers don't even turn the CB on unless required at a shipper or receiver. This being the case, use of hand gestures may see a resurgence for a quick situational warning.

In popular culture

Truck drivers have been the subject of many films, such as They Drive By Night
They Drive by Night
They Drive by Night is a black-and-white film noir starring George Raft, Ann Sheridan, Ida Lupino, and Humphrey Bogart, and directed by Raoul Walsh. The picture involves a pair of embattled truck drivers and was released in the UK under the title The Road to Frisco. The film was based on A. I...

 (1940), but they became an especially popular topic in popular culture
Popular culture
Popular culture is the totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, memes, images and other phenomena that are deemed preferred per an informal consensus within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the...

 in the mid-1970s, following the release of White Line Fever
White Line Fever (film)
White Line Fever is an American movie about truck drivers released in 1975 and starring Jan-Michael Vincent.-Backstory:Sam Hummer was a local truck driver from Tucson Arizona who worked for a Tucson-based produce-shipper called "Red River". His driving partners were Duane Haller and "Pops" Dinwiddie...

, and the hit song "Convoy
Convoy (song)
"Convoy" is a 1975 novelty song performed by C. W. McCall that became a number-one song on both the country and pop charts in the US. Written by McCall and Chip Davis, the song spent six weeks at number one on the country charts and one week at number one on the pop charts...

" by C.W. McCall, both in 1975. The main character of "Convoy" was a truck driver known only by his CB handle (C.B. name), "Rubber Duck." Three years later, in 1978, a film was released with the same name. In 1977, another film Smokey and the Bandit
Smokey and the Bandit
Smokey and the Bandit is a 1977 American film starring Burt Reynolds, Sally Field, Jackie Gleason, Jerry Reed, Pat McCormick, Paul Williams, and Mike Henry. It inspired several other trucking films, including two sequels, Smokey and the Bandit II, and Smokey and the Bandit Part 3...

, was released, which revolves around the escapades of a truck driver and his friend as they transport a load of beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

 across state lines. Smokey and the Bandit spawned two sequels. The 1978 film F.I.S.T.
F.I.S.T.
F.I.S.T. is a 1978 movie directed by Norman Jewison and starring Sylvester Stallone. In this film, Stallone plays a Cleveland warehouse worker named Johnny Kovak who becomes involved in the labor union leadership of the fictional "Federation of Inter State Truckers", and finds that he must...

 was a fictionalized account of the unionization of the trucking industry in the earlier 20th century, while the future of truck driving was speculated on in the 1996 film Space Truckers
Space Truckers
Space Truckers is a 1996 American comedy science-fiction film written and directed by Stuart Gordon. It was filmed at Ardmore Studios, County Wicklow, Ireland....

 in which trucking has gone beyond planet
Planet
A planet is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science,...

ary loads to interplanetary ones. One episode of Cowboy Bebop
Cowboy Bebop
is a critically acclaimed and award-winning 1998 Japanese anime series directed by Shinichirō Watanabe, written by Keiko Nobumoto, and produced by Sunrise. Its 26 episodes comprise a complete storyline: set in 2071, the series follows the adventures, misadventures and tragedies of five bounty...

, "Heavy Metal Queen", also features space-faring "truck" drivers.

Truck drivers have also been villainously portrayed in such films as Duel
Duel (film)
Duel is a 1971 television film about a terrified motorist on a remote and lonely road being chased and stalked by the unseen driver of a tanker truck...

, Joy Ride, Breakdown
Breakdown (film)
Breakdown is a 1997 American thriller film, written and directed by Jonathan Mostow. The film stars Kurt Russell, J. T. Walsh and Kathleen Quinlan. The original music score was composed by Basil Poledouris...

, The Hitcher and Supergirl
Supergirl (film)
Supergirl is a 1984 superhero film directed by Jeannot Szwarc, and stars Helen Slater in her first motion picture role in the title role of the DC Comics superheroine Supergirl. Faye Dunaway played the primary villain, Selena. The film was a spin-off from the Salkinds' Superman film series which...

. (In Superman II
Superman II
Superman II is the 1980 sequel to the 1978 superhero film Superman and stars Gene Hackman, Christopher Reeve, Terence Stamp, Ned Beatty, Sarah Douglas, Margot Kidder, and Jack O'Halloran. It was the only Superman film to be filmed by two directors...

, though the script said that the bully who beat up Clark Kent
Clark Kent
Clark Kent is a fictional character created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster. Appearing regularly in stories published by DC Comics, he debuted in Action Comics #1 and serves as the civilian and secret identity of the superhero Superman....

 when he lost his powers was a truck driver, this is somewhat ambiguous in the movie; the character's arrival at the restaurant is only heralded by a pair of large high-mounted headlights arriving in the diner window accompanied by the squeal and hiss of air brakes, and perhaps therefore does not constitute a "villainous portrayal"; the antagonists in Supergirl, in contrast, are seen exiting a semi-truck before they begin sexually harassing her—a behavior not typical of truck drivers—and she kicks them in the groin sending them flying through the air.)

B.J. and the Bear
B.J. and the Bear
B.J. and the Bear is an American comedy series which aired on NBC from 1979 to 1981. Created by Christopher Crowe and Glen A. Larson, the series stars Greg Evigan and Claude Akins.-Plot:Greg Evigan stars as B.J...

 was a television series depicting the exploits of a truck driver and his chimpanzee
Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee, sometimes colloquially chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of ape in the genus Pan. The Congo River forms the boundary between the native habitat of the two species:...

 companion. Another was Movin' On
Movin' On (TV series)
Movin' On is an American drama series that ran for two seasons , between 1974 and 1976. It originally appeared on the NBC television network...

, starring Claude Akins
Claude Akins
Claude Marion Akins was an American actor with a long career on stage, screen and television.Powerful in appearance and voice, Akins could be counted on to play the clever tough guy, on the side of good or bad, in movies and television. He is best remembered as Sheriff Lobo in the 1970s TV series...

 and Frank Converse
Frank Converse
Frank Converse is an American actor. In 1962, he received a Bachelor of Fine Arts in drama at Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...

. Trucker Buddy is a lovable (albeit terrifying) trucker that makes appearances in The Mediocre Show
The Mediocre Show
The Mediocre Show is an independent American fake talk radio broadcast, created by Eric Tomorrow, since 2005. Currently the hosts are Tha Mike Pilot, The Lady Tomorrow and Eric Tomorrow. The show is broadcast live for about two hours and can be heard at on Wednesdays at 8 pm EST. Since its...

. That character should not be confused with Trucker Buddy, the non-profit international penpal organization (www.truckerbuddy.org) in which truck drivers are teamed with an elementary school class from 2nd-8th grade. Drivers send weekly postcards and write letters describing the trucking industry, lifestyle, and travel, and sometimes even make classroom visits so the kids can meet 'their driver' in person and see a big rig up close. T.B.I. was founded in 1992 by the late Gary King and now has a membership of nearly 4000 drivers with classrooms throughout North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Iceland.

On 17 June 2007, the History Channel began to air Ice Road Truckers
Ice Road Truckers
Ice Road Truckers is a documentary-style reality television series that premiered on History on June 17, 2007.-History:In 2000, History aired a 46-minute episode titled "Ice Road Truckers" as part of the Suicide Missions series...

, a documentary-style reality television
Reality television
Reality television is a genre of television programming that presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and usually features ordinary people instead of professional actors, sometimes in a contest or other situation where a prize is awarded...

 series following truck drivers as they drive across the ice roads (frozen lakes in mid-winter), in the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada.Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, and three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, and Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south...

 in Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, as they transport equipment to the diamond mines in that area.

In the Television Series Torchwood
Torchwood
Torchwood is a British science fiction television programme created by Russell T Davies. The series is a spin-off from Davies's 2005 revival of the long-running science fiction programme Doctor Who. The show has shifted its broadcast channel each series to reflect its growing audience, moving from...

 (2006–present) Gwen Cooper
Gwen Cooper
Gwen Cooper is a fictional character in the BBC television programme Torchwood, a spin-off to the long-running show Doctor Who, portrayed by Welsh actress Eve Myles. The series' lead female character, Gwen has featured in every episode of the sci-fi programme to date as well as two crossover...

's partner Rhys Williams
Rhys Williams (Torchwood)
Rhys Alun Williams, portrayed by Kai Owen, is a fictional character in the BBC television programme Torchwood, a spin-off from the long-running series Doctor Who. The character is introduced in the premiere episode as the co-habiting boyfriend of principal character Gwen Cooper...

 (Kai Owen
Kai Owen
Kai Owen is a Welsh actor of stage and screen, known to Welsh audiences for his numerous roles on Welsh-language television and to worldwide audiences for his portrayal of Rhys Williams in Torchwood....

) is manager of the fictitious trucking firm Harwoods Haulage. He later becomes a key character in the series, and Children of Earth sees him and Gwen stowaway on another truck to travel from Cardiff to London, whilst avoiding Government Capture.

Trucking organizations (U.S.)


New Zealand

  • Linfox
    Linfox
    Linfox is a logistics and supply chain company established in Australia by Lindsay Fox in 1956. The company started with one truck operated by Fox. With the acquisition of Armaguard from Mayne Logistics in 2003 and FCL in 2006, it is now the largest privately owned supply chain solutions company in...

  • Mainfreight
    Mainfreight
    Mainfreight Limited is a New Zealand based trucking and logistics firm operating in Australia, China, the United States of America and New Zealand. Bruce Plested founded the firm in 1978, with $2700 and a 1969 Bedford truck. He was later joined by Neil Graham. When the firm was founded, it entered...

  • Tapper Transport
    Tapper Transport
    Tapper Transport is a freight transport and import/export business in Southdown, Auckland City, New Zealand. In 2010 it was sold for $15 million to Port of Tauranga, after its longtime director Simon Tapper died. Simon Tapper had also been active as a chairman of the Road Transport Forum, a main...

  • Toll Tranz Link
    Toll NZ
    Toll Group Limited is a New Zealand trucking company. A subsidiary of the Australian company Toll Holdings, it has its headquarters in Auckland. It carries out operations by road and in the air, and formerly by rail and sea....

  • TNL Freighting
    TNL Freighting
    TNL Freighting, also known as Transport Nelson Limited is a trucking company.The company's main operations are the transportation of general goods services. The company's head office is based in Nelson, New Zealand and it has just over 100 trucks....


U.S.

  • ABF
    ABF Freight System, Inc
    ABF Freight System, Inc, or simply ABF was established in 1923 and was originally called Arkansas Motor Freightways. ABF is a subsidiary of Arkansas Best Corporation, and was listed by Forbes in 2005 as one of the “400 Best Big Companies in America.”...

  • Celadon
  • Con-way
    Con-way
    Con-way, Inc. is a freight transportation and logistics company with businesses in less-than-truckload and full truckload freight services, truckload brokerage, logistics, warehousing, supply chain management and trailer manufacturing, based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Con-way’s services are used by...

  • Covenant Transport
    Covenant Transport
    Covenant Transport, Inc. is a truckload carrier headquartered in Chattanooga, Tennessee. It began operations on January 2, 1986, with 25 trucks and 50 trailers. Today, coupled with its partners, Southern Refrigerated Transport, Inc. and Star Transportation, Inc., it now has over 3,600 trucks and...

  • C.R. England
  • FFE Transportation
    FFE Transportation
    FFE Transportation, also known as Frozen Foods Express Incorporated, is a Dallas, Texas based over-the-road transport company founded in 1946.It provides temperature controlled transportation services for over-the-road transportation...

  • J.B. Hunt
  • Landstar
  • Prime, Inc.
    Prime, Inc.
    Prime, Inc. is a trucking company which was founded in 1970 and is currently headquartered in Springfield, Missouri. The company currently operates three divisions; flatbed, refrigerated and tanker. It is the second largest refrigerated carrier operating in the United States.Currently, Prime, Inc...

  • Schneider National
    Schneider National
    Schneider National, Inc. is the largest privately owned truckload carrier in North America. Headquartered in Green Bay, Wisconsin, the company maintains 23 regional operating centers in the United States. The company was founded in 1938 by A.J. Schneider....

  • Swift Transportation
    Swift Transportation
    Swift Transportation is a Phoenix, Arizona based publicly held American truckload motor shipping carrier, the largest in the United States with over 16,000 trucks.-About:...

  • Tyson Foods
    Tyson Foods
    Tyson Foods, Inc. is a multinational corporation based in Springdale, Arkansas, that operates in the food industry. The company is the world's second largest processor and marketer of chicken, beef, and pork only behind Brazilian JBS S.A., and annually exports the largest percentage of beef out of...

  • USA Truck
    USA Truck
    USA Truck., Inc. is an over-the-road trucking company.-History:Founded in 1989, USA Truck was the corporation left in the wake of a hostile takeover. As it was common in 1980s, its parent firm, Arkansas Best Corporation, was forced to abandon the recently formed new subdivision...

  • Werner Enterprises
    Werner Enterprises
    Werner Enterprises, Inc. was founded in 1956 by Clarence L. Werner. It is a transportation and logistics company, headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, United States. It ships to the USA, Canada, Mexico, Asia, Europe and South America. Werner has regional offices throughout North America, in China...


Major truck manufacturers

  • Mack Trucks
    Mack Trucks
    Mack Trucks is an American truck-manufacturing company and a former manufacturer of buses and trolley buses. A wholly owned subsidiary of Renault Véhicules Industriels since 1990, Mack Trucks is currently a subsidiary of AB Volvo. The company's headquarters are located in Greensboro, North Carolina...

  • Peterbilt
    Peterbilt
    Peterbilt Motors Company is an American manufacturer of medium- and heavy-duty Class 5 through Class 8 trucks headquartered in Denton, Texas. Founded in 1939 Peterbilt operates manufacturing facilities in Denton, Texas , and Sainte-Thérèse, Quebec...

  • Kenworth
    Kenworth
    Kenworth is an American manufacturer of medium and heavy-duty Class 8 trucks based in Kirkland, Washington, United States, a suburb of Seattle. It is a subsidiary of PACCAR, and is also a former manufacturer of transit buses and school buses.-History:...

  • Freightliner LLC
    Freightliner LLC
    Freightliner Trucks is an American manufacturer of heavy duty trucks, chassis and semi-trailer trucks in the United States. The company was founded as Freightliner Inc in 1942 and is now a division of Daimler Trucks North America, a subsidiary of the German Daimler AG...

  • Navistar International
    Navistar International
    Navistar International Corporation is a United States-based holding company that owns the manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks, MaxxForce brand diesel engines, IC Bus school and commercial buses, Workhorse brand chassis for motor homes and step vans, and is a private label...

  • Volvo Trucks
    Volvo Trucks
    Volvo Trucks is a global truck manufacturer based in Sweden, owned by Volvo Group - AB Volvo it is the world's second largest heavy-duty truck brand....

  • Western Star
    Western Star Trucks
    Western Star Trucks is a Fort Mill, South Carolina, United States based manufacturer of Class 8 commercial trucks and a subsidiary of the German Daimler AG.-History:...

  • MAN SE
  • Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

  • Scania AB
    Scania AB
    Scania Aktiebolag , commonly referred to as Scania AB or just Scania, is a major Swedish automotive industry manufacturer of commercial vehicles - specifically heavy trucks and buses...


See also

  • Trucking industry in the United States
    Trucking industry in the United States
    The trucking industry involves the transport and distribution of commercial and industrial goods using commercial motor vehicles . In this case, CMVs are most often trucks; usually semi trucks, box trucks, or dump trucks...

  • CB slang
    CB slang
    CB slang is the distinctive anti-language, argot or cant which developed amongst users of citizens' band radio , especially truck drivers in the USA during the 1970s and early-1980s....

  • Convoy
    Convoy
    A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection. Often, a convoy is organized with armed defensive support, though it may also be used in a non-military sense, for example when driving through remote areas.-Age of Sail:Naval...

  • Truck stop
    Truck stop
    A truck stop is a commercial facility predicated on providing fuel, parking, and often food and other services to motorists and truck drivers...

  • Road Transport
    Road transport
    Road transport or road transportation is transport on roads of passengers or goods. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport is the historic horse-drawn boat.-History:...

  • Teamsters Union
  • Semi-trailer
    Semi-trailer
    A semi-trailer is a trailer without a front axle. A large proportion of its weight is supported by a road tractor, a detachable front axle assembly known as a dolly, or the tail of another trailer...

  • Tarcutta, New South Wales
    Tarcutta, New South Wales
    Tarcutta is a small town located 438 km south-west of Sydney, three kilometres east of the Hume Highway, in New South Wales, Australia. It was proclaimed as a village on 28 October 1890...

  • Dial-a-truck
    Dial-a-truck
    Dial-a-Truck is an electronic freight posting service serving North America. It was the first system of its kind and established in 1978....

     (DAT)
  • Weigh Station Info that Matters to Truckers

External links


The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK