Trinidad
Overview
 
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands and numerous landforms
Islands of Trinidad and Tobago
This is a list of islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic republic in the southern Caribbean.-Bocas Islands:The Bocas Islands lie between Trinidad and Venezuela, in the Bocas del Dragón...

 which make up the island nation of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles...

. It is the southernmost island in the Caribbean
Caribbean
The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

 and lies just 11 km (6.8 mi) off the northeastern coast of Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

. With an area of 4768 km² (1,840.9 sq mi) it is also the fifth largest in the West Indies. Time zone: GMT −4 (Trinidad does not observe DST
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time —also summer time in several countries including in British English and European official terminology —is the practice of temporarily advancing clocks during the summertime so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less...

).

Many believe the original name for the island in the Arawaks' language was "Iëre" which meant "Land of the Humming Bird".
Encyclopedia
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands and numerous landforms
Islands of Trinidad and Tobago
This is a list of islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic republic in the southern Caribbean.-Bocas Islands:The Bocas Islands lie between Trinidad and Venezuela, in the Bocas del Dragón...

 which make up the island nation of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles...

. It is the southernmost island in the Caribbean
Caribbean
The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

 and lies just 11 km (6.8 mi) off the northeastern coast of Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

. With an area of 4768 km² (1,840.9 sq mi) it is also the fifth largest in the West Indies. Time zone: GMT −4 (Trinidad does not observe DST
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time —also summer time in several countries including in British English and European official terminology —is the practice of temporarily advancing clocks during the summertime so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less...

).

Many believe the original name for the island in the Arawaks' language was "Iëre" which meant "Land of the Humming Bird". Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the...

 renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad" ("The Island of the Trinity"), fulfilling a vow he had made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration.

History

Caribs and Arawaks lived in Trinidad long before Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the...

 encountered the islands on his third voyage in 1498. Tobago changed hands between the British, French, Dutch and Courland
Courland
Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland.- Geography and climate :...

ers, but eventually ended up in British hands. Trinidad remained Spanish until 1797, but it was largely settled by French colonists. In 1889 the two islands became a single crown colony. Trinidad and Tobago obtained self-governance in 1958 and independence from the British Empire in 1962. It became a republic in 1976.

On May 26, 2010, Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Kamla Persad-Bissessar is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, the seventh person to hold this position...

, leader of the People's Partnership
People's Partnership
The People's Partnership is a political coalition in Trinidad and Tobago between five political parties: the United National Congress, the Congress of the People, the Tobago Organization of the People, the National Joint Action Committee and the Movement for Social Justice...

, was sworn in as the country's first female Prime Minister.

Geography

Major landforms include the hills of the Northern
Northern Range
The Northern Range is the range of tall hills across the northern portion of Trinidad, the major island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The hills rise abruptly from the lowlands of northern Trinidad , but only the two tallest peaks, El Cerro del Aripo and El Tucuche top 900 m...

, Central
Central Range, Trinidad and Tobago
The Central Range is a mountain range on the island of Trinidad. It extends diagonally across the island and is a low-lying range with swampy areas rising to rolling hills...

 and Southern Ranges(Dinah ranges), the Caroni
Caroni Swamp
342px|thumb|Cook's Tree Boa in Caroni SwampThe Caroni Swamp is the largest mangrove wetland in Trinidad and Tobago. It is located on the west coast of Trinidad, south of Port of Spain and northwest of Chaguanas, where the Caroni River meets the Gulf of Paria....

, Nariva
Nariva Swamp
The Nariva Swamp is the largest freshwater wetland in Trinidad and Tobago and has been designated a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention...

 and Oropouche Swamps, and the Caroni and Naparima Plains. Major river systems include the Caroni
Caroni River (Trinidad and Tobago)
The Caroni River is the largest river in Trinidad and Tobago, running for from its origins in the Northern Range on the island of Trinidad, through the northern lowlands of the Caroni Plains and enters the Gulf of Paria at the Caroni Swamp....

, North and South Oropouche and Ortoire River
Ortoire River
The Ortoire River is a large river in Trinidad and Tobago. It forms the boundary between Nariva County and Mayaro County in east Trinidad.It is green in color and at one time had an iron bridge with wooden planks but it has been replaced with an all paved concrete bridge; also it was made higher...

s.

Zoology

Native mammals include the Red Brocket Deer, Collared Peccary
Collared Peccary
The collared peccary is a species of mammal in the family Tayassuidae that is found in North, Central, and South America. They are commonly referred to as javelina, saíno or báquiro, although these terms are also used to describe other species in the family...

, Red Howler Monkey
Venezuelan Red Howler
The Venezuelan red howler is a South American species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey. It is found in the western Amazon Basin in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil...

,the Scarlet ibis and the Ocelot
Ocelot
The ocelot , pronounced /ˈɒsəˌlɒt/, also known as the dwarf leopard or McKenney's wildcat is a wild cat distributed over South and Central America and Mexico, but has been reported as far north as Texas and in Trinidad, in the Caribbean...

. Trinidad has a rich avifauna, including a single endemic species, the Trinidad Piping Guan.

Economy

It is an industrial island with a diversified economy, based to a large extent on oil
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

, industry and agriculture. It is one of the leading gas-based export centres in the world, being the leading exporter of ammonia and methanol and among the top five exporters of liquefied natural gas
Liquefied natural gas
Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been converted temporarily to liquid form for ease of storage or transport....

. This has allowed Trinidad to capitalise on the biggest mineral reserves within its territories. In recent times, the production of oil has fallen below 100,000 barrels a day, signifying a steep and perhaps irreversible decline in production.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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