Texas Tech University
Overview
 
Texas Tech University, often referred to as Texas Tech or TTU, is a public
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

 research university in Lubbock
Lubbock, Texas
Lubbock is a city in and the county seat of Lubbock County, Texas, United States. The city is located in the northwestern part of the state, a region known historically as the Llano Estacado, and the home of Texas Tech University and Lubbock Christian University...

, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Established on February 10, 1923, and originally known as Texas Technological College, it is the leading institution of the Texas Tech University System
Texas Tech University System
The Texas Tech University System consists of three universities, Texas Tech University, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, and Angelo State University. Texas Tech University and Texas Tech University HSC together operate thirteen campuses, eleven of which are located in Texas. The...

 and has the seventh largest student body in the state of Texas.
Encyclopedia
Texas Tech University, often referred to as Texas Tech or TTU, is a public
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

 research university in Lubbock
Lubbock, Texas
Lubbock is a city in and the county seat of Lubbock County, Texas, United States. The city is located in the northwestern part of the state, a region known historically as the Llano Estacado, and the home of Texas Tech University and Lubbock Christian University...

, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Established on February 10, 1923, and originally known as Texas Technological College, it is the leading institution of the Texas Tech University System
Texas Tech University System
The Texas Tech University System consists of three universities, Texas Tech University, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, and Angelo State University. Texas Tech University and Texas Tech University HSC together operate thirteen campuses, eleven of which are located in Texas. The...

 and has the seventh largest student body in the state of Texas. With 1839 acres (7.4 km²), it has the second largest contiguous campus in the United States and is the only school in Texas to house an undergraduate institution, law school
Law school
A law school is an institution specializing in legal education.- Law degrees :- Canada :...

, and medical school
Medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

 at the same location.

The university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through 13 colleges and hosts 60 research centers and institutes. Texas Tech University has awarded over 200,000 degrees since 1927, including over 40,000 graduate and professional degrees. The Carnegie Foundation classifies Texas Tech as having "high research activity". Research projects in the areas of epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of health-event, health-characteristic, or health-determinant patterns in a population. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based medicine by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive...

, pulsed power
Pulsed power
Pulsed power is the term used to describe the science and technology of accumulating energy over a relatively long period of time and releasing it very quickly thus increasing the instantaneous power.-Overview:...

, grid computing
Grid computing
Grid computing is a term referring to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal. The grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files...

, nanophotonics
Nanophotonics
Nanophotonics or Nano-optics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale. It is considered as a branch of optical engineering which deals with optics, or the interaction of light with particles or substances, at deeply subwavelength length scales...

, and wind energy
Wind energy
Wind energy is the kinetic energy of air in motion; see also wind power.Total wind energy flowing through an imaginary area A during the time t is:E = ½ m v2 = ½ v 2...

 are among the most prominent at the university. The Spanish Renaissance
Architecture of the Spanish Renaissance
Renaissance architecture was that style of architecture which evolved firstly in Florence and then Rome and other parts of Italy as the result of Humanism and a revived interest in Classical architecture...

-themed campus, described by author James Michener
James A. Michener
James Albert Michener was an American author of more than 40 titles, the majority of which were sweeping sagas, covering the lives of many generations in particular geographic locales and incorporating historical facts into the stories...

 as "the most beautiful west of the Mississippi until you get to Stanford
Stanford University
The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

", has been awarded the Grand Award for excellence in grounds-keeping, and has been noted for possessing a public art collection among the ten best in the United States.

The Texas Tech Red Raiders
Texas Tech Red Raiders
The Texas Tech Red Raiders are the athletic teams that represent Texas Tech University . The women's basketball team uses the name Lady Raiders; however, the school's other women's teams use the "Red Raiders" name. The university's athletic program fields teams in 15 varsity sports and 30 club sports...

 are charter members of the Big 12 Conference
Big 12 Conference
The Big 12 Conference is a college athletic conference of ten schools located in the Central United States, with its headquarters located in Las Colinas, a community in the Dallas, Texas suburb of Irving...

 and compete in Division I for all varsity sports. The Red Raiders football team
Texas Tech Red Raiders football
Texas Tech Red Raiders football program is a college football team that represents Texas Tech University . The team competes, as a member of the Big 12 Conference, which is a Division I Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association...

 has made 34 bowl appearances, which is 17th most of any university. The Red Raiders men's basketball team has made 14 appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament
NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship
The NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship is a single-elimination tournament held each spring in the United States, featuring 68 college basketball teams, to determine the national championship in the top tier of college basketball...

. Bob Knight, the winningest coach in men's NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 Div. I basketball history, served as the team's head coach from 2001 to 2008. The Lady Raiders women's basketball team
Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball
The Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball team represents Texas Tech University and competes in the Big 12 Conference of NCAA Division I. The team is coached by Kristy Curry who is in her fourth season at the university.-History:...

 won the 1993
1993 NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Tournament
-Mideast Regional - Iowa City, IA:-Midwest Regional - Nacogdoches, TX:-West Regional - Missoula, MT:-Final Four - Atlanta, GA:...

 women's national championship
NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship
The NCAA Women's Division I Championship is an annual college basketball tournament for women. Held each April, the Women's Championship was inaugurated in the 1981–82 season...

. In 1999, Texas Tech's Goin' Band from Raiderland received the Sudler Trophy, which is awarded to "recognize collegiate marching bands of particular excellence".

Though the majority of the university's students originate in the southwestern United States, the school has served students from all 50 states and more than 100 foreign countries. Texas Tech University alumni and former students have gone on to prominent careers in government, business, science, medicine, education, sports, and entertainment.

Establishment

The call to open a college in West Texas
West Texas
West Texas is a vernacular term applied to a region in the southwestern quadrant of the United States that primarily encompasses the arid and semi-arid lands in the western portion of the state of Texas....

 began shortly after the arrival of settlers in the area in the 1880s. In 1917, the Texas legislature passed a bill creating a branch of Texas A&M
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas . It is the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System. The sixth-largest university in the United States, A&M's enrollment for Fall 2011 was over 50,000 for the first time in school...

 to be located in Abilene
Abilene, Texas
Abilene is a city in Taylor and Jones counties in west central Texas. The population was 117,063 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Abilene Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2006 estimated population of 158,063. It is the county seat of Taylor County...

. However, the bill was repealed two years later during the next session after it was discovered that Governor James E. Ferguson
James E. Ferguson
James Edward "Pa" Ferguson, Jr. , was a Democratic politician from the state of Texas.- Early life :Ferguson was born to the Reverend James Ferguson, Sr., and Fannie Ferguson near Salado in south Bell County, Texas. He entered Salado College at age twelve but was eventually expelled for...

 had falsely reported the site committee's choice of location. After new legislation passed in the state house and senate in 1921, Governor Pat Neff
Pat Morris Neff
Pat Morris Neff was the 28th Governor of Texas from 1921 to 1925 and 9th President of Baylor University from 1932 to 1947.-Early life:...

 vetoed it, citing hard financial times in West Texas. Furious about Neff's veto, some in West Texas went so far as to recommend that West Texas secede from the state.

In 1923, the legislature decided that, rather than a branch campus, an entirely new university would better serve the needs of the region. On February 10, 1923, Neff signed the legislation creating Texas Technological College, and in July of that year a committee began searching for a site. When the members of the committee visited Lubbock, they were overwhelmed to find residents lining the streets to show support for the idea of hosting the institution. That August, Lubbock was chosen on the first ballot over other area towns, including Floydada
Floydada, Texas
Floydada is a city in and the county seat of Floyd County, Texas, United States. The population was 3,038 at the 2010 census.-History:According to the Texas State Historical Association, the community of Floydada, originally named Floyd City, was established on 640 acres of land donated by James B....

, Plainview
Plainview, Texas
Plainview is a city in and the county seat of Hale County, Texas, United States. The population was 22,336 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Plainview is located at ....

, and Sweetwater
Sweetwater, Texas
Sweetwater is the county seat of Nolan County, Texas, United States. The population was 11,415 at the 2000 census.-History:Sweetwater received a U.S. post office in 1879. The Texas and Pacific Railway started service in 1881, with the first train arriving on March 12 of that year, beginning...

.

Construction of the college campus began on November 1, 1924. Ten days later, the cornerstone of the Administration Building
Administration Building (Texas Tech University)
The Administration Building is a structure on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. It was one of the original buildings on the campus, and is modeled after the Universidad de Alcala de Henares in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. The Admin building has three floors and a basement and...

 was laid in front of a crowd of twenty thousand people. Governor Pat Neff, Amon G. Carter
Amon G. Carter
Amon G. Carter, Sr. was the creator and publisher of the Fort Worth Star-Telegram, and a nationally known civic booster for Fort Worth, Texas. A legacy in his will was used to create Fort Worth's Amon Carter Museum....

, Reverend E. E. Robinson, Colonel Ernest O. Thompson
Ernest O. Thompson
Ernest Othmer Thompson was a general in the United States Army during World War I, a mayor of Amarillo, Texas, an attorney, a businessman , and a 32-year member of the Texas Railroad Commission. He was recognized as a world authority on petroleum and natural gas production and conservation...

, and Representative R. M. Chitwood spoke at the event. With an enrollment of 914 students—both men and women—Texas Technological College opened for classes on October 1, 1925. It was originally composed of four schools—Agriculture, Engineering, Home Economics, and Liberal Arts.

Texas Tech grew slowly in the early years. During the 1930s, Bradford Knapp
Bradford Knapp
Bradford Knapp was the President of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, now known as Auburn University from 1928 to 1933.-Biography:...

, the university's second president proceeded with an expansion program, which included new dormitories, the first library (now the mathematics building), a golf course, a swimming pool, paved streets and alleys, and landscaping. A proposed $80,000 allocation for a football stadium was shelved. The library won the approval of Governor James V. Allred. Because the state cut appropriations by 30 percent at the start of the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, President Knapp applied for assistance from the major New Deal
New Deal
The New Deal was a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were Roosevelt's responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call...

 agencies to expand Texas Tech, including the Works Progress Administration
Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was the largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions of unskilled workers to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects...

, Public Works Administration
Public Works Administration
The Public Works Administration , part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression...

 (PWA), Civil Works Administration
Civil Works Administration
The Civil Works Administration was established by the New Deal during the Great Depression to create manual labor jobs for millions of unemployed. The jobs were merely temporary, for the duration of the hard winter. Harry L. Hopkins was put in charge of the organization. President Franklin D...

, and the National Youth Administration
National Youth Administration
The National Youth Administration was a New Deal agency in the United States that focused on providing work and education for Americans between the ages of 16 and 24. It operated from 1935 to 1939 as part of the Works Progress Administration . Following the passage of the Reorganization Act of...

. Wyatt C. Hedrick
Wyatt C. Hedrick
Wyatt Cephus Hedrick was an American architect, engineer, and developer most active in Texas and the American South....

, son-in-law of Governor Ross S. Sterling
Ross S. Sterling
Ross Shaw Sterling was a U.S. political figure who was the 31st Governor of Texas, having served a single two-year term between January 20, 1931, and January 17, 1933....

, was the architect of all campus PWA projects.

Military training was conducted at the college as early as 1925, but formal Reserve Officers' Training Corps
Reserve Officers' Training Corps
The Reserve Officers' Training Corps is a college-based, officer commissioning program, predominantly in the United States. It is designed as a college elective that focuses on leadership development, problem solving, strategic planning, and professional ethics.The U.S...

 training did not commence until 1936. By 1939, the school's enrollment had grown to 3,890. Though enrollment declined during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Texas Tech trained 4,747 men in its armed forces
Armed forces
The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their governing body, and to defend that body and the nation it represents from external aggressors. In some countries paramilitary...

 training detachments. Following the war, in 1946, the college saw its enrollment leap to 5,366 from a low of 1,696 in 1943.

Expansion and growth

By the 1960s, the school had expanded its offerings to more than just technical subjects. The Faculty Advisory Committee suggested changing the name to "Texas State University", feeling the phrase "Technological College" was insufficient to define the scope of the institution. While most students supported this change, the Board of Directors and many alumni, wanting to preserve the Double T
Double T
The Double T is a logo that is the most readily identified symbol of Texas Tech University.-History:The Double T is generally attributed to Texas Tech University's, then Texas Technical College, first football coach, E. Y. Freeland, and assistant coach, Grady Higginbotham. The Double T's design...

, opposed it. Other names—University of the Southwest, Texas Technological College and State University, and The Texas University of Art, Science and Technology—were considered, but the Board of Directors chose Texas Tech University, submitting it to the state legislature in 1964. A failed move by Governor John Connally
John Connally
John Bowden Connally, Jr. , was an influential American politician, serving as the 39th governor of Texas, Secretary of the Navy under President John F. Kennedy, and as Secretary of the Treasury under President Richard M. Nixon. While he was Governor in 1963, Connally was a passenger in the car in...

 to have the school placed into the Texas A&M University System
Texas A&M University System
The Texas A&M University System is one of the largest systems of higher education in the United States. Through a statewide network of eleven universities, eight state agencies and a comprehensive health science center, the Texas A&M System educates over 100,000 students, conducts more than $600...

, as well as continued disagreement and heated debate regarding the school's new name, kept the name change from being approved. In spite of objections by many students and faculty, the Board of Directors again submitted the change in 1969. It finally received the legislature's approval on June 6 and the name Texas Tech University went into effect that September. All of the institution's schools, except Law, became colleges.

Texas Tech was integrated
Racial integration
Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation . In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely...

 in 1961 when three African-American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

 students were admitted. After its initial rejection of the students' enrollment and the threat of a subsequent lawsuit, the university enacted a policy to admit "all qualified applicants regardless of color". The university offered its first athletic scholarship to a black student in 1967, when Danny Hardaway was recruited to play for the Red Raiders football team. In 1970, Hortense W. Dixon became the first African-American student to earn a doctorate from the university.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the university invested US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

150 million in the campus to construct buildings for the library, foreign languages, social sciences, communications, philosophy, electrical and petroleum engineering, art, and architecture. Some other buildings were significantly expanded. On May 29, 1969, the 61st Texas Legislature
Sixty-first Texas Legislature
The 61st Texas Legislature met from January 14, 1969 to June 2, 1969, and again in two special called sessions from July 28, 1968 to August 26, 1969, and from August 27, 1969 to September 9, 1969...

 created the Texas Tech University School of Medicine. The Texas Legislature expanded the medical school charter in 1979, creating the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center offers programs in Allied Health Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. TTUHSC's main campus is in Lubbock, but campuses are also located in Abilene, Amarillo, Dallas, El Paso and the Permian Basin...

. TTUHSC, which is now part of the Texas Tech University System
Texas Tech University System
The Texas Tech University System consists of three universities, Texas Tech University, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, and Angelo State University. Texas Tech University and Texas Tech University HSC together operate thirteen campuses, eleven of which are located in Texas. The...

, includes Schools of Allied Health Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. It has locations in four Texas cities in addition to the main campus in Lubbock. In 2011 the combined enrollment in the Texas Tech University System
Texas Tech University System
The Texas Tech University System consists of three universities, Texas Tech University, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, and Angelo State University. Texas Tech University and Texas Tech University HSC together operate thirteen campuses, eleven of which are located in Texas. The...

 was greater than 42,000 students—a 48 percent increase since 2000. Chancellor Kent Hance reiterated plans for Texas Tech's main campus to reach enrollment of 40,000 students by 2020, with additional 5,000 students at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center offers programs in Allied Health Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. TTUHSC's main campus is in Lubbock, but campuses are also located in Abilene, Amarillo, Dallas, El Paso and the Permian Basin...

 and 10,000 students at Angelo State University
Angelo State University
Angelo State University is a public, coeducational, doctoral level degree-granting university located in San Angelo, Texas, United States. It was founded in 1928 as San Angelo College. It gained University status and awarded its first baccalaureate degrees in 1967 and graduate degrees in 1969, the...

.

Recent history

In 1996, the Board of Regents of Texas Tech University created the Texas Tech University System. Former State Senator John T. Montford, later of San Antonio, was selected as the first chancellor
Chancellor (education)
A chancellor or vice-chancellor is the chief executive of a university. Other titles are sometimes used, such as president or rector....

 to lead the combined academic enterprise. Regents Chair Edward Whitacre, Jr.
Edward Whitacre, Jr.
Edward Earl "Ed" Whitacre, Jr. is the former Chairman and CEO of General Motors. He is also a former chairman of the board and chief executive officer of AT&T Inc., previously SBC. He served as national president of the Boy Scouts of America from 1998 to 2000...

, stated that the move was made due to the size and complexity of the institution. "It's time", he said, "to take the university into the 21st century..." The Texas Tech University system originally included Texas Tech University and Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center offers programs in Allied Health Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. TTUHSC's main campus is in Lubbock, but campuses are also located in Abilene, Amarillo, Dallas, El Paso and the Permian Basin...

. On November 6, 2007, the Texas Legislature
Texas Legislature
The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives. The Legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin...

 ratified an amendment to the Texas Constitution
Texas Constitution
The Constitution of the State of Texas is the document that describes the structure and function of the government of the U.S. State of Texas.Texas has had seven constitutions: the constitution of Coahuila y Tejas, the 1836 Constitution of the Republic of Texas, the state constitutions of 1845,...

 re-aligning Angelo State University
Angelo State University
Angelo State University is a public, coeducational, doctoral level degree-granting university located in San Angelo, Texas, United States. It was founded in 1928 as San Angelo College. It gained University status and awarded its first baccalaureate degrees in 1967 and graduate degrees in 1969, the...

 with the Texas Tech University System. Kent Hance
Kent Hance
Kent "The Hancellor" Ronald Hance is a lobbyist and lawyer who was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from West Texas, having served from 1979 to 1985...

, a former United States Congressman and Texas Tech University graduate, assumed the duties of chancellor on December 1, 2006.

Even though growth continued at Texas Tech, the university was not immune to controversy. In 2003, a third-year student at the Texas Tech School of Law
Texas Tech University School of Law
The Texas Tech University School of Law is an ABA-accredited law school located on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Known nationally for their continual success in trial advocacy competitions, the school focuses on forming practical lawyers who are ready to practice law upon...

 filed suit against the university over its policy on free speech zone
Free speech zone
Free speech zones are areas set aside in public places for political activists to exercise their right of free speech in the United States. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that "Congress shall make no law... abridging.....

s, which restricted student speech to a single "free speech gazebo". The following year, a federal judge
Federal judge
Federal judges are judges appointed by a federal level of government as opposed to the state / provincial / local level.-Brazil:In Brazil, federal judges of first instance are chosen exclusively by public contest...

 declared the policy unconstitutional
Constitutionality
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution. Acts that are not in accordance with the rules laid down in the constitution are deemed to be ultra vires.-See also:*ultra vires*Company law*Constitutional law...

.

To meet the demands of its increased enrollment and expanding research, the university has invested more than $548 million in new construction since 2000. It has also received more than $65.9 million in private donations. In April 2009, the Texas House of Representatives
Texas House of Representatives
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the Texas Legislature. The House is composed of 150 members elected from single-member districts across the state. The average district has about 150,000 people. Representatives are elected to two-year terms with no term limits...

 passed a bill that will increase state funding for seven public universities. Texas Tech University is classified by the state as an "Emerging Research University" and is among the universities that will receive additional state funding for advancement toward "Tier 1" status. Three funds—the Research University Development Fund, the Texas Research Incentive Program, and the National Research University Benchmark Fund—have been established and will provide $500 million in grants and matching funds during fiscal years 2010 and 2011. On September 2, 2009, the university announced that it had received private gifts totaling $24.3 million. Of these, $21.5 million are eligible for match under the Texas Research Incentive Program.

Academic profile

By enrollment, Texas Tech is the sixth largest university in Texas and the largest institution of higher education in the western two-thirds of the state. In the fall
Autumn
Autumn is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer into winter usually in September or March when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier....

 2011 semester
Academic term
An academic term is a division of an academic year, the time during which a school, college or university holds classes. These divisions may be called terms...

, Texas Tech set a record enrollment with 32,327 students. For the 2008/09 enrollment year, most students came from Texas (85.17%), followed by New Mexico, California, Oklahoma, Colorado, and Kansas. Altogether, the university has educated students from all 50 U.S. states and over 100 foreign countries. Enrollment has continued to increase in recent years and growth is on track with a plan to have 40,000 students by the year 2020. From 1927 to 2008, the university awarded 160,007 bachelor's, 30,985 master's, 5,197 doctoral, and 6,477 law degrees. The Princeton Review
The Princeton Review
The Princeton Review is an American-based standardized test preparation and admissions consulting company. The Princeton Review operates in 41 states and 22 countries across the globe. It offers test preparation for standardized aptitude tests such as the SAT and advice regarding college...

 ranked Texas Tech among the 117 best colleges in the Western United States in its 2009 edition. The 2008 Shanghai Jiao Tong Rankings
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

 placed Texas Tech University at 302 worldwide, which tied it with fellow Big 12 schools, Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a coeducational public research university located in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. the university had 29,931 students enrolled, most located at its...

 and Kansas State
Kansas State University
Kansas State University, commonly shortened to K-State, is an institution of higher learning located in Manhattan, Kansas, in the United States...

, among others. In its 2011 edition, U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report is an American news magazine published from Washington, D.C. Along with Time and Newsweek it was for many years a leading news weekly, focusing more than its counterparts on political, economic, health and education stories...

noted that the university has a "selective" admissions policy. As a state public university, Texas Tech is subject to Texas House Bill 588
Texas House Bill 588
Texas House Bill 588, commonly referred to as the "Top 10% Rule", is a Texas law passed in 1997.The law guarantees Texas students who graduated in the top ten percent of their high school class automatic admission to all state-funded universities. The bill was created as a means to avoid the...

, which guarantees Texas high school seniors in the top 10 percent of their graduating class admission to any public Texas university. In 2007, 17 percent of incoming freshmen were admitted in this manner. Approximately half of incoming freshmen finished in the top quarter of their graduating class.

Texas Tech University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools is one of the six regional accreditation organizations recognized by the United States Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation...

. The university offers 150 bachelor's, 104 master's, and 59 doctoral degree programs. Texas Tech has five satellite campuses located in Texas—in Abilene
Texas Tech University at Abilene
Texas Tech University at Abilene is an official off campus teaching site of Texas Tech University located in Abilene, Texas. The site hosts Bachelor of University Studies, Bachelor of General Studies, Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy and Ed.D...

, Amarillo
Texas Tech University at Amarillo
Texas Tech University at Amarillo is an official off campus teaching site of Texas Tech University located in Amarillo, Texas. It hosts master's degrees in systems and engineering management and manufacturing and engineering through both on-site and online courses as part of .-External links:*...

, Fredericksburg
Texas Tech University at Fredericksburg
Texas Tech University at Fredericksburg is an official off campus teaching site of Texas Tech University located in Fredericksburg, Texas. The site was established in 2002 to extend Texas Tech's presence by hosting year-round academic programs in the Texas Hill Country.- Academic programs :Texas...

, Highland Lakes
Texas Tech University at Highland Lakes
Texas Tech University at Highland Lakes is an official off campus teaching site of Texas Tech University located in Marble Falls, Texas. The site was established in 2002 to extend Texas Tech's presence in the Texas Hill Country by hosting year-round academic programs.-Academic programs:Texas Tech...

, and Junction
Texas Tech University Center at Junction
Texas Tech University Center at Junction is an official off campus teaching site of Texas Tech University in Junction, Texas. It hosts undergraduate and graduate courses in an intensive three-week period format from May through July. Additionally, an Intersession is held in May; this allows...

. There are also two satellite campuses in Europe, located in Quedlinburg, Germany
Texas Tech University Center in Quedlinburg
Texas Tech University Center in Quedlinburg is a branch campus of Texas Tech University in Quedlinburg, Germany. It offers undergraduate courses from the regular Texas Tech University catalog. Every semester, undergraduate German courses are taught...

, and Seville, Spain
Texas Tech University Center in Seville
Texas Tech University Center in Seville is a branch campus of Texas Tech University in Seville, Spain. It offers undergraduate courses from the regular Texas Tech University catalog. Every semester, undergraduate Spanish and history courses are taught...

. Additional study-abroad programs are offered in various countries, such as Denmark, England, France, and Italy.

The Office of International Affairs supports and facilitates the international mission of Texas Tech University. It provides services for faculty and students, offers international educational and cultural experiences for the school and community, and contributes to the university's globalization process and its effort to grow as an international educational and research center. The International Cultural Center provides a continual series of conferences, lectures, art exhibitions, and performances.

Colleges and schools

Texas Tech has expanded from its original four schools to comprise ten colleges and two schools. In 2008, the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Texas Tech University College of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources
Texas Tech University College of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources is a college at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. The agriculture program has existed at Texas Tech since 1925 making it one of the original programs at the university. The college currently contains six departments...

 ranked among the 30 largest schools of agriculture in the country by enrollment.

In the 2010 U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report is an American news magazine published from Washington, D.C. Along with Time and Newsweek it was for many years a leading news weekly, focusing more than its counterparts on political, economic, health and education stories...

report on higher education, the Whitacre College of Engineering was ranked 76th in the nation. The previous year, the college's Petroleum Engineering Department was ranked 10th best in the nation. The college offers twelve engineering programs accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology. On November 12, 2008, following a $25 million gift from AT&T in honor of alumnus Edward E. Whitacre, Jr, the college was formally renamed the Edward E. Whitacre, Jr. College of Engineering.
The largest academic division on campus, the College of Arts and Sciences
Texas Tech University College of Arts & Sciences
Texas Tech University College of Arts & Sciences is the largest college at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. It consists of 18 departments and offers 120 degree programs. It was founded in 1925 as one of the four original colleges of Texas Tech...

 offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in a wide range of subjects from philosophy to mathematics. In 2004, the College of Mass Communications
Texas Tech University College of Mass Communications
Texas Tech University College of Mass Communications is the college of mass communications at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Prior to 2004, the mass communications program at Texas Tech was a School within the College of Arts and Sciences....

 and the College of Visual and Performing Arts
Texas Tech University College of Visual & Performing Arts
Texas Tech University College of Visual and Performing Arts is a college at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Prior to 2004, the College's departments existed within the College of Arts & Sciences....

 were created from programs that had belonged to the College of Arts and Sciences. The College of Mass Communications offers degrees in several areas, including journalism, advertising, and public relations. Programs offered through the College of Visual and Performing Arts are accredited by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design
National Association of Schools of Art and Design
The National Association of Schools of Art and Design , founded in 1944, is an accrediting organization of colleges, schools and universities in the United States. The organization establishes standards for graduate and undergraduate degrees. Member institutions complete periodic peer review...

, the National Association of Schools of Music
National Association of Schools of Music
The National Association of Schools of Music is an association of post-secondary music schools in the United States and the principal U.S. accreditor for higher education in music...

, and the National Association of Schools of Theatre.

Once the Division of Home Economics, the College of Human Sciences
Texas Tech University College of Human Sciences
Texas Tech University College of Human Sciences is a college at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. It was founded in 1925 as the College of Home Economics, one of the four original colleges of Texas Tech.- Academic departments :...

 now offers degrees in applied and professional studies, design, human development, nutrition, hospitality, and retailing. The College of Architecture
Texas Tech University College of Architecture
Texas Tech University College of Architecture is the college of architecture at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. The architecture program has existed at Texas Tech University since 1927...

 was founded in 1927 and offers programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board
National Architectural Accrediting Board
The National Architectural Accrediting Board is the sole authority for accredited US professional degree programs for architecture in the United States, developing standards and procedures to verify that each accredited program meets standards for the appropriate education of architects...

.

The Rawls College of Business
Rawls College of Business
The Jerry S. Rawls College of Business Administration, also referred to as the Rawls College of Business or simply Rawls College, is the business school of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas...

, which is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business
Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business
The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business was founded in 1916 to accredit schools of business worldwide. The first accreditations took place in 1919. The stated mission is to advance quality management education worldwide through accreditation and thought leadership. It is regarded...

, is the university's business school. In 2009, Business Week ranked it 36th best among approximately 800 U.S. public business schools. The school offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in business disciplines. From its origin in 1942, the business school was known as the Division of Commerce, until it was renamed the College of Business Administration in 1956. In 2000, following a $25 million gift from alumnus Jerry S. Rawls, the school was formally renamed the Jerry S. Rawls College of Business Administration.
In 1967, both the College of Education
Texas Tech University College of Education
Texas Tech University College of Education is a college at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. The education program has existed at Texas Tech University since 1925...

 and the Texas Tech University School of Law
Texas Tech University School of Law
The Texas Tech University School of Law is an ABA-accredited law school located on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Known nationally for their continual success in trial advocacy competitions, the school focuses on forming practical lawyers who are ready to practice law upon...

 were founded. The College of Education instructs future teachers and is accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education
The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education was founded in 1954 to accredit teacher certification programs at U.S. colleges and universities. NCATE is a council of educators created to ensure and raise the quality of preparation for their profession. NCATE is recognized by the U.S....

. The School of Law is an American Bar Association
American Bar Association
The American Bar Association , founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. The ABA's most important stated activities are the setting of academic standards for law schools, and the formulation...

-accredited law school on the main campus in Lubbock. The school offers Juris Doctor degrees which can be earned in conjunction with Master of Business Administration or Master of Science degrees through the adjacent Rawls College of Business. In 2000, the law school had an impressive 100% bar passage rate for first-time exam takers for the February 2000 Bar Examination. In 2008, the law school had an 89.1% bar exam pass rate, placing it 49th among U.S. law schools. Most recently, Texas Tech University School of Law
Texas Tech University School of Law
The Texas Tech University School of Law is an ABA-accredited law school located on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Known nationally for their continual success in trial advocacy competitions, the school focuses on forming practical lawyers who are ready to practice law upon...

 led all Texas law schools on the July 2009 Bar Examination, with a first-time pass rate of 94.52 percent.

All graduate programs offered at Texas Tech University are overseen by the Graduate School
Texas Tech University Graduate School
Texas Tech University Graduate School oversees all graduate programs at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas and its branch campuses. Texas Tech's first master's degree was awarded in 1928 and its first doctorate was awarded in 1953. The Graduate School was formally organized in 1954...

, which was officially established in 1954. The university's Honors College allows select students to design a customized curriculum that incorporates a broad range of disciplines, and offers students the opportunity for early admission into Texas Tech University’s medical and law schools.

In September 2008, the University College was established. Formerly known as the College of Outreach and Distance Education, the college was created by bringing together the Division of Off-Campus Sites and the Division of Outreach and Distance Education. Texas Tech's six in-state satellite campuses are under the auspices of the college. Additionally, it oversees the Texas Tech University Independent School District
Texas Tech University Independent School District
Texas Tech University Independent School District is the only accredited distance learning kindergarten through twelfth grade program in Texas offering high school diplomas. It is operated by Texas Tech University, which is located in Lubbock....

.

The Texas Tech University System
Texas Tech University System
The Texas Tech University System consists of three universities, Texas Tech University, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, and Angelo State University. Texas Tech University and Texas Tech University HSC together operate thirteen campuses, eleven of which are located in Texas. The...

 also operates a medical school, the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center offers programs in Allied Health Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. TTUHSC's main campus is in Lubbock, but campuses are also located in Abilene, Amarillo, Dallas, El Paso and the Permian Basin...

. It offers Schools of Allied Health Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. While it is a discrete entity, separate from Texas Tech University, it offers joint degrees (such as MD/MBA) through coordination with the university. Further, the Health Sciences Center is located on the university's main campus in Lubbock. In addition to the Lubbock campus, TTUHSC has campuses located in Abilene, Amarillo
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Amarillo Campus
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Amarillo Campus is a regional campus of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center located at the Harrington Regional Medical Center in Amarillo, Texas....

, El Paso
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso Campus
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso Campus is a branch of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso, Texas. It has been in operation since 1969.-History:...

, and Odessa
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Permian Basin Campus
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Permian Basin Campus is a branch of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Odessa, Texas. It opened as a School of Medicine in 1979, beginning in the basement of Medical Center Hospital....

.

Research

Classified by the Carnegie Foundation
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
Founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1905 and chartered in 1906 by an act of the United States Congress, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is an independent policy and research center, whose primary activities of research and writing have resulted in published reports on every level...

 as a research university with "high activity", Texas Tech University hosts 60 research centers and institutes. In 2008, a team of researchers from Texas Tech University and Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 announced the development of an siRNA
Small interfering RNA
Small interfering RNA , sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 nucleotides in length, that play a variety of roles in biology. The most notable role of siRNA is its involvement in the RNA interference pathway, where it...

-based treatment that may ultimately counteract the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive...

. Human cells infected with HIV, injected into rats, have been cured by the experimental treatment. Clinical trials on humans are expected to begin by 2010. Texas Tech researchers also hold the exclusive license for HemoTech, a human blood substitute
Blood substitute
A blood substitute is a substance used to mimic and fulfill some functions of biological blood, usually in the oxygen-carrying sense...

 composed of bovine hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates, with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae, as well as the tissues of some invertebrates...

. HemoBioTech, the company marketing the technology, believes that HemoTech will diminish the intrinsic toxicities that have stifled previous attempts to develop a human blood substitute. On January 14, 2008, Texas Tech University announced the creation of the West Texas Influenza Research Center. The university has concluded human clinical testing of oral interferon
Interferon
Interferons are proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens—such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites—or tumor cells. They allow communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors.IFNs belong to...

 in a five-year study of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive form of lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the supporting framework of the lungs...

 and continues its study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , also known as chronic obstructive lung disease , chronic obstructive airway disease , chronic airflow limitation and chronic obstructive respiratory disease , is the co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases...

.

Following the May 11, 1970, Lubbock Tornado that caused 26 fatalities and over $100 million in damage in Lubbock, the Wind Science and Engineering Research Center
Wind Science and Engineering Research Center
The Wind Science and Engineering Research Center at Texas Tech University is an interdisciplinary research center focused on education and information outreach. Its goals are to exploit the useful qualities of wind and to mitigate its detrimental effects...

 (WISE) was established. The WISE Center, which includes 56000 square feet (5,202.6 m²) of indoor laboratory space, is focused on research, education, and information outreach. The interdisciplinary research program studies methods to exploit the beneficial qualities of wind and to mitigate its detrimental effects. The center offers education in wind-science and engineering to develop professionals who are experts in creating designs which deal effectively with problems caused by high winds. WISE Center researchers contributed significantly to the development of the Enhanced Fujita Scale
Enhanced Fujita Scale
The Enhanced Fujita Scale rates the strength of tornadoes in the United States based on the damage they cause.Implemented in place of the Fujita scale introduced in 1971 by Ted Fujita, it began operational use on February 1, 2007. The scale has the same basic design as the original Fujita scale:...

 for rating the strength of tornadoes.

Texas Tech has made numerous contributions to NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

 projects. Daniel Cooke, Computer Science Department Chair, and his colleagues are working to develop the technical content of the Intelligent Systems Program, and have been awarded a five-year budget valued at $350 million. University scientists have also teamed with NASA's guidance, navigation, and control engineers to develop the Onboard Abort Executive (OAE), software capable of quickly deciding the best course of action during an ascent failure. The Texas Tech Space Research Initiative has also partnered with NASA to perfect methods for growing fresh vegetables in space and to determine the most efficient ways to recycle wastewater. In November 1996, the university dedicated the Charles A. Bassett II Pulse Laboratory to honor engineering alumnus and Gemini
Project Gemini
Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of NASA, the civilian space agency of the United States government. Project Gemini was conducted between projects Mercury and Apollo, with ten manned flights occurring in 1965 and 1966....

-era astronaut Charles A. Bassett II
Charles Bassett
Charles Arthur "Art" Bassett, II was an American engineer and United States Air Force officer. He was selected as a NASA astronaut in 1963 and assigned to Gemini 9 but died in an airplane crash during training for his first spaceflight.-Early life and education:Bassett was born in Dayton, Ohio,...

. In total, Texas Tech has helped to produce three astronauts: Bassett, Paul Lockhart
Paul Lockhart
Colonel Paul Scott "Paco" Lockhart is a former American astronaut and a veteran of two Space Shuttle missions.Lockhart, born and reared in Amarillo, Texas, earned degrees in mathematics and aerospace engineering from Texas Tech University and the University of Texas at Austin before being...

, and Rick Husband, the final commander of space shuttle Columbia
STS-107
-Mission parameters:*Mass:**Orbiter Liftoff: **Orbiter Landing: **Payload: *Perigee: *Apogee: *Inclination: 39.0°*Period: 90.1 min- Insignia :...

.

In 2008, the pulsed power
Pulsed power
Pulsed power is the term used to describe the science and technology of accumulating energy over a relatively long period of time and releasing it very quickly thus increasing the instantaneous power.-Overview:...

 electronics laboratory received $4 million in federal funding. Among other things, the money will be used to create compact generators for weapon systems designed to destroy improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The College of Engineering’s Nano Tech Center has received approximately $20 million in grants toward its work in applied nanophotonics
Nanophotonics
Nanophotonics or Nano-optics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale. It is considered as a branch of optical engineering which deals with optics, or the interaction of light with particles or substances, at deeply subwavelength length scales...

, the creation and manipulation of advanced materials at the nanoscale that can produce and sense light. Texas Tech's Center for Advanced Analytics and Business Intelligence performs grid computing
Grid computing
Grid computing is a term referring to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal. The grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files...

 research through collaboration with the SAS Institute
SAS Institute
SAS Institute Inc. , headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig...

 that seeks to improve the speed with which large quantities of data (such as those present in genomics
Genomics
Genomics is a discipline in genetics concerning the study of the genomes of organisms. The field includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale genetic mapping efforts. The field also includes studies of intragenomic phenomena such as heterosis,...

 and global economics) can be processed.

Texas Tech's College of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources has received state and federal grants for research projects including the fiber properties of cotton, the antibacterial properties of cotton fabric, and the development of chemical-warfare protective fabrics. The college has also created two grass variants, Shadow Turf, a drought-tolerant turf grass that thrives in shade, and Tech Turf (marketed as Turffalo), a turf grass with the rich color and texture of Bermuda
Cynodon dactylon
Cynodon dactylon , also known as Dūrvā Grass, Bermuda Grass, Dubo, Dog's Tooth Grass, Bahama Grass, Devil's Grass, Couch Grass, Indian Doab, Arugampul, Grama, and Scutch Grass, is a grass native to north and east Africa, Asia and Australia and southern Europe...

 and the resilience of buffalo grass.

Campus

Situated on 1839 acres (7.4 km²), Texas Tech has the second largest contiguous university campus in the United States. The Lubbock campus is home to the main academic university, law school, and medical school (Health Sciences Center
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center offers programs in Allied Health Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. TTUHSC's main campus is in Lubbock, but campuses are also located in Abilene, Amarillo, Dallas, El Paso and the Permian Basin...

). This arrangement makes it the only institution in Texas to have all three units (undergraduate institution, law school, and medical school) on the same campus. The campus, which boasts Spanish Renaissance architecture
Architecture of the Spanish Renaissance
Renaissance architecture was that style of architecture which evolved firstly in Florence and then Rome and other parts of Italy as the result of Humanism and a revived interest in Classical architecture...

, was described by American author James A. Michener
James A. Michener
James Albert Michener was an American author of more than 40 titles, the majority of which were sweeping sagas, covering the lives of many generations in particular geographic locales and incorporating historical facts into the stories...

 as the "most beautiful west of the Mississippi until you get to Stanford
Stanford University
The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

" and by Stewart Mandel
Stewart Mandel
Stewart Lance Mandel is an American sports writer who focuses on college football and college basketball. Mandel was raised in Cincinnati, Ohio, attending Sycamore High School, and is a graduate of Northwestern University with a degree in Journalism....

 of Sports Illustrated
Sports Illustrated
Sports Illustrated is an American sports media company owned by media conglomerate Time Warner. Its self titled magazine has over 3.5 million subscribers and is read by 23 million adults each week, including over 18 million men. It was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the...

as "easily one of the ten most beautiful campuses" he had seen. Many buildings on campus borrow architectural elements from those found at University de Alcalá
University of Alcalá
The University of Alcalá is a public university located in Alcalá de Henares, a city 35 km northeast of Madrid in Spain. Founded in 1499, it was moved in 1836 to Madrid. In 1977, the University was reopened in its same historical buildings...

 in Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares , meaning Citadel on the river Henares, is a Spanish city, whose historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, and one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain...

, Spain, and Mission San José
San Miguel de Aguayo, Texas
Mission San José y San Miguel de Aguayo is a historic Catholic mission in San Antonio, Texas, USA. The mission was named in part for the Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo, José de Azlor y Virto de Vera...

 in San Antonio. A large section of the campus built between 1924 and 1951 is listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 as the Texas Technological College Historic District
Texas Technological College Historic District
The Texas Technological College Historic District is a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas...

. This area is roughly bounded by 6th Street on the north, University Avenue on the east, 19th Street on the south, and Flint Street on the west. In 2008, the Professional Grounds Management Society
Professional Grounds Management Society
The Professional Grounds Management Society is an individual membership society of grounds professionals advancing the grounds management profession through education and professional development in the United States....

 awarded Texas Tech the Grand Award for excellence in grounds-keeping.

In 1998 the Board of Regents of the Texas Tech University System created the Texas Tech University Public Art Collection to enliven the campus environment and extend the educational mission of the university. It is funded by using one percent of the estimated total cost of each new building on campus. The collection features pieces from artists such as Tom Otterness
Tom Otterness
Tom Otterness is an American sculptor whose works adorn parks, plazas, subway stations, libraries, courthouses and museums in New York---most notably in Rockefeller Park in Battery Park City and in the 14th Street/8th Avenue subway station---and other cities around the world...

 and Glenna Goodacre
Glenna Goodacre
Glenna Maxey Goodacre is a sculptor well known for having designed the obverse of the Sacagawea dollar that entered circulation in the United States in 2000...

. The Texas Tech University Public Art Collection is ranked among the ten best university public art collections in the United States by Public Art Review.
The university also hosts the Museum of Texas Tech University
Museum of Texas Tech University
The Museum of Texas Tech University is part of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. It is made up of the main museum building, the Moody Planetarium, the Natural Science Research Laboratory, the research and educational elements of the Lubbock Lake Landmark, and the Val Verde County research...

, which was founded in 1929 and is accredited by the American Association of Museums
American Association of Museums
The American Association of Museums is a non-profit association that has brought museums together since its founding in 1906, helping develop standards and best practices, gathering and sharing knowledge, and advocating on issues of concern to the museum community...

. The museum is home to over three million objects and specimens and houses the Moody Planetarium, art galleries, a sculpture court, and a natural science research laboratory. The museum also operates the Val Verde County
Val Verde County, Texas
Val Verde County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2008, estimated population was 55,000. Its county seat is Del Rio. In 1936, Val Verde County received Recorded Texas Historic Landmark number 5625 to commemorate its founding.Val Verde, which means "green...

 research site and the Lubbock Lake Landmark
Lubbock Lake Landmark
Lubbock Lake Landmark, also known as Lubbock Lake Site, is an important archeological site and natural history preserve in the city of Lubbock, Texas. The preserve is 336 acres and is a protected state and federal landmark. There is evidence of ancient people and extinct animals at Lubbock Lake...

, an archaeological site and natural history preserve in the city of Lubbock. The site has evidence of 12,000 years of use by ancient cultures on the Llano Estacado
Llano Estacado
Llano Estacado , commonly known as the Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas, including the South Plains and parts of the Texas Panhandle...

 (Southern High Plains), and allows visitors to watch active archaeological digs. Visiting scientists and tourists may also participate in the discovery process. Lubbock Lake Landmark is a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

, which lists it on the National Register of Historic Places, and is a designated State Archaeological Landmark. Texas Tech is also the location of the Southwest Collection of historical archives and the sponsoring institution of the West Texas Historical Association
West Texas Historical Association
The West Texas Historical Association is an organization of both academics and laypersons dedicated to the preservation and dissemination of the total history of West Texas, defined geographically as all Texas counties and portions of counties located west of Interstate 35.-Formation of the...

.
Located on the northern edge of the campus is the National Ranching Heritage Center
National Ranching Heritage Center
The National Ranching Heritage Center, a museum of ranching history, is located on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. It features almost fifty authentic ranch buildings dating from the late 18th to the mid-20th century...

, a museum of ranching history. The site spans 14 acre (0.05665604 km²) and is home to 38 historic structures that have been restored to their original condition. Structures represented at the center include: a linecamp, a dugout, a bunkhouse, a blacksmith shop, a cowchip house, a schoolhouse, corrals, shipping pens, windmills, chuckwagons, and a coal-burning locomotive.

The university maintains a number of libraries, some general-purpose and some dedicated to specific topics such as architecture and law. Among the most notable of these are the Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library and the Vietnam Center and Archive
Vietnam Center and Archive
The Vietnam Center and Archive collects and preserves the documentary record of the Vietnam War. The Vietnam Center and Archive, part of Texas Tech University, is the nation's largest and most comprehensive collection of information on the Vietnam War. On August 17, 2007, the Texas Tech Vietnam...

, the nation's largest and most comprehensive collections of information on the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

. On August 17, 2007, the Vietnam Center and Archive became the first U.S. institution to sign a formalized exchange agreement with the State Records and Archives Department of Vietnam. This opens the door for a two-way exchange between the entities.

Student life

There are over 390 student clubs and organizations at Texas Tech. Many students participate in Greek Life
Fraternities and sororities
Fraternities and sororities are fraternal social organizations for undergraduate students. In Latin, the term refers mainly to such organizations at colleges and universities in the United States, although it is also applied to analogous European groups also known as corporations...

. Texas Tech Greek Life includes 11 Panhellenic Sororities, 21 InterFraternity Council Fraternities as well as groups in the NPHC & Muticultural Greek Council. The Student Union Building, located centrally on campus, is the hub of daily student activity. It houses restaurants, coffee shops, a book store, meeting rooms, lecture halls, movie rooms, and study areas as well as the offices and meeting rooms of several student organizations and the Student Government Association. Directly adjacent to the Student Union Building is the School of Music
Texas Tech University School of Music
Texas Tech University School of Music is a school within the College of Visual & Performing Arts at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.- Degrees offered :Bachelor of Arts*MusicBachelor of Music*Music*Music Composition*Music Theory...

, home of the Texas Tech Goin' Band from Raiderland. The 450-member band, which was awarded the Sudler Trophy in 1999, performs at all home football games and at various other events.

Approximately 20 percent of students live on campus, and most students live on campus for at least a portion of their academic careers. Students with less than 30 hours of academic credit are required to live in university housing unless they receive an exemption. Specific dorms and communities exist for graduate students, athletes, and various specific interests and academic disciplines.

International honor societies Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa Society
The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an academic honor society. Its mission is to "celebrate and advocate excellence in the liberal arts and sciences"; and induct "the most outstanding students of arts and sciences at America’s leading colleges and universities." Founded at The College of William and...

 (liberal arts & sciences),Delta Episolon Psi, Beta Gamma Sigma
Beta Gamma Sigma
Beta Gamma Sigma or ΒΓΣ is an honor society for business students and scholars. Founded in 1913 at the University of Wisconsin, it has over 650,000 members, selected from over 500 chapters in AACSB-accredited business schools...

 (business), and Tau Beta Pi
Tau Beta Pi
The Tau Beta Pi Association is the oldest engineering honor society in the United States and the second oldest collegiate honor society in America. It honors engineering students who have shown a history of academic achievement as well as a commitment to personal and professional integrity...

 (engineering) have chapters at the university. Professional, service, and social fraternities and sororities on campus include Alpha Phi Omega
Alpha Phi Omega
Alpha Phi Omega is the largest collegiate fraternity in the United States, with chapters at over 350 campuses, an active membership of approximately 17,000 students, and over 350,000 alumni members...

 (service), Alpha Kappa Psi
Alpha Kappa Psi
ΑΚΨ is the oldest and largest professional business fraternity. The Alpha Kappa Psi Fraternity was founded on October 5, 1904 at New York University, and was incorporated on May 20, 1905...

 (business), Delta Sigma Pi
Delta Sigma Pi
ΔΣΠ ' is one of the largest co-ed professional business fraternities. Delta Sigma Pi was founded on November 7, 1907 at the School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance, New York University, New York, New York and is currently headquartered in Oxford, Ohio...

 (business), Phi Alpha Delta
Phi Alpha Delta
ΦAΔ , or P.A.D., is the largest co-ed professional law fraternity in the United States of America. Phi Alpha Delta has members who are university students, law school students, lawyers, judges, senators, and even presidents. It was founded in 1902 and today has over 300,000 initiated members...

 (law), Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia is an American collegiate social fraternity for men with a special interest in music...

 (music), Kappa Kappa Psi
Kappa Kappa Psi
Kappa Kappa Psi is a fraternity for college and university band members. It was founded on November 27, 1919 at Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College in Stillwater, Oklahoma. William Scroggs, now regarded as the "Founder," together with "Mr. Kappa Kappa Psi" A...

 (band), and Tau Beta Sigma
Tau Beta Sigma
Tau Beta Sigma is a co-educational national honorary band sorority dedicated to serving college and university bands. The Sorority, headquartered at the historic Stillwater Station in Stillwater, Oklahoma, numbers over 3,500 active members in 145 active chapters, and over 40,000 alumni...

 (band). Professional development and research organizations hosted by the university include the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program, the Center for the Integration of Science Education and Research, the Society of Engineering Technologists
Society of Engineering Technologists
Established in 1977, the Society of Engineering Technologists is the official student organization for the Department of Engineering Technology at Texas Tech University...

, Student Bar Association, and the Texas Tech Forensic Union. Spirit organizations representing Texas Tech include the High Riders, Saddle Tramps, and the Sabre Flight Drill Team
Sabre Flight Drill Team
The Sabre Flight Drill Team was formally established at Texas Tech University in 1961 as a part of the U.S. Air Force R.O.T.C. detachment. The team mascot is the North American F-86A Sabre Jet, flown in the Korean War. Throughout the years, SFDT has done exceptionally well competing in drill...

.

The university maintains KTXT-FM
KTXT-FM
KTXT-FM is a non-commercial educational college radio station licensed to Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, USA. KTXT-FM is licensed to broadcast 35,000 watts of power to Lubbock and the surrounding South Plains of West Texas.-History:...

 88.1, formerly a student radio station focusing on alternative, indie rock, industrial, and hip hop music. After 47 years, the station went off the air on December 10, 2008. It returned in May 2009 with a different format and plans to eventually return to its former style. National Public Radio station KOHM
Köhm
Köhm is a river of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany....

 89.1, which features classical music and news, is also found on campus. Additionally, the university owns and operates Public Broadcasting Service
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 television station KTXT-TV
KTXT-TV
KTXT-TV is a Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station broadcasting on digital channel 39. KTXT is owned by Texas Tech University and housed on its campus in Lubbock, Texas.-History and facilities:...

. Students run a daily newspaper, The Daily Toreador
The Daily Toreador
The Daily Toreador is the student newspaper of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. The newspaper started in 1925 after the founding of Texas Technological College in 1923. It was originally called The Toreador to reflect the Spanish Renaissance architectural of the campus's buildings...

, until 2005 known as The University Daily. The university also produces a yearbook, La Ventana
La Ventana (yearbook)
La Ventana is the yearbook of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, US. It began publication in 1925/26.-Beginning:...

.

Athletics

Texas Tech's athletic teams are known as the Red Raiders with the exception of the women's basketball team, which is known as the Lady Raiders. Texas Tech competes in NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 Division I FBS (formerly Division I-A) and is a member of the South Division of the Big 12 Conference
Big 12 Conference
The Big 12 Conference is a college athletic conference of ten schools located in the Central United States, with its headquarters located in Las Colinas, a community in the Dallas, Texas suburb of Irving...

. From 1932 until 1956, the university belonged to the Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association
Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association
The Border Conference , was an NCAA-affiliated college athletic conference founded in 1931 that disbanded following the 1961-1962 season...

. After being rejected eight times over a period of more than twenty years, Texas Tech was admitted to the Southwest Conference on May 12, 1956. When the Southwest Conference disbanded in 1995, Texas Tech, along with the University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a state research university located in Austin, Texas, USA, and is the flagship institution of the The University of Texas System. Founded in 1883, its campus is located approximately from the Texas State Capitol in Austin...

, Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas . It is the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System. The sixth-largest university in the United States, A&M's enrollment for Fall 2011 was over 50,000 for the first time in school...

, and Baylor University
Baylor University
Baylor University is a private, Christian university located in Waco, Texas. Founded in 1845, Baylor is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.-History:...

, merged with schools from the former Big Eight Conference
Big Eight Conference
The Big Eight Conference, a former NCAA-affiliated Division I-A college athletic association that sponsored football, was formed in January 1907 as the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association by its charter member schools: the University of Kansas, University of Missouri, University...

 to form the Big 12.

Of its varsity sports, Texas Tech's women's basketball
College basketball
College basketball most often refers to the USA basketball competitive governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association . Basketball in the NCAA is divided into three divisions: Division I, Division II and Division III....

 team has been the only one to claim a national title. The Lady Raiders
Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball
The Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball team represents Texas Tech University and competes in the Big 12 Conference of NCAA Division I. The team is coached by Kristy Curry who is in her fourth season at the university.-History:...

, led by player Sheryl Swoopes
Sheryl Swoopes
Sheryl Denise Swoopes is an American professional basketball player who, subsequent to being waived into free agency, signed to re-join the WNBA to play with the Tulsa Shock in 2011. She was the first player to be signed in the WNBA when it was created. She has won three Olympic Gold Medals and...

 and head coach Marsha Sharp
Marsha Sharp
Marsha Sharp is the former head coach of Texas Tech University's women's basketball team, the Lady Raiders. She retired after twenty-three years at the conclusion of the 2005/06 season....

, won the 1993 NCAA Women's Basketball Championship
1993 NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Tournament
-Mideast Regional - Iowa City, IA:-Midwest Regional - Nacogdoches, TX:-West Regional - Missoula, MT:-Final Four - Atlanta, GA:...

. The men's basketball team
Texas Tech Red Raiders men's basketball
The Texas Tech Red Raiders basketball team represents Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas in NCAA Division I men's basketball competition The team is currently coached by Billy Gillispie. Prior to Gillispie being named coach, the coach was Pat Knight who succeeded his father, Hall of Famer Bob...

 has made 14 appearances in the NCAA Men's Division I Tournament
NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship
The NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship is a single-elimination tournament held each spring in the United States, featuring 68 college basketball teams, to determine the national championship in the top tier of college basketball...

. Bob Knight served as men's basketball coach from the beginning of the 2001 season until February 4, 2008. On January 1, 2007, he became the winningest coach in men's NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 Division I basketball history, when the Red Raiders defeated the New Mexico Lobos, 70–68. Upon Knight's retirement, his son Pat Knight
Pat Knight
Patrick "Pat" Knight is an American college basketball coach for Lamar University. He became the coach of the Lamar Cardinals basketball team on April 5, 2011. He was previously the head coach of the Texas Tech Red Raiders men's basketball team until March 7, 2011...

 became the head coach of the team.

Since 1999, home basketball games have been played at United Spirit Arena
United Spirit Arena
United Spirit Arena is a multi-purpose arena on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. The 15,020-seat arena opened in 1999 and is home to the Texas Tech Red Raiders basketball, Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball and Texas Tech Red Raiders women's volleyball teams...

, a 15,020-seat multi-purpose facility which cost $62 million to build. In addition to serving as home to the men's and women's basketball teams, the arena is used by the Lady Raiders volleyball team.

The Red Raiders football
Texas Tech Red Raiders football
Texas Tech Red Raiders football program is a college football team that represents Texas Tech University . The team competes, as a member of the Big 12 Conference, which is a Division I Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association...

 team, coached by Tommy Tuberville
Tommy Tuberville
Thomas Hawley Tuberville is an American football coach and former player. He is currently the head football coach at Texas Tech University, a position he has held since the 2010 season...

, is a member of the NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly known as Division I-A). In each of its last fourteen seasons, Tech has finished with a winning record, the fourth-longest such streak in the nation. The Red Raiders have made 33 bowl appearances, which is 18th most of any university. From 1932 to 1956, as members of the Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association, the Red Raiders won eight conference championships and one co-championship, the most held by a Border Conference member. After joining the Southwest Conference, the Red Raiders added conference co-championships in 1976 and 1994.

Jones AT&T Stadium
Jones AT&T Stadium
Jones AT&T Stadium is an outdoor athletic stadium on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, United States. It is the home field of the Texas Tech Red Raiders football team of the Big 12 Conference.-Planning and funding:Clifford B. and Audrey Jones Stadium opened in 1947...

 serves as home to the Red Raiders football team. The stadium, named for Clifford B. and Audrey Jones, opened in 1947. In 2000, the stadium was renamed Jones SBC Stadium after SBC Communications made a $30 million contribution to the university. Following SBC Communications' acquisition of AT&T Corporation in 2006 and its subsequent adoption of the AT&T name, the stadium was renamed Jones AT&T Stadium. The stadium's original seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

 was 27,000, but it was expanded in 1959, 1972, 2003 and again in 2009. On August 7, 2008, the Board of Regents of the Texas Tech University System announced a $25 million expansion project. The expansion added a Spanish Renaissance-themed façade to the east side of the stadium. In addition to the improvements to the exterior of the facility, the expansion added 1,000 general-admission seats, 550 club seats, and 26 suites. Texas Tech allocated a total of $19 million to the expansion and planned to add another $6 million through fund-raising initiatives. On November 20, 2008, university officials announced that the project's fundraising goal had been exceeded. Groundbreaking ceremonies for the expansion took place on November 29, 2008, and construction began following the 2008 football season
2008 Texas Tech Red Raiders football team
The 2008 Texas Tech Red Raiders football team represented Texas Tech University in the college football season of 2008/09. The team was coached by Mike Leach. The Red Raiders played their home games at Jones AT&T Stadium in Lubbock, Texas. The football team competed in the Division I Football Bowl...

. The current seating capacity of the stadium is 60,454, making it the third largest on campus stadium in Texas.

The Red Raiders baseball team
Texas Tech Red Raiders baseball
The Texas Tech Red Raiders baseball team represents Texas Tech University in NCAA Division I college baseball. The team competes in the Big 12 Conference and plays at Dan Law Field at Rip Griffin Park.-Early years:...

 played its first game in 1925. The team has two conference championships, two conference tournament championships, and has made nine NCAA Division I Baseball Championship
NCAA Division I Baseball Championship
The NCAA Division I Baseball Championship tournament is held each year from May through June and features 64 college baseball teams in the United States, culminating in the College World Series....

 tournament appearances. Larry Hays
Larry Hays
Larry Hays was the head coach of the Texas Tech Red Raiders baseball team from 1987 to 2008, and currently coaches women's softball at Lubbock Christian University.-Early life:...

 coached the team from 1987 to 2008 and lead the team to a .639 winning percentage. Following Hays’ retirement on June 2, 2008, Assistant Coach Dan Spencer
Dan Spencer
Dan Spencer is the head coach for the Texas Tech Red Raiders baseball team. On April 29, 2008, Texas Tech Athletic Director Gerald Myers designated Spencer to become the head coach of the team once former head coach Larry Hays retired...

 was promoted to head coach. At least 20 former Red Raiders baseball players have gone on to play in the Major Leagues. The team plays its home games at Dan Law Field at Rip Griffin Park. The field, located on the main campus in Lubbock, has a seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

 of 5,050.

In addition to varsity sports, the university's Sport Clubs Federation offers 30 recreational and competitive sport clubs, including polo, rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

, lacrosse, fencing
Fencing
Fencing, which is also known as modern fencing to distinguish it from historical fencing, is a family of combat sports using bladed weapons.Fencing is one of four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games...

, and soccer. In 2006, Texas Tech beat rival Texas A&M
Texas A&M Aggies
Texas A&M Aggies refers to the students, graduates, and sports teams of Texas A&M University. The nickname "Aggie" is common at land-grant or "Ag" schools in many states. The teams compete in Division I of NCAA sports...

 to win the United States Polo Association National Intercollegiate Championship.

Mascots

The Masked Rider
The Masked Rider
The Masked Rider is the primary mascot of Texas Tech University. It is the oldest of the university's mascots still in existence today. Originally called "Ghost Rider", it was an unofficial mascot appearing in a few games in 1936 and then became the official mascot with the 1954 Gator Bowl. The...

 is Texas Tech University's oldest mascot. The tradition began in 1936, when "ghost riders" were dared to circle the field prior to home football games. The Masked Rider became an official mascot in 1954, when Joe Kirk Fulton led the team onto the field at the Gator Bowl
Gator Bowl
The Gator Bowl is an annual college football bowl game played at EverBank Field in Jacksonville, Florida. Held continuously since 1946, it is the sixth oldest college bowl, as well as the first one ever televised nationally...

. According to reports from those present at the game, the crowd sat in stunned silence as they watched Fulton and his horse Blackie rush onto the football field, followed by the team. After a few moments, the silent crowd burst into cheers. Ed Danforth, a writer for the Atlanta Journal who witnessed the event, later wrote, "No team in any bowl game ever made a more sensational entrance." In 2000, The Masked Rider tradition was commemorated with the unveiling of a statue outside of the university's Frazier Alumni Pavilion. The sculpture, created by artist Grant Speed, is 25 percent larger than life.

Today the Masked Rider, with guns up
Guns up
Guns Up is the slogan and hand signal of Texas Tech University. It is used by students and alumni as a greeting. It is also used as a victory sign during athletic events.-The gesture:...

, leads the team onto the field for all home games. This mascot, adorned in a distinctive gaucho
Gaucho
Gaucho is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American pampas, chacos, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Chile, and Southern Brazil...

 hat like the ones worn by members of the marching band, is one of the most visible figures at Texas Tech. Christi Chadwell, a sophomore agricultural communications major from Garland
Garland, Texas
-Climate:* The average warmest month is July.* The highest recorded temperature was in 2000.* On average, the coolest month is January.* The lowest recorded temperature was in 1989.* The maximum average precipitation occurs in May....

, will represent the university as the Masked Rider during 2010/11.

Texas Tech's other mascot, Raider Red
Raider Red
Raider Red is one of the mascots of Texas Tech University. The main mascot is The Masked Rider who rides a live horse. Raider Red is used at events where The Masked Rider is not allowed or would not be appropriate....

, is a more recent creation. Beginning with the 1971 football season, the Southwest Conference forbade the inclusion of live animal mascots to away games unless the host school consented. For situations where the host school did not want to allow the Masked Rider's horse, an alternate mascot was needed. Jim Gaspard, a member of the Saddle Tramps student spirit organization, created the original design for the Raider Red costume, basing it on a character created by cartoonist Dirk West
Dirk West
Gerald Glynn "Dirk" West was an editorial cartoonist and journalist from Lubbock, Texas most famous for his caricatures of collegiate mascots. He was born in Littlefield, Texas but his family moved to Lubbock soon after. He attended Texas Tech University where he drew cartoons for The University...

, a Texas Tech alumnus and former Lubbock mayor. Though the Masked Rider's identity is public knowledge, it has always been tradition that Raider Red's student alter ego is kept secret until the end of his or her tenure. The student serving as Raider Red is a member of the Saddle Tramps or High Riders.

Carol of Lights

The Carol of Lights is an annual event, sponsored by the Residence Halls Association, traditionally held the first Friday in December, to celebrate the holiday season at the university. The event begins with a Carillon concert, from the 43 bells located in the west tower of the Administration Building
Administration Building (Texas Tech University)
The Administration Building is a structure on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. It was one of the original buildings on the campus, and is modeled after the Universidad de Alcala de Henares in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. The Admin building has three floors and a basement and...

 followed a torch light processional by the Saddle Tramps and High Riders spirit organizations. The Texas Tech Trombone Choir and combined choirs lead the crowd in singing carols and the illumination ceremony culminates with a soloist performance of “O Holy Night,” in the Science Quadrangle. This is followed by the lighting ceremony, where thirteen buildings within the Texas Technological College Historic District
Texas Technological College Historic District
The Texas Technological College Historic District is a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas...

 are illuminated with the over 25,000 red, white, and orange lights. The lights remain on the campus buildings until the first week when students come back from the holiday break.

In 1959, Texas Tech University Board of Directors member Harold Hinn planned and provided the funding to cover the Science Quadrangle and Administration Building with 5,000 lights. However, students were away on Christmas break and did not see the display. The following year, the Residence Hall Association sponsored the event under the name "Christmas Sing". In 1961, the event was renamed Carol of Lights and the display increased to 16,000 lights. The tradition has since grown to include decorations like the 38-foot lighted Christmas tree, 3,000 luminaries lining the sidewalks of Memorial Circle and a 21-foot fresh pine wreath hung on the Physics/Geosciences building.

Double T

The most readily identified symbol of Texas Tech is the Double T. The logo, generally attributed to Texas Tech's first football coach, E. Y. Freeland
E. Y. Freeland
-External links:* at College Basketball at Sports-Reference.com...

, was first used as decoration on the sweaters for the football players. The Double T existed in its original form as an official logo from 1963 to 1999 and was updated in 2000. The new logo maintains the original premise but incorporates three-dimensional bevelling effects coupled with white trim.

To recognize the importance of the Double T to Texas Tech, the class of 1931 donated the Double T bench. Per tradition, freshmen are not allowed to sit on the bench, which is currently located in the courtyard of the Administration Building
Administration Building (Texas Tech University)
The Administration Building is a structure on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. It was one of the original buildings on the campus, and is modeled after the Universidad de Alcala de Henares in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. The Admin building has three floors and a basement and...

. The logo is further embodied in the Double T neon sign
Neon sign
Neon signs are made using electrified, luminous tube lights that contain rarefied neon or other gases. They are the most common use for neon lighting, which was first demonstrated in a modern form in December, 1910 by Georges Claude at the Paris Motor Show. While they are used worldwide, neon signs...

, donated by the class of 1938 and affixed to the east side of Jones AT&T Stadium. At the time of its purchase, this was reputedly the largest neon sign in existence.

Will Rogers and Soapsuds

One of the most well-known landmarks on campus is the statue of Will Rogers
Will Rogers
William "Will" Penn Adair Rogers was an American cowboy, comedian, humorist, social commentator, vaudeville performer, film actor, and one of the world's best-known celebrities in the 1920s and 1930s....

 on his horse Soapsuds. The statue, entitled "Riding Into the Sunset
Riding Into the Sunset
Riding Into the Sunset is a public sculpture by Electra Waggoner Biggs, depicting Will Rogers on his horse, Soapsuds, and is located on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Three additional castings were commissioned...

", has resided at the center of the campus since it was dedicated on February 16, 1950, by Rogers' longtime friend Amon G. Carter
Amon G. Carter
Amon G. Carter, Sr. was the creator and publisher of the Fort Worth Star-Telegram, and a nationally known civic booster for Fort Worth, Texas. A legacy in his will was used to create Fort Worth's Amon Carter Museum....

. Carter claimed that Texas Tech was the ideal setting for the statue and that it would be an appropriate addition to the traditions and scenery of West Texas
West Texas
West Texas is a vernacular term applied to a region in the southwestern quadrant of the United States that primarily encompasses the arid and semi-arid lands in the western portion of the state of Texas....

. The statue, estimated to cost $25,000 when it was dedicated, stands 9 in 11 in (3.02 m) and weighs 3200 pounds (1,451.5 kg). The inscription on the plaque at the base of the statue reads: "Lovable Old Will Rogers on his favorite horse, 'Soapsuds', riding into the Western sunset."

The statue continues to be a part of school tradition. Before every home football game, the Saddle Tramps wrap it with red crepe paper. In times of national tragedies, the statue has also been wrapped in black crepe paper.

According to one campus legend, the statue was originally to be positioned with Will Rogers facing due west, so that it would appear he was riding into the sunset. However, that position would cause Soapsuds' posterior to face due east, toward the main campus entrance. The horse's rear would also be facing downtown Lubbock, potentially insulting the Lubbock business community. Although now proven apocryphal, the legend holds that this problem was solved by turning the statue 23 degrees to the northwest so Soapsuds' rear would face southeast, toward College Station, Texas, home of rival Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas . It is the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System. The sixth-largest university in the United States, A&M's enrollment for Fall 2011 was over 50,000 for the first time in school...

.

Texas Tech ring

While the class ring
Class ring
A class ring is a ring worn by students and alumni in the United States and Canada to commemorate their graduation, generally for a high school, college, or university.-History:...

 had occasionally used a universal design, by the late 20th century various styles were available. In 1999, the university reverted to a single ring design for the university's graduates. The new Official Texas Tech Alumni Association Class Ring symbolically captures the essence of Texas Tech with the prominent Double T logo surrounded by the school’s full name and date of foundation. By tradition, undergraduates wear the ring with the Double T logo facing themselves. Upon graduation, the ring is turned so the logo faces outward.

One shoulder of the ring displays an image of the Administration Building
Administration Building (Texas Tech University)
The Administration Building is a structure on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. It was one of the original buildings on the campus, and is modeled after the Universidad de Alcala de Henares in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. The Admin building has three floors and a basement and...

, with the bells which represent victory. The other shoulder contains the university seal: an American eagle perched above a book, representing the church; a star, representing the State of Texas; a key, representing home; and, a lamp, representing knowledge. These elements are separated by a cross featuring ten cotton bolls, one each for Lubbock and its nine surrounding cotton-producing counties.

Notable people

The Texas Tech Alumni Association
Texas Tech Alumni Association
The Texas Tech Alumni Association is the alumni association for former students of Texas Tech University. The organization was founded in 1927 and sponsors multiple programs for Texas Tech University and its alumni.-History:...

, with over 27,000 members, operates more than 120 chapters in cities throughout the United States and the world. Throughout Texas Tech's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in many different fields. Among its Distinguished Alumni is Demetrio B. Lakas, President of the Republic of Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

 from 1969 to 1978. Three United States Governors, Daniel I. J. Thornton, Governor of Colorado from 1951 to 1955, John Burroughs
John Burroughs (governor)
John Burroughs was a New Mexican businessman and the 18th Governor of New Mexico. Burroughs is remembered for honest government and introduction of the concept of a state Personnel Act to improve the quality of state workers and limit somewhat the effect of political patronage.Burroughs attended...

, Governor of New Mexico from 1959 to 1961, and Preston Smith
Preston Smith (Texas)
Preston Earnest Smith was the 40th Governor of Texas from 1969 to 1973, who earlier served as the lieutenant governor from 1963 to 1969.-Early life:...

, Governor of Texas from 1968 to 1972, are graduates of the university.

Four astronauts
Astronaut
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft....

, including Rick Husband, the final commander of Space Shuttle Columbia
Space Shuttle Columbia
Space Shuttle Columbia was the first spaceworthy Space Shuttle in NASA's orbital fleet. First launched on the STS-1 mission, the first of the Space Shuttle program, it completed 27 missions before being destroyed during re-entry on February 1, 2003 near the end of its 28th, STS-107. All seven crew...

 and recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor
Congressional Space Medal of Honor
The Congressional Space Medal of Honor was authorized by the United States Congress in 1969 to recognize "any astronaut who in the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and mankind." The highest award...

. U.S. Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 Major
Major
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world.When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. ...

 and Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed by the President, in the name of Congress, upon members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguish themselves through "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her...

 recipient, George H. O'Brien, Jr.
George H. O'Brien, Jr.
George Herman O'Brien, Jr. was a United States Marine Corps officer who received the Medal of Honor, the United States's highest military decoration, for his actions during the Korean War.-Biography:...

, is a distinguished alumnus. Richard E. Cavazos
Richard E. Cavazos
Richard Edward Cavazos , a Korean War recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross as a first lieutenant, who advanced in rank to become the United States Army's first Mexican American four-star general. During the Vietnam War, as a lieutenant colonel, Cavazos was awarded a second Distinguished...

 is a two-time Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Cross (United States)
The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army, for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree...

 recipient and the first Hispanic and Mexican American to advance to the rank of four-star general in the U.S. Army. United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 Major General
Major General
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

 Wendy Motlong Masiello
Wendy M. Masiello
Wendy Lee Motlong Masiello is, as of 2007, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Contracting, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition, based in the nation's capital...

, one of the highest-ranking women in the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

, is a 1980 graduate of Texas Tech's Rawls College of Business Administration. Texas Tech's influence on the business world is seen in such people as General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 Chairman and CEO Edward Whitacre, Jr.
Edward Whitacre, Jr.
Edward Earl "Ed" Whitacre, Jr. is the former Chairman and CEO of General Motors. He is also a former chairman of the board and chief executive officer of AT&T Inc., previously SBC. He served as national president of the Boy Scouts of America from 1998 to 2000...

, Finisar CEO Jerry S. Rawls
Jerry S. Rawls
Jerry S. Rawls currently serves as Finisar Corporation's President & Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Board of Directors since March 1989. Finisar was started by Jerry Rawls and Frank H. Levinson in the year 1988. The Rawls College of Business and The Rawls Course at Texas Tech...

, Belo Corporation CEO Dunia A. Shive, and Wellpoint, Inc.
WellPoint
WellPoint, Inc. is the largest health plan company in the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. It was formed when WellPoint Health Networks, Inc. merged into Anthem, Inc., with the surviving Anthem adopting the name, WellPoint, Inc...

 president and CEO Angela Braly
Angela Braly
Angela F. Braly is president and chief executive officer for WellPoint, Inc., a large US-based health care company, and is a member of the company's board of directors...

, ranked by Fortune
Fortune (magazine)
Fortune is a global business magazine published by Time Inc. Founded by Henry Luce in 1930, the publishing business, consisting of Time, Life, Fortune, and Sports Illustrated, grew to become Time Warner. In turn, AOL grew as it acquired Time Warner in 2000 when Time Warner was the world's largest...

magazine as the most powerful woman in business.

Texas Tech alumni have also made contributions to sports, music, and acting. Texas Tech Red Raiders have gone on to play in the NFL
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

, NBA
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

, WNBA
Women's National Basketball Association
The Women's National Basketball Association is a women's professional basketball league in the United States. It currently is composed of twelve teams. The league was founded on April 24, 1996 as the women's counterpart to the National Basketball Association...

, and MLB
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

. Current alumni standouts include Michael Crabtree (NFL Wide Receiver for the 49ers), NFL All-Pros
All-Pro
All-Pro is a term mostly used in the NFL for the best players of each position during that season. It began as polls of sportswriters in the early 1920s...

 Zach Thomas
Zach Thomas
Zachary Michael Thomas is a former American football linebacker. He was drafted by the Miami Dolphins in the fifth round of the 1996 NFL Draft. He played college football at Texas Tech....

 of the Kansas City Chiefs
Kansas City Chiefs
The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team based in Kansas City, Missouri. They are a member of the Western Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League . Originally named the Dallas Texans, the club was founded by Lamar Hunt in 1960 as a...

 and Wes Welker
Wes Welker
-San Diego Chargers :Welker, who was not drafted during the 2004 NFL Draft, signed as an undrafted free agent with the San Diego Chargers. Welker made the Chargers out of training camp, but was released after the first game of the season.-2004 season:...

 of the New England Patriots
New England Patriots
The New England Patriots, commonly called the "Pats", are a professional football team based in the Greater Boston area, playing their home games in the town of Foxborough, Massachusetts at Gillette Stadium. The team is part of the East Division of the American Football Conference in the National...

. Others among the university's alumni are folk rocker John Denver
John Denver
Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr. , known professionally as John Denver, was an American singer/songwriter, activist, and humanitarian. After growing up in numerous locations with his military family, Denver began his music career in folk music groups in the late 1960s. His greatest commercial success...

, country singer Pat Green
Pat Green
Patrick Craven "Pat" Green is an American Texas Country artist. Active since 1995, he has recorded a total of ten studio albums, including several independent works, three for Republic Records and two for BNA...

, and actor George Eads
George Eads
George Coleman Eads III is an American actor, best known for his role as Nick Stokes on the CBS crime drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation.-Early life:...

. John Hinckley, Jr, who attempted to assassinate U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

in 1981, attended the university sporadically from 1973 to 1980.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK