Public university
Overview
 
A public university is a university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities
Private university
Private universities are universities not operated by governments, although many receive public subsidies, especially in the form of tax breaks and public student loans and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. Private universities are...

. A national university
National university
A national university is generally a university created or run by a government, but which at the same time operates autonomously without direct oversight or control by the state. Some national universities are closely associated with national cultural or political aspirations...

 may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions. In some regions of the world prominent public institutions are highly influential centers of research; many of these universities are ranked among the best in the world by THES - QS World University Rankings
THES - QS World University Rankings
The term Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings refers to rankings published jointly between 2004 and 2009 by Times Higher Education and Quacquarelli Symonds . After QS and Times Higher Education had ended their collaboration, the methodology for these rankings continues to be used by...

 and the Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

, including the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
ETH Zurich
The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich or ETH Zürich is an engineering, science, technology, mathematics and management university in the City of Zurich, Switzerland....

, Imperial College London
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, specialising in science, engineering, business and medicine...

 and the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley , is a teaching and research university established in 1868 and located in Berkeley, California, USA...

.

In Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 the National Universities, also called "Public or State-run Universities", is the name used to refer to all those institutions whose creation arose from the enactment of a National Congress Act, except for those whose creation preceded that of the state itself (as is the case of the National University of Córdoba
National University of Córdoba
The National University of Córdoba, , is the oldest university in Argentina, and one of the oldest in the Americas. It is located in Córdoba, the capital of Córdoba Province. Since the early 20th century it has been the second largest university in the country in terms of the number of students,...

 and the University of Buenos Aires
University of Buenos Aires
The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 faculties, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos...

).
Encyclopedia
A public university is a university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities
Private university
Private universities are universities not operated by governments, although many receive public subsidies, especially in the form of tax breaks and public student loans and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. Private universities are...

. A national university
National university
A national university is generally a university created or run by a government, but which at the same time operates autonomously without direct oversight or control by the state. Some national universities are closely associated with national cultural or political aspirations...

 may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions. In some regions of the world prominent public institutions are highly influential centers of research; many of these universities are ranked among the best in the world by THES - QS World University Rankings
THES - QS World University Rankings
The term Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings refers to rankings published jointly between 2004 and 2009 by Times Higher Education and Quacquarelli Symonds . After QS and Times Higher Education had ended their collaboration, the methodology for these rankings continues to be used by...

 and the Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

, including the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
ETH Zurich
The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich or ETH Zürich is an engineering, science, technology, mathematics and management university in the City of Zurich, Switzerland....

, Imperial College London
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, specialising in science, engineering, business and medicine...

 and the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley , is a teaching and research university established in 1868 and located in Berkeley, California, USA...

.

Argentina


In Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 the National Universities, also called "Public or State-run Universities", is the name used to refer to all those institutions whose creation arose from the enactment of a National Congress Act, except for those whose creation preceded that of the state itself (as is the case of the National University of Córdoba
National University of Córdoba
The National University of Córdoba, , is the oldest university in Argentina, and one of the oldest in the Americas. It is located in Córdoba, the capital of Córdoba Province. Since the early 20th century it has been the second largest university in the country in terms of the number of students,...

 and the University of Buenos Aires
University of Buenos Aires
The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 faculties, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos...

). They lie as Public Law legal entities and their regular operation funding comes from the national state, pursuant to what is set out on the annual national budget act.

National universities hold the largest share of the entire Argentine university system: counting over 80% of the undergraduate population and with campuses stretched throughout to all provinces comprising the national territory, they account for over 50% of the country's scientific research while additionally providing technical assistance to both the public and private sectors.

Public universities are absolutely free (no fee is paid during the studies), and also the access to books in the universities' libraries. However buying in bookstores and studying material (such as photocopies of books which are very common) is usually paid for by each student. For low-income students there is a great variety of scholarships.

Australia

In Australia, there are 38 public universities and 4 private universities. The private universities are Bond University
Bond University
Bond University is a private university located in Robina, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. It is also the first private university established in Australia...

, the University of Notre Dame Australia
University of Notre Dame Australia
The University of Notre Dame Australia is a private Roman Catholic university established in 1989 in the Western Australian port city of Fremantle, . While the University of Notre Dame Australia has "strong collegial links" with the American University of Notre Dame located in Notre Dame, Indiana,...

 (both Australian), and two foreign universities, Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States....

 (USA) and Cranfield University
Cranfield University
Cranfield University is a British postgraduate university based on two campuses, with a research-oriented focus. The main campus is at Cranfield, Bedfordshire and the second is the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom based at Shrivenham, Oxfordshire. The main campus is unique in the United...

 (UK), which have campuses in Adelaide
Adelaide
Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia and the fifth-largest city in Australia. Adelaide has an estimated population of more than 1.2 million...

.

Australia's public universities are variously grouped:
  • Some of the Group of Eight
    Group of Eight (Australian universities)
    The Group of Eight is a coalition of leading Australian tertiary institutions, intensive in research and comprehensive in general and professional education...

     are the oldest and most prestigious public universities in Australia and include the Universities of Queensland
    University of Queensland
    The University of Queensland, also known as UQ, is a public university located in state of Queensland, Australia. Founded in 1909, it is the oldest and largest university in Queensland and the fifth oldest in the nation...

    , Sydney
    University of Sydney
    The University of Sydney is a public university located in Sydney, New South Wales. The main campus spreads across the suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington on the southwestern outskirts of the Sydney CBD. Founded in 1850, it is the oldest university in Australia and Oceania...

    , Melbourne
    University of Melbourne
    The University of Melbourne is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded in 1853, it is the second oldest university in Australia and the oldest in Victoria...

    , New South Wales
    University of New South Wales
    The University of New South Wales , is a research-focused university based in Kensington, a suburb in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...

    , Adelaide
    University of Adelaide
    The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia...

     and Western Australia
    University of Western Australia
    The University of Western Australia was established by an Act of the Western Australian Parliament in February 1911, and began teaching students for the first time in 1913. It is the oldest university in the state of Western Australia and the only university in the state to be a member of the...

     together with the Australian National University
    Australian National University
    The Australian National University is a teaching and research university located in the Australian capital, Canberra.As of 2009, the ANU employs 3,945 administrative staff who teach approximately 10,000 undergraduates, and 7,500 postgraduate students...

     and Monash University
    Monash University
    Monash University is a public university based in Melbourne, Victoria. It was founded in 1958 and is the second oldest university in the state. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight and the ASAIHL....

    . Three were established in the 19th century.
  • Innovative Research Universities
    Innovative Research Universities Australia
    Innovative Research Universities , formerly Innovative Research Universities Australia, is a network of seven comprehensive universities committed to conducting research of national and international standing....

     represent a number of research-intensive institutions, with most being established in the 1960s and 1970s. The group includes University of Wollongong
    University of Wollongong
    The University of Wollongong is a public university located in the coastal city of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, approximately 80 kilometres south of Sydney...

    , Charles Darwin University
    Charles Darwin University
    Charles Darwin University is an Australian public university with about 20,000 students in 2007.The University offers a wide range of Higher Education degrees and Vocational Education and Training courses with flexible study options, including part-time, external and online.CDU has campuses in the...

    , Flinders University
    Flinders University
    Flinders University, , is a public university in Adelaide, South Australia. Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of navigator Matthew Flinders, who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century.The university has established a reputation as a leading research...

    , Griffith University
    Griffith University
    Griffith University is a public, coeducational, research university located in the southeastern region of the Australian state of Queensland. The university has five satellite campuses located in the Gold Coast, Logan City and in the Brisbane suburbs of Mount Gravatt, Nathan and South Bank. Current...

    , James Cook University
    James Cook University
    James Cook University is a public university based in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. The university has two Australian campuses, located in Townsville and Cairns respectively, and an international campus in Singapore. JCU is the second oldest university in Queensland—proclaimed in 1970—and the...

    , La Trobe University
    La Trobe University
    La Trobe University is a multi-campus university in Victoria, Australia. It was established in 1964 by an Act of Parliament to become the third oldest university in the state of Victoria. The main campus of La Trobe is located in the Melbourne suburb of Bundoora; two other major campuses are...

    , Murdoch University
    Murdoch University
    Murdoch University is a public university based in Perth, Australia. It began operations as the state's second university in 1973, and accepted its first students in 1975...

     and University of Newcastle
    University of Newcastle, Australia
    The University of Newcastle is an Australian public university that was established in 1965. The University's main and largest campus is located in Callaghan, a suburb of Newcastle in New South Wales...

    .
  • The Australian Technology Network
    Australian Technology Network
    The Australian Technology Network is a network of five universities from each mainland state of Australia, with a heritage of working closely with industry...

     universities largely grew from the former Institutes of Technology and include RMIT University
    RMIT University
    RMIT University is an Australian public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. It has two branches, referred to as RMIT University in Australia and RMIT International University in Vietnam....

    , Queensland University of Technology
    Queensland University of Technology
    Queensland University of Technology is an Australian university with an applied emphasis in courses and research. Based in Brisbane, it has 40,000 students, including 6,000 international students, over 4,000 staff members, and an annual budget of more than A$750 million.QUT is marketed as "A...

    , Curtin University, the University of Technology Sydney and the University of South Australia
    University of South Australia
    The University of South Australia is a public university in the Australian state of South Australia. It was formed in 1991 with the merger of the South Australian Institute of Technology and Colleges of Advanced Education. It is the largest university in South Australia, with more than 36,000...

    . They gained university status in the late 1980s to the early 1990s as a result of the reforms of the then Minister for Employment, Education and Training, John Dawkins
    John Dawkins
    John Sydney "Joe" Dawkins, AO , Australian politician, was Treasurer in the Keating Labor government from December 1991 to December 1993...

    .


There are also a number of ungrouped universities, such as the University of Tasmania
University of Tasmania
The University of Tasmania is a medium-sized public Australian university based in Tasmania, Australia. Officially founded on 1 January 1890, it was the fourth university to be established in nineteenth-century Australia...

, University of Canberra
University of Canberra
Over the years the Stone Day program has gradually become larger and larger, taking up a whole week and now Stonefest is one of Australia's most popular music festivals. The first foundation celebrations were held in 1971. In 1973 Stone Day celebrations were held over two days, which was expanded...

, University of Western Sydney
University of Western Sydney
The University of Western Sydney, also known as UWS, is a multi-campus university in the Greater Western region of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...

, Macquarie University
Macquarie University
Macquarie University is an Australian public teaching and research university located in Sydney, with its main campus situated in Macquarie Park. Founded in 1964 by the New South Wales Government, it was the third university to be established in the metropolitan area of Sydney...

 in Sydney, and the Australian Catholic University
Australian Catholic University
Australian Catholic University is a national public university. It has six campuses and offers programs in five faculties throughout Australia.-History:...

, which has campuses in Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Ballarat and Canberra and is open to all irrespective of religious persuasions.

Bangladesh

There are 33 public universities in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

 as of January 2010. The University Grant Commission is the monitoring body for all the public universities in Bangladesh. The Universities does not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission
University Grants Commission (Bangladesh)
The University Grants Commission of Bangladesh was established on 16 December 1972. It was created according to the Presidential Order of the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh.-Purpose:...

, which in turn deals with the government. Recently many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. Some recognized public universities are, University of Dhaka
University of Dhaka
The University of Dhaka is the oldest university in Bangladesh. It is a multi-disciplinary research university and is among the top universities in the region. Established on July 21, 1921, as per the Government of India Act, 1920, it was modelled on the Universities in England and soon gained...

, Jahangirnagar University
Jahangirnagar University
Jahangirnagar University is a public university of Bangladesh. It is the one and only residential university in the country.The university was established in 1970 by the government of Pakistan by the Jahangirnagar Muslim University Ordinance, 1970. During the first two years, it operated as a...

 (Only full residential university of Bangladesh), Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology or BUET as it is commonly known, is a Public Engineering University in Bangladesh. It is the oldest Engineering institution in the region, and is regarded as the best university for technological education in Bangladesh...

 (BUET), Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology (DUET), Bangladesh Textile University
Bangladesh Textile University
Bangladesh University of Textiles is a public university in Dhaka, specializing in textiles.-History:Bangladesh Textile University is the only university in Bangladesh that specializes in textiles and meets a growing need for advanced textile engineering and technology education in Bangladesh and...

, Jagannath University
Jagannath University
Jagannath University is a government-financed public university in Sadarghat, Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh. Jagannath University is in the southern part of Dhaka city near the river Buriganga.-History:...

, Rajshahi University
Rajshahi University
Rajshahi University or University of Rajshahi is a public university located in Rajshahi, a city in north-western Bangladesh...

, Khulna University
Khulna University
Khulna University is one of the public universities in Bangladesh. It is situated at Gollamari, Khulna, Bangladesh, by the river Moyuree, beside the Khulna-Satkhira highway. The academic programs of Khulna University started on 31 August 1991 with only 80 students in four disciplines. Currently,...

, Chittagong University
Chittagong University
The University of Chittagong is a public university situated at the suburban area of Hathazari, Chittagong district, Bangladesh. The university was established in 1966. The campus is at 22 km north to the Chittagong city. It has a shuttle train service from 7:00 AM to 9:30 PM for the...

, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University
Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University
Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University or SAU is the oldest agricultural institution in Bangladesh, situated in Sher-e-Bangla Nagor, Dhaka. It was established on December 11, 1938 as "Bengal Agricultural Institute " by Sher-e-Bangla A.K. Fazlul Huq, the then chief minister of undivided Bengal. It...

 (Oldest agricultural institution in Bangladesh), Bangladesh Agriculture University, Sylhet Agricultural University
Sylhet Agricultural University
-History:Officially the Sylhet Agricultural University has started its formal function on 2 November 2006 following issuance of a notification by the Government as per requirement of the “Sylhet Agricultural University Act 2006” which was passed in the National Parliament on 3 October 2006...

, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University is a government-financed 13th public university of Bangladesh and third agricultural university after Bangladesh Agricultural University and Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University...

, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, commonly known by its initials SUST, is a state supported public research university located in Sylhet, Bangladesh. It is the first specialized Science & technology University of the country. The medium of instructions is English...

, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (RUET), Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET), Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), , Islamic University
Islamic University
Islamic University is a public university in Bangladesh financially aided by the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. It was formed in 1985 in Kushtia under the Islamic University Act of 1980 to promote the Islamic system of education in the country. Islamic University started its academic...

, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University
Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University
Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University is a government financed public university of Bangladesh. It is located at Nama para Battala, 1.5 kilometers from Trishal Upazila, some 22 kilometers from Mymensingh district and 100 kilometers from Dhaka....

, Jessore Science & Technology University, Mawlana Bhashani Science & Technology University, Noakhali Science & Technology University, Pabna University of Science and Technology
Pabna University of Science and Technology
Pabna Science and Technology University is a government-financed public university in Bangladesh. This is the third public university in Rajshahi Division and first public university in Pabna. PSTU was established in 2008 and started four-year undergraduate courses in 2009...

, Patuakhali Science And Technology University, Rangpur University, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Comilla University
Comilla University
Comilla University is a public university located at Kotbari, Comilla, Bangladesh. The university was constructed on of land at Lalmai Bihar, Moynamoti. Comilla University is affiliated by University Grants Commission Bangladesh.Professor Dr...

 etc.

Brazil

In Brazil, there are a few hundred public universities funded by the Federal or State governments, and they include the most renowned universities in the country, such as the University of São Paulo
University of São Paulo
Universidade de São Paulo is a public university in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. It is the largest Brazilian university and one of the country's most prestigious...

 and the State University of Campinas. Professors are public servants, most of them tenured and selected by public contests, where international research publications is a major criterion for hiring. Teaching load is usually modest and leaves time for research. In contrast, most private institutions are for-profit enterprises which hire teachers on a per-hour basis and have little research when compared with the public ones (notable exceptions are certain private but non-profit universities, mostly affiliated with religious organizations, such as the Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie of São Paulo and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro.

There are no tuition or entrance fees in public universities (a right established in the Brazilian Federal Constitution), but since they have thousands of applicants every year, because there are no tuitions or fees, only the best students can pass the entrance examination.In many Universities, there are quotas for students whose secondary (high school) education was made entirely in a public funded school (generally, the quota is 50%), and there are also racial quotas, but usually restricted to students from public high school too. Some Universities, like UFMG
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais is a federal university located in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The students are admitted through yearly exams called vestibular....

, the largest federal university in Brazil, give extra points in their admission tests instead of quotas. In UFMG a public high school student is granted a 10% bonus over his test grade, if he previously agrees to receive this advantage. Public school students that declare theirselfs as blacks or "pardos" (mixed race) have a 15% bonus, also if they previously agree to receive race based bennefits. In recent years public funded higher education has grown a lot. Since 2005 the Brazilian Government has been offering a limited number of tuition grants to enable poor students to attend private universities.

Canada

In Canada, education is a constitutional
Constitution of Canada
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. It outlines Canada's system of government, as well as the civil rights of all Canadian citizens and those in Canada...

 responsibility of the individual provinces. Most universities are established and operated under provincial legislation, but a few of the oldest were founded by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organizations such as cities or universities. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and...

. All major Canadian universities are publicly-funded but maintain institutional autonomy, with the ability to decide on admission, tuition and governance.

The Group of Thirteen
Group of Thirteen (Canadian universities)
The U15 is a group of 15 leading research-intensive universities in Canada. The U15 was formed in 1991 as an informal biannual meeting of university executive heads, although the group has yet to incorporate. The U15's primary activity is in joint research programs. The chairmanship of the U15...

 is an organization of the country's thirteen leading research-intensive universities. Additionally, McGill University
McGill University
Mohammed Fathy is a public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university bears the name of James McGill, a prominent Montreal merchant from Glasgow, Scotland, whose bequest formed the beginning of the university...

 and the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in Upper Canada...

 are members of the Association of American Universities
Association of American Universities
The Association of American Universities is an organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education...

, along with sixty public and private institutions in the United States. Private universities in Canada are relatively new and mostly exist at the undergraduate level.

Chile

In Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

, older, so called "traditional" universities are more prestigious than the ones created after 1980. Even though some of those "traditional" universities are non-profit private entities, they belong to same superior university council called Consejo de Rectores (Council of Chancellors); the Consejo de Rectores runs its own admission system called Prueba de Selección Universitaria or PSU, which is roughly similar to SAT
SAT
The SAT Reasoning Test is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a nonprofit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still...

. Even though state run universities are much cheaper than the private ones, they are not tuition free for the students. It is remarkable that Chile spends only 4% in education, compared to the 7% of GDP recommended by the UN for developed nations. And in Chile the financing of higher education, private and public, is contributed by 75% by self-effort of families. The most prestigious universities in Chile are the state run Universidad de Chile, the private with State contributions Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the private with State contributions Universidad de Concepción
Universidad de Concepción
The University of Concepción , also known for its acronym UdeC, is one of the most prestigious universities in Chile. It is the third oldest university in the country, and it is part of the Council of Rectors. It was the first University founded in the South of Chile, and the first to become a...

, these three universities admit the largest numbers of high scoring students in the PSU admission test and are responsible for the largest portion of research (with the Universidad de Chile at the top). The non-traditional universities are, the most part, for-profit universities, and, with a few exceptions, don't have the same prestige as the above "traditional" ones.

China

In China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public. They are usually run by the provincial governments. Some public universities are national
National university
A national university is generally a university created or run by a government, but which at the same time operates autonomously without direct oversight or control by the state. Some national universities are closely associated with national cultural or political aspirations...

 which are directly administered by the central government
Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China , formerly Ministry of Education, Central People's Government from 1949 to 1954, State Education Commission from 1985 to 1998, is headquartered in Beijing. It is the agency of the State Council which regulates all aspects of the...

. There are few private undergraduate colleges (mostly engineering schools) sponsored by some private enterprises and the majority of these are not entitled to give bachelor degrees. Currently, all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered.

Costa Rica

In Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica is a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east....

 the Universidad de Costa Rica, the Universidad Nacional, the Universidad Estatal a Distancia, Universidad Técnica Nacional and the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, all public universities, are among the nations most prestigious institutions. Nevertheless, the UN-sponsored University for Peace and the INCAE
INCAE
INCAE Business School is a business school located in Latin America. It has 2 locations, the Francisco de Sola campus in Nicaragua and the Walter Kissling Gam campus in Costa Rica...

 Business School (with campuses in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...

 and Costa Rica), are also notable.

Egypt

In Egypt, Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University is an educational institute in Cairo, Egypt. Founded in 970~972 as a madrasa, it is the chief centre of Arabic literature and Islamic learning in the world. It is the oldest degree-granting university in Egypt. In 1961 non-religious subjects were added to its curriculum.It is...

 opened in 975 AD as the second oldest university in the world. It was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University
Cairo University
Cairo University is a public university located in Giza, Egypt.The university was founded on December 21, 1908, as the result of an effort to establish a national center for educational thought...

, Alexandria University
Alexandria University
Alexandria University is a university in Alexandria, Egypt. It was established in 1938 as a satellite of Fuad University , becoming an independent entity in 1942. It was known as Farouk University until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 when its name was changed to the University of Alexandria...

, Ain Shams University
Ain Shams University
Ain Shams University is an institute of higher education located in Cairo, Egypt. Founded in 1950, the university provides education at the undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate levels.-History:...

, Assiut University
Assiut University
Assiut University is a public university in Asyut, Egypt. The University was established in 1957 to encourage research, education and community services in Upper Egypt.Languages of Instruction are Arabic and English...

, Beni-Suef University
Beni-Suef University
Beni-Suef University is an institution of higher education located in Beni-Suef city, Egypt.-History:Although established as an independent University at 2005 but it began on 1976 as a branch of Cairo University. Finally, the presidential decree N.184 dated in 2005 was issued to establish Beni-Suef...

, Zagazig University
Zagazig University
Zagazig University is an Egyptian university in the city of Zagazig, the capital of Ash Sharqiyah governorate.The current president of the university is Professor Dr Maher El-Domiaty.- Faculties :*Faculty of Pharmacy’’’ كلية الصيدلة’’’....

, Suez Canal University
Suez Canal University
The Suez Canal University is an Egyptian university serving the Suez Canal area, having its faculties divided among the Suez Canal governerates . It was established in 1976. It is notable for its non-classic research...

, Benha University, where tuition fees are totally subsidized by the Government.

Continental Europe

  • In Austria, most of the universities are public. The tuition fees are also regulated by the state and are the same for all universities. Except for some studies, notably medicine, everybody who fulfills the condition of a secondary degree is allowed to attend a public university. Private universities have existed since 1999, but they still need state accreditation.

  • In Denmark, almost all universities are public and are held in higher esteem than their private counterparts. It is free to go to University in Denmark.

  • In Finland all universities are public and free of charge.

  • In France, most higher education organizations (universities and grandes écoles) are public and charge low tuition fees. Major exceptions are business schools such as HEC School of Management
    HEC School of Management
    HEC Paris or École des Hautes Études Commerciales de Paris is one of the foremost business schools in France and in Europe. It was created in 1881 by the Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry on the model of French Grandes Ecoles and has progressively become one of the most selective graduate...

    .

  • In Germany, most higher education institutions are public and operated by the states
    States of Germany
    Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

     and all lecturers and professors are public servants. From 1972 through 2006, public universities were free of tuition fees; however, since then some states have adopted low tuition fees.

  • In Greece, all universities are public and enjoy de jure institutional autonomy, although in practice this autonomy is limited by ministerial interventions in issues such as student enrolment, academic recruitment and funding. With the exception of the Hellenic Open University, undergraduate programmes are offered tuition-free for Greek citizens, as are many post-graduate courses. Education is regarded as a constitutional responsibility of the state and the establishment of private universities is prohibited by the constitution. The article of the constitution regarding education was voted by the current parliament as one of those that will be amended by the next elected house of parliament. It is the intention of the current government to allow the establishment of private universities and recognize already existing private colleges as higher education institutions.

  • In Ireland, nearly all universities, institutes of technology
    Regional Technical College
    An Institute of Technology or IT is a type of further education college found in Ireland. There are a total of fourteen colleges that use the title of Institute of Technology, which were created from the late 1960s and were formerly known as Regional Technical Colleges...

    , colleges of education and some other third-level institutions are public, and the state pays the cost of educating its undergraduates. There are a few private institutions of higher learning, for example the National College of Ireland
    National College of Ireland
    National College of Ireland offers full and part-time courses from foundation to degree and postgraduate level. All courses are fully accredited and delivered from the IFSC campus and across a network of regional centres....

     but none of them have university status and they are highly specialised.

  • In Italy, almost all the universities are public, but they enjoy de jure institutional autonomy (limited by the state in practice, like in Greece). The majority of the funds came from the state and, therefore, students pay quite low tuition fees, decided by each university and related mainly to the student's family wealth, to the course and to the student's performances in the exams. A few scholarships, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level, are also available for the best low-income students. Private funding, even for research, ranges from low to non-existent, compared to most other European countries.

  • In Poland, universities are divided into a few categories; private universities which are operated by private citizens, societies or companies, and public universities created by Acts of Parliament. The Government pays all tuition fees, and other costs of students. Most private universities charge tuition fees directly to students, and these institutions are generally held in lower regard than public universities. A small number of private universities do not charge fees, such as John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
    John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
    John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin is located in Lublin, Poland. Presently it has an enrollment of over 19,000 students...

    , founded in 1918 and property of the Roman Catholic Episcopacy of Poland; the Polish Government pays all costs.

  • In Portugal, there are 13 public universities, a university institute and a distance university. Higher education in Portugal
    Higher education in Portugal
    Higher education in Portugal is divided into two main subsystems: university and polytechnic education. It is provided in autonomous public universities, private universities, public or private university institutes, polytechnic institutions and higher education institutions of other types...

     provided by state-run institutions is not free, as a tuition fee must be paid, although being much lower than the tuition fees of the private ones. The highest tuition fee allowed by law in public universities was 901.23 euros/year (2007). The public universities include some of the most selective and demanding higher learning institutions in the country, noted for high competitiveness and nationwide reputation.

  • In Spain there are a total of 74 universities. Most of them (52), including the most prestigious ones, are public, and are funded by the autonomous community (i.e., the federal state) in which they are based. As such, university funding may differ (though not significantly) depending on which Spanish region the university is based on. However, the central government establishes by law homogeneous tuition fees for all public universities, and as such university fees are much lower than those of their private counterparts. The highest tuition fee allowed by law was, as of 2010, of 14.97 euros per academic credit, amounting to roughly 840 euros/year for an average 60 credit full time course); tuition fees in private universities might reach 18,000 euros/year in comparison. Public universities are state-owned but granted a considerable degree of independence when it comes to self-government; they cannot, however, make free use of their assets (i.e., buy and sell assets as a private company would), and are subject to Spanish administrative law as any other public body of the state. In turn, public university administrators, lecturers and professors are granted civil servant status, which serves as a tenure because only under exceptional and very well justified circumstances can a civil servant lose his job under Spanish law. Research funding can be allocated either by the autonomous community or by the central government; in the former case, funding amount and conditions vary greatly from one autonomous community to another.

  • In Sweden most universities are public. Education in Sweden
    Education in Sweden
    Education in Sweden is mandatory for all children from year 1 to year 9 - generally from the year of the child’s seventh birthday to the year of the child’s 16th...

     is normally free, so there are no tuition fees at any university in Sweden

  • In Turkey, many of the most renowned universities are public such as the Boğaziçi University
    Bogaziçi University
    Boğaziçi University is a public university located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey. It has five faculties and two schools offering undergraduate degrees, and six institutes offering graduate degrees...

    , İTÜ
    Itu
    Itu is an old and historic municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population in 2009 was 157,384 and the area is 641.68 km². The elevation is 583 m. This place name comes from the Tupi language, meaning big waterfall. Itu is linked with the highway numbered the SP-75 and are flowed...

    , Karadeniz Technical University
    Karadeniz Technical University
    Karadeniz Technical University , is a public research university in Trabzon, in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Established in 1955, it is the fourth oldest university in Turkey and the only Technical University to comprise a medical school.-History:...

     , Marmara University
    Marmara University
    Marmara University is a public university in Turkey. Situated in Istanbul, Marmara University has succeeded in becoming the second largest university in the whole country...

     and METU
    Metu
    Metu is a market town in southwestern Ethiopia. Located in the Illubabor Zone of the Oromia Region along the Sor River, this town has a latitude and longitude of and an altitude of 1605 meters...

    , while at the same time a few of the notable universities are private such as Bilkent University
    Bilkent University
    İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, commonly referred to as Bilkent University or Bilkent, is the first private, nonprofit university in Turkey with the fundamental aim of creating a center of excellence in higher education and research...

    .

Hong Kong


Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee
University Grants Committee (Hong Kong)
The University Grants Committee of Hong Kong is an advisory committee responsible for advising the Government of Hong Kong on the development and funding needs of higher education institutions within Hong Kong....

. The Academy for Performing Arts
Academy for Performing Arts
The Union County Academy for Performing Arts is a full time four-year public high school located in Scotch Plains, New Jersey, on the Union County Vocational Technical Schools Campus. Its first year was the 2008-09 school year. It is currently a part of the info-sessions being held at the Union...

 also receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong
Open University of Hong Kong
The Open University of Hong Kong is a Hong Kong university providing sub-degree, degree and postgraduate courses leading to awards and qualifications principally through a system of open access and distance education....

 is also a public university, but it is largely self-financed. The Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it also receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status.

Indonesia

Indonesia has thousands of higher educational institutes. Generally, there are three types of higher educational institutes: Universities, High Schools or Institutes and Academies. Universities usually offer science oriented degree such as Doctoral Degree (Doktor/Strata 3), Master Degree (Magister/Strata 2) and Undergraduate (Sarjana/Strata 1). Some universities also offer professional degrees. High Schools or Institutes generally offer professional degree. The educational system in high school or institutes usually based on an expertise such as health, economic, engineering, etc. Academy usually offer full professional degree (nursing, tourism, enterprise management, etc.) The study length for university and high school is normally four years (undergraduate), two years (master degree) and four years (doctoral degree); academy has shorter study length, three years on average.
There are public and private educational institutes in Indonesia. The government (Ministry of National Education) provide public universities, institutes, high schools and academies in each province. The private educational institution usually provided by religious organizations, public organizations, and some big companies.

Some of the leading public universities are:
  • University of Indonesia
    University of Indonesia
    The Universitas Indonesia, is a state, comprehensive world class university located in Depok, West Java and Salemba, Jakarta, Indonesia. Universitas Indonesia is the oldest tertiary-level educational institution in Indonesia...

  • Gadjah Mada University
    Gadjah Mada University
    The Gadjah Mada University is the largest and the oldest national university in Indonesia . founded on December 19, 1949; although the first lecture was given on 13 March 1946. The name was taken from the name of Majapahit's Prime Minister, Gajah Mada.UGM is located in Yogyakarta, Daerah Istimewa...

  • Padjadjaran University
  • Brawijaya University
    Brawijaya University
    Brawijaya University , established in 1963 and located in Malang, is one of the state universities in Indonesia. UB is one of the leading universities in Indonesia with more than 30,000 students in degrees ranging from the diploma programs , Bachelor’s degree program, Master’s degree program,...

  • Hasanuddin University
    Hasanuddin University
    Hasanuddin University is one of the biggest stated-owned universities in Indonesia, based in Makassar, the capital of South Sulawesi province. The university was established in 1956, named after Sultan Hasanuddin, a King of Gowa Kingdom. Before the official launching by the first vice President...

  • Airlangga University
  • Diponegoro University
    Diponegoro University
    Diponegoro University is a state university located in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia and a member of IDGHE. Founded in 1956 as a private university by Semarang University Foundation, it is a pioneer of higher learning institutions in the Indonesia and the first and oldest corporation in...

  • Bandung Institute of Technology
    Bandung Institute of Technology
    The Bandung Institute of Technology or Institute of Technology, Bandung is a state, coeducational research university located in Bandung, Indonesia. Established in 1920, ITB is the oldest technology-oriented university in Indonesia....

  • Sepuluh November Institute of Technology

India

In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges (mostly engineering schools) and the majority of these are affiliated to a public university. Few other private colleges are partially-aided by the state and central governments which results in reduced fees for the students. But all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered.Indira Gandhi National Open University
Indira Gandhi National Open University
The Indira Gandhi National Open University , known as IGNOU is a national university with its headquarters in New Delhi, Delhi, India. Named after former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, the university was established in 1985 with a budget of 2000 crore, when the Parliament of India passed...

 "IGNOU" is the public university here, which is the largest university in the world now. This university is "National University" as well as "International University".

Israel

There are eight official universities in Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. In addition, there are a few dozen colleges and other institutes of higher learning, as well as about a dozen foreign university extensions. All are academically supervised by the Council for Higher Education in Israel
Council for Higher Education in Israel
The Council for Higher Education in Israel is a supervisory body for universities and colleges in Israel. It is the only organization with the authority to give educational accreditation...

 (CHEI). The main difference between a university and a college in Israel is that only a university can issue doctorate
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

 degrees. Theoretically, a college can apply to the CHEI to upgrade its status to university.

Japan

In Japan, public universities refer to schools that are not national universities
National university
A national university is generally a university created or run by a government, but which at the same time operates autonomously without direct oversight or control by the state. Some national universities are closely associated with national cultural or political aspirations...

 but are run by local governments, either prefectural or municipal. According to the Ministry of Education, public universities have "provided an opportunity for higher education in a region and served the central role of intellectual and cultural base for the local community in the region", and are "expected to contribute to social, economical and cultural development in the region"; this contrasts to research-oriented aspects of national universities.

As of April 2006, there were 76 public universities, compared to 87 national and 571 private universities, and 127,872 students attended the schools. The number of the public universities has increased sharply in recent years; in 1980 there were only 34 public universities and in 1993 there were 46. Since July 2003 when the Local Independent Administrative Institutions Law was put into effect, public universities have been allowed to be incorporated. The average tuition in public universities for 2007 fiscal year was 536,238 yen, the average entrance fee 399,351 yen and the average application fee 17,095 yen.

Kenya

In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of B+ or above. Students who meet the criteria for government sponsorship receive a loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back after completing higher education.

Mexico


In Mexico, the UNAM
Unam
UNAM or UNaM may refer to:* National University of Misiones, a National University in Posadas, Argentina*National Autonomous University of Mexico , the large public autonomous university based in Mexico City...

 (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), sometimes simply known as the "National University of Mexico", was founded in 1910. It is the largest university in the country and one of the largest in the world with over 250,000 students including its system of high schools. By percentage, it contributes the most to the country's academic research and cultural development although there are other significant public institutions such as the Instituto Politécnico Nacional
National Polytechnic Institute
The National Polytechnic Institute colloquially known as the Polytechnic is one of the largest public universities in Mexico with 153.027 students at the high school, undergraduate and postgraduate levels...

, and the federal state-run universities.

Nepal

Tribhuvan University
Tribhuvan University
Tribhuvan University [त्रिभुवन विश्वविध्यालय] is a public university located in Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Established in 1959, TU is the oldest of the five universities in Nepal...

 is the first public university of Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

. The university is highly reputed both in Nepal as well as abroad, and runs various programs in a wide number of academic disciplines. It operates through six different schools, and also provides affiliation to various colleges across the country. Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University is the third oldest university in Nepal located in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok District, about 35Km east of Kathmandu. KU was established in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership"...

 is also the public university of Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 founded by government act in 1991. Due to high fee and single person's administration, many people think that this university is a private university however it is not (see kathmandu University
Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University is the third oldest university in Nepal located in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok District, about 35Km east of Kathmandu. KU was established in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership"...

 type). The university offers new and demanding subjects especially in the field of science and technology through different schools.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, all eight universities are public. Public funding is supported by research grants. The oldest (University of Otago
University of Otago
The University of Otago in Dunedin is New Zealand's oldest university with over 22,000 students enrolled during 2010.The university has New Zealand's highest average research quality and in New Zealand is second only to the University of Auckland in the number of A rated academic researchers it...

) was established in 1869 by Provincial Ordinance
Provinces of New Zealand
The Provinces of New Zealand existed from 1841 until 1876 as a form of sub-national government. They were replaced by counties, which were themselves replaced by districts.Following abolition, the provinces became known as provincial districts...

. From 1870 to 1961, there was effectively a single university structure - the University of New Zealand
University of New Zealand
The University of New Zealand was the New Zealand university from 1870 to 1961. It was the sole New Zealand university, having a federal structure embracing several constituent colleges at various locations around New Zealand...

 - with constituent colleges located in Auckland
Auckland
The Auckland metropolitan area , in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country with residents, percent of the country's population. Auckland also has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world...

, Wellington
Wellington
Wellington is the capital city and third most populous urban area of New Zealand, although it is likely to have surpassed Christchurch due to the exodus following the Canterbury Earthquake. It is at the southwestern tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range...

, Christchurch
Christchurch
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the country's second-largest urban area after Auckland. It lies one third of the way down the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula which itself, since 2006, lies within the formal limits of...

 and Dunedin
Dunedin
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago Region. It is considered to be one of the four main urban centres of New Zealand for historic, cultural, and geographic reasons. Dunedin was the largest city by territorial land area until...

. In 1961, the constituent colleges were dissolved into four independent universities by the New Zealand Parliament to become the University of Auckland
University of Auckland
The University of Auckland is a university located in Auckland, New Zealand. It is the largest university in the country and the highest ranked in the 2011 QS World University Rankings, having been ranked worldwide...

, Victoria University of Wellington
Victoria University of Wellington
Victoria University of Wellington was established in 1897 by Act of Parliament, and was a former constituent college of the University of New Zealand. It is particularly well known for its programmes in law, the humanities, and some scientific disciplines, but offers a broad range of other courses...

, University of Canterbury
University of Canterbury
The University of Canterbury , New Zealand's second-oldest university, operates its main campus in the suburb of Ilam in the city of Christchurch, New Zealand...

 and University of Otago
University of Otago
The University of Otago in Dunedin is New Zealand's oldest university with over 22,000 students enrolled during 2010.The university has New Zealand's highest average research quality and in New Zealand is second only to the University of Auckland in the number of A rated academic researchers it...

. This change also established a new university in Hamilton, the University of Waikato
University of Waikato
The University of Waikato is located in Hamilton and Tauranga, New Zealand, and was established in 1964. It has strengths across a broad range of subject areas, particularly its degrees in Computer Science and in Management...

. Two associated agricultural colleges - Massey
Massey University
Massey University is one of New Zealand's largest universities with approximately 36,000 students, 20,000 of whom are extramural students.The University has campuses in Palmerston North , Wellington and Auckland . Massey offers most of its degrees extramurally within New Zealand and internationally...

 and Lincoln
Lincoln University, New Zealand
Lincoln University is a New Zealand university that was formed in 1990 when Lincoln College, Canterbury was made independent of the University of Canterbury...

 - subsequently become universities in 1963 and 1990 respectively. An eighth university (Auckland University of Technology
Auckland University of Technology
The Auckland University of Technology is a university in New Zealand. It was formed on 1 January 2000 when the Auckland Institute of Technology was granted university status. Its primary campus is on Wellesley Street in Auckland's Central business district...

) was formed in 2000 by an Order in Council under the Education Act 1989.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, universities receive guidance and are partially regulated by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) (formerly the University Grant Commission). There are around 67 public and 57 private universities in Pakistan. The University of Punjab is the biggest public university followed by the University of Karachi
University of Karachi
The University of Karachi is a public university located in Karachi, Pakistan. It serves an on-campus student population of more than 24,000. According to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, it is ranked among the top three universities of the country...

.

Peru

In Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

, the admission test required to enter national (public) universities requires higher scores. The public opinion sees this from the four century old National University of San Marcos
National University of San Marcos
The National University of San Marcos is the most important and respected higher-education institution in Peru. Its main campus, the University City, is located in Lima...

 (the oldest university of the Americas, founded in May 1551), that it has seen as the most respected public education institution in the country. Also many other public universities follow the same rigorous pattern used at Saint Mark's university, like National Agrarian University
National Agrarian University
The National Agrarian University, also formally called National Agrarian University - La Molina , is a public university in Lima, Peru. It is the country's best university in the fields of agricultural and forestry sciences. The university is organized into eight faculties which contain twelve...

, the National University of Engineering
National University of Engineering
The National University of Engineering is a public engineering and science university located in the Rímac District of Lima, Peru.-History:...

 and Federico Villarreal University.

Puerto Rico

  • Center for Advanced Studies on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean
    Center for Advanced Studies on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean
    The Center for Advanced Studies on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean is a private research institute in Old San Juan, San Juan, Puerto Rico that offers graduate studies in arts and philosophy. It was incorporated on February 28, 1968 by Pablo Casals, Luis Muñoz Marín, Roberto Busó Carrasquillo, and...

  • College University of San Juan
  • College University of Criminal Justice of Puerto Rico
  • Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico
    Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico
    The Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico is a public institution of higher learning located in the historic Miramar a town in San Juan, Puerto Rico...

  • School of Plastic Arts of Puerto Rico
    School of Plastic Arts of Puerto Rico
    The School of Plastic Arts of Puerto Rico is a state university and a school of art in Old San Juan, San Juan, Puerto Rico. The school was originally founded in 1966 as part of the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture...

     or Puerto Rico's School of Fine Arts
    Puerto Rico's School of Fine Arts
    Puerto Rico's School of Fine Arts is a college-level institution of higher learning, located in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico, which offers studies in graphic arts and other humane studies....

  • Technological Institute of Puerto Rico
Manatí Campus
San Juan Campus
  • University of Puerto Rico
    University of Puerto Rico
    The University of Puerto Rico is the state university system of Puerto Rico. The system consists of 11 campuses and has approximately 64,511 students and 5,300 faculty members...

Aguadilla Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Aguadilla
The University of Puerto Rico at Aguadilla is a state university located in the city of Aguadilla, Puerto Rico.-General information:...

Arecibo Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo
The University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo is a state university located in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico and is part of the University of Puerto Rico system...

Bayamón Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Bayamón
The University of Puerto Rico at Bayamón is a state university located in the municipality of Bayamón, Puerto Rico. UPR-Bayamón is better known as CUTB from its previous name of Colegio Universitario Tecnológico de Bayamón in Spanish...

Carolina Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Carolina
The University of Puerto Rico at Carolina is a state university located in the municipality of Carolina, Puerto Rico...

Cayey Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Cayey
The University of Puerto Rico at Cayey is a state university located in the municipality of Cayey, Puerto Rico.-General information:The University of Puerto Rico at Cayey is among the fifty U.S...

Humacao Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Humacao
The University of Puerto Rico at Humacao is a state university located in the municipality of Humacao, Puerto Rico...

Mayagüez Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez
The University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez or Recinto Universitario de Mayagüez in Spanish , is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant state university located in the city of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico...

Medical Sciences Campus
University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus
The University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus —or Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Ciencias Médicas in Spanish— is a state university located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. It is one of the eleven campuses of the University of Puerto Rico...

 at San Juan
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan , officially Municipio de la Ciudad Capital San Juan Bautista , is the capital and most populous municipality in Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of...

Ponce Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Ponce
The University of Puerto Rico at Ponce is a state university located in the municipality of Ponce, Puerto Rico. UPRP is the only campus of the University of Puerto Rico System in the southern region of the island...

Río Piedras Campus
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus
The University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras , also referred to as UPR-RP, is a public research university located on a campus in Río Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico...

 at San Juan
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan , officially Municipio de la Ciudad Capital San Juan Bautista , is the capital and most populous municipality in Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of...

Utuado Campus
University of Puerto Rico at Utuado
The University of Puerto Rico at Utuado is a state university located in the municipality of Utuado, Puerto Rico. UPRU is the youngest campus of the University of Puerto Rico System...


Philippines

Universities and colleges in the Philippines are controlled and managed by the Commission on Higher Education
Commission on Higher Education (Philippines)
The Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines, , abbreviated as CHED. The CHED is attached to the Office of the President for administrative purposes...

. There are more than 500 government-run higher education institutions, of which 436 are state colleges and universities, including satellite campuses, 31 local colleges and universities, and a handful of community colleges.

In 2008, state colleges and universities have a PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 26.2-billion budget, out of which PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

 19.4 billion will be funded by direct subsidies.

Russia

In Russia, about 7.5 million students study in thousands of universities.

South Africa

South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university (providing theoretical and vocational training). Prominent public South African universities include the University of Cape Town
University of Cape Town
The University of Cape Town is a public research university located in Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. UCT was founded in 1829 as the South African College, and is the oldest university in South Africa and the second oldest extant university in Africa.-History:The roots of...

, University of KwaZulu-Natal
University of KwaZulu-Natal
The University of KwaZulu-Natal or UKZN is a university with five campuses all located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. It was formed on 1 January 2004 after the merger between the University of Natal and the University of Durban-Westville.-History:-University of...

, University of Pretoria
University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria is a multi campus public research university located in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa...

, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University
Rhodes University
Rhodes University is a public research university located in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, established in 1904. It is the province’s oldest university, and is one of the four universities in the province...

 and the University of South Africa
University of South Africa
The University of South Africa is a distance education university, with headquarters in Pretoria, South Africa. With approximately 300 000 enrolled students, it qualifies as one of the world's mega universities.-History:...

.
Monash University
Monash University
Monash University is a public university based in Melbourne, Victoria. It was founded in 1958 and is the second oldest university in the state. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight and the ASAIHL....

 of Australia established a campus in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

 in 2001.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

 all universities are public universities with most funded by government via the University Grants Commission
University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka)
The University Grants Commission is the body responsible for funding most of the State Universities in Sri Lanka, and operates within the frame work of the Universities Act No. 16 of 1978, itself established in 1979. A public organization, established under the Parliament Act No 16 of 1978...

 which handles undergraduate placements and staff appointments. Therefore these are not independent institutions.

Taiwan

Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 has more than 150 universities (2/3 were established after the 1980s), while only 1/3 of them are public universities. Tuition fees at public universities are less than half those of private universities because the Taiwan government puts more funding to the public universities. Additionally, public universities are more accredited and more prestigious in Taiwan and the majority of top-ranking schools are public. Therefore, most students choose public universities for their tertiary education.

Thailand

Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 The demands of officials specialized in various fields by the government in the late 19th century Siam was an aftermath of King Rama V's bureaucratic reforms, which aimed to transform the feudal Thai society into a modernized state. In 1899, the king founded the School for Training of Civil Officials (Thai: โรงเรียนสำหรับฝึกหัดวิชาข้าราชการฝ่ายพลเรือน) near the northern gate of the Royal Palace. Those who graduated from the school would became royal pages. Being royal pages, he must learn how to administrate organization by working closely with the king, which is a traditional way of entrance to Siamese bureaucracy. After being royal pages, he would then served in the Mahattai Ministry or other government ministries.
Currently, Thailand has 24 public universities Does not include private universities.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom all universities, with the exception of the University of Buckingham
University of Buckingham
The University of Buckingham is an independent, non-sectarian, research and teaching university located in Buckingham, Buckinghamshire, England, on the banks of the River Great Ouse. It was originally founded as Buckingham University College in the 1970s and received its Royal Charter from the...

 and BPP University College, are currently funded mainly by government teaching and research grants. At all English universities, excluding the University of Buckingham and BPP University College, the UK government also regulates tuition fees, student funding and student loans. The UK government commissions and regulates a research assessment and teaching review. However, unlike in some Continental European countries, the UK government does not own universities' assets, and university staff are not civil servants. Government regulation arises as a condition of accepting funding from bodies such as HEFCE
Higher Education Funding Council for England
The Higher Education Funding Council for England is a non-departmental public body of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills in the United Kingdom, which has been responsible for the distribution of funding to Universities and Colleges of Higher and Further Education in England since...

 and any university can choose to leave the HEFCE regulated system at any time.

With the release of the 2010 Browne report and the Government's Comprehensive Spending Review, this model of funding higher education has been changed in England. From 2012 much more of the responsibility for funding undergraduate university teaching will be placed on students rather than the UK government. The government will continue to fund research, give limited funding to master's degrees and will continue to contribute (albeit in a reduced manner) to some undergraduate degrees, particularly those in the natural sciences.. Different arrangements will continue to apply elsewhere in the United Kingdom.

United States

In the United States, most public universities are state universities
State university system
A state university system in the United States is a group of public universities supported by an individual state, or a similar entity such as the District of Columbia. These systems constitute the majority of public-funded universities in the country...

 founded and operated by state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 government entities; the oldest being the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States...

 and The University of Georgia
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia is a public research university located in Athens, Georgia, United States. Founded in 1785, it is the oldest and largest of the state's institutions of higher learning and is one of multiple schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States...

, although the overall oldest school now designated as public is The College of William & Mary (founded in 1693 and first considered private). Every U.S. state has at least one public university to its name, and the largest states have more than thirty. This is partly as a result of the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Acts
Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act
The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges, including the Morrill Act of 1862 and the Morrill Act of 1890 -Passage of original bill:...

, which gave each eligible state 30,000 acres (120 km²) of federal land to sell to finance public institutions offering courses of study in practical fields in addition to the liberal arts. One example of a state university that is a top tier school in the world that is state funded is the University of California system. Their top campuses include San Diego, Los Angeles, and Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley , is a teaching and research university established in 1868 and located in Berkeley, California, USA...

. Many U.S. public universities began as teacher training institutions and eventually were expanded into comprehensive universities. Examples include Missouri State University
Missouri State University
Missouri State University is a public university located in Springfield, Missouri, United States and founded in 1905. It is the state's second largest university, with an official enrollment of 20,802 in fall 2011...

, formerly Southwest Missouri State Teachers College and the University of North Alabama
University of North Alabama
The University of North Alabama is a coeducational university located in Florence, Alabama, and the state's oldest four-year public university....

, formerly Florence State Teachers College.

States generally charge higher tuition to out-of-state students, a practice which the United States Supreme Court
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

 has deemed constitutional because the state is acting as a market participant
Market participant
The term market participant is used in United States constitutional law to describe a U.S. State which is acting as a producer or supplier of a marketable good or service. When a state is acting in such a role, it may permissibly discriminate against non-residents. This principle was established by...

 providing a service, rather than protecting a fundamental right. The higher fees are based on the theory that students from the state, or much more often their parents, have contributed to subsidizing the university by paying state taxes, while of out-of-state students and their parents have not. It has never been determined whether the U.S. Constitution
United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

 would allow the federal government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 to establish a federal university system; the only federally chartered universities that currently exist are those under the auspices of the U.S. military, such as West Point
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy at West Point is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located at West Point, New York. The academy sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, north of New York City...

.

Historically, many of the prestigious universities in the United States have been private. Some public universities are also highly prestigious and increasingly selective though; Richard Moll designated such prestigious public universities Public Ivies. At schools like University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

, UCLA, University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley , is a teaching and research university established in 1868 and located in Berkeley, California, USA...

, UC San Diego, University of Virginia
University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university located in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, founded by Thomas Jefferson...

, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States...

, a vast majority of the departments are consistently highly ranked. State support of public universities has been declining, forcing many public universities to seek private support. Some professional graduate programs in law, business, and medicine rely almost solely on private funding.

There are also a number of public liberal arts colleges
Liberal arts colleges in the United States
Liberal arts colleges in the United States are certain undergraduate institutions of higher education in the United States. The Encyclopædia Britannica Concise offers a definition of the liberal arts as a "college or university curriculum aimed at imparting general knowledge and developing general...

, including the members of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges
Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges
The Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges or COPLAC is a consortium of 26 public colleges and universities in 24 states and one Canadian province...

.

See also

  • Private university
    Private university
    Private universities are universities not operated by governments, although many receive public subsidies, especially in the form of tax breaks and public student loans and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. Private universities are...

  • State university system
    State university system
    A state university system in the United States is a group of public universities supported by an individual state, or a similar entity such as the District of Columbia. These systems constitute the majority of public-funded universities in the country...

  • National university
    National university
    A national university is generally a university created or run by a government, but which at the same time operates autonomously without direct oversight or control by the state. Some national universities are closely associated with national cultural or political aspirations...

  • Prefectural university
    Prefectural university
    A prefectural university is a university run by a prefectural government.-See also:* National university* Public university...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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