Television studio
Overview
 
A television studio is an installation in which a video production
Video production
Video production is videography, the process of capturing moving images on electronic media even streaming media. The term includes methods of production and post-production...

s take place, either for the recording of live television
Live television
Live television refers to a television production broadcast in real-time, as events happen, in the present. From the early days of television until about 1958, live television was used heavily, except for filmed shows such as I Love Lucy and Gunsmoke. Video tape did not exist until 1957...

 to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage
Footage
In filmmaking and video production, footage is the raw, unedited material as it had been originally filmed by movie camera or recorded by a video camera which usually must be edited to create a motion picture, video clip, television show or similar completed work...

 for post-production
Post-production
Post-production is part of filmmaking and the video production process. It occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, radio programs, advertising, audio recordings, photography, and digital art...

. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studio
Movie studio
A movie studio is a term used to describe a major entertainment company or production company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to film movies...

s, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
A television studio is an installation in which a video production
Video production
Video production is videography, the process of capturing moving images on electronic media even streaming media. The term includes methods of production and post-production...

s take place, either for the recording of live television
Live television
Live television refers to a television production broadcast in real-time, as events happen, in the present. From the early days of television until about 1958, live television was used heavily, except for filmed shows such as I Love Lucy and Gunsmoke. Video tape did not exist until 1957...

 to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage
Footage
In filmmaking and video production, footage is the raw, unedited material as it had been originally filmed by movie camera or recorded by a video camera which usually must be edited to create a motion picture, video clip, television show or similar completed work...

 for post-production
Post-production
Post-production is part of filmmaking and the video production process. It occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, radio programs, advertising, audio recordings, photography, and digital art...

. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studio
Movie studio
A movie studio is a term used to describe a major entertainment company or production company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to film movies...

s, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons. These rooms are connected via intercom
Intercom
An intercom , talkback or doorphone is a stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public telephone network. Intercoms are generally mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles...

, and personnel will be divided among these workplaces.

Studio floor


The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded take place. A studio floor has the following characteristics and installations:
  • decoration and/or set
    Set construction
    Set construction is the process by which a set designer works in collaboration with the director of a production to create the set for a theatrical, film or television production...

    s
  • professional video camera
    Professional video camera
    A professional video camera is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images...

     (sometimes one, usually several) on pedestals
  • microphone
    Microphone
    A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. In 1877, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter...

    s
  • stage lighting
    Stage lighting
    Modern stage lighting is a flexible tool in the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. Several different types of stage lighting instruments are used in the pursuit of the various principles or goals of lighting. Stage lighting has grown considerably in recent years...

     rigs and the associated controlling equipment.
  • several video monitor
    Video monitor
    A video monitor also called a broadcast monitor, broadcast reference monitor or just reference monitor, is a display device similar to a television set, used to monitor the output of a video-generating device, such as playout from a video server, IRD, video camera, VCR, or DVD player. It may or...

    s for visual feedback from the production control room (PCR)
  • a small public address
    Public address
    A public address system is an electronic amplification system with a mixer, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to reinforce a sound source, e.g., a person giving a speech, a DJ playing prerecorded music, and distributing the sound throughout a venue or building.Simple PA systems are often used in...

     system for communication
  • a glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is usually desired, but not always possible


While a production is in progress, people composing a television crew
Television crew
Television crew positions are derived from those of film crew, but with several differences.-Pre-production:-Casting Director:-Costume designer:-Director:* Associate Director -Location Manager:-Make-up artist:...

 work the studio floor.
  • the on-screen "talent" themselves, and any guests - the subjects of the television show.
  • a floor manager
    Floor manager
    The Floor Manager is the Director's representative on the studio floor, and is responsible for giving instruction and direction to crew, cast and guests. It is closest to the role of an Assistant Director, as the job frequently entails barking orders to keep a production moving to schedule. The...

    , who has overall charge of the studio area stage management
    Stage management
    Stage management is the practice of organizing and coordinating a theatrical production. It encompasses a variety of activities, including organizing the production and coordinating communications between various personnel...

    , and who relays timing and other information from the television director
    Television director
    A television director directs the activities involved in making a television program and is part of a television crew.-Duties:The duties of a television director vary depending on whether the production is live or recorded to video tape or video server .In both types of productions, the...

    .
  • one or more camera operator
    Camera operator
    A camera operator or cameraman is a professional operator of a film or video camera. In filmmaking, the leading cameraman is usually called a cinematographer, while a cameraman in a video production may be known as a television camera operator, video camera operator, or videographer, depending on...

    s who operate the professional video camera
    Professional video camera
    A professional video camera is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images...

    s, though in some instances these can also be operated from the PCR using remotely controlled robotic pan tilt zoom camera (PTZ) heads.
  • possibly a teleprompter
    Teleprompter
    An autocue is a display device that prompts the person speaking with an electronic visual text of a speech or script. Using a teleprompter is similar to the practice of using cue cards...

     operator
    Operator (profession)
    An operator is a professional designation used in various industries, including broadcasting , computing, customer service, physics, and construction. Operators are day-to-day end users of systems, that may or may not be mission-critical, but are typically managed and maintained by technicians or...

    , especially if this is a live television
    Live television
    Live television refers to a television production broadcast in real-time, as events happen, in the present. From the early days of television until about 1958, live television was used heavily, except for filmed shows such as I Love Lucy and Gunsmoke. Video tape did not exist until 1957...

     news broadcast

Production-control room

The production control room (PCR) is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place. The production control room is occasioanlly also called a studio control room (SCR) or a "gallery" - the latter name comes from the original placement of the director on an ornately carved bridge spanning the BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

's first studio at Alexandra Palace
Alexandra Palace
Alexandra Palace is a building in North London, England. It stands in Alexandra Park, in an area between Hornsey, Muswell Hill and Wood Green...

 which was once referred to as like a minstrels gallery. Master control
Master control
Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks. It is distinct from a production control room in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated...

 is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television station
Television station
A television station is a business, organisation or other such as an amateur television operator that transmits content over terrestrial television. A television transmission can be by analog television signals or, more recently, by digital television. Broadcast television systems standards are...

s and television network
Television network
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay TV providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small...

s. Master control is distinct from a PCR in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated. A transmission control room
Transmission control room
Transmission control room or 'transmission suite', or 'Tx room', or "presentation" is a room at broadcast facilities and television stations around the world. Compared to a Master Control Room, it's usually smaller in size and is a scaled down version of centralcasting...

 (TCR) is usually smaller in size and is a scaled down version of centralcasting
Centralcasting
In terrestrial radio and television broadcasting, centralcasting refers to the use of systems automation by which customised signals for broadcast by multiple individual stations may be created at one central facility.- :...

.

Facilities in a PCR include:
  • A video monitor
    Video monitor
    A video monitor also called a broadcast monitor, broadcast reference monitor or just reference monitor, is a display device similar to a television set, used to monitor the output of a video-generating device, such as playout from a video server, IRD, video camera, VCR, or DVD player. It may or...

     wall, with monitors for program, preview, VTR
    Video tape recorder
    A video tape recorder is a tape recorder that can record video material, usually on a magnetic tape. VTRs originated as individual tape reels, serving as a replacement for motion picture film stock and making recording for television applications cheaper and quicker. An improved form included the...

    s, cameras, graphics and other video sources. In some facilities, the monitor wall is a series of racks containing physical television and computer monitors; in others, the monitor wall has been replaced with a virtual monitor wall (sometimes called a "glass cockpit
    Glass cockpit
    A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, as opposed to the traditional style of analog dials and gauges...

    "), one or more large video screens, each capable of displaying multiple sources in a simulation of a monitor wall.
  • A vision mixer
    Vision mixer
    A vision mixer is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases Compositing video sources together to create special effects...

    , a large control panel used to select the multiple-camera setup
    Multiple-camera setup
    The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, or multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and simultaneously record or broadcast a scene...

     and other various sources to be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, in any video monitor
    Video monitor
    A video monitor also called a broadcast monitor, broadcast reference monitor or just reference monitor, is a display device similar to a television set, used to monitor the output of a video-generating device, such as playout from a video server, IRD, video camera, VCR, or DVD player. It may or...

    s on the set. The term 'vision mixer' is primarily used in Europe, while the term 'video switcher' is usually used in North America.
  • An professional audio
    Professional audio
    Professional audio, also 'pro audio', refers to both an activity and a type of audio equipment. Typically it encompasses the production or reproduction of sound for an audience, by individuals who do such work as an occupation like live event support, using sound reinforcement systems designed for...

     mixing console
    Mixing console
    In professional audio, a mixing console, or audio mixer, also called a sound board, mixing desk, or mixer is an electronic device for combining , routing, and changing the level, timbre and/or dynamics of audio signals. A mixer can mix analog or digital signals, depending on the type of mixer...

     and other audio equipment such as effects devices.
  • A character generator
    Character generator
    A character generator, often abbreviated as CG, is a device or software that produces static or animated text for keying into a video stream. Modern character generators are computer-based, and can generate graphics as well as text...

     (CG), which creates the majority of the names and full digital on-screen graphic
    Digital on-screen graphic
    A digital on-screen graphic is a watermark-like station logo that many television broadcasters overlay over a portion of the screen-area of their programs to identify the channel...

    s that are inserted into the program lower third portion of the television screen
  • Digital video effects
    Digital Video Effects
    Digital Video Effects, commonly called DVEs, are visual effects that provide comprehensive video image manipulation, in the same form as optical printer effects in film...

    , or DVE, for manipulation of video sources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integrated into the vision mixer; older models without built-in DVE's can often control external DVE devices, or an external DVE can be manually run by an operator.
  • A still store, or still frame, device for storage of graphics or other images. While the name suggests that the device is only capable of storing still images, newer still stores can store moving video clip
    Video clip
    Video clips are short clips of video, usually part of a longer recording. The term is also more loosely used to mean any short video less than the length of a traditional television program.- On the Internet :...

    s and motion graphics
    Motion graphics
    Motion graphics are graphics that use video footage and/or animation technology to create the illusion of motion or rotation, graphics are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. Motion graphics are usually displayed via electronic media technology, but may be displayed via...

    .
  • The technical director
    Technical director
    The Technical Director or Technical Manager is usually a senior technical person within a software company, film studio, theatrical company or television studio...

    's station, with waveform monitor
    Waveform monitor
    A waveform monitor is a special type of oscilloscope used in television production applications. It is typically used to measure and display the level, or voltage, of a video signal with respect to time....

    s, vectorscope
    Vectorscope
    A vectorscope is a special type of oscilloscope used in both audio and video applications. Whereas an oscilloscope or waveform monitor normally displays a plot of signal vs. time, a vectorscope displays an X-Y plot of two signals, which can reveal details about the relationship between these two...

    s and the camera control unit
    Camera control unit
    - Description :The Camera Control Unit is typically part of a live television broadcast "chain". It is responsible for powering the professional video camera, handling signals sent over the camera cable to and from the camera, and can be used control various camera parameters such as iris...

    s (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs.
  • In some facilities, VTRs may also be located in the PCR, but are also often found in the central apparatus room
    Central Apparatus Room
    In broadcast facilities, a central apparatus room , central machine room, or central equipment room , or central technical area , or rack room is where shared equipment common to all technical areas is located. Some broadcast facilities have several of these rooms...

  • Intercom
    Intercom
    An intercom , talkback or doorphone is a stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public telephone network. Intercoms are generally mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles...

     and IFB
    Interruptible feedback
    IFB or Interrupted Feedback systems are used in filmmaking and video production for television crew communication, audio monitoring and cueing...

     equipment for communication with talent and television crew
    Television crew
    Television crew positions are derived from those of film crew, but with several differences.-Pre-production:-Casting Director:-Costume designer:-Director:* Associate Director -Location Manager:-Make-up artist:...

  • A signal generator
    Signal generator
    Signal generators, also known variously as function generators, RF and microwave signal generators, pitch generators, arbitrary waveform generators, digital pattern generators or frequency generators are electronic devices that generate repeating or non-repeating electronic signals...

     to genlock
    Genlock
    Genlock is a common technique where the video output of one source, or a specific reference signal from a signal generator, is used to synchronize other television picture sources together. The aim in video and digital audio applications is to ensure the coincidence of signals in time at a...

     all of the video equipment to a common reference that requires colorburst
    Colorburst
    Colorburst is a analog video, composite video signal generated by a video-signal generator used to keep the chrominance subcarrier synchronized in a color television signal...




Master-control room

The Master control
Master control
Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks. It is distinct from a production control room in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated...

 (MCR) room houses equipment that is too noisy or runs too hot for the Production control room (PCR). It also makes sure that coax cable and other wire lengths and installation requirements keep within manageable lengths, since most high-quality wiring runs only between devices in this room. This can include the actual circuitry and connections between

  • character generator
    Character generator
    A character generator, often abbreviated as CG, is a device or software that produces static or animated text for keying into a video stream. Modern character generators are computer-based, and can generate graphics as well as text...

     (CG)
  • camera control unit
    Camera control unit
    - Description :The Camera Control Unit is typically part of a live television broadcast "chain". It is responsible for powering the professional video camera, handling signals sent over the camera cable to and from the camera, and can be used control various camera parameters such as iris...

    s (CCU)
  • digital video effects
    Digital Video Effects
    Digital Video Effects, commonly called DVEs, are visual effects that provide comprehensive video image manipulation, in the same form as optical printer effects in film...

     (DVE)
  • video server
    Video server
    A video server is a computer based device dedicated to delivering video.Unlike personal computers, being multi-application devices, a video server is designed for one purpose; provisioning video, often for broadcasters. A professional grade video server records, stores, and playout of multiple...

    s

  • vision mixer
    Vision mixer
    A vision mixer is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases Compositing video sources together to create special effects...

     (Video Switcher)
  • VTRs
  • patch panel
    Patch panel
    A patch panel or patch bay is a panel, typically rackmounted, that houses cable connections. One typically shorter patch cable will plug into the front side, whereas the back holds the connection of a much longer and more permanent cable...

    s

The Master control room in a US television station
Television station
A television station is a business, organisation or other such as an amateur television operator that transmits content over terrestrial television. A television transmission can be by analog television signals or, more recently, by digital television. Broadcast television systems standards are...

  US, is the place where the on-air signal is controlled. It may include controls to playout
Playout
In broadcasting, playout is a term for the transmission of radio or TV channels from the broadcaster into broadcast networks that delivers the content to the audience...

 television program
Television program
A television program , also called television show, is a segment of content which is intended to be broadcast on television. It may be a one-time production or part of a periodically recurring series...

s and television commercials, switch local or television network
Television network
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay TV providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small...

 feeds, record satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

 feeds and monitor the transmitter(s), or these items may be in an adjacent equipment rack room. The term "studio" usually refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the PCR to MCR and then out to the transmitter.

Other facilities

A television studio usually has other rooms with no technical requirements beyond broadcast reference monitors and studio monitor
Studio monitor
Studio monitors, also called reference monitors, are loudspeakers specifically designed for audio production applications such as recording studios, filmmaking, television studios and radio studios where accurate audio reproduction is crucial....

s for audio. Among them are:
  • one or more make-up and changing rooms
  • a reception area for crew, talent, and visitors, commonly called the green room
    Green room
    In British English and American English show business lexicon, the green room is that space in a theatre, a studio, or a similar venue, which accommodates performers or speakers not yet required on stage...

    .
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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