Surfboard
Overview
 
A surfboard is an elongated platform used in the sport of surfing
Surfing
Surfing' is a surface water sport in which the surfer rides a surfboard on the crest and face of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore...

. Surfboards are relatively light, but are strong enough to support an individual standing on them while riding a breaking wave
Ocean surface wave
In fluid dynamics, wind waves or, more precisely, wind-generated waves are surface waves that occur on the free surface of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and canals or even on small puddles and ponds. They usually result from the wind blowing over a vast enough stretch of fluid surface. Waves in the...

. They were invented in Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, where they were known as papa he‘e nalu in the Hawaiian language
Hawaiian language
The Hawaiian language is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaii, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. Hawaiian, along with English, is an official language of the state of Hawaii...

; they were usually made of wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

 from local trees, such as koa, and were often over 15 feet (4.6 m) in length and extremely heavy. Major advances over the years include the addition of one or more fins
FINS
FINS is a network protocol used by Omron PLCs, over different physical networks like Ethernet, Controller Link, DeviceNet and RS-232C....

 on the bottom rear of the board to improve directional stability
Directional stability
Directional stability is stability of a moving body or vehicle about an axis which is perpendicular to its direction of motion. Stability of a vehicle concerns itself with the tendency of a vehicle to return to its original direction in relation to the oncoming medium when disturbed away from...

, and numerous improvements in materials and shape.

Modern surfboards are made of polyurethane
Polyurethane
A polyurethane is any polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization, by reacting a monomer with another monomer in the presence of a catalyst.Polyurethanes are...

 or polystyrene
Polystyrene
Polystyrene ) also known as Thermocole, abbreviated following ISO Standard PS, is an aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry...

 foam covered with layers of fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

, cloth and polyester
Polyester
Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many polyesters, the term "polyester" as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate...

 or epoxy resin.
Encyclopedia
A surfboard is an elongated platform used in the sport of surfing
Surfing
Surfing' is a surface water sport in which the surfer rides a surfboard on the crest and face of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore...

. Surfboards are relatively light, but are strong enough to support an individual standing on them while riding a breaking wave
Ocean surface wave
In fluid dynamics, wind waves or, more precisely, wind-generated waves are surface waves that occur on the free surface of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and canals or even on small puddles and ponds. They usually result from the wind blowing over a vast enough stretch of fluid surface. Waves in the...

. They were invented in Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, where they were known as papa he‘e nalu in the Hawaiian language
Hawaiian language
The Hawaiian language is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaii, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. Hawaiian, along with English, is an official language of the state of Hawaii...

; they were usually made of wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

 from local trees, such as koa, and were often over 15 feet (4.6 m) in length and extremely heavy. Major advances over the years include the addition of one or more fins
FINS
FINS is a network protocol used by Omron PLCs, over different physical networks like Ethernet, Controller Link, DeviceNet and RS-232C....

 on the bottom rear of the board to improve directional stability
Directional stability
Directional stability is stability of a moving body or vehicle about an axis which is perpendicular to its direction of motion. Stability of a vehicle concerns itself with the tendency of a vehicle to return to its original direction in relation to the oncoming medium when disturbed away from...

, and numerous improvements in materials and shape.

Modern surfboards are made of polyurethane
Polyurethane
A polyurethane is any polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization, by reacting a monomer with another monomer in the presence of a catalyst.Polyurethanes are...

 or polystyrene
Polystyrene
Polystyrene ) also known as Thermocole, abbreviated following ISO Standard PS, is an aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry...

 foam covered with layers of fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

, cloth and polyester
Polyester
Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many polyesters, the term "polyester" as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate...

 or epoxy resin. The result is a light and strong surfboard that is buoyant and maneuverable. Recent developments in surfboard technology have included the use of carbon fiber. Longboards, as the name suggests, are longer (often 8 ft (2.4 m) or more), and are also thicker and wider, with a more rounded nose than a shortboard, making them stable and buoyant. Shortboards are shorter (5 foot), thinner, and have a more pointed nose. They are not as wide as longboards and are typically more maneuverable. Other variants include guns, longboard guns, olos, fun-boards, fish, eggs, bonzers, quads, tow-boards, and hydrofoils.

Polyurethane (P.U) boards

Surfboards are usually constructed using polyurethane foam. They are made stronger with one or more small pieces of wood, called a stringer, going down the middle of the board. The foam is molded into a "blank", in the rough shape of a surfboard. Once the blanks have been made they are given to shapers. Shapers then cut, plane, and sand the board to its specifications. Finally, the board is covered in one or more layers of fibreglass cloth and resin. It is during this stage that the fins, or boxes for removable fins, are put on and the leash plug is installed. Another method of making boards is using epoxy resin and polystyrene foam, instead of polyester resin and polyurethane foam. In recent years, surfboards made out of balsa and a polystyrene core are becoming more popular. Even solid balsa surfboards are available.

Although foam boards are usually shaped by hand, the use of machines to shape them has become more popular over the years. Modern technology has made its way into surfboard production as well. Vacuum forming and modern sandwich construction techniques borrowed from other industries have become more common in the industry. Many surfers have switched to riding sandwich-construction, epoxy boards. These boards have become especially popular with beginner surfers as they provide, in most cases, a cheaper entry level surfboard as well as a more durable and resistant one.

Balsa boards

The history of using balsa as a material for surfboard making goes back to the Hawaiians, but became more popular in the late 1930s. Being light and strong, balsa wood was long considered a perfect material for surfboards. However, shapers could not use this fragile wood to make entire surfboards until after WW2, when fiberglass was invented.

The advantages of balsa wood boards is that they are a lot lighter, more buoyant and therefore easier to handle. These boards did have some disadvantages, however, because they were not as sturdy as the solid redwood boards. They are currently favoured by surfers and collectors because they are more durable than a regular surfboard, environmentally friendly and have a beautiful appearance.

Hollow wooden surfboards

Hollow wooden surfboards are made of wood and epoxy
Epoxy
Epoxy, also known as polyepoxide, is a thermosetting polymer formed from reaction of an epoxide "resin" with polyamine "hardener". Epoxy has a wide range of applications, including fiber-reinforced plastic materials and general purpose adhesives....

, and are a reversion to using wood after the foam became dominant in the 1950's. Hollow wooden surfboards specifically have no foam in their construction. (Boards made with foam and wood are commonly known as compsands or veneer boards.) Various construction methods are used to hollow the inside of the surfboard and lighten the weight of the completed board. Generally a hollow wood surfboard is 30% to 300% heavier than a standard foam and resin surfboard. The main inspiration, apart from beauty, is that this is a more environmentally friendly method which uses fast-growing plantation wood such as Paulownia
Paulownia
Paulownia is a genus of from 6 to 17 species of plants in the monogeneric family Paulowniaceae, related to and sometimes included in the Scrophulariaceae. They are native to much of China, south to northern Laos and Vietnam, and long cultivated elsewhere in eastern Asia, notably in Japan and Korea...

, Cedar, Spruce
Spruce
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea , a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical...

, Redwood
Redwood
-Trees:Conifers* Family Cupressaceae *** Sequoia sempervirens - coast redwood**** Albino redwood*** Sequoiadendron giganteum - giant sequoia*** Metasequoia glyptostroboides - dawn redwood* Family Pinaceae...

, and of course Balsa.

The current methods descended from the 1930's Tom Blake paddleboarding
Paddleboarding
Paddleboarding is a surface water sport in which the participant is propelled by a swimming motion usually on a long surfboard close to the shore. A derivative of paddleboarding is stand up paddle surfing.-History:...

 method, which favors a central stringer, with individually shaped transverse ribs, covered with a skin and lastly, rails which are then shaped. A modern interpretation of Tom Blakes work is the perimeter stringer method used by some manufacturers, utilizing laminated rails as stringers, which are connected with a series of plywood ribs. This skeleton is subsequently sheathed with 5mm-thick wood strips, creating a fast hollow board with better flex properties.

The parallel profile system developed by Roy Stewart is developed from cold molded (double diagonal) boat building, and uses at least four layers laminated over a male mold into a curved blank, including enough wood for rails, which are then shaped.
The chambering method follows a system whereby planks of paulownia are selected and the rocker of the board is cut into each. The planks are then chambered to reduce weight, and then are bonded together to form a hollow, or "chambered" blank which is then shaped.

Variations

Many types of boards are made using any of the different construction methods, the variation of type dependent in some cases on the use for which the board is designed.

Shortboard

Since the late 1960s, when Gordon Clark found the optimum formulation of urethane foam, many of the surfboards in common use have been of the shortboard variety between 6 feet and 7 feet in length, with a pointed nose and a rounded or squarish tail, typically with three skegs (fins) but sometimes with two or as many as five. Surfers generally find a shortboard very quick to maneuver compared with other types of surfboards, but because of a lack of flotation due to the smaller size, harder to catch waves with, often requiring steeper, larger and more powerful waves and very late takeoffs, where the surfer catches the wave at the critical moment before it breaks.

A bonzer is a variety of surfboard created by the Campbell Brothers with three or five fins with double concave channels. The manufacturer claims that these channels create a venturi effect
Venturi effect
The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe. The Venturi effect is named after Giovanni Battista Venturi , an Italian physicist.-Background:...

 which guides the water off of the surface of the board through a narrowed passage.

Egg

Modern hybrid boards are usually 6 feet to 8 feet 6 inches (1.8–2.3 m) in length with a more rounded profile and tail shape. Surfed in smaller waves with any fin set up. They are more about having fun than high performance or tricks. They can be easier to ride for beginning surfers and generally perform well in surfing conditions where the more traditional long and short boards might not.

Fish

Usually a short stubby board under 6 feet (1.8 m) in length developed from kneeboards in the 1960s by Steve Lis. Other prominent Fish shapers include Skip Frye
Skip Frye
Skip Frye is a surfer, surfboard designer and shaper, and environmental activist.-Background:...

, Steve Brom, Larry Mabil, and Rich Pavel. Primarily a twin fin set up with a swallow tail shape and popular in smaller waves. Resurgence in popularity in early 2000s created by legendary surfer Tom Curren
Tom Curren
Tom Curren Tom Curren Tom Curren (born July 3, 1964, in Santa Barbara, California is an American surfer. He was born to father Pat (big-wave legend and shaper) and mother Jeanine. His brother Joe is also a professional surfer and popular photographer and he also has a sister, Anna....

. Note, any type of board (such as shortboard or mini-longboard) can have a fish tail, and these are commonly referred to as a "fish", but they lack the other properties of a traditional, or "retro", fish as listed here.

Fun board

The funboard combines elements of both shortboards and longboards and are generally midsized, usually 7 to 8 ft (2.1 to 2.4 ). The funboard's design allows waves to be caught more easily than a shortboard, yet with a shape that makes it more maneuverable than a longboard; hence it is a popular type of surfboard, especially among beginners, or those transitioning from longboarding to the more difficult shortboarding.
This makes it the best design in most people's view due to the combination of the speed of a longboard and the maneuverability of a shortboard.

Gun

Big wave boards of length 7 to 12 ft (2.1 to 3.7 ). Thin, needle-like template with single, quad, or thruster fin set up. It usually looks like a shortboard but at a longboard size. Used at such big waves spots as Waimea Bay and Mavericks
Mavericks (location)
Maverick's or Mavericks is a surfing location in Northern California, U.S.A.. It is located approximately 2 miles from shore in Pillar Point Harbor just north of Half Moon Bay at the village of Princeton-By-The-Sea. After a strong winter storm in the northern Pacific Ocean, waves can routinely...

.

Longboard

The longboard is primarily a single finned surfboard with large rounded nose and length of 9 to 12 ft (2.7 to 3.7 ). Noseriders are a class of longboards which enable the rider to walk to the tip and nose ride
Nose ride
Noseriding is the art of maneuvering the surfboard from the front end.Next to getting tubed , noseriding is the most accomplished move in surfing...

. Also called a "Mal", which is a shortened version of Malibu, one of, if not the most popular longboard wave.

Longboards (also known as Malibu boards) range 8 to 14 ft (2.4 to 4.3 ) long, or 3 foot (0.9144 m) taller than the rider in overall length. Its advantage is its substantial buoyancy and planing surface, which enables most surfers using it to ride waves generally deemed too small to propel a shortboard, as well as anything else. Longboards are universally common among both beginners and skilled surfers alike. The main reason why longboards are more suitable for beginners is because of the board's size and frequency of catching waves. In the proper conditions, a skilled surfer can ride a wave standing on the nose of a longboard, and put his toes over the nose's edge. By literally putting his "toes on the nose" the surfer can "hang ten".

Classic Longboards

Longboards are the original, and very first variety of board used in standup surfing. Ever since the sixth-century the ancient Hawaii
Ancient Hawaii
Ancient Hawaii refers to the period of Hawaiian human history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of Hawaii by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. After being first settled by Polynesian long-distance navigators sometime between AD 300–800, a unique culture developed. Diversified agroforestry and...

ans have used 8 foot solid wooden boards when practicing their ancient art of he'e nalu. Surfing was brought to the Hawaiian Islands by Polynesians and has since become popular worldwide. The ancient boards were carved and fashioned out of solid wood, reaching lengths of 10 to 14 ft (3 to 4.3 ) long and weighing as much as 150 pounds (68 kg). Both men and women, royalty and commoners surfed. But the longest of boards (the Olo) was reserved for royalty. During the 19th century, some extreme western missionaries actively discouraged surfing, viewing it as sinful. Surfing almost died out completely. In recent times replicas have been made of Olo's and alaia's by experienced surfers and shapers wishing to explore the roots of the sport.

By the early 20th century, only a handful of people surfed, mostly at Waikiki. But there, it started to grow again. Beginning in 1912, Duke Kahanamoku
Duke Kahanamoku
Duke Paoa Kahinu Mokoe Hulikohola Kahanamoku was a Hawaiian swimmer, actor, lawman, early beach volleyball player and businessman credited with spreading the sport of surfing. He was a five-time Olympic medalist in swimming.-Early years:The name "Duke" is not a title, but a given name...

, a Hawaiian Olympic swimmer in the early 1900s, brought surfing to mainland United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. Because of this, Duke is considered the "Father of Modern Surfing". From that point on, surfing became an integral part of the California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 beach lifestyle. In Malibu (in Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

 county), the beach was so popular amongst the early surfers that it lent its name to the type of longboard, the Malibu Surfboard. In the 1920s boards made of plywood
Plywood
Plywood is a type of manufactured timber made from thin sheets of wood veneer. It is one of the most widely used wood products. It is flexible, inexpensive, workable, re-usable, and can usually be locally manufactured...

 or planking called Hollowboards came into use. These were typically 15 to 20 ft (4.6 to 6.1 ) in length and very light. During the 1950s, the surf trend took off dramatically as it obtained a substantial amount of popularity as a sport. The design and material of longboards in the 1950s changed from using solid wood, to balsa
Balsa
Ochroma pyramidale, commonly known as the balsa tree , is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is a large, fast-growing tree that can grow up to tall. It is the source of balsa wood, a very lightweight material with many uses...

 wood. The length of the boards still remained the same at an average of 10.5 feet, and had then become widely produced.

It was not until the late 50s and early 60s when the surfboard design had closely evolved into today's modern longboard. The introduction of polyurethane
Polyurethane
A polyurethane is any polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization, by reacting a monomer with another monomer in the presence of a catalyst.Polyurethanes are...

 foam and fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

 became the technological leap in design. In the 1960s, the longboard continued to remain popular as its material changed from balsa wood to fiberglass and polyurethane foam. In the 1960s, the introduction of the shortboard, averaging 6 in 6 in (1.98 m), allowed surfers to make tighter turns, quicker maneuvers, and achieve faster speeds, thus radically changing the way people surfed. This "shortboard revolution" nearly made longboards obsolete for all practical purposes. But in the early 1990s, the longboard returned, integrating a number of the design features invented during the shortboard revolution. Surfers rediscovered the grace and poise – the "glide" – of the longboard, and the fun of classic maneuvers that are not possible on a shortboard. In some circles the battle between longboards and shortboards continues. But many surfers live by a philosophy of finding the joy of surfing a mix of boards and surfing styles to suit the waves of the day.

Modern Longboards

The modern longboard has undergone many changes since its earlier models in the past. Today's longboard is much lighter than its predecessors. Its polyurethane foam and fiberglass design allows less drag on waves. Today's longboards are typically 9 to 10 ft (2.7 to 3 ) long, although some ride boards up to 12 feet (3.7 m) in length. Additionally, there is a revival of stand-up paddle-based surfing with boards up to 14 feet (4.3 m) in length (for stability). The classic single-fin longboard retains much of its classic design including a single fin, weight, and considerable buoyancy. A longboard with a single fin allows the board to pivot turn in order to remain in the curl of the wave. Due to recent advances in technology, the longboard has expanded its family into different variations of the classic longboard.

Tri-Fin

An updated version of the classic longboard, the Tri-fin (also known as Thruster) longboard is featured with three fins underneath the tail rather than the traditional single fin. The Tri-fin's additional two fins on the board allows riders better turning capabilities as well as greater thrust than classic longboards did back in the 1950s. The tri-fin's design incorporates the glide of a longboard and the performance of a shortboard into a single layout.

The Gun

A newer, more recent addition to the longboard family is the modern longboard gun, also known as "the big wave board". The longboard gun's teardrop-shaped layout pierces through the water when on large waves. Stretching from 9 to 12 ft (2.7 to 3.7 ) in length, the longboard gun incorporates the features of a professional shortboard into a longboard's structure. Its hybrid structure also allows surfers better paddling capabilities before catching a wave. One new manufacturer of a traditional Wooden "Gun" is "Empress Surfboards" who now makes a fully chambered 10 feet (3 m) Gun from "Paulownia Wood" aka "Empress Wood".

The 2+1

The 2+1 longboard is the most versatile board of the longboard family, offering greater maneuverability. Sometimes referred as a "single-fin with training wheels", the 2+1's fins actually takes the features of the classic longboard and the Tri-fin. The fins of the 2+1 takes the rigid stability of a classic longboard, and fuses with the strength and drive of a Tri-fin.

Mini Tanker

The mini tanker is basically a shortened longboard shape that utilizes the same longboard design elements and enhanced maneuverability due to the shorter shape. These boards are normally ridden by women and children which provide smaller individuals with much more control than your traditional 9 foot longboard.

The Malibu

Named after Malibu, California, this longboard shape has spread its genes into all aspects of surfing
Surfing
Surfing' is a surface water sport in which the surfer rides a surfboard on the crest and face of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore...

 culture
Culture
Culture is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions...

. Typically from 9 to 14 ft (2.7 to 4.3 ) long, these boards are what most surfers started on and what they come back to later on in life. The classic shape has been ridden and praised by experienced surfers for its maneuverability and performance. Classic tricks that can be performed on a Malibu are "Hang Fives" and "Hang tens" whereby the surfer walks to the nose of the board and hangs 5 or 10 toes over the nose.

Olo

Originally reserved for royalty due to its size and weight, these wooden boards can exceed lengths of 24 feet (7.3 m) and reach weights up to 200 pounds (90.7 kg).

Quad

Quads are quick down the line but lose drive through turns. The quad is making quite a comeback over the last year, showing up everywhere from Mavs guns to small wave fishes. CJ Hobgood won the 2007 Surfbout on a Quad at lowers.

Parts

Concave

Modern surfboards often contain multiple contours on the bottom of the board, termed concaves. These concaves have different uses and vary among different types of surfboards. Most concaves on the modern shortboard begin about twelve inches (300 mm) back from the nose of the board on the bottom and then carry out through the middle to the tail of the surfboard. The purpose of concave is to direct water through the fins of the surfboard. Surfboard shapers can experiment with concaves to create different drive and response characteristics on each individual surfboard.

Convex

Some older and more traditional surfboards along with many modern boards that take inspiration from these older boards utilize a convex rather than concave design on the bottom of the surfboard. These boards displace water and sit lower in the wave than a surfboard with a concave bottom.

Deck

The surface of the board that the surfer stands on. Surfwax is applied to this surface.

Fins

The surfboard fin
Surfboard fins
A surfboard fin is a foil , specifically, a hydrofoil that is mounted near the tail of a surfboard such that it is more or less perpendicular to the bottom of the board...

 is a stabilizing rudder fixed to the rear of the surfboard to prevent it from sliding sideways. In the early days, surfers would stabilize the board by hanging the toes of their back foot over the edge of the board and would steer by putting their foot in the water. The innovation of a skeg
Skeg
A skeg is a sternward extension of the keel of boats and ships which have a rudder mounted on the centre line. The term also applies to the lowest point on an outboard motor or the outdrive of an inboard/outboard...

 in 1936 — by either or both of Woody "Spider" Brown
Woody Brown (surfer and catamaran inventor)
Woody "Spider" Brown was a surfer and designer notable for introducing modern surfing to America and for the invention of the modern catamaran.-Early life:...

 or Tom Blake — revolutionized surfing, allowing surfers to direct the board's momentum and providing more balance whilst turning.

The template of the modern surfboard fin
Surfboard fins
A surfboard fin is a foil , specifically, a hydrofoil that is mounted near the tail of a surfboard such that it is more or less perpendicular to the bottom of the board...

 was developed by George Greenough
George Greenough
George Greenough is an innovative surfer and cinematographer from Santa Barbara, California who now resides in Byron Bay in New South Wales, Australia. He was born to a wealthy family but despised its trappings and spent most of his time in the ocean. Greenough is best known for creating the modern...

 in the 1960s. The single fin changed little until the late 70's, when a second was added and popularised by Australian Mark Richards
Mark Richards (surfer)
Mark Richards , known as MR, is an Australian surfer, five time world champion , and highly respected by his peers.In 2000 Mark was awarded the Australian Sports Medal for his service to Surf Riding.- Youth :...

. The new twin fin set up allowed much more flowing carves to be performed. Mark Richards dominated the world competitive scene from 1979 to 1983. In 1981 another Australian was developing another set up which would again change the face of surfing. His name was Simon Anderson
Simon Anderson
Simon Anderson is an Australian surfer and surfboard shaper, noted for creating the Thruster design of three equal-sized fins on a surfboard, a design now used on most shortboards.-Early life:...

 and by attaching a third fin, positioned centrally behind the twin fins
Surfboard fins
A surfboard fin is a foil , specifically, a hydrofoil that is mounted near the tail of a surfboard such that it is more or less perpendicular to the bottom of the board...

, he created the thruster
Surfboard fins
A surfboard fin is a foil , specifically, a hydrofoil that is mounted near the tail of a surfboard such that it is more or less perpendicular to the bottom of the board...

 set up. Today, most surfboards still use the same arrangement with its popularity arising from the combined ability for carving turns and providing control and drive.

In the early 90's removable fin systems were developed and embraced. This provides a standardized system that allows fins to be easily removed or replaced, utilising set screw
Set screw
A set screw is a type of screw generally used to secure an object within or against another object. The most common examples are securing a pulley or gear to a shaft. Set screws are most often headless , meaning that the screw is fully threaded and has no head projecting past the major diameter of...

s to hold the fins in place. These systems provided surfers with the ability to alter the riding characteristics of a surfboard, by changing the size and shape of fins used. This innovation opened the market to a range of fin designs, including single foiled fins, concave inside surfaces, and curved fins. Another variation of fin was later designed in the time frame known as the soul fin, a sleek bendable attachment.

Tunnel fins
Tunnel fins
The Tunnel fin is a type of surfboard fin used on surfboards, especially heavy longboards and longboard guns. The weight and length of these boards make it easier to control the fore and aft angle of the tunnel.As the name suggests it is shaped like a tunnel...

 were invented in the 60's by Richard Deese, and were found on longboards by multiple manufacturers of that era, including Dewey Weber. Bob Bolen, A.K.A. 'the Greek', patented the "Turbo Tunnel" in the late 1990s. Since the mid 90's half tunnel fins have mainly been used on very long hollow wooden surfboards.

Bullet Fins were invented in the 2005 by Ron Pettibone to increase surfboard hull planing and rail-to-rail transition speed. The patent-pending fins are based on 50 years of hydrodynamic research on the bulbous bow hull design. Just as with the bow of a ship, the traditional surfboard fin creates a wave as it displaces the water in its path. The resulting turbulence places drag on the surfboard. The bulb of the Bullet Fin reduces this drag by creating a new (primary) fin wave in front of the original (secondary) wave. This new bulb wave is designed to be nearly 180 degrees out of phase with the original fin wave to subtract its turbulence thus reducing fin drag.

Winged fins are another type of surfboard fin, the genesis of which was America's Cup sailboat design. The Starfin was designed in the 1980s by the America's Cup yacht designer, Ben Lexcen
Ben Lexcen
Ben Lexcen AM born Robert Miller was an Australian yachtsman and marine architect. He is famous for the winged keel design applied to Australia II which, in 1983, became the first non-American yacht to win the prestigious America's Cup in 132 years.-Early life:Born in the coastal town of...

, who had designed the winged keel
Winged keel
A winged keel is a sailboat keel, usually of moderate aspect ratio, that uses a nearly horizontal foil, the "wing", at the bottom to provide additional performance. Note that the wing is upside down with relation to the boat...

 for the America's Cup boat, Australia II. The small thruster-sized fin, the RedTip 3D is manufactured by FCS.

Fins with winglets -- tiny wings -- were invented in 2005. The purpose of winglets, as in airplane design, is to increase lift (horizontal turning force in the case of surfboard fins) while reducing drag, by reducing the fin-tip vortex.

Fins with a camber have an asymmetrical profile. In windsurfing camber is used to increase the lift to drag ratio of the fin and to minimise cavitation and the risk of spin-out. In particular windsurfers trying to improve speed records use camber fins, as the maximum performance is required on one down-wind course direction. As the camber is fixed to one side, performance when sailing in one direction is improved but performance in the other way is deteriorated.

Fins with self adjusting camber offer the improved qualities in both port side and starboard side sailing directions.

Leash

A surfboard leash or leg rope
Leg rope
250px|right|surfer holding surfboard and legropeA leg rope or leash is a urethane cord attached to the deck of a surfboard, down near the tail. A leg rope plug enables the leg rope to be attached here using a leg rope string. The other end of the leg rope is secured tightly around the surfers...

 is the cord
Rope
A rope is a length of fibres, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. It has tensile strength but is too flexible to provide compressive strength...

 that attaches a surfboard to the surfer. It prevents the surfboard from being swept away by wave
Ocean surface wave
In fluid dynamics, wind waves or, more precisely, wind-generated waves are surface waves that occur on the free surface of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and canals or even on small puddles and ponds. They usually result from the wind blowing over a vast enough stretch of fluid surface. Waves in the...

s and stops runaway surfboards from hitting other surfers and swimmers. Modern leashes comprise a urethane
Polyurethane
A polyurethane is any polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization, by reacting a monomer with another monomer in the presence of a catalyst.Polyurethanes are...

 cord
Rope
A rope is a length of fibres, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. It has tensile strength but is too flexible to provide compressive strength...

 where one end has a band with a velcro
Velcro
Velcro is the brand name of the first commercially marketed fabric hook-and-loop fastener, invented in 1948 by the Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral...

 strap attached to the surfer's trailing foot, and the opposite has a velcro strap attached to the tail end of the surfboard.

Prior to leashes' introduction in 1971, surfers who fell off their boards had to swim to retrieve them with runaway boards being an inconvenience to the surfer and a danger to other surfers. Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California in the US. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, Santa Cruz had a total population of 59,946...

 resident Pat O'Neill is credited with inventing
Invention
An invention is a novel composition, device, or process. An invention may be derived from a pre-existing model or idea, or it could be independently conceived, in which case it may be a radical breakthrough. In addition, there is cultural invention, which is an innovative set of useful social...

 the surf leash. His initial designs consisted of surgical
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

 cord attached to a board with a suction cup
Suction cup
A suction cup, also sometimes known as a sucker is an object that uses negative fluid pressure of air or water to adhere to nonporous surfaces. They exist both as artificially created devices, and as anatomical traits of some animals such as octopi and squid.The working face of the suction cup has...

. At the 1971 Malibu international surfing competition, Pat offered leashes to his competitors in the event. Consequently he was disqualified from the event for wearing his leash, dubbed a kook cord by those at the event. However, over the next year, the leash became a ubiquitous tool in the surfing world.

Jack O'Neill lost his left eye in a surf leash accident
Accident
An accident or mishap is an unforeseen and unplanned event or circumstance, often with lack of intention or necessity. It implies a generally negative outcome which may have been avoided or prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its...

 as the surgical tubing used in the early designs allowed the leash to overstretch, causing the surfboard to fly back towards the surfer. Subsequent cords were made with less elastic materials such as bungee cord
Bungee cord
A bungee cord , also known as a shock cord, is an elastic cord composed of one or more elastic strands forming a core, usually covered in a woven cotton or polypropylene sheath...

s.

Leashes are still the source of some contention in surfing today as, although they are now accepted as mandatory equipment for shortboarders, many longboarders refuse to wear them, claiming it interferes with their ability to walk up and down the board. At crowded surf spots with large waves, it is argued that the freedom of not wearing a leash is secondary to the safety of others.

Leash cup

An indentation in the deck of the board close to the tail that contains a small bar that a short cord can be girth hitched to for attaching a leash.

Rail

The edges of the board. A rounded rail is called "soft", while a more squared off rail is called "hard", and rails that are in between are considered 50/50.

Rocker

This refers to how much curve the bottom of the board has from nose to tail. Increasing the rocker helps improve a board's performance when it is used in and around tighter curves on the wave face while flattening the curves of the board help it to handle better on flatter sections of water.

Stringer

A thin piece of wood running from nose to tail that increases the strength of the board. Boards have different amount of stringers and some have no stringers.

Tail

The shape of the tail affects how a board responds. Tail shapes vary from square, pin, squash, swallow, diamond, and so on—each one in turn having its own family of smaller variants.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK