Spike (missile)
Overview
 
Spike is a fourth generation man-portable fire-and-forget
Fire-and-forget
Fire-and-forget is a third-generation method of missile guidance. The military uses the term for a type of missile which does not require further guidance after launch such as illumination of the target or wire guidance , and can hit its target without the launcher being in line-of-sight of the...

 anti-tank guided missile
Anti-tank guided missile
An anti-tank missile , anti-tank guided missile , anti-tank guided weapon or anti-armor guided weapon is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily-armored military vehicles....

 with tandem-charge
Tandem-charge
A tandem-charge weapon is an explosive device or projectile that has two or more stages of detonation. It is effective against cage armor, which is designed to protect an armored vehicle against anti-tank munitions. The first stage of the weapon triggers the reactive armor of the target, limiting...

d HEAT warhead, developed and designed by the Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

i company Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and in service with a number of nations.

As well as engaging and destroying targets within the line-of-sight of the launcher ("fire-and-forget"), some variants of the missile are capable of making a top-attack profile through a "fire, observe and update" guidance method; the operator tracking the target, or switching to another target, optically through the trailing fiber-optic wire
Optical fiber
An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made of a pure glass not much wider than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of...

 while the missile is climbing to altitude after launch.
Encyclopedia
Spike is a fourth generation man-portable fire-and-forget
Fire-and-forget
Fire-and-forget is a third-generation method of missile guidance. The military uses the term for a type of missile which does not require further guidance after launch such as illumination of the target or wire guidance , and can hit its target without the launcher being in line-of-sight of the...

 anti-tank guided missile
Anti-tank guided missile
An anti-tank missile , anti-tank guided missile , anti-tank guided weapon or anti-armor guided weapon is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily-armored military vehicles....

 with tandem-charge
Tandem-charge
A tandem-charge weapon is an explosive device or projectile that has two or more stages of detonation. It is effective against cage armor, which is designed to protect an armored vehicle against anti-tank munitions. The first stage of the weapon triggers the reactive armor of the target, limiting...

d HEAT warhead, developed and designed by the Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

i company Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and in service with a number of nations.

As well as engaging and destroying targets within the line-of-sight of the launcher ("fire-and-forget"), some variants of the missile are capable of making a top-attack profile through a "fire, observe and update" guidance method; the operator tracking the target, or switching to another target, optically through the trailing fiber-optic wire
Optical fiber
An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made of a pure glass not much wider than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of...

 while the missile is climbing to altitude after launch. This is similar to the lofted trajectory flight profile of the US FGM-148 Javelin
FGM-148 Javelin
The FGM-148 Javelin is a United States-made man-portable third generation anti-tank missile fielded to replace the Dragon antitank missile.-Overview:Javelin is a fire-and-forget missile with lock-on before launch and automatic self-guidance...

.

Design

Spike is a fire-and-forget missile with lock-on before launch and automatic self-guidance. The missile is equipped with an imaging infrared seeker.

The medium, long and extended range versions of the Spike also have the capability of "Fire, Observe and Update" operating mode. The missile is connected by a fiber-optical wire that is spooled out between the launch position and the missile. With this the operator can obtain a target if it is not in the line of sight of the operator at launch, switch targets in flight, or compensate for the movement of the target if the missile is not tracking the target for some reason. Hence, the missile can be fired speculatively for a target of opportunity, or to provide observation on the other side of an obstacle. The missile has a soft launch
Soft launch
Soft launch can be used in regards to either the method for launching a missile or the release of a product or service.- Missile launch :Soft launching is the method of launching a missile in such a way that the rocket motor ignites outside of the launch tube; the missile is ejected non-explosively...

 capability - the motor firing after the missile has left the launcher- which allows for the missile to be fired from confined spaces, which is a necessity in urban warfare.

The missile uses a tandem warhead - two shaped charge
Shaped charge
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy. Various types are used to cut and form metal, to initiate nuclear weapons, to penetrate armor, and in the oil and gas industry...

s, a precursor warhead to detonate any explosive reactive armor and a primary warhead to penetrate the underlying armor. Currently, it is replacing aging second generation anti-tank missiles
SACLOS
SACLOS is an acronym for Semi-Automatic Command to Line of Sight, a second-generation method of missile guidance. In SACLOS, the operator has to continually point a sighting device at the target while the missile is in flight...

 like the MILAN
MILAN
MILAN " is French and German for "kite bird") is a European anti-tank guided missile. Design of the MILAN started in 1962. It was ready for trials in 1971, and was accepted for service in 1972. It is a wire guided SACLOS missile, which means the sight of the launch unit has to be aimed at the...

 and M47 Dragon
M47 Dragon
The M47 Dragon is an American shoulder-fired, man-portable anti-tank missile system. It has since been phased out in US service, in favor of the newer FGM-148 Javelin system.-Description:...

 in the armies of the user nations.

The Spike system is made up of the launching tripod with its fire control unit and the missile. There is no dedicated thermal sight on the launcher - the missile's imaging seeker is used. Altogether, the long range variant of the system weighs around 26 kilograms (57.3 lb)

Spike can be operated from the launcher by infantry, or from mounts that can be fitted to vehicles such as fast attack vehicles, armored personnel carriers or utility vehicles. Vehicles that are not normally fitted with anti-tank weapons can therefore be given anti-tank capability.

Spike has been tested as a weapon system for the SAGEM Sperwer
SAGEM Sperwer
-External links:*** Defense Industry Daily - * Defense Industry Daily -...

 unmanned aerial vehicle
Unmanned aerial vehicle
An unmanned aerial vehicle , also known as a unmanned aircraft system , remotely piloted aircraft or unmanned aircraft, is a machine which functions either by the remote control of a navigator or pilot or autonomously, that is, as a self-directing entity...

. The Spanish Army
Spanish Army
The Spanish Army is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is one of the oldest active armies - dating back to the 15th century.-Introduction:...

 has fitted the Spike-ER to its Eurocopter Tiger
Eurocopter Tiger
The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by Eurocopter. In Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre.-Origins:...

 attack helicopters.

Marketing

In order to ease the selling of the weapon system in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, the company EuroSpike GmbH was formed in Germany. Its shareholders Diehl BGT Defence
Diehl BGT Defence
Diehl BGT Defence GmbH & Ko KG is a German arms manufacturer and a subsidiary of the Diehl Stiftung GmbH with headquarters in Überlingen. Diehl BGT Defence produces mainly missiles and ammunition....

 (40%), Rheinmetall Defence Electronics
Rheinmetall
Rheinmetall AG is a German automotive and defence company with factories in Düsseldorf, Kassel and Unterlüß. The company has a long tradition of making guns and artillery pieces...

 (40%) and Rafael via ERCAS B.V (20%). ERCAS B.V. is a Dutch holding company owned 100% by Rafael. EuroSpike GmbH is located in Röthenbach
Röthenbach an der Pegnitz
Röthenbach an der Pegnitz is a municipality in the district Nürnberger Land, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the Pegnitz River, 4 km southwest of Lauf an der Pegnitz, and 12 km east of Nuremberg ....

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. The Spike weapon system differs a little from the Israeli version and is then marketed under the name EuroSpike.

For other areas of the world, Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. is solely responsible.

Variants

Spike-SR
the short range version of the weapon, minimum range is 200 m (656.2 ft) while the maximum range is 800 m (2,624.7 ft) and is intended for infantry use. The reusable Command & launch unit (CLU), battery, tripod and the thermal sight are also used by other land-based versions (with the exception of Spike NLOS) of the Spike missile family, each weighing 5 kilogram, 1 kilogram, 2.8 kilogram, and 4 kilogram respectively.


Spike-MR
the medium range version. The weight of the missile is 14 kilogram, minimum range is 200 m (656.2 ft) while the maximum range is 2500 m (8,202.1 ft) and is used by infantry and special forces.

Spike-LR
long range version. The weight of the missile is 14 kilogram, maximum range is 4000 m (13,123.4 ft) and is used by infantry and light combat vehicles. It adds fiber-optic communication to and from the launching soldier during flight. Reported armour penetration capability is more than 700 mm (27.6 in) of Rolled homogeneous armour
Rolled homogeneous armour
Rolled homogeneous armour is a type of steel which is used to armour vehicles.-Composition:Armoured steel must be hard yet impervious to shock in order to resist high velocity metal projectiles. Steel with these characteristics is produced by processing cast steel billets of appropriate size and...

 (RHA).


Spike-ER
extended range or extra long range version of the weapon. It was formerly also known as the NT-Dandy or NT-D. It has a maximum range of 8000 m (26,246.7 ft). It has a larger diameter and is heavier than the other systems, and is usually vehicle mounted. It is used by infantry, LCV
LCV
LCV can stand for:* Landing craft, Vehicle* League of Conservation Voters* Lifetime customer value, or customer lifetime value* Light commercial vehicle* Amtrak station code of Lincolnville, Maine* Light Combat Vehicle...

s, and helicopters. The Finnish Navy
Finnish Navy
The Finnish Navy is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. The Navy employs 2,300 people and about 4,300 conscripts are trained each year. Finnish Navy vessels are given the ship prefix "FNS" simply short for "Finnish Navy Ship"...

's Coastal Jaegers also operates the version in the anti-ship role. The weight of the missile is 34 kilogram, the launchers are 30 kilogram and 55 kilogram respectively for the vehicle and air-launched versions. Penetration is around 1000 mm (39.4 in) of RHA.


Spike NLOS
"Non Line Of Sight" is an ultra long range version of the weapon with a claimed maximum range of up to 25 km (15.5 mi). As a newer, larger missile with an overall weight of around 70 kilogram, it can be fired from helicopters. The Spike NLOS is already operational with a military customer, which is most likely to be Israel Defense Forces
Israel Defense Forces
The Israel Defense Forces , commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal , are the military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force and navy. It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel...

. In a deal concluded on 6 September 2011, the South Korean government has agreed to purchase an unknown number of Spike NLOS missiles and will be forward deploying about 50 of these to the South Korean islands of Baengnyeong
Baengnyeong Island
Baengnyeong Island is a island in Ongjin County, Incheon, South Korea, located near the Northern Limit Line. The 1953 s:Korean Armistice Agreement which ended the Korean War specified that the five islands including Baengnyeong Island would remain under United Nations Command and South Korea...

 and Yeonpyeong, close to the Northern Limit Line
Northern Limit Line
The Northern Limit Line or North Limit Line is a disputed inter-Korea maritime demarcation line in the Yellow Sea between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on the north, and the Republic of Korea on the south...

 with North Korea.

Mini-Spike
On 2 September 2009, at an IDF exhibition held at the 3rd Latrun
Latrun
Latrun is a strategic hilltop in the Ayalon Valley in Israel overlooking the road to Jerusalem. It is located 25 kilometers west of Jerusalem and 14 kilometers southeast of Ramla.-Etymology:...

 annual land warfare conference, the Israeli Defense Force unveiled a new member of the Spike family of missiles - the Mini Spike Anti-personnel guided weapon (APGW). Rafael claims that this latest member of the Spike family of missile costs and weighs only a third of the Spike-LR, while offering a longer engagement range of 1.3 km (0.807784557644749 mi) when compared to the Spike-SR.

Users

: Total 100 Spike-LR missiles.
: Total 2,200 Spike-MR/LR missiles.
: Total 15 Spike-ER missiles.
: Unknown number, used on the Pandur II IFV.
: Total 244 missiles, delivered October 2009.
: Total 700 missiles, breakdown being 300 Spike-MR with the remaining 400 being Spike-ER. 100 MR (PstOhj 2000) launchers plus an option for 70 more, and 18 ER (Rannikko-ohjus 2006) launchers for coastal anti-ship use.
: Total 4,000 Spike-LR missiles, 311 LR launchers on Puma
Puma (IFV)
The Puma is a German infantry fighting vehicle, the mass production has started on the 6th July 2009. It will replace the aging Marder IFVs, from 2010 through 2020. Governing company is PSM Projekt System Management, a joint venture of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Rheinmetall Landsysteme. The Puma is...

 vehicles.
: First to acquire in 1997, unknown numbers of MR (Gil), LR (Gomed), ER (Dandy) and NLOS (Tammuz) missiles with associated launchers.
: Total 1,155 Spike-MR/LR missiles. The Italian Army
Italian Army
The Italian Army is the ground defence force of the Italian Armed Forces. It is all-volunteer force of active-duty personnel, numbering 108,355 in 2010. Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehicle, the Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tank, and among its aircraft...

 has ordered: 65 Infantry Launchers, 36 LR launchers for the Freccia IFV, 20 LR launchers for the Dardo IFV
Dardo IFV
The Dardo is a infantry fighting vehicle designed for the Italian Army as a replacement for the M113 APC. It is designed and built by the Iveco Fiat Oto Melara Syndicated Company based in Rome...

, 26 indoor and 37 outdoor training systems. The Italian Navy
Italian Navy
Italian Navy may refer to:* Pre-unitarian navies of the Italian states* Regia Marina, the Royal Navy of the Kingdom of Italy * Italian Navy , the navy of the Italian Republic...

 has ordered 6 Infantry Launchers, 2 indoor and 2 outdoor training systems. The initial contract is worth 120 million Euro
Euro
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

s.
: Unknown number/variant reported in service.
: Total 2,400 Spike-MR missiles, 297 launchers.
: Total 516 Spike-LR missiles, 48 launchers.
: Total 2,675 Spike-LR missiles, 264 launchers. Some will be on KTO Rosomak
KTO Rosomak
The KTO Rosomak is 8x8 multi-role military vehicle produced by...

 and Anders
Anders (tank)
The WPB Anders is a family of medium, tracked combat vehicles. The vehicle is designed by OBRUM part of the Bumar Group...

 vehicles.
: Total 20 Spike-MR/LR missiles.
: Total 1,950 missiles, breakdown being 1,000 Spike-ER with the remaining 950 being Spike-LR. For use on IAR 330 SOCAT
IAR 330
|-See also:-External links:*...

 attack helicopters and MLI-84M
MLI-84
The MLI-84 is a native-made Romanian infantry fighting vehicle currently in service with the Romanian Land Forces. It is basically a stock BMP-1 with a lengthened hull and a 12.7x108mm DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun mounted on the roof of the troop compartment....

 IFVs.
: After Israel, Singapore became the second country to acquired Spike ATGM in 1999. Total 1,000 Spike-LR missiles, with associated launchers.
: Total 75 missiles, Spike MR and LR. Some will be on Patria AMVs.
: A South Korean government deal concluded on 6 September 2011 has confirmed the procurement of unspecified numbers of Spike NLOS, of which about 50 missiles will be forward deployed to the South Korean islands of Baengnyeong
Baengnyeong Island
Baengnyeong Island is a island in Ongjin County, Incheon, South Korea, located near the Northern Limit Line. The 1953 s:Korean Armistice Agreement which ended the Korean War specified that the five islands including Baengnyeong Island would remain under United Nations Command and South Korea...

 and Yeonpyeong, close to the Northern Limit Line
Northern Limit Line
The Northern Limit Line or North Limit Line is a disputed inter-Korea maritime demarcation line in the Yellow Sea between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on the north, and the Republic of Korea on the south...

 with North Korea.
: Total 2,800 missiles, breakdown being 2,600 Spike-LR with remaining 200 being Spike-ER. 236 Spike LR launchers (option for 100 more), 2,360 missiles for Spanish army, 24 Spike LR launchers/240 missiles for Spanish marines. Spike ER on Eurocopter Tiger
Eurocopter Tiger
The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by Eurocopter. In Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre.-Origins:...

 attack helicopters (Spanish army).

Under evaluations

: Spike is a contender along with Javelin.
: Defense News
Defense News
Defense News is a global newsweekly on politics, business and technology of defense. Defense News serves an audience of senior military, government and industry decision-makers throughout the world....

 reports that the Indian Army is about to order Spike missiles and peripheral equipoment in a $1 billion deal. Indian Ministry of Defence officials told the magazine that the order is for 321 launchers, 8,356 missiles, and 15 training simulators, and peripheral equipment.
: Spike-MR is a contender along with Javelin.
: Although no formal contract or deal had been concluded, an Otokar Cobra
Otokar Cobra
The Cobra is a wheeled armoured vehicle developed by Turkish firm Otokar, using some components from the American HMMWV. It was first delivered to the Turkish Army in 1997 and most recently, won a contract from a buyer for APV and 4X4 unarmored tactical vehicles.-Survivability:The monocoque steel...

 light armoured vehicle had been fitted with the Rafael Overhead Weapon Station
Rafael Overhead Weapon Station
The Rafael Overhead Weapon Station is a remote weapon station developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems in cooperation with the Israel Defense Forces. It has been superseded by the Rafael Samson Remote Controlled Weapon Station...

, armed with the Spike anti-tank missile system.

External links



Video links
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