Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg
Overview
 
Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg ; 1 March 1868 – 28 June 1914) was a Czech
Czech
Czech may refer to:* Czech cuisine* Anything from or related to the Czech Republic, a country in Europe* Czech language* Czechs, the people of the area* One of three mythical brothers, Lech, Czech and Rus...

 aristocrat, the morganatic
Morganatic marriage
In the context of European royalty, a morganatic marriage is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage...

 wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Franz Ferdinand was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia...

. Their assassination
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six Bosnian Serb assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić...

 sparked World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

.
Sophie was born in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

 to a prominent Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

n aristocratic family. She was the fourth daughter of Count Bohuslaw
Bohuslav, Count Chotek of Chotkow and Wognin
Bohuslav, Count Chotek von Chotkow und Wognin. was a Bohemian noble and was a diplomat in the service of Austria-Hungary. He was the father of Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg the morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.-Life:...

 Chotek von Chotkow und Wognin
Chotek family
The Chotek family was an aristocratic family from Bohemia. When this and other Bohemian noble families' surnames and/or territorial suffixes are translated from the Czech language, particules and conjunctions are usually translated into German, rather than into English..The family is first...

 and his wife, Countess Wilhelmine Kinsky
Kinsky
The Kinsky family of the Counts and later Princes was one of the oldest and most illustrious families originating from Bohemia...

 von Wchinitz und Tettau.

As a young woman, Sophie became a lady-in-waiting
Lady-in-waiting
A lady-in-waiting is a female personal assistant at a royal court, attending on a queen, a princess, or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman from a family highly thought of in good society, but was of lower rank than the woman on whom she...

 to the Archduchess Isabella, Duchess of Teschen
Princess Isabella of Croÿ
Princess Isabella Hedwig Franziska Natalie of Croÿ was the daughter of Rudolf, Duke of Croÿ, and his wife Princess Natalie of Ligne.-Marriage and issue:...

, wife of Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen was a member of the House of Habsburg and the Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I.-Early life:...

, head of the Bohemian cadet branch
Cadet branch
Cadet branch is a term in genealogy to describe the lineage of the descendants of the younger sons of a monarch or patriarch. In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets – titles, realms, fiefs, property and income – have...

 of the reign
Reign
A reign is the term used to describe the period of a person's or dynasty's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation or of a people . In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies A reign is the term used to describe the period of a person's or dynasty's occupation of the office...

ing dynasty of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
It is unknown where Sophie first met Archduke Franz Ferdinand, although it may have been at a ball in Prague.
Encyclopedia
Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg ; 1 March 1868 – 28 June 1914) was a Czech
Czech
Czech may refer to:* Czech cuisine* Anything from or related to the Czech Republic, a country in Europe* Czech language* Czechs, the people of the area* One of three mythical brothers, Lech, Czech and Rus...

 aristocrat, the morganatic
Morganatic marriage
In the context of European royalty, a morganatic marriage is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage...

 wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Franz Ferdinand was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia...

. Their assassination
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six Bosnian Serb assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić...

 sparked World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

.

Early life

Sophie was born in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

 to a prominent Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

n aristocratic family. She was the fourth daughter of Count Bohuslaw
Bohuslav, Count Chotek of Chotkow and Wognin
Bohuslav, Count Chotek von Chotkow und Wognin. was a Bohemian noble and was a diplomat in the service of Austria-Hungary. He was the father of Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg the morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.-Life:...

 Chotek von Chotkow und Wognin
Chotek family
The Chotek family was an aristocratic family from Bohemia. When this and other Bohemian noble families' surnames and/or territorial suffixes are translated from the Czech language, particules and conjunctions are usually translated into German, rather than into English..The family is first...

 and his wife, Countess Wilhelmine Kinsky
Kinsky
The Kinsky family of the Counts and later Princes was one of the oldest and most illustrious families originating from Bohemia...

 von Wchinitz und Tettau.

As a young woman, Sophie became a lady-in-waiting
Lady-in-waiting
A lady-in-waiting is a female personal assistant at a royal court, attending on a queen, a princess, or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman from a family highly thought of in good society, but was of lower rank than the woman on whom she...

 to the Archduchess Isabella, Duchess of Teschen
Princess Isabella of Croÿ
Princess Isabella Hedwig Franziska Natalie of Croÿ was the daughter of Rudolf, Duke of Croÿ, and his wife Princess Natalie of Ligne.-Marriage and issue:...

, wife of Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen was a member of the House of Habsburg and the Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I.-Early life:...

, head of the Bohemian cadet branch
Cadet branch
Cadet branch is a term in genealogy to describe the lineage of the descendants of the younger sons of a monarch or patriarch. In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets – titles, realms, fiefs, property and income – have...

 of the reign
Reign
A reign is the term used to describe the period of a person's or dynasty's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation or of a people . In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies A reign is the term used to describe the period of a person's or dynasty's occupation of the office...

ing dynasty of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Courtship with Franz Ferdinand

It is unknown where Sophie first met Archduke Franz Ferdinand, although it may have been at a ball in Prague. Franz Ferdinand, stationed at a military garrison
Garrison
Garrison is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base....

 in Prague, paid frequent visits to Halbturn Castle, the home of Archduke Friedrich
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen was a member of the House of Habsburg and the Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I.-Early life:...

, and it was assumed that he had fallen in love with Friedrich's eldest daughter, Archduchess Marie Christine
Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria (1879–1962)
Archduchess Maria Christina Isabelle Natalie of Austria, full German name: Maria Christina Isabelle Natalie, Erzherzogin von Österreich was a member of the Teschen branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Bohemia, Hungary, and Tuscany by...

. When the liaison was discovered by Archduchess Isabella
Princess Isabella of Croÿ
Princess Isabella Hedwig Franziska Natalie of Croÿ was the daughter of Rudolf, Duke of Croÿ, and his wife Princess Natalie of Ligne.-Marriage and issue:...

, a scandal ensued.

Franz Ferdinand's uncle, the Emperor Franz Joseph
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Galicia and Lodomeria and Grand Duke of Cracow from 1848 until his death in 1916.In the December of 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated the throne as part of...

, informed him that, as heir presumptive
Heir Presumptive
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir or heiress apparent or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question...

 to the throne since the suicide in 1889 of the emperor's only son, Crown Prince Rudolph, he could not marry Sophie, who could not become an empress consort
Queen consort
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...

. To be an eligible consort
Consort
Consort may refer to:Titles:* Queen consort, wife of a reigning king* Prince consort, husband of a reigning queen* King consort, rarely used alternative title for husband of a reigning queen...

 for any member of the Imperial House of Habsburg-Lorraine
House of Lorraine
The House of Lorraine, the main and now only remaining line known as Habsburg-Lorraine, is one of the most important and was one of the longest-reigning royal houses in the history of Europe...

, one needed to belong to one of the reigning or formerly reigning dynasties of Europe. Although the Choteks were noble
Bohemian nobility
Bohemian or Czech nobility refers to the noble families of the Czech state , also known as "Bohemian Crown", "The Lands of the Bohemian Crown" or "The Lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslaus".Aristocracy was abolished by law in December 1918 at the occasion of birth of the independent...

 since at least the 14th century and had been made counts of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 in 1745, they were not of dynastic rank (although Sophie was a descendant of Elisabeth, sister of King Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolph I was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburg dynasty to a leading position among the Imperial feudal dynasties...

, Franz Ferdinand's ancestor).

Franz Ferdinand refused to renounce Sophie to marry a princess and beget an heir to the throne, compounding the scandal surrounding the death and illicit affair
Baroness Mary Vetsera
Baroness Marie Alexandrine von Vetsera was a member of Austrian high society nobility and one of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria's mistresses...

 of the emperor's previous heir.

Marriage with Franz Ferdinand

In 1899, under pressure from family members (especially the Archduchess Maria Theresia
Princess Maria Theresa of Braganza
Infanta Maria Theresa of Portugal was a Princess of the House of Braganza. She became by marriage an Archduchess of Austria and the sister-in-law of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria.-Early life:...

, the emperor's formidable sister-in-law and Franz Ferdinand's stepmother) the couple were granted permission to wed. Franz Ferdinand was allowed to retain his place in the order of succession and a suitable title was promised for his future wife. However, to prevent Franz Ferdinand from attempting to proclaim his wife empress-queen or declaring their future children archdukes and eligible to inherit the crown (especially that of Hungary, where morganatic marriage
Morganatic marriage
In the context of European royalty, a morganatic marriage is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage...

s were unknown to law) once he ascended the throne, he was compelled to appear at the Hofburg Imperial Palace
Hofburg Imperial Palace
Hofburg Palace is a palace located in Vienna, Austria, that has housed some of the most powerful people in Austrian history, including the Habsburg dynasty, rulers of the Austro-Hungarian empire. It currently serves as the official residence of the President of Austria...

 before the gathered archdukes, ministers, and dignitaries of the court, the Cardinal-Archbishop of Vienna and the Primate of Hungary on 28 June 1900 to execute by signature an official instrument in which he publicly declared that Sophie would be his morganatic wife, never to bear the titles of empress, queen or archduchess, and acknowledging that their descendants would neither inherit nor be granted dynastic rights or privileges in any of the Habsburg realms.

Sophie and Franz Ferdinand were married 1 July 1900 at Reichstadt (now Zákupy
Zákupy
Zákupy is a town in the Česká Lípa District, Liberec Region of the Czech Republic. The number of inhabitants is 2,642.-History:The earliest preserved document where the city appears is from 1306....

) in Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

. The Emperor did not attend the nuptials, nor did any archduke, including Franz Ferdinand's brothers. The only members of the Imperial family who were present were Franz Ferdinand's stepmother, Archduchess Maria Theresia, and her two daughters.

Upon marriage, Sophie was given the title "Princess of Hohenberg" (Fürstin von Hohenberg) with the style Her Serene Highness (Ihre Durchlaucht). In 1909 she was given the higher title "Duchess of Hohenberg" (Herzogin von Hohenberg) with the style Her Highness (Ihre Hoheit).

Nonetheless, all of the archduchesses, mediatized
German Mediatisation
The German Mediatisation was the series of mediatisations and secularisations that occurred in Germany between 1795 and 1814, during the latter part of the era of the French Revolution and then the Napoleonic Era....

 princesses and countesses of Austria and Hungary took precedence before her. For the 14 years of their marriage, Sophie never shared her husband's rank, title, or precedence. Her position at the Imperial court was humiliating, aggravated by the Imperial Obersthofmeister
Hofmeister (office)
In medieval Europe, a Hofmeister was a house tutor, also responsible for the care of his students beyond their education....

, the Prince of Montnuovo
Alfred, 2nd Prince of Montenuovo
Alfred, 2nd Prince of Montenuovo was one of the highest court officials of Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria...

, whose insecurity about his own morganatic origin is said to have prompted him to rigorously enforce court protocol
Etiquette
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group...

 at Sophie's expense. Problems of protocol prevented many royal court
Royal court
Royal court, as distinguished from a court of law, may refer to:* The Royal Court , Timbaland's production company*Court , the household and entourage of a monarch or other ruler, the princely court...

s from hosting the couple despite Franz Ferdinand's position as heir to the throne. Nonetheless some did so, including King George V
George V of the United Kingdom
George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 through the First World War until his death in 1936....

 and Queen Mary
Mary of Teck
Mary of Teck was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Empress of India, as the wife of King-Emperor George V....

, who welcomed the couple to Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle is a medieval castle and royal residence in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, notable for its long association with the British royal family and its architecture. The original castle was built after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I it...

 from 17–21 November 1913.

The couple had four children:
  • Princess Sophie von Hohenberg
    Princess Sophie von Hohenberg
    Princess Sophie of Hohenberg was the only daughter of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg....

     (1901–1990), married Count Friedrich von Nostitz-Rieneck (1891–1973)
  • Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg
    Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg
    Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg was the eldest son of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, and his morganatic wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg...

     (1902–1962), married Countess Elisabeth von Waldburg zu Wolfegg und Waldsee (1904–1993)
  • Prince Ernst von Hohenberg (1904–1954), married Marie-Therese Wood (1910–1985)
  • stillborn
    Stillbirth
    A stillbirth occurs when a fetus has died in the uterus. The Australian definition specifies that fetal death is termed a stillbirth after 20 weeks gestation or the fetus weighs more than . Once the fetus has died the mother still has contractions and remains undelivered. The term is often used in...

     son (1908)

Assassination

In 1914, General Oskar Potiorek
Oskar Potiorek
Oskar Potiorek was an Austrian general who served as the Austro-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1911 and 1914...

, Governor of the Austrian provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina, invited Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Sophie to watch his troops on maneuvers
Military exercise
A military exercise is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat...

. Franz Ferdinand knew that the visit would be dangerous.

Sophie was usually not allowed to accompany her husband on official visits, but on this occasion Franz Ferdinand arranged for her to come as an anniversary gift.

At 10:10, when the procession passed the central police station, Nedeljko Čabrinović
Nedeljko Cabrinovic
Nedeljko Čabrinović was a member of the nationalist Young Bosnia movement, and one of a group of seven who intended to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria during his announced visit to Sarajevo.Born in Sarajevo, Čabrinović spent many of his post-school years as a handyman, before...

 hurled a hand grenade
Hand grenade
A hand grenade is any small bomb that can be thrown by hand. Hand grenades are classified into three categories, explosive grenades, chemical and gas grenades. Explosive grenades are the most commonly used in modern warfare, and are designed to detonate after impact or after a set amount of time...

 at the archduke's car. The driver accelerated when he saw the object flying towards the car and the grenade exploded under the wheel of the next car. Two of the occupants, Eric von Merizzi and Count Boos-Waldeck, were seriously wounded. Fourteen spectators were hit by bomb splinters.

After attending the official reception at the City Hall
City hall
In local government, a city hall, town hall or a municipal building or civic centre, is the chief administrative building of a city...

, Franz Ferdinand asked about the members of his party that had been wounded by the bomb. When the archduke was told they were badly injured in hospital, he insisted on being taken to see them. A member of the archduke's staff, Baron Morsey, suggested this might be dangerous, but Oskar Potiorek, who was responsible for the safety of the Imperial party, replied, "Do you think Sarajevo is full of assassins?" However, Potiorek did accept it would be better if Sophie remained behind in the city hall. When Baron Morsey told Sophie about the revised plans, she refused to stay, arguing: "As long as the Archduke shows himself in public today I will not leave him."

In order to avoid the city centre, General Oskar Potiorek decided that the Imperial car should travel straight along the Appel Quay
European route E761
European route E 761 is a road part of the International E-road network. It begins in Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina and ends in Zaječar, Serbia....

 to the Sarajevo Hospital. However, Potiorek forgot to tell the driver, Leopold Loyka
Leopold Loyka
Leopold Lojka was the chauffeur of the car carrying Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand at the point of Ferdinand's assassination in Sarajevo in 1914....

, about this decision. On the way to the hospital, by the Latin Bridge
Latin Bridge in Sarajevo
Latin Bridge , is a historic Ottoman bridge over the River Miljacka in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina...

, the driver took a right turn into Franz Joseph Street. One of the conspirators, Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip was the Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914...

, was standing on the corner at the time. Oskar Potiorek immediately realized the driver had taken the wrong route and shouted "What is this? This is the wrong way! We're supposed to take the Appel Quay!".

The driver put his foot on the brake, and began to back up. In doing so he moved slowly past the waiting Gavrilo Princip. The assassin
Assassination
To carry out an assassination is "to murder by a sudden and/or secret attack, often for political reasons." Alternatively, assassination may be defined as "the act of deliberately killing someone, especially a public figure, usually for hire or for political reasons."An assassination may be...

 stepped forward, drew his pistol, and at a distance of about five feet, fired several times into the car. Franz Ferdinand was hit in the neck and Sophie in the abdomen. Sophie said to her husband, "For God's sake what happened to you", then she fell bleeding. Before losing consciousness, he pleaded "Sophie dear! Sophie dear! Don't die! Stay alive for our children!" They were both dead within an hour.

Sophie and Franz Ferdinand had a joint funeral mass. A final show of their unequal rank, the Habsburgs placed Sophie on a bier that was 18 inches lower than her husband's, and the gloves indicative of her former status as an Imperial lady-in-waiting were placed on her coffin. They were buried in the crypt
Crypt
In architecture, a crypt is a stone chamber or vault beneath the floor of a burial vault possibly containing sarcophagi, coffins or relics....

 of their country home, Schloss Artstetten
Artstetten Castle
Artstetten Castle is a castle near the Wachau valley in Lower Austria, in the community of Artstetten-Pöbring....

. Today the castle houses a museum in their memory.

Commemorative coin

Duchess Sophie's castle of Artstetten
Artstetten Castle
Artstetten Castle is a castle near the Wachau valley in Lower Austria, in the community of Artstetten-Pöbring....

 was selected as a main motif for the 10-euro The Castle of Artstetten commemorative coin minted on 13 October 2004. The reverse shows the entrance to the crypt of the Hohenberg family. The portraits to the left showing Sophie and Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Titles

  • Countess Sophie Chotek von Chotkow und Wognin
  • Her Serene Highness The Princess
    Fürst
    Fürst is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince.The term refers to the head of a principality and is distinguished from the son of a monarch, who is referred to as Prinz...

     of Hohenberg
  • Her Highness The Duchess
    Herzog
    Herzog may refer to:* Herzog , German title of nobility* The surname Herzog, derived from the above-Athletes:* Andreas Herzog , Austrian soccer player* Dieter Herzog , German soccer player* Whitey Herzog , U.S...

     of Hohenberg

Ancestry


Through her grandmother's family, the Berchtolds, she is distantly related to former Austro-Hungarian foreign minister Count Leopold Berchtold and to Austrian conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt
Nikolaus Harnoncourt
Nikolaus Harnoncourt is an Austrian conductor, particularly known for his historically informed performances of music from the Classical era and earlier. Starting out as a classical cellist, he founded his own period instrument ensemble in the 1950s, and became a pioneer of the Early Music movement...

. Cardinal Christoph Schönborn is a great-grandson of her niece, Marie Chotek.

External links

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