Skateboarding
Overview
 

Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard
Skateboard
A skateboard is typically a specially designed plywood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability, used primarily for the activity of skateboarding. The first skateboards to reach public notice came out of the surfing craze of the early 1960s,...

.

Skateboarding can be a recreational activity, an art form, a job
Profession
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain....

, or a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2002 report found that there were 18.5 million skateboarders in the world. 85 percent of skateboarders polled who had used a board in the last year were under the age of 18, and 74 percent were male.

Skateboarding is relatively modern.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia

Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard
Skateboard
A skateboard is typically a specially designed plywood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability, used primarily for the activity of skateboarding. The first skateboards to reach public notice came out of the surfing craze of the early 1960s,...

.

Skateboarding can be a recreational activity, an art form, a job
Profession
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain....

, or a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2002 report found that there were 18.5 million skateboarders in the world. 85 percent of skateboarders polled who had used a board in the last year were under the age of 18, and 74 percent were male.

Skateboarding is relatively modern. A key skateboarding maneuver, the ollie
Ollie (skateboarding trick)
The ollie is a skateboarding trick where the rider and board leap into the air without the use of the rider's hands. Particularly on flat ground, it is not intuitively obvious how the liftoff is achieved, making the trick visually striking....

, was developed in the late 1970s by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand as a half-pipe maneuver. Freestyle skateboarder Rodney Mullen
Rodney Mullen
John Rodney Mullen is a professional freestyle and street skateboarder. He is widely acknowledged as one of the most innovative and influential street skaters in the history of skateboarding...

 was the first to take it to flat ground and later invented the kickflip
Kickflip
The Kickflip, Ollie Kickflip, or Ollie Flip is a skateboarding trick where the rider ollies and flips the board over in the air before landing.It was the first of many modern flip tricks to be invented by Rodney Mullen in the early 1980s....

 and its variations. Since the 1970s, skatepark
Skatepark
A skatepark is a purpose-built recreational environment made for skateboarding, BMX, aggressive inline skating and scooters. A skatepark may contain half-pipes, quarter pipes, spine transfers, handrails, funboxes, vert ramps, pyramids, banked ramps, full pipes, pools, bowls, snake runs stairsets,...

s have been constructed specifically for use by skateboarders, bikers and inline skaters.

The 1940s–1960s

Skateboarding was probably born sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s when surfers in California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 wanted something to surf when the waves were flat. No one knows who made the first board; it seems that several people came up with similar ideas at around the same time. These first skateboarders started with wooden boxes or boards with roller skate wheels attached to the bottom. The boxes turned into planks, and eventually companies were producing decks of pressed layers of wood – similar to the skateboard decks of today. During this time, skateboarding was seen as something to do for fun besides surfing, and was therefore often referred to as "Sidewalk Surfing".
The first manufactured skateboards were ordered by a Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

 surf shop, meant to be used by surfers in their downtime. The shop owner, Bill Richard, made a deal with the Chicago Roller Skate Company to produce sets of skate wheels, which they attached to square wooden boards. Accordingly, skateboarding was originally denoted "sidewalk surfing" and early skaters emulated surfing
Surfing
Surfing' is a surface water sport in which the surfer rides a surfboard on the crest and face of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore...

 style and maneuvers. Crate scooters preceded skateboards, and were borne of a similar concept, with the exception of having a wooden crate attached to the nose (front of the board), which formed rudimentary handlebars.

A number of surfing manufacturers such as Makaha started building skateboards that resembled small surfboards, and assembling teams to promote their products. The popularity of skateboarding at this time spawned a national magazine, Skateboarder Magazine
Skateboarder magazine
Skateboarder Magazine was first published in 1964 as a quarterly during the first skateboarding boom by Surfer Publications out of Dana Point, California. After an initial release of only four issues in 1964–65, it ceased publication until the first big skateboard revival of the early 1970s...

, and the 1965 international championships were broadcast on national television. The growth of the sport during this period can also be seen in sales figures for Makaha, which quoted $10 million worth of board sales between 1963 and 1965 (Weyland, 2002:28). Yet by 1966 the sales had dropped significantly (ibid) and Skateboarder Magazine had stopped publication. The popularity of skateboarding dropped and remained low until the early 1970s.

The 1970s

In the early 1970s, Frank Nasworthy
Frank Nasworthy
Frank Nasworthy is recognized as having introduced polyurethane wheel technology to skateboarding in the early 1970s.After graduating from Annandale High School in Northern Virginia in 1969, Nasworthy attended Virginia Tech for a year. Back with his family for the summer in 1970, he visited a...

 started to develop a skateboard wheel made of polyurethane
Polyurethane
A polyurethane is any polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization, by reacting a monomer with another monomer in the presence of a catalyst.Polyurethanes are...

, calling his company Cadillac Wheels. Prior to this new material, skateboards wheels were metal or "clay" wheels. The improvement in traction and performance was so immense that from the wheel's release in 1972 the popularity of skateboarding started to rise rapidly again, causing companies to invest more in product development. Nasworthy commissioned artist Jim Evans
Jim Evans (artist)
Jim Evans born sometime in the 1950s, sometimes known as T.A.Z., is an American painter, printmaker, and Creative Director who was a contributing figure in the visual art movement known as underground comics...

 to do a series of paintings promoting Cadillac Wheels, they were featured as ads and posters in the resurrected Skateborder magazine, and proved immensely popular in promoting the new style of skateboarding. Many companies started to manufacture trucks (axles) specially designed for skateboarding, reached in 1976 by Tracker Trucks. As the equipment became more maneuverable, the decks started to get wider, reaching widths of 10 inches (254 mm) and over, thus giving the skateboarder even more control. Banana board is a term used to describe skateboards made of polypropylene
Polypropylene
Polypropylene , also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging, textiles , stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes...

 that were skinny, flexible, with ribs on the underside for structural support and very popular during the mid-1970s. They were available in myriad colors, bright yellow probably being the most memorable, hence the name.

Manufacturers started to experiment with more exotic composites and metals, like fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

 and aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

, but the common skateboards were made of maple plywood. The skateboarders took advantage of the improved handling of their skateboards and started inventing new tricks. Skateboarders, most notably Ty Page
Ty Page
Ty Scott Page is a professional skateboarder who was known as one of the most innovative skateboarder in the world. Ty Page was a leader in the skateboard world during "the golden era" of skateboarding in the early 1970s....

, Bruce Logan, Bobby Piercy, Kevin Reed, and the Z-Boys
Z-Boys
The Z-Boys was a group of skateboarders in the mid-1970s from Santa Monica and Venice, California. The aerial and sliding skate moves that the Z-Boys invented were the basis for aerial skateboarding today.-History:...

 (so-called because of their local Zephyr surf shop) started to skate the vertical walls of swimming pools that were left empty in the 1976 California drought. This started the vert trend in skateboarding. With increased control, vert skaters could skate faster and perform more dangerous tricks, such as slash grinds and frontside/backside airs. This caused liability concerns and increased insurance costs to skatepark owners, and the development (first by Norcon,then more successfully by Rector
Rector
The word rector has a number of different meanings; it is widely used to refer to an academic, religious or political administrator...

) of improved knee pads that had a hard sliding cap and strong strapping proved to be too-little-too-late. During this era, the "freestyle" movement in skateboarding began to splinter off and develop into a much more specialized discipline, characterized by the development of a wide assortment of flat-ground tricks.

As a result of the "vert" skating movement, skate parks had to contend with high-liability costs that led to many park closures. In response, vert skaters started making their own ramps, while freestyle skaters continued to evolve their flatland style. Thus by the beginning of the 1980s, skateboarding had once again declined in popularity.

The 1980s

This period was fueled by skateboard companies that were run by skateboarders. The focus was initially on vert ramp
Vert ramp
A vert ramp is a form of half-pipe used in "extreme sports" such as skateboarding.Another form of half-pipe is the mini ramp.Vert ramps are so named because they transition from a horizontal plane to a vertical wall....

 skateboarding. The invention of the no-hands aerial (later known as the ollie
Ollie (skateboarding trick)
The ollie is a skateboarding trick where the rider and board leap into the air without the use of the rider's hands. Particularly on flat ground, it is not intuitively obvious how the liftoff is achieved, making the trick visually striking....

) by Alan Gelfand
Alan Gelfand
Alan "OLLIE" Gelfand is the inventor of the ollie, a skateboarding trick.-Life and career:Gelfand moved from New York to Hollywood, Florida with his family in 1968. Alan "Ollie" Gelfand started skateboarding in 1974 after his father bought him his first skateboard. In 1976 he won the South Florida...

 in Florida in 1976 and the almost parallel development of the grabbed aerial by George Orton
George Orton
George Washington Orton was a Canadian middle-distance runner. In 1900, he became the first Canadian to win an Olympic medal.-Biography:...

 and Tony Alva
Tony Alva
Tony Alva , is one of the original Z-Boys and is considered to be one of the most influential skateboarders of all time. He was professional skateboarding's first world champion in history, a title he won in 1977.-Career:...

 in California made it possible for skaters to perform airs on vertical ramps. While this wave of skateboarding was sparked by commercialized vert ramp skating, a majority of people who skateboarded during this period never rode vert ramps. Because most people could not afford to build vert ramps or did not have access to nearby ramps, street skating gained popularity.

Freestyle skating remained healthy throughout this period with pioneers such as Rodney Mullen
Rodney Mullen
John Rodney Mullen is a professional freestyle and street skateboarder. He is widely acknowledged as one of the most innovative and influential street skaters in the history of skateboarding...

 inventing many of the basic tricks of modern street skating such as the Impossible and the kickflip
Kickflip
The Kickflip, Ollie Kickflip, or Ollie Flip is a skateboarding trick where the rider ollies and flips the board over in the air before landing.It was the first of many modern flip tricks to be invented by Rodney Mullen in the early 1980s....

. The influence freestyle had on street skating became apparent during the mid-eighties, but street skating was still performed on wide vert boards with short noses, slide rails, and large soft wheels. Skateboarding, however, evolved quickly in the late 1980s to accommodate the street skater. Since few skateparks were available to skaters at this time, street skating pushed skaters to seek out shopping centers and public and private property as their "spot" to skate. Public opposition, and the threat of lawsuits, forced businesses and property owners to ban skateboarding on their property. By 1992, only a small fraction of skateboarders remained as a highly technical version of street skating, combined with the decline of vert skating, produced a sport that lacked the mainstream appeal to attract new skaters.

The 1990s–present

The current generation of skateboards is dominated by street skateboarding. Most boards are about 7+1/4 in wide and 30 to 32 in (762 to 812.8 mm) long. The wheels are made of an extremely hard polyurethane
Polyurethane
A polyurethane is any polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization, by reacting a monomer with another monomer in the presence of a catalyst.Polyurethanes are...

, with hardness (durometer) approximately 99A. The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards are lighter, and the wheel's inertia is overcome quicker, thus making tricks more manageable. Board styles have changed dramatically since the 1970s but have remained mostly alike since the mid 1990s. The contemporary shape of the skateboard is derived from the freestyle
Freestyle skateboarding
Freestyle skateboarding , perhaps the oldest style of skateboarding, is a type of skating that was popular intermittently from the 1960s until the early 1990s, when the last large scale professional competition was held; it would be 8 years until the next . The emphasis in freestyle is technical...

 boards of the 1980s with a largely symmetrical shape and relatively narrow width. This form had become standard by the mid '90s.

Go Skateboarding Day
Go Skateboarding Day
Go Skateboarding Day is an unofficial annual holiday conceived by the International Association of Skateboard Companies to promote skateboarding. It is usually marked on June 21.-History:...

 was created in 2004 by a group of skateboarding companies to promote skateboarding and help make it more noticeable to the world. It is celebrated every year on June 21.

Trick skating

With the evolution of skatepark
Skatepark
A skatepark is a purpose-built recreational environment made for skateboarding, BMX, aggressive inline skating and scooters. A skatepark may contain half-pipes, quarter pipes, spine transfers, handrails, funboxes, vert ramps, pyramids, banked ramps, full pipes, pools, bowls, snake runs stairsets,...

s and ramp skating, the skateboard began to change. Early skate tricks had consisted mainly of two-dimensional maneuvers like riding on only two wheels ("wheelie" or "manual"), spinning only on the back wheels (a "pivot"), high jumping over a bar and landing on the board again, also known as a "hippie jump", long jumping from one board to another (often over small barrels or fearless teenagers) or slalom. Another popular trick was the Bertlemann slide named after Larry Bertelemanns surfing maneuvers.

In 1976, skateboarding was transformed by the invention of the ollie
Ollie (skateboarding trick)
The ollie is a skateboarding trick where the rider and board leap into the air without the use of the rider's hands. Particularly on flat ground, it is not intuitively obvious how the liftoff is achieved, making the trick visually striking....

 by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand
Alan Gelfand
Alan "OLLIE" Gelfand is the inventor of the ollie, a skateboarding trick.-Life and career:Gelfand moved from New York to Hollywood, Florida with his family in 1968. Alan "Ollie" Gelfand started skateboarding in 1974 after his father bought him his first skateboard. In 1976 he won the South Florida...

. It remained largely a unique Florida trick until the summer of 1978, when Gelfand made his first visit to California. Gelfand and his revolutionary maneuvers caught the attention of the West Coast skaters and the media where it began to spread worldwide. The ollie was adapted to flat ground by Rodney Mullen
Rodney Mullen
John Rodney Mullen is a professional freestyle and street skateboarder. He is widely acknowledged as one of the most innovative and influential street skaters in the history of skateboarding...

 in 1982. Mullen also invented the "Magic Flip", which was later renamed the kickflip
Kickflip
The Kickflip, Ollie Kickflip, or Ollie Flip is a skateboarding trick where the rider ollies and flips the board over in the air before landing.It was the first of many modern flip tricks to be invented by Rodney Mullen in the early 1980s....

, as well many other tricks including, the 360 Kickflip, which is a 360 pop shove it
Shove it
Shove It is the first album released by The Cross, founded by Queen drummer Roger Taylor. This album contains a mix of rock with dance influences.-History:...

 and a kickflip in the same motion. The flat ground ollie allowed skateboarders to perform tricks in mid-air without any more equipment than the skateboard itself, it has formed the basis of many street skating tricks.

Culture

Skateboarding was popularized by the 1986 skateboarding cult classic Thrashin', also known as Skate Gang directed by David Winters
David Winters (choreographer)
David Winters is an English-born American dancer, choreographer, producer, director, screenwriter, and actor. Winters has participated in, directed and produced over 400 television series, specials, and motion pictures...

. It has appearances from many famous skaters such as Tony Alva
Tony Alva
Tony Alva , is one of the original Z-Boys and is considered to be one of the most influential skateboarders of all time. He was professional skateboarding's first world champion in history, a title he won in 1977.-Career:...

, Tony Hawk
Tony Hawk
Anthony Frank "Tony" Hawk , nicknamed "The Birdman" is an American retired professional skateboarder and actor. Hawk gained significant fame for completing the first 900 as well as his licensed video game titles distributed by Activision...

, Christian Hosoi
Christian Hosoi
Christian Rosha Hosoi is an American professional skateboarder. He is also known by the nicknames "Christ" and "Holmes". Hosoi is married to a former night club dancer Jenn Lee and has four sons, James Hosoi, Rhythm Hosoi , Classic Hosoi and Endless Hosoi...

 and Steve Caballero
Steve Caballero
Steve Caballero is a professional skateboarder and musician. Steve was born in the year of the dragon, and has had several board graphics that feature dragons. He was born with scoliosis.-Life and career:...

. The film starred Josh Brolin
Josh Brolin
Josh James Brolin is an American actor. He has acted in theater, film and television roles since 1985, and won acting awards for his roles in the films W., No Country for Old Men, Milk and True Grit.-Early life:...

, who would go on to win acting awards for his roles in the films W.
W. (film)
W. is a 2008 American film based on the life and presidency of George W. Bush. It was produced and directed by Oliver Stone, written by Stanley Weiser, and stars Josh Brolin as Bush, with a cast that includes Ellen Burstyn, Elizabeth Banks, James Cromwell, Thandie Newton, Jeffrey Wright, Scott...

, No Country for Old Men
No Country for Old Men (film)
No Country for Old Men is a 2007 American crime thriller directed by Joel Coen and Ethan Coen, and starring Tommy Lee Jones, Javier Bardem, and Josh Brolin. The film was adapted from the Cormac McCarthy novel of the same name...

, Milk
Milk (film)
Milk is a 2008 American biographical film on the life of gay rights activist and politician Harvey Milk, who was the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California, as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors...

and Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps. Thrashin' also had a direct impact on Lords Of Dogtown
Lords of Dogtown
Lords of Dogtown is a 2005 biographical film directed by Catherine Hardwicke, written by Stacy Peralta. The film is based on the story of "The Z-Boys", an influential group of skateboarders who revolutionized the sport...

as Catherine Hardwicke
Catherine Hardwicke
Catherine Hardwicke is an American production designer, film writer and film director. Her works include the independent film Thirteen, which she co-wrote with Nikki Reed, the film's co-star, the Biblically-themed The Nativity Story, the vampire film Twilight, and the werewolf film Red Riding Hood...

, who directed Lords Of Dogtown
Lords of Dogtown
Lords of Dogtown is a 2005 biographical film directed by Catherine Hardwicke, written by Stacy Peralta. The film is based on the story of "The Z-Boys", an influential group of skateboarders who revolutionized the sport...

was hired by Winters to work on Thrashin' as a production designer
Production designer
In film and television, a production designer is the person responsible for the overall look of a filmed event such as films, TV programs, music videos or adverts. Production designers have one of the key creative roles in the creation of motion pictures and television. Working directly with the...

 where she met, worked with and befriended many famous skaters including the real Tony Alva
Tony Alva
Tony Alva , is one of the original Z-Boys and is considered to be one of the most influential skateboarders of all time. He was professional skateboarding's first world champion in history, a title he won in 1977.-Career:...

, Tony Hawk
Tony Hawk
Anthony Frank "Tony" Hawk , nicknamed "The Birdman" is an American retired professional skateboarder and actor. Hawk gained significant fame for completing the first 900 as well as his licensed video game titles distributed by Activision...

, Christian Hosoi
Christian Hosoi
Christian Rosha Hosoi is an American professional skateboarder. He is also known by the nicknames "Christ" and "Holmes". Hosoi is married to a former night club dancer Jenn Lee and has four sons, James Hosoi, Rhythm Hosoi , Classic Hosoi and Endless Hosoi...

 and Steve Caballero
Steve Caballero
Steve Caballero is a professional skateboarder and musician. Steve was born in the year of the dragon, and has had several board graphics that feature dragons. He was born with scoliosis.-Life and career:...

.

Skateboarding was, at first, tied to the culture of surfing
Surfing
Surfing' is a surface water sport in which the surfer rides a surfboard on the crest and face of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore...

. As skateboarding spread across the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 to places unfamiliar with surfing or surfing culture, it developed an image of its own. For example, the classic film short Video Days
Video Days
Video Days is a skateboarding video by Blind Skateboards released in 1991. It is considered one of the most influential skate videos, as director Spike Jonze's format has continued to be the definitive template for most skate videos....

(1991) portrayed skateboarders as reckless rebels.

The image of the skateboarder as a rebellious, non-conforming youth has faded in recent years. Certain cities still oppose the building of skateparks in their neighborhoods, for fear of increased crime and drugs in the area. The rift between the old image of skateboarding and a newer one is quite visible: magazines such as Thrasher portray skateboarding as dirty, rebellious, and still firmly tied to punk
Punk subculture
The punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, and forms of expression, including fashion, visual art, dance, literature, and film, which grew out of punk rock.-History:...

, while other publications, Transworld Skateboarding
Transworld Skateboarding
Transworld SKATEboarding is a skateboarding magazine, website, and production company.Founded in 1983, TWS was a response to Thrasher Magazine and specifically to the December 1982 article ‘Skate and Destroy’ written by C.R...

as an example, paint a more diverse and controlled picture of skateboarding. Furthermore, as more professional skaters use hip hop
Hip hop
Hip hop is a form of musical expression and artistic culture that originated in African-American and Latino communities during the 1970s in New York City, specifically the Bronx. DJ Afrika Bambaataa outlined the four pillars of hip hop culture: MCing, DJing, breaking and graffiti writing...

, reggae
Reggae
Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. While sometimes used in a broader sense to refer to most types of Jamaican music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style that originated following on the development of ska and rocksteady.Reggae is based...

, or hard rock
Hard rock
Hard rock is a loosely defined genre of rock music which has its earliest roots in mid-1960s garage rock, blues rock and psychedelic rock...

 music accompaniment in their videos, many urban youths, hip-hop fans, reggae fans, and hard rock fans are also drawn to skateboarding, further diluting the sport's punk image.

Films such as the 1986 Thrashin', Grind
Grind (2003 film)
Grind is a 2003 American adventureassshole movie comedy film about four young aspiring amateur skaters Eric Rivers , Matt Jensen , Dustin Knight , and Sweet Lou Singer who are trying to make it in the world of pro skateboarding by pulling insane stunts in front of pro skater Jimmy Wilson...

and Lords Of Dogtown
Lords of Dogtown
Lords of Dogtown is a 2005 biographical film directed by Catherine Hardwicke, written by Stacy Peralta. The film is based on the story of "The Z-Boys", an influential group of skateboarders who revolutionized the sport...

, have helped improve the reputation of skateboarding youth, depicting individuals of this subculture as having a positive outlook on life, prone to poking harmless fun at each other, and engaging in healthy sportsman's competition. According to the film, lack of respect, egotism and hostility towards fellow skateboarders is generally frowned upon, albeit each of the characters (and as such, proxies of the "stereotypical" skateboarder) have a firm disrespect for authority and for rules in general. Group spirit is supposed to heavily influence the members of this community. In presentations of this sort, showcasing of criminal tendencies is absent, and no attempt is made to tie extreme sports to any kind of illegal activity.

Gleaming the Cube
Gleaming the Cube
Gleaming the Cube is an American movie released in 1989. It featured Christian Slater as Brian Kelly, a 16-year-old skateboarder investigating the death of his adopted Vietnamese brother.The Skating Technical Advisor for the film was original Z-Boy, Stacy Peralta...

, a 1989 movie starring Christian Slater as a skateboarding teen investigating the death of his adopted Vietnamese brother was somewhat of an iconic landmark to the skateboarding genre of the era. Many well-known skaters had cameos in the film, including Tony Hawk
Tony Hawk
Anthony Frank "Tony" Hawk , nicknamed "The Birdman" is an American retired professional skateboarder and actor. Hawk gained significant fame for completing the first 900 as well as his licensed video game titles distributed by Activision...

.

Skateboarding video games have also become very popular in skateboarding culture. Some of the most popular are the Tony Hawk series, and Skate series for various consoles (Including hand-held) and personal computer.

Safety

Skateboards, along with other small-wheeled transportation such as in-line skates and scooters, suffer a safety problem: riders may easily be thrown from small cracks and outcroppings in pavement, especially where the cracks run across the direction of travel. Hitting such an irregularity is the major cause of falls and injuries. The risk may be reduced at higher travel speeds.

Severe injuries are relatively rare. Commonly, a skateboarder who falls suffers from scrapes, cuts, bruise
Bruise
A bruise, also called a contusion, is a type of relatively minor hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding interstitial tissues. Bruises can involve capillaries at the level of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle,...

s, and sprain
Sprain
A sprain is an injury in a joint, caused by the ligament being stretched beyond its capacity. A muscular tear caused in the same manner is referred to as a strain. In cases where either ligament or muscle tissue is torn, immobilization and surgical repair may be necessary...

s. Among injuries reported to a hospital, about half involve broken bones, usually the long bones in the leg or arm. One-third of skateboarders with reported injuries are very new to the sport, having started skating within one week of the injury. Although less common, involving 3.5% to 9% of reported injuries, traumatic head injuries and death are possible severe outcomes.

Skating as a form of transportation exposes the skateboarder to the dangers of other traffic. Skateboarders on the street may be hit by other vehicles or may fall into vehicular traffic.

Skateboarders also pose a risk to other pedestrians and traffic. If the skateboarder falls, the skateboard may roll or fly into another person. A skateboarder who collides with a person who is walking or biking may injure or, rarely, kill that person.

Many jurisdictions require skateboarders to wear bicycle helmet
Bicycle helmet
A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. They are designed to attenuate impacts to the skull of a cyclist in falls while minimizing side effects such as interference with peripheral vision...

s to reduce the risk of head injuries and death. Other protective gear, such as wrist guard
Wrist guard
A wrist-guard is a device to protect the wrist. Wrist-guards are sold in skateboard, snowboard and sporting goods stores. They are worn also by people using a balance board.-See also:* Stone wrist-guard* Hand guard* Usage of personal protective equipment...

s, also reduce injury. Some medical researchers have proposed restricting skateboarding to designated, specially designed areas, to reduce the number and severity of injuries, and to eliminate injuries caused by motor vehicles or to other pedestrians.

The use, ownership and sale of skateboards were forbidden in Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 from 1978 to 1989 because of the high number of injuries caused by boards. The ban led skateboarders to construct ramps in the forest and other secluded areas to avoid the police.

Other uses and styles

Transportation

The use of skateboards solely as a form of transportation is often associated with the longboard
Longboard (skateboard)
A longboard is a surfing variant of a skateboard, similar and related to a surfboard or snowboard with wheels. It is used for cruising, downhill racing, slalom racing, sliding, and/or transport. However, most stunts, and the boards themselves are very different from that of a typical skateboard...

. Depending on local laws, using skateboards as a form of transportation outside residential areas may or may not be legal. Backers cite portability, exercise, and environmental friendliness as some of the benefits of skateboarding as an alternative to automobiles.

Military

The United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 tested the usefulness of commercial off-the-shelf skateboards during urban combat military exercise
Military exercise
A military exercise is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat...

s in the late 1990s in a program called Urban Warrior '99. Their special purpose was "for maneuvering inside buildings in order to detect tripwire
Tripwire
A tripwire is a passive triggering mechanism. Typically, a wire or cord is attached to some device for detecting or reacting to physical movement...

s and sniper
Sniper
A sniper is a marksman who shoots targets from concealed positions or distances exceeding the capabilities of regular personnel. Snipers typically have specialized training and distinct high-precision rifles....

 fire".

Trampboarding

Trampboarding is a variant of skateboarding that uses a board without the trucks and the wheels on a trampoline
Trampoline
A trampoline is a device consisting of a piece of taut, strong fabric stretched over a steel frame using many coiled springs. People bounce on trampolines for recreational and competitive purposes....

. Using the bounce of the trampoline gives height to perform a tricks, whereas in skateboarding you need to make the height by performing an ollie
Ollie (skateboarding trick)
The ollie is a skateboarding trick where the rider and board leap into the air without the use of the rider's hands. Particularly on flat ground, it is not intuitively obvious how the liftoff is achieved, making the trick visually striking....

. Trampboarding is seen on YouTube
YouTube
YouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos....

 in numerous videos.

Swing boarding

Swing boarding
Swing boarding
Swing boarding is a physical activity that involves standing on a short board which is suspended from a frame which allows the board to swing freely. A typical structure is a playground swingset.-History:...

is the activity where a skateboard deck is suspended from a pivot point above the rider which allows the rider to swing about that pivot point. The board swings in an arc which is a similar movement to riding a half pipe. The incorporation of a harness and frame allows the rider to perform turns spins all while flying though the air.

Land paddling

"Land paddling" is the use of a long pole or stick while longboarding. The stick is used to propel the longboarder farther without pumping. The stick is also used to direct the longboarder in the direction they are trying to turn and can be used as a brake.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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