Shoe
Overview
 
A shoe is an item of footwear
Footwear
Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment, and adornment. Being barefoot is commonly associated with poverty, but some cultures chose not to wear footwear at least in some situations....

 intended to protect and comfort the human foot while doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration. The design
Design
Design as a noun informally refers to a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system while “to design” refers to making this plan...

 of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture
Culture
Culture is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions...

 to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
A shoe is an item of footwear
Footwear
Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment, and adornment. Being barefoot is commonly associated with poverty, but some cultures chose not to wear footwear at least in some situations....

 intended to protect and comfort the human foot while doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration. The design
Design
Design as a noun informally refers to a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system while “to design” refers to making this plan...

 of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture
Culture
Culture is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions...

 to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Basic sandals may consist of only a thin sole and simple strap. High fashion
Fashion
Fashion, a general term for a currently popular style or practice, especially in clothing, foot wear, or accessories. Fashion references to anything that is the current trend in look and dress up of a person...

 shoes may be made of very expensive materials in complex construction and sell for thousands of dollars a pair. Other shoes are for very specific purposes, such as boot
Boot
A boot is a type of footwear but they are not shoes. Most boots mainly cover the foot and the ankle and extend up the leg, sometimes as far as the knee or even the hip. Most boots have a heel that is clearly distinguishable from the rest of the sole, even if the two are made of one piece....

s specially designed for mountaineering
Mountaineering
Mountaineering or mountain climbing is the sport, hobby or profession of hiking, skiing, and climbing mountains. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed mountains it has branched into specialisations that address different aspects of the mountain and consists...

 or skiing
Skiing
Skiing is a recreational activity using skis as equipment for traveling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding....

.

Shoes have traditionally been made from leather
Leather
Leather is a durable and flexible material created via the tanning of putrescible animal rawhide and skin, primarily cattlehide. It can be produced through different manufacturing processes, ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.-Forms:...

, wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

 or canvas
Canvas
Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, and other items for which sturdiness is required. It is also popularly used by artists as a painting surface, typically stretched across a wooden frame...

, but are increasingly made from rubber
Synthetic rubber
Synthetic rubber is is any type of artificial elastomer, invariably a polymer. An elastomer is a material with the mechanical property that it can undergo much more elastic deformation under stress than most materials and still return to its previous size without permanent deformation...

, plastic
Plastic
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce production costs...

s, and other petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

-derived materials.

Until recent years, shoes were not worn by most of the world's population—largely because they could not afford them. Only with the advent of mass production
Mass production
Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines...

, making shoes available very cheaply, has shoe-wearing become predominant.

The foot contains more bone
Bone
Bones are rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue...

s than any other single part of the body
Human body
The human body is the entire structure of a human organism, and consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs.By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillion cells, the basic unit of life...

. Though it has evolved
Human evolution
Human evolution refers to the evolutionary history of the genus Homo, including the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species and as a unique category of hominids and mammals...

 over hundreds of thousands of years in relation to vastly varied terrain
Terrain
Terrain, or land relief, is the vertical and horizontal dimension of land surface. When relief is described underwater, the term bathymetry is used...

 and climate
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

 conditions, the foot is still vulnerable to environmental hazards such as sharp rocks and hot ground, which shoes can protect against.

History

The earliest known shoes are sandals dating from about 8000 to 7000 BC and found in Oregon
Oregon
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located on the Pacific coast, with Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada on the southeast and Idaho to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers delineate much of Oregon's northern and eastern...

, USA in 1938. The world's oldest leather shoe
Areni-1 shoe
The Areni-1 shoe is a 5,500-year-old leather shoe that was found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave complex located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia. It is a one-piece leather-hide shoe that has been dated as a few hundred years older than the one found on Ötzi the Iceman,...

, made from a single piece of cowhide laced with a leather cord along seams at the front and back, was found in a cave in Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

 in 2008 and is believed to date to 3,500 BC. Ötzi the Iceman
Ötzi the Iceman
Ötzi the Iceman , Similaun Man, and Man from Hauslabjoch are modern names for a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived about 5,300 years ago. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy. The nickname comes from the...

's shoes, dating to 3,300 BC, featured brown bearskin bases, deerskin side panels, and a bark-string net, which pulled tight around the foot. However, tanned leather, the material most commonly used for making shoes, does not normally last for thousands of years, so shoes were probably in use long before this. Physical anthropologist Erik Trinkaus
Erik Trinkaus
Erik Trinkaus, PhD, is a prominent paleoanthropologist and expert on Neanderthal biology and human evolution. Trinkaus researches the evolution of the species Homo sapiens and recent human diversity, focusing on the paleoanthropology and emergence of late archaic and early modern humans, and the...

 believes he has found evidence that the use of shoes began in the period between about 40,000 and 26,000 years ago, based on the fact that the thickness of the bones of the toes (other than the big toe) decreased during this period, on the premise that wearing shoes resulted in less bone growth, resulting in shorter, thinner toes.
The earliest designs were simple affairs, often mere "foot bags" of leather to protect the feet from rocks, debris, and cold. Since shoes use more leather than sandal
Sandal (footwear)
Sandals are an open type of outdoor footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps passing over the instep and, sometimes, around the ankle...

s, their use was more common in cold climates. By the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, turn-shoes had been developed with toggled flaps or drawstring
Drawstring
A drawstring is a string, cord, or rope used to "draw" or tie closed an opening in fabric or other material...

s to tighten the leather around the foot for a better fit. As Europe gained in wealth and power, fancy shoes became status symbols. Toes became long and pointed, often to ridiculous proportions. Artisans created unique footwear for rich patrons, and new styles developed. Eventually the modern shoe, with a sewn-on sole, was devised. Since the 17th century, most leather shoes have used a sewn-on sole. This remains the standard for finer-quality dress shoes today. Until around 1800, shoes were made without differentiation for the left or right foot. Such shoes are now referred to as "straights". Only gradually did the modern foot-specific shoe become standard.

Since the mid-20th Century, advances in rubber, plastics, synthetic cloth, and industrial adhesives have allowed manufacturers to create shoes that stray considerably from traditional crafting techniques. Leather, which had been the primary material in earlier styles, has remained standard in expensive dress shoes, but athletic shoes often have little or no real leather. Soles, which were once laboriously hand-stitched on, are now more often machine stitched or simply glued on.

Sole

The bottom of a shoe, the part that is intended to come in repeated contact with the ground, is called the sole. Soles have been made from plant fibers, leather, wood, rubber, synthetics, plastic, and various combinations of these materials. Soles can be simple, a single material in a single layer, or they can be complex with multiple structures or layers and materials.

Insole

The insole is the interior bottom of a shoe, which sits directly beneath the foot under the footbed (also known as sock liner). The purpose of insole is to attach to the lasting margin of the upper, which is wrapped around the last
Last
A last is a form in the approximate shape of a human foot, used by shoemakers and cordwainers in the manufacture and repair of shoes. Lasts typically come in pairs, and throughout their history have been made from many materials, including hardwoods, cast iron, and, more recently, high density...

 during the closing of the shoe during the lasting operation. Insoles are usually made of cellulosic paper board or synthetic non woven insole board. Many shoes have removable and replaceable footbeds. Extra cushioning is often added for comfort (to control the shape, moisture, or smell of the shoe) or health reasons (to help deal with defects in the natural shape of the foot or positioning of the foot during standing or walking). Basically, this is a main part of shoes which can absorb foot sweat. Footbeds should typically use foam cushioning sheets like latex and EVA
Ethylene-vinyl acetate
Ethylene vinyl acetate is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. The weight percent vinyl acetate usually varies from 10 to 40%, with the remainder being ethylene....

, which provide good wearing comfort of the shoe.

Outsole

The outsole is the layer in direct contact with the ground. Dress shoes often have leather or resin rubber outsoles; casual or work-oriented shoes have outsoles made of natural rubber or a synthetic material like Polyurethane. The outsole may comprise a single piece, or may be an assembly of separate pieces of different materials. Often the heel of the sole has a rubber plate for durability and traction, while the front is leather for style. Specialized shoes will often have modifications on this design: athletic or so called cleated shoes like soccer, rugby, baseball and golf shoes have spikes embedded in the outsole to grip the ground.

Midsole

The layer in between the outsole and the insole that is typically there for shock absorption. Some types of shoes, like running shoes, have another material for shock absorption, usually beneath the heel of the foot, where one puts the most pressure down. Different companies use different materials for the midsoles of their shoes. Some shoes may not have a midsole at all.

Heel

The bottom rear part of a shoe is the heel. Its function is to support the heel of the foot. They are often made of the same material as the sole of the shoe. This part can be high for fashion or to make the person look taller, or flat for a more practical and comfortable use.

Vamp/upper

Every shoe has an upper part that helps hold the shoe onto the foot. In the simplest cases, such as sandals or flip-flops, this may be nothing more than a few straps for holding the sole in place. Closed footwear, such as boots, trainers and most men's shoes, will have a more complex upper. This part is often decorated or is made in a certain style to look attractive.

Lateral/medial

The outside part of the shoe is referred to as the lateral and the inside facing part of the shoe is the medial. This can be in reference to either the outsole or the vamp.

Welt

A welt is a strip of leather, rubber, or plastic that is stitched to the upper and insole of a shoe, as an attach-point for the sole.

Accessories

  • Shoehorn: can be used to insert a foot into a shoe by keeping the shoe open and providing a smooth surface for the foot to slide upon.
  • Shoe tree
    Shoe tree
    A shoe tree is a device approximating the shape of a foot that is placed inside a shoe to preserve its shape, stop it from developing creases and thereby extend the life of the shoe....

    : placed inside the shoe when user is not wearing it, to help maintain the shoe's shape.
  • Heel grip: used to prevent the shoe from slipping on the heel if the fit is not perfect
  • Foam tap: a small foam pad placed under the ball of the foot to push the foot up and back if the shoe is too loose.
  • Shoe polishing equipment:
    • Shoe polish
      Shoe polish
      Shoe polish , usually a waxy paste or a cream, is a consumer product used to polish, shine, waterproof, and restore the appearance of leather shoes or boots, thereby extending the footwear's life...

      : a waxy material spread on shoes to improve appearance and glossiness, and provide protection.
    • Shoe brush and polishing cloth: used to apply polish to shoes.
  • Overshoes or galoshes
    Galoshes
    Galoshes , also known as boat shoes, dickersons, or overshoes, are a type of rubber boot that is slipped over shoes to keep them from getting muddy or wet. The word galoshes might be used interchangeably with boot, especially a rubberized boot...

    : a rubber covering placed over shoes for rain and snow protection.
  • (Orthopedic) shoe insert
    Shoe insert
    A shoe insert is a removable insole which accomplishes any of a number of purposes, including daily wear comfort, foot and joint pain relief from arthritis, overuse, injuries, and other causes, orthopedic correction, smell reduction, athletic performance, or even increasing the wearer's height or...

    : insert of various materials for cushioning, improved fit, or reduced abrasion. These include padding and inner linings. Inserts may also be used to correct foot problems.
  • Shoe bag: a bag that protects shoes against damage when they are not being worn.
  • Shoe stretcher
    Stretcher
    A stretcher is a medical device used to carry casualties or an incapacitated person from one place to another. It is a simple type of litter, and still called by that name in some cases....

    : a tool for making a shoe longer or wider or for reducing discomfort in areas of a shoe.
  • Snow shoe: a wooden or leather piece which increases the area of ground covered by the shoe.
  • Shoelaces
    Shoelaces
    Shoelaces, which are also called shoe-strings, shoe laces, or boot laces, are a system commonly used to secure shoes, boots and other footwear. They typically consist of a pair of strings or cords, one for each shoe, finished off at both ends with stiff sections, known as aglets...

    : a system used to secure shoes.

Dress and casual

Dress shoe
Dress shoe
A dress shoe is a shoe to be worn at smart casual or more formal events. A dress shoe is typically contrasted to an athletic shoe....

s are characterized by smooth and supple leather uppers, leather soles, and narrow sleek figure. Casual shoes are characterized by sturdy leather uppers, non-leather outsoles, and wide profile.

Some designs of dress shoes can be worn by either gender. The majority of dress shoes have an upper covering, commonly made of leather, enclosing most of the lower foot, but not covering the ankles. This upper part of the shoe is often made without apertures or openings, but may also be made with openings or even itself consist of a series of straps, e.g. an open toe featured in women's shoes. Shoes with uppers made high to cover the ankles are also available; a shoe with the upper rising above the ankle is usually considered a boot but certain styles may be referred to as high-topped shoes or high-tops. Usually, a high-topped shoe is secured by laces or zippers, although some styles have elastic inserts to ease slipping the shoe on.

Men's

Men's shoes can be categorized by how they are closed:
  • Oxfords
    Oxford shoe
    An Oxford is a style of laced shoe characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are stitched underneath the vamp, a construction method that is also sometimes referred to as "closed lacing". Oxfords first appeared in Scotland and Ireland, where they are occasionally called Balmorals after the Queen's...

     (also referred as "Balmorals"): the vamp has a V-shaped slit to which the laces are attached; also known as "closed lacing". The word "Oxford" is sometimes used by American clothing companies to market shoes that are not Balmorals, such as Blüchers.
  • Blüchers
    Derby shoe
    A Derby or Gibson is a style of shoe characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are sewn on top of the vamp, a construction method that is also sometimes referred to as "open lacing" where the tongue cut in one piece with the forepart...

     (American), Derbys (British): the laces are tied to two pieces of leather independently attached to the vamp; also known as "open lacing" and is a step down in dressiness.
  • Monk-straps
    Monk shoe
    A monk shoe is a style of shoe with no lacing, closed by a buckle and strap.It is moderately formal shoe: less formal than a full Oxford ; but more so than an open Derby . In between these, it is one of the main categories of men's shoes.It often has a cap toe, it is occasionally brogued, and is...

    : a buckle and strap instead of lacing
  • Slip-ons: There are no lacings or fastenings. The popular loafers are part of this category, as well as less popular styles, such as elastic-sided shoes.


Men's shoes can also be decorated in various ways:
  • Plain-toes: have a sleek appearance and no extra decorations on the vamp.
  • Cap-toes: has an extra layer of leather that "caps" the toe. This is possibly the most popular decoration.
  • Brogues
    Brogues
    The Brogue is a style of low-heeled shoe or boot traditionally characterized by multiple-piece, sturdy leather uppers with decorative perforations and serration along the pieces' visible edges...

     (American: wing-tips): The toe of the shoe is covered with a perforated panel, the wing-tip, which extends down either side of the shoe. Brogues can be found in both balmoral and blucher styles, but are considered slightly less formal.

Formal high-end men's shoes are manufactured by several companies around the world, most notably in England, France, Italy, and America. Notable British brands include: Church's English Shoes
Church's
Church’s is a high-end English footwear manufacturer founded in 1873 by Thomas Church and his three sons.Over time, the little family business grew into a corporation currently employing nearly 700 people....

 (est. 1873), John Lobb Bootmaker
John Lobb Bootmaker
John Lobb Bootmaker is a company that manufactures and retails a very exclusive luxury brand of shoes and boots mainly for men, but also for women. It is based near St James's Palace, at 9 St James's Street, London...

 (est. 1849), Edward Green Shoes
Edward Green Shoes
Edward Green is an exclusive English shoemaker founded in 1890. Edward Green is based in Northampton, England. The level of handwork involved in production is very high and around 250 pairs of shoes are completed a week....

 (est. 1890), and Crockett & Jones (est. 1879). Both John Lobb and Edward Green offer bespoke
Bespoke
Bespoke is a term employed in a variety of applications to mean an item custom-made to the buyer's specification...

 products. In between the world wars, men's footware received significant innovation and design, led by cobblers and cordwainers
Cordwainer
A cordwainer is a shoemaker/cobbler who makes fine soft leather shoes and other luxury footwear articles. The word is derived from "cordwain", or "cordovan", the leather produced in Córdoba, Spain. The term cordwainer was used as early as 1100 in England...

 in London's West End. The most notable French product is made by J.M. Weston
J.M. Weston
J.M. Weston is a French luxury shoe company founded by Eugène Blanchard in 1927, in Limoges. It is renowned for its handmade shoes for men. They also produce a full line of leather goods ranging from belts, briefcases and luggage items...

. Armani of Italy was a major influence on men's shoe design in the 1960s-1980s until they returned to the larger proportions of its forebears, the welt-constructed Anglo-American dress shoe originally created in Edwardian England. Another well-known Italian company is Salvatore Ferragamo Italia S.p.A.
Salvatore Ferragamo Italia S.p.A.
Salvatore Ferragamo Italia S.p.A. is an Italian luxury goods company, with headquarters in Florence, specializing in shoes, leather goods, and ready-to-wear for men and women. It is the parent company of the Ferragamo Group...

. The remaining elite American companies are Allen Edmonds
Allen Edmonds
Allen Edmonds is a shoe manufacturing and retail company based in Port Washington, Wisconsin. The company was established in Belgium, Wisconsin in 1922. Allen Edmonds operates 32 retail stores in 17 states...

 and Alden Shoe Company
Alden Shoe Company
The Alden Shoe Company is a shoe company founded in 1884 by Charles H. Alden in Middleborough, Massachusetts. Aldens specializes in handcrafted mens leather boots and dress shoes, such as Oxfords, Blüchers, loafers, and Chukka boots....

. Alden, located in New England, specializes in genuine shell cordovan leather from the only remaining horse tannery in America (Chicago) and is completely manufactured in America, whereas Allen Edmonds, of Wisconsin, is a larger company that outsources some of its production.

Women's

There is a large variety of shoes available for women, in addition to most of the men's styles being more accepted as unisex. Some broad categories are:
  • High-heeled footwear is footwear that raises the heels, typically 2 inches (5 cm) or more above the toes, commonly worn by women for formal occasions or social outings. Variants include kitten heel
    Kitten heel
    A kitten heel is a short, slender heel, usually from 3.5 centimeters to 4.75 centimeters high with a slight curve setting the heel in from the edge of the shoe. The style was popularized by Audrey Hepburn.-Definition:...

    s
    (typically 1½-2 inches high) and stilletto heels (with a very narrow heel post) and wedge heels (with a wedge-shaped sole rather than a heel post).

  • Sneaker boot or sneaker pump: a shoe that looks like an athletic shoe, but is equipped with a heel, making it a kind of novelty dress shoe.

  • Mules
    Mule (footwear)
    Mule, a French word, is a style of shoe that is backless and often closed-toed. Mules can be any heel height - from flat to high. The style is predominantly worn by women....

    are shoes or slippers with no fitting around the heel (i.e. they are backless)

  • Slingback
    Slingback
    A slingback is a type of woman's shoe that is backless and is characterized by a strap that crosses behind the heel or ankle. A slingback is distinguishable from an ankle-strap shoe in that the latter has a strap that crosses around the front of the ankle as well as the back.Slingbacks come in a...

    s
    are shoes which are secured by a strap behind the heel, rather than over the top of the foot.

  • Ballet flat
    Ballet flat
    Ballet flats or Dolly shoes are derived from a woman's soft ballet slipper, with a very thin heel or the appearance of no heel at all. The style sometimes features a ribbon-like binding around the low tops of the slipper and may have a slight gathering at the top-front of the vamp and a tiny,...

    s
    , known in the UK as ballerinas, ballet pumps or skimmers, are shoes with a very low heel and a relatively short vamp, exposing much of the instep. They are popular for warm-weather wear, and may be seen as more comfortable than shoes with a higher heel.

  • Court shoe
    Court shoe
    Court shoes or pumps are shoes with a low-cut front and usually without a fastening. However, some have ankle straps...

    s
    , known in the US as pumps, are typically high-heeled, slip-on dress shoes.


Unisex

  • Clog
    Clog (shoe)
    A clog is a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood.The Oxford English Dictionary defines a clog as a "thick piece of wood", and later as a "wooden soled overshoe" and a "shoe with a thick wooden sole"....

  • Platform shoe
    Platform shoe
    Platform shoes are shoes, boots, or sandals with thick soles at least four inches in height, often made of cork, plastic, rubber, or wood...

    : shoe with very thick soles and heels
  • Moccasin
    Moccasin
    A Moccasin is a form of shoe worn by Native Americans, as well as by hunters, traders, and settlers in the frontier regions of North America.Moccasin may also refer to:* Moccasin , an American Thoroughbred racehorse-Places:...

    : originated by Native Americans
    Indigenous peoples of the Americas
    The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

    , a soft shoe without a heel and usually made of leather.
  • Sandal
    Sandal (footwear)
    Sandals are an open type of outdoor footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps passing over the instep and, sometimes, around the ankle...

    s: open shoes consisting of a sole and various straps, leaving much of the foot exposed to air. They are thus popular for warm-weather wear, because they let the foot be cooler than a closed-toed shoe would.
  • Espadrilles
    Espadrilles
    Espadrilles are normally casual flat, but sometimes high heeled shoes originating from the Pyrenees. They usually have a canvas or cotton fabric upper and a flexible sole made of rope or rubber material moulded to look like rope. The jute rope sole is the defining characteristic of an espadrille;...

    are casual flat warm-weather shoes of a style which originated in the Pyrenees. They usually have a cotton or canvas upper and a flexible sole of rope or rubber. There are high-heeled versions for women.
  • Saddle shoe: leather shoe with a contrasting saddle-shaped band over the instep, typically white uppers with black "saddle".
  • Slip-on shoe: a dress or casual shoe without laces; often with tassels, buckles, or coin-holders (penny loafers).
  • Boat shoe
    Boat shoe
    Boat shoes are typically canvas or leather with non-marking rubber soles designed for use on a boat...

    s, also known as "deck shoes": similar to a loafer, but more casual. Laces are usually simple leather with no frills. Typically made of leather and featuring a soft white sole to avoid marring or scratching a boat deck. The first boat shoe was invented in 1935 by Paul Sperry.
  • Boot
    Boot
    A boot is a type of footwear but they are not shoes. Most boots mainly cover the foot and the ankle and extend up the leg, sometimes as far as the knee or even the hip. Most boots have a heel that is clearly distinguishable from the rest of the sole, even if the two are made of one piece....

    s: Long shoes (covering the ankle) frequently made of leather. Some are designed to be used in times of bad weather, or simply as an alternate style of casual or dress wear. Styles include rubber boots and snow boots, as well as work boots and hiking boots.
  • Slipper
    Slipper
    A slipper or houseshoe is a semi-closed type of indoor/outdoor shoe, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by a strap running over the toes or instep. Slippers are soft and lightweight compared to other types of footwear. They are mostly made of soft or comforting materials that allow a...

    s: For indoor use, commonly worn with pajamas
    Pajamas
    Pajamas, also spelled pyjamas , can refer to several related types of clothing. The original paijama are loose, lightweight trousers fitted with drawstring waistbands and worn in South and West Asia by both sexes...

    .
  • Vibram
    Vibram
    Vibram S.p.A. is an Italian company based in Albizzate that both manufactures and licenses the production of Vibram-branded rubber outsoles for footwear. The company is named after its founder, Vitale Bramani. Bramani is credited with inventing the first rubber lug soles for shoes...

     FiveFingers
    FiveFingers
    Vibram FiveFingers are a type of minimalist shoe manufactured by Vibram, originally marketed as a more "natural" alternative for different outdoors activities . The footwear has thin, flexible soles that are contoured to the shape of the human foot, including visible individual sections for the toes...

    , meant to simulate the "natural" experience of going barefoot, while protecting the foot
  • Sneakers or Canvas shoes

Athletic

Men's and women's athletic shoe
Athletic shoe
Athletic shoe is a generic name for the footwear primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise but in recent years has come to be used for casual everyday activities....

s and special function shoes often have less difference between the sexes than in dress shoes. In many cases these shoes can be worn by either sex. Emphasis tends to be more on function than style.
  • Running
    Running
    Running is a means of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot. It is simply defined in athletics terms as a gait in which at regular points during the running cycle both feet are off the ground...

     shoes: very similar to above, with additional emphasis on cushioning.
  • Track spikes
    Track spikes
    Track spikes, or just spikes, are pointed protrusions usually made of metal, ceramic or plastic that are screwed into the bottom of most track and field shoes to increase traction and minimize the likelihood of slipping. The term "spikes" can also refer to track shoes featuring such protrusions...

    : lightweight; often with plastic or metal cleat
    Cleat
    Cleat may refer to:* Cleat , a type or part of a shoe* Cleat , a fitting on ships, boats, and docks to which ropes are tied* Cleats , a comic strip by Bill Hinds...

    s
  • Cleat (shoe)
    Cleat (shoe)
    Cleats or studs are protrusions on the sole of a shoe, or on an external attachment to a shoe, that provide additional traction on a soft or slippery surface...

    : a type of shoe featuring molded or removable studs. Usually worn while playing sports such as rugby
    Rugby football
    Rugby football is a style of football named after Rugby School in the United Kingdom. It is seen most prominently in two current sports, rugby league and rugby union.-History:...

    , football
    Football (soccer)
    Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

    , American football
    American football
    American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

    , or baseball
    Baseball uniform
    A baseball uniform is a type of uniform worn by baseball players. Most baseball uniforms have the names and uniform numbers of players who wear them, usually on the backs of the uniforms to distinguish players from one other. Baseball shirts , pants, shoes, socks, caps, and glove are parts of...

    .
  • Golf
    Golf
    Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

     shoes: with "spikes" for better grip in grass and wet ground. Originally the spikes or "cleats" were made of metal but replaceable "soft spikes" made of synthetic plastic-like materials with prongs distributed radially around the edge of each spike are much more common today (and are required on many golf courses since they cause less damage to the greens).
  • Bowling
    Bowling
    Bowling Bowling Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule...

     shoes: intermediate style between ordinary dress shoes and athletic shoes. They have harder rubber soles/heels so as not to damage bowling
    Bowling
    Bowling Bowling Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule...

     alley floors. They are often rented or loaned at bowling alleys.
  • Climbing shoe
    Climbing shoe
    A climbing shoe is a specialized type of footwear designed for rock climbing. Typical climbing shoes have a close fit, little if any padding, and a smooth, sticky rubber sole with an extended rubber rand...

    s: a shoe designed for rock climbing
    Rock climbing
    Rock climbing also lightly called 'The Gravity Game', is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling...

    . They typically have a close fit, little if any padding, and a smooth sticky rubber sole with an extended rubber rand.
  • Hiking
    Hiking
    Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural environments, often in mountainous or other scenic terrain. People often hike on hiking trails. It is such a popular activity that there are numerous hiking organizations worldwide. The health benefits of different types of hiking...

     shoes or boots: usually have a high somewhat stiff upper with many lace eyelets, to provide ankle support on uneven terrain, with extra large traction on the sole.
  • Walking
    Walking
    Walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, and is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step...

     shoes: have a more flexible sole than the running shoe, lighter in weight than the hiking boot, may have air holes, may not be water proof.
  • Skating shoes: typically called skates. They have various attachments for skating on the bottom of the shoe portion.
    • Ice skate
      Ice skate
      Ice skates are boots with blades attached to the bottom, used to propel the bearer across a sheet of ice. They are worn as footwear in many sports, including ice hockey, bandy and figure skating. The first ice skates were made from leg bones of horse, ox or deer, and were attached to feet with...

      s
    • Roller skates
      Roller skates
      Roller skates are devices worn on the feet to enable the wearer to roll along on wheels. A first basic type of roller skate consists of a boot with four wheels with ball bearings, arranged in the same configuration as the wheels of a typical car.-History:...

    • Inline skates
      Inline skates
      In-line skates are a type of roller skate used for inline skating. Unlike quad skates, which have two front and two rear wheels, inline skates have two, three, four, or five wheels arranged in a single line...

  • Ski boot
    Ski boot
    Ski boots are specialized footwear that are used in skiing to provide a way to attach the skier to skis using ski bindings. This ski-boot-binding combination is used to effectively transmit control inputs from the skier to the snow....

    : a large, thick plastic boot specially designed for attachment to the ski.
  • Skate shoes
    Skate shoes
    Skate shoes are shoes specially designed and manufactured for use in skateboarding. While some non-skaters choose to wear skate shoes, the design of the skate shoe includes many features designed for use in skateboarding...

    : specifically designed for use in Skateboarding
    Skateboarding
    Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard.Skateboarding can be a recreational activity, an art form, a job, or a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2002 report...

    , the shoes are manufactured with flat soles as to allow a skateboarder to have better grip when riding a skateboard. They are very wide and have extra layers of padding to protect the skateboarders feet.
  • Cycling shoe
    Cycling shoe
    Cycling shoes are shoes purpose-built for cycling. There are a variety of designs depending on the type and intensity of the cycling for which they are intended. Key features include rigidity, for more-efficient transfer of power from the cyclist to the pedals, weight, a method of attaching the...

    s are equipped with a metal or plastic cleat to interface with clipless pedals, as well as a stiff sole to maximize power transfer and support the foot.
  • Snowshoe
    Snowshoe
    A snowshoe is footwear for walking over the snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person's foot does not sink completely into the snow, a quality called "flotation"....

    s are special shoes for walking in thick snow. In temperate climates, snowshoes are used for mostly recreational purposes in winter.
  • Wrestling shoes
    Wrestling shoes
    Wrestling shoes are active wear used in competition and practice for the sport of wrestling. Generally extremely light and flexible, they try to mimic the bare foot, while providing slightly more traction and ankle support and less chance of contracting a disease or hurting the opponent with...

     are light, flexible shoes that mimic bare feet while providing additional traction and protection.

Orthopedic

Orthopedic or "comfort" shoes are made with pedorthic and anatomically-correct comfort qualities, such as padded removable footbeds, wide toe boxes and arch support are made especially for those with problematic feet.

Dance

  • Pointe shoes
    Pointe shoes
    A pointe shoe is a type of shoe worn by ballet dancers when performing pointework. Pointe shoes developed from the desire for dancers to appear weightless and sylph-like and have evolved to enable dancers to dance on the tips of their toes for extended periods of time...

    are designed for ballet dancing. These have a toe box that is stiffened with glue and a hardened sole so the dancer can stand on the tips of their toes. They are secured by elastic straps and ribbons that are tied to the dancer's ankles.
  • Ballet shoes
    Ballet shoes
    Ballet shoes, or ballet slippers, are lightweight shoes designed specifically for ballet dancing. They may be made from soft leather, canvas, or satin, and have flexible, thin soles. Traditionally, women wear pink shoes and men wear white or black shoes...

    are soft, highly pliable shoes made of canvas or leather, with either continuous or two-part sole (also called split-sole). The sole is typically made of leather, with thicker material under the ball and heel of the foot, and thinner and thus more flexible material under the arch so that the foot can be pointed to its utmost. Ballet slippers are usually secured by elastics that cross over the top of the foot. They are most commonly pink, white, black, or pale tan, although they may be made in specialty colours such as red or blue.
  • Ghillies
    Ghillies (dance)
    Ghillies are specially designed shoes used for several types of dance. They are soft shoes, similar to ballet shoes. They are used by women in Irish dance, by men in Scottish country dance, and by men and women in Highland dance....

    are soft shoes that are used in Irish dance
    Irish dance
    Irish dancing or Irish dance is a group of traditional dance forms originating in Ireland which can broadly be divided into social dance and performance dances. Irish social dances can be divided further into céilí and set dancing...

    , Scottish country dance
    Scottish country dance
    A Scottish country dance is a form of social dance involving groups of mixed couples of dancers tracing progressive patterns according to a predetermined choreography...

    , and highland dance.
  • Jazz shoe
    Jazz shoe
    Jazz shoes are a kind of dancing shoes. While the name suggests they are intended for jazz dance, they are used in other styles of dancing: acrobatic rock'n'roll, hip hop, aerobics, acro dance, etc....

    s
    typically have a two-part, rubberized sole (also called split-sole) to provide both flexibility and traction, and a low (one inch or shorter) heel. They are secured to the foot by laces or elastic inserts.
  • Tango and Flamenco shoes
    Flamenco shoes
    Flamenco shoes are a type of shoe worn by flamenco dancers. The quality of the shoes worn can significantly affect a dancer's performance. Wearing the right flamenco shoes and flamenco skirt is considered to be vital for the quality of the performance....

     are used for dancing the tango
    Tango (ballroom)
    Ballroom Tango is a ballroom dance that branched away from its original Argentine roots by allowing European, American, Hollywood, and competitive influences into the style and execution of the dance....

     or flamenco
    Flamenco
    Flamenco is a genre of music and dance which has its foundation in Andalusian music and dance and in whose evolution Andalusian Gypsies played an important part....

    .
  • Ballroom shoes fall into two categories: Ballroom and Latin American. Both are characterised by suede
    Suede
    Suede is a type of leather with a napped finish, commonly used for jackets, shoes, shirts, purses, furniture and other items. The term comes from the French "gants de Suède", which literally means "gloves of Sweden"....

     soles. Men's ballroom shoes are typically lace-ups with one-inch heels and patent leather uppers. Ladies' ballroom shoes are typically court shoes with two-inch heels, made of fabric that can be colored to match the dancer's dress. In contrast to the low Ballroom heel, which evenly distributes weight across the foot, Latin American shoes have higher heels designed to shift weight onto the toes. Latin shoes are also more flexible than ballroom shoes. Men's Latin shoes typically have 1.5- to 2-inch high, shaped heels, while Ladies' Latin shoes have 2,5-inch to 3-inch heels. Ladies shoes are typically open-toed and strapped.
  • Dance sneakers. Also known as dansneakers, these are a combination of a sneaker
    Sneakers (footwear)
    The American term sneakers is a synonym for athletic shoes. More specifically, sneakers refer to footwear made of flexible material, typically featuring a sole made of rubber and an upper part made of leather or canvas. Sneakers were originally sporting apparel, but are today worn much more widely...

     and a dance shoe, with a reinforced rubber toe.
  • Character shoes have a one to three inch heel, which is usually made of leather, and often have one or more straps across the instep to secure it to the foot. They may come in soft-soled (suede) or hard-soled varieties. They may be converted to tap shoes by attaching taps
    Tap dance
    Tap dance is a form of dance characterized by using the sound of one's tap shoes hitting the floor as a percussive instrument. As such, it is also commonly considered to be a form of music. Two major variations on tap dance exist: rhythm tap and Broadway tap. Broadway tap focuses more on the...

    .
  • Foot thongs are known by various names depending on the manufacturer, including dance paws, foot undies, and foot paws. They are slip-on, partial foot covers that protect the ball of a dancer's foot from skin abrasions while executing turns. From a distance, flesh colored foot thongs give a dancer the appearance of having bare feet.
  • Tap shoes have metal plates mounted to the bottoms of the toe and heel. The metal plates, which are known as taps, make a loud sound when struck against a hard performance surface. Tap shoes, which are used in tap dancing, may be made from any style of shoe to which taps can be attached.

Work

Work shoes are designed to stand heavy wear, to protect the wearer, and provide high traction. They are generally made from sturdy leather uppers and non-leather outsoles. Sometimes they are used for uniform
Uniform
A uniform is a set of standard clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity. Modern uniforms are worn by armed forces and paramilitary organizations such as police, emergency services, security guards, in some workplaces and schools and by inmates...

s or comfort by nurses, waitresses, police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

, military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 personnel, etc. They are commonly used for protection in industrial settings, construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

, mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

, and other workplaces. Protective features may include steel-tipped toes
Steel-toe boots
A steel-toe boot is a durable boot or shoe that has a protective reinforcement in the toe which protects the foot from falling objects or compression, usually it is combined with a mid sole plate to protect against punctures from below.Although traditionally made of steel, the reinforcement can...

 and soles or ankle
Ankle
The ankle joint is formed where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle, or talocrural joint, is a synovial hinge joint that connects the distal ends of the tibia and fibula in the lower limb with the proximal end of the talus bone in the foot...

 guards.

Minimalist

Minimalist shoes are shoes that are minimal in design so that the advantages of walking/running barefoot are incorporated, yet without dropping additional protection of the foot from sharp objects. Minimalist shoes include: Vibram FiveFingers, MBT
MBT
-Arts and Entertainment:*The Monster Ball Tour 2009-2011 Lady GaGa world tour.*Mount Baker Theatre*MBT, an Avalon Hill board game-Business:*Tech Mahindra *Massachusetts business trust*Master of Business & Technology...

, Nike Free
Nike Free
Nike Free is a technology invented by Sasha Kerigaysky. As this shoe allows the muscles in the foot to gain strength by providing less constriction, runners are advised to gradually break into the shoe rather than immediately running long distances as to prevent muscle cramps and other discomforts,...


Historical

Shoes of the past include:
  • Turn-shoes: a method by which the shoe is constructed inside-out, wetted, and turned — the finished side of the leather flipped to the outside. Such footwear was common from the Middle-ages until modern shoes were developed in the Tudor
    Tudor dynasty
    The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship of Ireland, later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry Tudor, a descendant through his mother of a legitimised...

     era. Because of their construction, turn-shoes cannot simply be re-soled, unlike most modern shoe types.
  • Espadrilles: these sandals, which are still worn today, are found as early as the 14th century.
  • Patten
    Patten (shoe)
    Pattens are protective overshoes worn in Europe from the Middle Ages until the early 20th century. Pattens were worn outdoors over a normal shoe, held in place by leather or cloth bands, with a wooden or later wood and metal sole...

    : a European wooden overshoe used to keep a person's feet dry outdoors. First worn in the middle ages
    Middle Ages
    The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

    , they continued in use even into the early 20th century. Peoples such as the Dutch
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

    , Flemings
    Flemish people
    The Flemings or Flemish are the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Belgium, where they are mostly found in the northern region of Flanders. They are one of two principal cultural-linguistic groups in Belgium, the other being the French-speaking Walloons...

    , and some French
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     carved similar, fully enclosed wooden shoes.
  • Poulaine
    Poulaine
    Crakows or crackowes were a style of shoes with extremely long toes very popular in the 15th century. They were so named because the style was thought to have originated in Kraków, then the capital of Poland. They began in the late 14th century and fell from fashion after about 1480–90...

    : a shoe with a long-pointed toe, popular in Europe in the 15th century.
  • Moccasins: the historical shoe of many North American Indian tribes.

Collection

Athletic sneaker collection has existed as a part of urban subculture in the United States for several decades. Recent decades have seen this trend spread to European nations such as the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

. A Sneakerhead is a person who owns multiple pairs of shoes as a form of collection and fashion. A contributor to the growth of sneaker collecting is the continued worldwide popularity of the Air Jordan
Air Jordan
Air Jordan, also known simply as Jordans, are a brand of shoes and athletic apparel produced by Nike originally designed for and endorsed by NBA Hall of Famer and Six Time NBA Champion Michael Jordan. The Air Jordan line is now sold by the Jordan Brand subsidiary of Nike...

 line of sneakers designed by Nike
Nike, Inc.
Nike, Inc. is a major publicly traded sportswear and equipment supplier based in the United States. The company is headquartered near Beaverton, Oregon, which is part of the Portland metropolitan area...

 for Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 star Michael Jordan
Michael Jordan
Michael Jeffrey Jordan is a former American professional basketball player, active entrepreneur, and majority owner of the Charlotte Bobcats...

.

Maintenance

  • Breaking-in: some shoes are made of hard but deformable material. After a person wears them multiple times, the material reforms to fit the wearer's feet. The person is said to have broken in the shoes.
  • Polishing
    Polishing
    Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection In some materials polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to...

    : for protection, water resistance (to some extent) and appearance, especially for leather shoes and boots.
  • Heel replacement: heel
    Heel
    In human anatomy, the heel is the prominence at the posterior end of the foot. It is based on the projection of one bone, the calcaneus or heel bone, behind the articulation of the bones of the lower leg.- Human anatomy :...

    s periodically wear out. Not all shoes are designed to enable this.
  • Sanitization
    Sanitization
    Sanitization can refer to* Data sanitization, has two distinct meanings:** the use of anonymization and other techniques to "sanitize" data to purge it of personally-identifiable information in order to protect user privacy; such techniques include:*** NULLing out*** masking data*** data...

    : the inside of shoes can be sanitized with germicidal shoe trees or other cleansing methods to prevent the growth of microorganisms such as odor-causing bacteria or fungi.
  • Sole replacement: soles can also wear out. Not all shoes can have their soles replaced.
  • Shoelace replacement: shoelaces can sometimes be damaged or destroyed necessitating the replacement of the laces.
  • When unfit for use, shoes can be treated as trash or municipal solid waste
    Municipal solid waste
    Municipal solid waste , commonly known as trash or garbage , refuse or rubbish is a waste type consisting of everyday items we consume and discard. It predominantly includes food wastes, yard wastes, containers and product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential,...

     and disposed of. The exception can be with most athletic sneakers which can be recycled and turned into other raw materials. See Nike Grind
    Nike Grind
    Nike Grind is part of Nike's Reuse-A-Shoe program that was started in 1993. The purpose of the program is to eliminate waste and close the loop on Nike's product lifecycle by collecting post-consumer, non-metal-containing athletic shoes of any brand, including Nike shoes that are returned due to...

     as an example.


Someone who makes or repairs shoes in a shop is called a cobbler
Shoemaking
Shoemaking is the process of making footwear. Originally, shoes were made one at a time by hand. Traditional handicraft shoemaking has now been largely superseded in volume of shoes produced by industrial mass production of footwear, but not necessarily in quality, attention to detail, or...

.

Biodegradability

Due to the appearance of new man-made materials, shoes have become increasingly less biodegradable. Currently, mass-produced shoes generally require 1000 years to degrade, and/or may not degrade at all, depending on the types of material employed in the production of the shoe. Recently some shoemakers have picked up on the issue and are beginning to produce shoes made entirely from degradable materials, such as Nike Considered
Nike Considered
Nike Considered is a sustainable line of shoes introduced by Nike, Inc., a major American supplier of athletic shoes, apparel and sports equipment. Nike Considered was developed by Richard Clarke, Tinker Hatfield, Steve McDonald, Mike Aveni & Andreas Harlow working with the Innovation Kitchen,...

.

Etiquette

In the Middle East, parts of Africa, Korea and Thailand, it is considered rude to show the soles of the feet to others (even accidentally, such as by crossing the legs). Shoe throwing
Shoeing
Shoeing, throwing shoes, showing the sole of one's shoe or using shoes to insult are forms of protest in many parts of the world.Incidents where shoes were thrown at political figures have taken place in Australia, India, Ireland, Israel, Hong Kong, Pakistan, the United Kingdom and most notably,...

 is a great insult in some areas in the Middle East and in India. In addition, in Thailand, it is an extreme insult for the foot, sock
Sock
A sock is an item of clothing worn on the feet. The foot is among the heaviest producers of sweat in the body, as it is able to produce over of perspiration per day. Socks help to absorb this sweat and draw it to areas where air can evaporate the perspiration. In cold environments, socks decrease...

s, or shoes to touch someone's head or be placed over it.

In literature

Shoes play an important role in the fairy tales Cinderella
Cinderella
"Cinderella; or, The Little Glass Slipper" is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward. Thousands of variants are known throughout the world. The title character is a young woman living in unfortunate circumstances that are suddenly changed to remarkable fortune...

, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a children's novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W. W. Denslow. Originally published by the George M. Hill Company in Chicago on May 17, 1900, it has since been reprinted numerous times, most often under the name The Wizard of Oz, which is the name of...

and The Red Shoes
The Red Shoes (fairy tale)
"The Red Shoes" is a fairy tale by Danish poet and author Hans Christian Andersen first published by C.A. Reitzel in Copenhagen 7 April 1845 in New Fairy Tales. First Volume. Third Collection. 1845....

. In literature and film, an empty shoe or a pair of shoes signifies death.

Sizes

  • Units
    Units of measurement
    A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention and/or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same physical quantity. Any other value of the physical quantity can be expressed as a simple multiple of the unit of...

     for shoe size
    Shoe size
    A shoe size is an alphanumerical indication of the fitting size of a shoe for a person. Often it just consists of a number indicating the length because many shoemakers only provide a standard width for economic reasons....

    s vary widely around the world. European sizes are measured in Paris Points, which are worth two-thirds of a centimetre. The UK and American units are approximately one-quarter of an inch, starting at 8¼ inches. Men's and women's shoe sizes often have different scales. Shoes size is often measured using a Brannock Device
    Brannock Device
    The Brannock Device is a measuring instrument invented by Charles F. Brannock for measuring a person's shoe size. The son of a shoe industry entrepreneur, Brannock attended Syracuse University, New York, U.S.A. where he became a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. Brannock spent two years...

    , which can determine both the width and length of the foot.

Companies

See the category shoe companies for a list of shoe companies.

See also

  • Runner's toe, injury from malfitting shoes
  • Locomotor effects of shoes
    Locomotor effects of shoes
    Locomotor effects of shoes describes how physical characteristics or components of shoes influence the locomotion neuromechanics of a person. Depending on the characteristics of the shoes, the effects are various, ranging from alteration in balance and posture, muscle activity of different muscles...

  • Foot binding
    Foot binding
    Foot binding was the custom of binding the feet of young girls painfully tight to prevent further growth. The practice probably originated among court dancers in the early Song dynasty, but spread to upper class families and eventually became common among all classes. The tiny narrow feet were...

  • Shoe tossing
    Shoe tossing
    Shoe tossing, the act of using shoes as improvised projectiles or weapons, is a constituent of a number of folk sports and practices. Today, it is commonly the act of throwing a pair of shoes onto telephone wires, powerlines, or other raised wires...


Further reading

  • History of footwear in Norway, Sweden and Finland : prehistory to 1950, ISBN 91-7402-323-3
  • Patrick Cox: Wit, Irony, and Footwear, Tamasin Doe (1998) ISBN 0-8230-1148-8
  • A Century of Shoes: Icons of Style in the 20th Century, Angela Pattison ISBN 0-7858-0835-3

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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