Seriola is a genus of bony fish, commonly known as amberjacks. Nine species are currently recognized, although these were formerly split into many more. There are also several species currently placed in several other genera of Carangidae
Carangidae is a family of fish which includes the jacks, pompanos, jack mackerels, and scads.They are marine fish found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans...

 that were originally described under Seriola.
They are a large, carnivorous finfish popularly known for their firm texture and rich flavour, which make them an ideal species for aquaculture
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the...

. Because specimens caught can weigh up to 41 kilograms, and are powerful swimmers and hunters they are also highly prized by sport fisherman.

Most Seriola species are either benthic, demersal or pelagic and can be found at up to 200m depth. All nine species cover majority of the globe in terms of distribution and are found to inhabit coastal waters. Most are shown to be pelagic spawners, releasing eggs into the open ocean habitat until hatching and they do this through dioecious
Dioecy is the property of a group of biological organisms that have males and females, but not members that have organs of both sexes at the same time. I.e., those whose individual members can usually produce only one type of gamete; each individual organism is thus distinctly female or male...

, external reproduction. Majority of Seriola species are found in schools and have a diet consisting of fish, squid and other invertebrates.


More than 150,000 tonnes of Seriola is produced through aquaculture
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the...

 per year. Majority of this is produced in Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

 (Seriola quinqueradiata, Seriola dumerili, Seriola lalandi) with smaller contributions from New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

/ Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 (Seriola lalandi) and America
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

 (Seriola rivoliana). Japanese Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) accounts for more that 80% of global production per annum. These cultured species are increasingly used in raw sushi
is a Japanese food consisting of cooked vinegared rice combined with other ingredients . Neta and forms of sushi presentation vary, but the ingredient which all sushi have in common is shari...

 where they are known as Hamachi
Hamachi is a zero-configuration virtual private network shareware application that is capable of establishing direct links between computers that are behind NAT firewalls without requiring reconfiguration ; in other words, it establishes a connection over the Internet that emulates the connection...

, Buri
Buri may refer to:* Búri, a Norse god* Buri , an ancient Germanic people* Burs , also called the Buri / Buridavensi an ancient Dacian tribe* Buri, São Paulo, a city in Brazil* Buri Palm or Corypha, a genus of fan palm...

, Kampachi and Hiramasa.

There are several trials underway for land based Seriola culture, but currently most Seriola are produced in cages, either in nearshore pens or in high technology submersible cages out in the open ocean. They are fed a range of diets, from trash fish to basic compound feeds to complex formulated compound feeds

As is the case with majority of aquaculture species, the farming of Seriola has associated impacts whether environmental or otherwise.
  • Capture of wild stocks for culture (juveniles
    Juvenile may refer to:* Juvenile * Minor * Children's literature* Children's clothing...

    Broodstock, or broodfish, are a group of mature individuals used in aquaculture for breeding purposes. Broodstock can be a population of animals maintained in captivity as a source of replacement for, or enhancement of, seed and fry numbers. These are generally kept in ponds or tanks in which...

     for hatcheries) can have direct impacts on associated populations and ecosystems.
  • There are environmental concerns over certain feeds used (fishmeal/oils/trash fish etc) for cultured carnivorous or piscivorous species.
  • Disease
    A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune...

     is always of great concern within cultured species in terms of introduction and/or amplification of pathogens and parasites and subsequent infection of wild fish as well as between cultured farms.
  • Escape of cultured fish is also a concern, which can have effects on wild stocks in terms of competition
    Competition is a contest between individuals, groups, animals, etc. for territory, a niche, or a location of resources. It arises whenever two and only two strive for a goal which cannot be shared. Competition occurs naturally between living organisms which co-exist in the same environment. For...

    , predation
    In ecology, predation describes a biological interaction where a predator feeds on its prey . Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation always results in the death of its prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through consumption...

     and genetic alterations depending on vulnerability and robustness.
  • There is always a risk of pollution
    Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light...

     and habitat effects via things such as nutrient loss and chemical additives which can cause problems depending on habitat vulnerability and where the farms are in relation to the coast.

With effective management of regulations and good farming practice, these problems can be avoided . To address these impacts, WWF are creating the Seriola and Cobia Aquaculture Dialogue (SCAD). The purpose of the SCAD is to create standards that will minimize the key impacts of Seriola/Cobia aquaculture and move producers towards better performance. This will be done by identifying the key environmental and social impacts associated with the farming of three types of Seriola (Seriola rivoliana, Seriola quinqueradiata and Seriola lalandi) and cobia, and principles established for addressing each impact. Then criteria will be developed to provide direction on how to reduce each impact. It is open to all stakeholders, including producers and other members of the supply chain, researchers, NGOs, government officials and investors. The standards (to be finalised late 2011) will be adopted by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council, who will then work with independent, third party entities to certify farms that are in compliance with the standards.


  • Seriola carpenteri
    Seriola carpenteri
    Seriola carpenteri Mather, 1971 is a species of bony fish commonly known as the Guinean amberjack which feeds on squids and fishes. It attains a size of at least 48 centimeters fork length, and probably attains a much larger size. Adults are pelagic or epibenthic...

    (Mather, 1971) Guinean amberjack
  • Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810) Greater amberjack
  • Seriola fasciata (Bloch, 1793) Lesser amberjack
  • Seriola hippos (Günther, 1876) Samson fish
  • Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes, 1833) Yellowtail amberjack
  • Seriola peruana (Steindachner, 1881) Fortune jack
  • Seriola quinqueradiata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) Japanese amberjack
  • Seriola rivoliana (Valenciennes, 1833) Almaco jack, Highfin jack
  • Seriola zonata (Mitchill, 1815) Banded rudderfish
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