Senate of the Philippines
Overview
 
The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

: Senado ng Pilipinas) is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, the Congress of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

. The Philippine Senate is composed of 24 senators who are elected nationwide at-large
At-Large
At-large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body , rather than a subset of that membership...

.

Senators serve 6-year terms, with half of the senators elected every 3 years to ensure that the Senate is maintained as a continuous body, though staggered
Staggered elections
In staggered elections, not all places in an elected body are up for election at the same time. The staggered election keeps some continuity in the elected body....

. When the Senate was restored by the 1987 Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, the 24 senators who were elected in 1987 served until 1992.
Encyclopedia
The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

: Senado ng Pilipinas) is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, the Congress of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

. The Philippine Senate is composed of 24 senators who are elected nationwide at-large
At-Large
At-large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body , rather than a subset of that membership...

.

Senators serve 6-year terms, with half of the senators elected every 3 years to ensure that the Senate is maintained as a continuous body, though staggered
Staggered elections
In staggered elections, not all places in an elected body are up for election at the same time. The staggered election keeps some continuity in the elected body....

. When the Senate was restored by the 1987 Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, the 24 senators who were elected in 1987 served until 1992. In 1992 the candidates for the Senate obtaining the 12 highest number of votes served until 1998, while the next 12 served until 1995 only. Thereafter, each senator elected serves the full 6 years.

The Senate is the only body that can concur with treaties
Treaty
A treaty is an express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention or exchange of letters, among other terms...

.

History of the Senate

From 1907 to 1916, the Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
The Philippine Commission was a body appointed by the President of the United States to exercise legislative and limited executive powers in the Philippines. It was first appointed by President William McKinley in 1901. Beginning in 1907, it acted as the upper house of a bicameral Philippine...

 headed by the U.S. Governor-General
Governor-General of the Philippines
The Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain and the United States, and briefly by Great Britain, from 1565 to 1935....

 served as the upper chamber of the colonial legislature at the same time exercised executive powers. On August 29, 1916 the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 enacted the Philippine Autonomy Act or popularly known as the "Jones Law" which paved the way for the creation of a bicameral Philippine Legislature
Philippine Legislature
The Philippine Legislature was the legislative body of the Philippines during the earlier part U.S. colonial administration. It was a bicameral legislature, with the Philippine Commission, headed by the U.S. Governor General serving as the upper house, and the Philippine Assembly serving as the...

 wherein the Senate served as the upper chamber and while the House of Representatives
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

 as the lower chamber of it. Then Philippine Resident Commissioner Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

 encouraged Speaker
Speaker (politics)
The term speaker is a title often given to the presiding officer of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body. The speaker's official role is to moderate debate, make rulings on procedure, announce the results of votes, and the like. The speaker decides who may speak and has the...

 Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

 to run for the leadership of the Senate, but Osmeña preferred to continue leading the lower house. Quezon then ran for the Senate and became Senate President for the next 19 years (1916–1935). Senators then were elected via senatorial districts
Senatorial districts of the Philippines
The Senatorial districts of the Philippines were the representations of the provinces of the Philippines in the Philippine Senate from 1916 to 1935.-History:...

 via plurality-at-large voting
Plurality-at-large voting
Plurality-at-large voting is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election...

; each district grouped several provinces and each elected two senators except for "non-Christian" provinces where the Governor-General of the Philippines
Governor-General of the Philippines
The Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain and the United States, and briefly by Great Britain, from 1565 to 1935....

 appointed the senators for the district.

This setup continued until 1935, when the Philippine Independence Act or the "Tydings-McDuffie Act" was provided by the U.S. Congress which granted the Filipinos the right to frame their own constitution in preparation for their independence, wherein they established a unicameral National Assembly
National Assembly of the Philippines
The National Assembly of the Philippines refers to the legislature of the Philippine Commonwealth from 1935 to 1941, and the Second Philippine Republic. The National Assembly of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was created under the 1935 Constitution, which served as the Philippines' fundamental...

, effectively abolishing the Senate. Not long after the adoption of the 1935 Constitution several amendments began to be proposed. By 1938, the National Assembly began consideration of these proposals, which included restoring the Senate as the upper chamber of Congress. The amendment of the 1935 Constitution to have a bicameral legislature was approved in 1940 and the first biennial elections
Philippine Senate election, 1941
Election to the Senate were held on November 11, 1941 in the Philippines. The Senate was re-instituted after amendments to the constitution restored the bicameral legislature last used in 1935....

 for the restored upper house was held in November 1941. Instead of the old senatorial districts, senators were elected via the entire country serving as an at-large
At-Large
At-large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body , rather than a subset of that membership...

 district, although still under plurality-at-large voting, with voters voting up to eight candidates, and the eight candidates with the highest number of votes being elected. While the Senate from 1916 to 1935 had exclusive confirmation rights over executive appointments, as part of the compromises that restored the Senate in 1941, the power of confirming executive appointments has been exercised by a joint Commission on Appointments composed of members of both houses. However, the Senate since its restoration and the independence of the Philippines in 1946 has the power to ratify treaties.

The Senate finally convened in 1945 and served as the upper chamber of Congress from thereon until the declaration of martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 by President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 in 1972. which shut down Congress. The Senate was resurrected in 1987 upon the ratification of the 1987 Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

. However, instead of eight senators being replaced after every election, it was changed to twelve.

In the Senate, the officers are the Senate President
President of the Senate of the Philippines
The President of the Senate of the Philippines, or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest ranking-official of the Senate of the Philippines. He/she is elected by the entire body to be their leader...

, Senate President pro tempore
President pro tempore of the Senate of the Philippines
The President Pro-Tempore of the Senate of the Philippines is the second highest-ranking official of the Senate of the Philippines. During the absence of the Senate President, the Senate President pro tempore presides over the Senate....

, Majority Floor Leader
Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines
The Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines is the leader elected by the majority party of the Senate of the Philippines that serves as their official leader in the body. He also manages the business of the majority part in the Senate...

, Minority Floor Leader
Minority leader of the Senate of the Philippines
The Minority leader of the Senate of the Philippines is the leader elected by the minority party of the Senate of the Philippines that serves as their official leader in the body. He also manages the business of the minority part in the Senate. He is expected to be alert and vigilant in defense...

 and the Senate Secretary and the Senate Sergeant at Arms who shall be elected by the Senators from among the employees and staff of the Senate. Meanwhile, the Senate President, Senate President pro-tempore, the Majority Floor Leader and the Minority Floor Leader shall be elected by the Senators from among themselves.

Composition

Article VI, Section 2 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

 provides that the Senate shall be composed of 24 senators who shall be elected at-large by the qualified voters of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, as may be provided by law.

The composition of the Senate is smaller in number as compared to the House of Representatives
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

. The members of this chamber are elected at large by the entire electorate. The rationale for this rule intends to make the Senate a training ground for national leaders and possibly a springboard for the presidency
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

.

It follows also that the Senator, having a national rather than only a district constituency, will have a broader outlook of the problems of the country, instead of being restricted by narrow viewpoints and interests. With such perspective, the Senate is likely to be more circumspect, or at least less impulsive, than the House of Representatives
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

.

Senatorial candidates are chosen by the leaders of major political parties or coalitions of parties. The selection process is not transparent and is done in "backrooms" where much political horse-trading occurs. Thus, the absence of regional or proportional representation in the Senate exacerbates a top heavy system of governance, with power centralized in Metro Manila. It has often been suggested that each region of the country should elect its own senator(s) to more properly represent the people. This will have the effect of flattening the power structure. Regional problems and concerns within a national view can be addressed more effectively. A senator's performance, accountability, and electability become meaningful to a more defined and identifiable regional constituency.

The Senate Electoral Tribunal (SET) composed of three Supreme Court
Supreme Court of the Philippines
The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the Philippines' highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice...

 justices and six senators determines election protests on already-seated senators. There had been three instances where the SET has replaced senators due to election protests, the last of which was on 2011 when the tribunal awarded the protest
Pimentel III vs. Zubiri Senate Electoral Protest
Pimentel vs. Zubiri was the election protest of Aquilino Pimentel III after the proclamation of Juan Miguel Zubiri as senator after the 2007 Philippine Senate election...

 of Aquilino Pimentel III
Aquilino Pimentel III
Aquilino Martin de la Llana Pimentel III commonly known as Koko Pimentel, is the son of the former senator Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. and Lourdes dela Llana-Pimentel. He was proclaimed on August 11, 2011 as the 12th winning senator in the 2007 election...

 against Juan Miguel Zubiri
Juan Miguel Zubiri
Juan Miguel "Migz" Zubiri is a Filipino politician who served as a Congressman representing the third district of Bukidnon for three consecutive terms, and was the Senate of the Philippines Majority Leader, replacing Senator Francis Pangilinan on November 17, 2008...

.

Qualifications

The qualifications for membership in the Senate are expressly stated in Section 3, Art. VI of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

 as follows:
  • No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines
    Philippines
    The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

    , and on the day of the election, is at least 35 years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines
    Philippines
    The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

     for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.

  • The age is fixed at 35 and must be possessed on the day of the elections, that is, when the polls are opened and the votes cast, and not on the day of the proclamation of the winners by the board of canvassers.

  • With regard to the residence requirements, it was ruled in the case of Lim v. Pelaez that it must be the place where one habitually resides and to which he, after absence, has the intention of returning.

  • The enumeration laid down by the 1987 Philippine Constitution
    Constitution of the Philippines
    The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

     is exclusive under the Latin principle of expressio unius est exclusio alterius. This means that Congress
    Congress of the Philippines
    The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

     cannot anymore add additional qualifications other than those provided by the 1987 Philippine Constitution
    Constitution of the Philippines
    The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

    .

Organization

Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, “Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

 shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session...”. During this time, the Senate is organized to elect its officers. Specifically, the 1987 Philippine Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

 provides a definite statement, to it:

The Senate shall elect its President
President of the Senate of the Philippines
The President of the Senate of the Philippines, or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest ranking-official of the Senate of the Philippines. He/she is elected by the entire body to be their leader...

 and the House of Representatives
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

 its Speaker
Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives
The Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines is the presiding officer of the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives....

 by a vote of all its respective members.

Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary.

(3) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings

By virtue of these provisions of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
Constitution of the Philippines
The Constitution of the Philippines is the supreme law of the Philippines.The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the "1987 Constitution"...

, the Senate adopts its own rules, otherwise known as the “Rules of the Senate.” The Rules of the Senate provide the following officers: a President
President of the Senate of the Philippines
The President of the Senate of the Philippines, or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest ranking-official of the Senate of the Philippines. He/she is elected by the entire body to be their leader...

, a President pro tempore
President pro tempore of the Senate of the Philippines
The President Pro-Tempore of the Senate of the Philippines is the second highest-ranking official of the Senate of the Philippines. During the absence of the Senate President, the Senate President pro tempore presides over the Senate....

, a Secretary and a Sergeant-at-Arms.

Following this set of officers, the Senate as an institution can then be grouped into the Senate Proper and the Secretariat. The former belongs exclusively to the members of the Senate as well as its committees, while the latter renders support services to the members of the Senate.

Current members

> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >
Senator Party Terms Bloc
Number Starts Ends
Edgardo J. Angara
Edgardo Angara
Edgardo Javier Angara is a Filipino politician who served as President of the Senate of the Philippines from 1993-1995. He is currently serving his fourth term in the Senate which ends in 2013.-Early life and career:...

LDP
Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino
The Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino is a political party in the Philippines founded in 1988.There are no results available of the last elections for the House of Representatives, but according to the website of the House, the party holds 7 out of 235 seats . The party is divided into two factions...

2 2007 2013 Majority
Joker P. Arroyo
Joker Arroyo
Joker Paz Arroyo is a Filipino lawyer, politician and Senator of the Republic of the Philippines. He has no direct relation with former Presidential spouse Jose Miguel Arroyo.-Early life and career:...

Lakas-Kampi 2 2007 2013 Minority
Alan Peter S. Cayetano
Alan Peter Cayetano
Alan Peter Schramm Cayetano is a senator from the Philippines.He was the congressional representative from the district of Taguig-Pateros for 9 years. He had a seven-point program for his Taguig-Pateros constituency in Metro Manila. He ran for senator on the May 14, 2007 Philippine elections under...

Nacionalista
Nacionalista Party
The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

1 2007 2013 Minority
Pia S. Cayetano Nacionalista
Nacionalista Party
The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

2 2010 2016 Minority
Franklin M. Drilon
Franklin Drilon
Franklin Magtunao Drilon is a Filipino politician who served as President of the Senate of the Philippines in 2000 and from 2001 to 2006. Drilon currently serves his third term in the Senate...

Liberal
Liberal Party (Philippines)
The Liberal Party of the Philippines is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator Jose Avelino, on November 24, 1945 by a breakaway Liberal group from the...

1 2010 2016 Majority
Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada
Jinggoy Estrada
Jose Pimentel Ejercito, Jr. , better known as Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada, is a Filipino politician and former film actor who has been a member of the Senate of the Philippines since 2004...

PMP 2 2010 2016 Majority
Francis Joseph G. Escudero
Francis Escudero
Francis Joseph "Chiz" Guevara Escudero is a Filipino politician who has been a member of the Philippine Senate since 2007...

Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

1 2007 2013 Majority
Teofisto L. Guingona III
Teofisto Guingona III
Teofisto de Lara Guingona III or TG, is a Filipino politician.-Representative of 2nd District, Bukidnon:In 2004, he has been elected to two terms in the House of Representatives of the Philippines, as the Representative from the Second District of Bukidnon...

Liberal
Liberal Party (Philippines)
The Liberal Party of the Philippines is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator Jose Avelino, on November 24, 1945 by a breakaway Liberal group from the...

1 2010 2016 Majority
Gregorio B. Honasan II Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

1 2007 2013 Majority
Panfilo M. Lacson
Panfilo Lacson
Panfilo "Ping" Morena Lacson, Sr. is a Filipino politician. He was Director-General of the Philippine National Police from 1999 to 2001 and has been a member of the Philippine Senate since 2001.-Early life and education:...

Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

2 2007 2013 Majority
Manuel M. Lapid Lakas-Kampi 2 2010 2016 Majority
Loren B. Legarda
Loren Legarda
Loren Legarda is a Filipino broadcast journalist, environmentalist, and politician of Visayan ancestry, notable as the only female to top two senatorial elections . During the 2004 Philippine general election, she ran for the position of Vice-President as an Independent with Fernando Poe, Jr...

NPC
Nationalist People's Coalition
The Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC is a political party in the Philippines.-History:The Party was founded in 1991 after some members of the Nacionalista Party led by then Rizal Governor Isidro Rodriguez bolted from the Nacionalista Party after some disagreements with Nacionalista party...

1 2007 2013 Majority
Ferdinand R. Marcos, Jr.
Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.
Ferdinand Romualdez Marcos, Jr. , also known as Bongbong Marcos is a Filipino politician and a senator to the 15th Congress. He is the only son of Ferdinand E. Marcos, the former president of the Philippines , and former First Lady Imelda Romualdez-Marcos...

Nacionalista
Nacionalista Party
The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

1 2010 2016 Majority
Sergio R. Osmeña III PDP-Laban 1 2010 2016 Majority
Francis N. Pangilinan Liberal
Liberal Party (Philippines)
The Liberal Party of the Philippines is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator Jose Avelino, on November 24, 1945 by a breakaway Liberal group from the...

2 2007 2013 Majority
Aquilino Pimentel III
Aquilino Pimentel III
Aquilino Martin de la Llana Pimentel III commonly known as Koko Pimentel, is the son of the former senator Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. and Lourdes dela Llana-Pimentel. He was proclaimed on August 11, 2011 as the 12th winning senator in the 2007 election...

PDP-Laban 1 2011 2013 Majority
Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile is a Filipino politician. As a protege of President Ferdinand Marcos, he served as Justice Secretary and then Defense Secretary under the Marcos regime. He later became one of the leaders of the 1986 People Power Movement that drove Marcos from power...

PMP 2 2010 2016 Majority
Ralph G. Recto
Ralph Recto
Ralph Gonzalez Recto is a Filipino politician. Recto served as a member of the House of Representatives representing the 4th District of Batangas from 1992 to 2001. He was then elected to the Senate, serving from 2001 to 2007. In 2007, Recto run for reelection and lost because, as many analysts...

Liberal
Liberal Party (Philippines)
The Liberal Party of the Philippines is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator Jose Avelino, on November 24, 1945 by a breakaway Liberal group from the...

1 2010 2016 Majority
Ramon Bong Revilla, Jr.
Bong Revilla
Ramon "Bong" Revilla, Jr. , is a Filipino actor, politician and senator of the Republic of the Philippines. In 2009, he legally changed his last name to Bong Revilla....

Lakas-Kampi 2 2010 2016 Majority
Miriam Defensor-Santiago
Miriam Defensor-Santiago
Miriam Defensor Santiago is a Senator of the Philippines. She is a lawyer, former trial judge and professor of constitutional and international law. She served as the Commissioner of the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation in 1988 and the Secretary of the Department of Agrarian Reform from 1989...

PRP
People's Reform Party
The People's Reform Party is a political party in the Philippines. Founded on April 12, 1991 as the political party of former Agrarian Reform Secretary Miriam Defensor-Santiago for her bid as President in the 1992 Presidential Elections. During the 1992 Elections, the party nominated Santiago as...

2 2010 2016 Majority
Vicente C. Sotto III
Vicente Sotto III
Vicente Castelo Sotto III , also known as Tito Sotto, is an actor, comedian, musician, television presenter, and politician in the Philippines...

NPC
Nationalist People's Coalition
The Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC is a political party in the Philippines.-History:The Party was founded in 1991 after some members of the Nacionalista Party led by then Rizal Governor Isidro Rodriguez bolted from the Nacionalista Party after some disagreements with Nacionalista party...

1 2010 2016 Majority
Antonio F. Trillanes IV
Antonio Trillanes IV
Antonio "Sonny" Fuentes Trillanes IV is a former Navy Lieutenant Senior Grade and concurrently serving as a senator of the Philippines since 2007....

Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

1 2007 2013 Majority
Manuel B. Villar, Jr.
Manny Villar
Manuel "Manny" Bamba Villar, Jr. is a Filipino businessman and politician. He is currently a Philippine Senator, president of the Nacionalista Party...

Nacionalista
Nacionalista Party
The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

2 2007 2013 Majority
(vacant) 2007 2013

Assumed office on August 15, 2011, after winning an election protest against Juan Miguel Zubiri
Juan Miguel Zubiri
Juan Miguel "Migz" Zubiri is a Filipino politician who served as a Congressman representing the third district of Bukidnon for three consecutive terms, and was the Senate of the Philippines Majority Leader, replacing Senator Francis Pangilinan on November 17, 2008...

 (independent, formerly Lakas-Kampi) who had earlier resigned on August 3, 2011.
Vacancy occurred on June 30, 2010 after the inauguration of Benigno S. Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III , also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010....

 (Liberal
Liberal Party (Philippines)
The Liberal Party of the Philippines is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator Jose Avelino, on November 24, 1945 by a breakaway Liberal group from the...

) as President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

.


Blocs

Bloc Total |Seats
Majority 20                                                
Minority 3

Committees

At the core of Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

’ lawmaking, investigative and oversight functions lies the committee system. This is so because much of the business of Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

, it has been well said, is done in the committee. Specific problems, whether local or national in scope, are initially brought to the forum of congressional committees where they are subjected to rigid and thorough discussions.

Congressional hearings and investigations on matters dealing with every field of legislative concern have frequently been conducted by congressional committees.

To a large extent, therefore, the committee system plays a very significant role in the legislative process. Congressional responses and actions vis-a-vis growing national problems and concerns have considerably relied upon the efficiency and effectiveness of the committee structure, system and expertise. As pointed out by Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913...

 regarding the important roles played by different committees of Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

:
"The House sits, not for serious discussion, but to sanction the conclusions of the Committees as rapidly as possible. It legislates in its committee rooms; not by the deliberation of majorities, but by the resolutions of specially-commissioned minorities; so that it is not far from the truth to say that Congress in session is Congress on public exhibition, while Congress in its committee rooms is Congress at work."


On the other hand, the merits of Nelson W. Polsby
Nelson W. Polsby
Nelson Woolf Polsby was an American political scientist. He specialized in the study of the United States presidency and United States Congress. He was a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and former editor of the American Political Science Review from 1971-77.Polsby was born...

’s view with regard to the importance of the committee system can be well considered:
"Any proposal that weakens the capabilities of congressional committees weakens Congress. Congressional committees are the listening posts of Congress. They accumulate knowledge about the performance of governmental agencies and about the effects of governmental programs and performance on private citizens. They provide incentives to members of Congress to involve themselves in the detailed understanding of governmental functioning. They provide a basis - virtually the only well institutionalized basis in the House of Representatives - for understanding and for influencing public policy."

"The present committee system in the Senate has by far been the product of strong years of Philippine legislative experience. It draws its strength from the inherent functions it is mandated to perform, i.e., to assist the Congress in coming up with well studied legislative policy enactments. Yet the complexity of problems that our country is currently facing and the growing needs and demands of our people for a more assertive role on the part of Congress cannot but require us to assess the effectiveness as well as the responsiveness of the congressional committee structure and system. In order to survive and meet the challenges, Congress must adjust to external demands and cope with internal stresses. It must be pointed out that social, economic, and political developments generate demands that the legislature pass legislation or take other action to meet constitutional and public expectations concerning the general welfare. The continuing rise of unemployment, poverty, economic depression, scandals, crises and calamities of various kinds, energy problem and accelerating technological innovations, all intensify pressures upon Congress. Political or governmental shifts, aggressive presidential leadership, partisan realignments, and momentous and controversial Supreme Court rulings, among other things, also drive the congressional workload."


However, the effects of external demands create interpersonal stresses within Congress
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

, and in the Senate in particular. For instance, a ballooning workload (external demand) of some committees has caused personal or committee scrambles for jurisdiction (internal stress). Other tensions that may be considered range from the growth in the member-ship of various committees, jurisdictional disputes among several committees, shifts in its personnel, factional disputes and members’ shifting attitudes or norms. Such conflicts surface in recurrent debates over pay, requisites, committee jurisdictions, rules scheduling, and budgetary procedures which necessitate the call for an assessment of the present structure of the Senate Committee System.

Prominent Senators

See List of Senators of the Philippines.


Assumed Presidency
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 (from latest to first):
  • Benigno Aquino III
    Benigno Aquino III
    Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III , also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010....

    , 15th Philippine president (incumbent)
  • Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
    Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
    Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

    , 14th Philippine president
  • Joseph Ejercito Estrada
    Joseph Estrada
    Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in...

    , 13th Philippine president
  • Ferdinand E. Marcos
    Ferdinand Marcos
    Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

    , 10th Philippine president
  • Carlos P. Garcia
    Carlos P. Garcia
    Carlos Polistico García was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader...

    , 8th Philippine president
  • Elpidio Quirino
    Elpidio Quirino
    Elpidio Rivera Quirino was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931...

    , 6th Philippine president
  • Manuel Roxas
    Manuel Roxas
    Manuel Acuña Roxas was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948...

    , 5th Philippine president
  • Sergio Osmeña
    Sergio Osmeña
    Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

    , 4th Philippine president
  • José P. Laurel
    Jose P. Laurel
    José Paciano Laurel y García was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945...

    , 3rd Philippine president
  • Manuel L. Quezon
    Manuel L. Quezon
    Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

    , 2nd Philippine president. Was also the first Senate President who lobbied for a nationally-elected senate that was established in 1940.


Other:
  • Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., Marcos-era opposition leader, husband of 11th Philippine President Corazon C. Aquino, and father of incumbent Benigno Aquino III.
  • Jose W. Diokno, nationalist, former Secretary of Justice, Bar
    Philippine Bar Examination
    The Philippine Bar Examination is the professional licensure examination for lawyers in the Philippines.It is the only professional licensure exam in the country that is not supervised by the Professional Regulation Commission...

     topnotcher, founder of the Free Legal Assistance Group
  • Teofisto Guingona, Jr.
    Teofisto Guingona, Jr.
    Teofisto Tayko Guingona, Jr. was the Vice President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2004 during the first term of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.-Early Life and Career:...

    , 11th Vice President of the Philippines
    Vice President of the Philippines
    -Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...

  • Raul Manglapus
    Raul Manglapus
    Raúl Sevilla Manglapus was a prominent post-World War II Filipino politician. He co-founded the reformist Progressive Party of the Philippines and the Christian Democratic Socialist Movement in 1968 .He was appointed as the Philippines' youngest-ever foreign minister in 1957,...

    , former Minister of Foreign Affairs and former presidential candidate
  • Blas Ople
    Blas Ople
    Blas Fajardo Ople was a Filipino journalist and politician who held several high-ranking positions in the executive and legislative branches of the Philippine government, including as Senate President from 1999 to 2000, and as Secretary of Foreign Affairs from 2002 until his death...

    , former Director-General of the International Labour Organization
    International Labour Organization
    The International Labour Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues pertaining to international labour standards. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. Its secretariat — the people who are employed by it throughout the world — is known as the...

     (ILO) and former Secretary of Foreign Affairs
  • Cipriano P. Primicias, Sr.
    Cipriano P. Primicias, Sr.
    Cipriano Purugganan Primicias, Sr. was a Filipino politician who was best known for his service as a Senator of the Philippines...

    , statesman, Majority Floor Leader and Member of The Council of State, 1953–1963
  • Gil J. Puyat, statesman, Senate President (1967–1972).
  • Lorenzo Tañada
    Lorenzo Tañada
    Lorenzo Martinez Tañada was a Filipino politician. Elected to the first Philippine Senate in 1947, he was the longest-serving senator in Philippine history. He served as a Philippine senator for 24 years.-Early life:...

    , statesman and Marcos-era opposition leader
  • Arturo Tolentino
    Arturo Tolentino
    Arturo Modesto Tolentino was a prominent political figure in the Philippines who briefly held the position of vice president in 1986. He is more well known as the father of the Philippine “archipelagic doctrine” and expert on the Law of the Sea.-Early career:Arturo M. Tolentino was born in Manila...

    , 9th Vice President of the Philippines
    Vice President of the Philippines
    -Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...

  • Claro M. Recto
    Claro M. Recto
    Claro Mayo Recto, Jr. , was a Filipino politician, jurist, poet and one of the foremost statesmen of his generation...

    , former senator and statesman
  • Jovito Salonga
    Jovito Salonga
    Jovito "Jovy" Reyes Salonga is a Filipino nationalist politician and lawyer, as well as a leading opposition leader during the Marcos regime from 1972, when Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law, until 1986, when Marcos was deposed as a result of a bloodless revolution...

    , Three-time top elected senator, Marcos-era opposition leader, former Chairman of the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG).
  • Vicente Sotto
    Vicente Sotto
    Vicente Yap Sotto was a Filipino politician and former Senator of the Philippines. Senator Vicente Yap Sotto was the main author of the Press Freedom Law -Personal life:...

    , father of "Press Freedom Law"

See also

  • List of Senators of the Philippines
  • Politics of the Philippines
    Politics of the Philippines
    The Politics of the Philippines takes place in an organized framework of a presidential, representative, and democratic republic whereby the president is both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party system...

  • Floor leaders of the Senate of the Philippines
    Floor leaders of the Senate of the Philippines
    The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are the two Senators of the Philippines who are elected by their respective parties or coalitions as their official leaders...

  • President of the Senate of the Philippines
    President of the Senate of the Philippines
    The President of the Senate of the Philippines, or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest ranking-official of the Senate of the Philippines. He/she is elected by the entire body to be their leader...

  • President pro tempore of the Senate of the Philippines
    President pro tempore of the Senate of the Philippines
    The President Pro-Tempore of the Senate of the Philippines is the second highest-ranking official of the Senate of the Philippines. During the absence of the Senate President, the Senate President pro tempore presides over the Senate....

  • Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines
    Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines
    The Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines is the leader elected by the majority party of the Senate of the Philippines that serves as their official leader in the body. He also manages the business of the majority part in the Senate...

  • Minority leader of the Senate of the Philippines
    Minority leader of the Senate of the Philippines
    The Minority leader of the Senate of the Philippines is the leader elected by the minority party of the Senate of the Philippines that serves as their official leader in the body. He also manages the business of the minority part in the Senate. He is expected to be alert and vigilant in defense...

  • Deputy Speakers of the Philippine House of Representatives
    Deputy Speakers of the Philippine House of Representatives
    The Deputy Speakers of the Philippine House of Representatives are the second highest-ranking officials of the Philippine House of Representatives...

  • Senatorial districts of the Philippines
    Senatorial districts of the Philippines
    The Senatorial districts of the Philippines were the representations of the provinces of the Philippines in the Philippine Senate from 1916 to 1935.-History:...


External links

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