Segrosomes are protein complex
Protein complex
A multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains. If the different polypeptide chains contain different protein domain, the resulting multiprotein complex can have multiple catalytic functions...

es that ensure accurate segregation (partitioning) of plasmid
In microbiology and genetics, a plasmid is a DNA molecule that is separate from, and can replicate independently of, the chromosomal DNA. They are double-stranded and, in many cases, circular...

s or chromosome
A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.Chromosomes...

s during bacterial cell division.

Just as higher forms of life have evolved a complex mitotic apparatus to partition duplicated DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 during cell division
Cell division
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells . Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle. This type of cell division in eukaryotes is known as mitosis, and leaves the daughter cell capable of dividing again. The corresponding sort...

, bacteria
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...

 require a specialized apparatus to partition their duplicated DNA. In bacteria, segrosomes perform the function similar to that performed by mitotic spindle. Therefore, segrosomes can be thought of as minimalist spindles.

Segrosomes are usually composed of three basic components- the DNA (plasmid or chromosome) that needs to be segregated into daughter cells, a motor protein that provides the necessary physical forces for accomplishing the segregation and a DNA binding protein that connects the DNA and the motor protein, to form the complete segrosome complex.

Motor proteins present in bacterial segrosomal complexes

The majority of motor proteins participating in plasmid segrosomes are Walker-type or ParM type ATPase
ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate into adenosine diphosphate and a free phosphate ion. This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy, which the enzyme harnesses to drive other chemical reactions that would not otherwise occur...

s. Segrosome formation could be a highly regulated and ordered process to ensure its coupling with the other events of the bacterial cell cycle. Recently segrosomal complexes derived from the tubulin family of cytoskeletal proteins
The cytoskeleton is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within a cell's cytoplasm and is made out of protein. The cytoskeleton is present in all cells; it was once thought to be unique to eukaryotes, but recent research has identified the prokaryotic cytoskeleton...

, which are GTPase
GTPases are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate . The GTP binding and hydrolysis takes place in the highly conserved G domain common to all GTPases.-Functions:...

s have been discovered in megaplasmids found in Bacillus
Bacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the division Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes, and test positive for the enzyme catalase. Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living and pathogenic species...

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