Sarajevo
Overview
 


Sarajevo is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 coexisting there for centuries. Due to this long and rich history of religious diversity, Sarajevo is often called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans".

Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 stronghold in the 15th century.
Quotations

"An immense number of trees among the houses, of which many are large and fine, give the entire city the image of an excellent garden and it is no wonder they call it the Damascus of the North" - 17th century English traveler

"On this earth there are many cities by the name of Saray. Ak Saray, Tebe-Saray between Persia, Dzhurdistan, and Degestan, City Saray on the banks of the river Erdelya, when you pass the field Hayhat, now in the lands of Muscovy, Vize-Saray in Rumeliya, and others. But this Bosnian fortified city of Sarajevo is the most advanced, beautiful, and lively, of them all" - Elvija Chelebiya, traveling writer

"And from whatever time of day and from whatever corner you set your sights on Sarajevo, you always and without specific intention think the same thing. That is a city. A city that both nears its end and is dying, yet simultaneously is being born and growing" - Ivo Andric|Ivo Andrić, Nobel prize winning writer

"When you go to Sarajevo what you experience... is life" - Mike Leigh, film director Category:Cities bs:Sarajevo

Encyclopedia


Sarajevo is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 coexisting there for centuries. Due to this long and rich history of religious diversity, Sarajevo is often called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans".

Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885 Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, the first being San Francisco, California. In 1914 it was the site of the assassination of the Archduke of Austria
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six Bosnian Serb assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić...

 that sparked World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. Seventy years later, it hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics
1984 Winter Olympics
The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated from 8–19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Other candidate cities were Sapporo, Japan; and Gothenburg, Sweden...

. For nearly four years, from 1992–1996, the city suffered from a siege
Siege of Sarajevo
The Siege of Sarajevo is the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. Serb forces of the Republika Srpska and the Yugoslav People's Army besieged Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, from 5 April 1992 to 29 February 1996 during the Bosnian War.After Bosnia...

 during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
The Bosnian War or the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1992 and December 1995. The war involved several sides...

 for independence.

Today the city is undergoing post-war reconstruction, and is the fastest growing city
Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina
This page discusses the Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina since Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 and the declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992.-Overview:...

 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The travel guide series, Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book and digital media publisher in the world. The company is owned by BBC Worldwide, which bought a 75% share from the founders Maureen and Tony Wheeler in 2007 and the final 25% in February 2011...

, has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010.

In 2011, Sarajevo became the first city outside the European Union to be nominated for the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

 in 2014.

Etymology

The earliest name for a major city in the region of today's Sarajevo is Vrhbosna. Vrhbosna appears to have been destroyed well before the Ottomans
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 dominated the region. The city of Sarajevo as it is known today was built directly on top of the Bosnian village of Brodac.

Sarajevo is the only true historical name for the city. It is a Bosnian
Bosnian language
Bosnian is a South Slavic language, spoken by Bosniaks. As a standardized form of the Shtokavian dialect, it is one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina....

 word based on saray, the Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 word for the governor's palace. The letter Y does not exist in the Bosnian version of the Latin alphabet. The "evo" portion comes from Ova (Saray Ovası) meaning "the field around the palace".

Sarajevo has had many nicknames. The earliest is Šeher, which is the term Isa-Beg Ishaković used to describe the town he was going to build. It is a Turkish word meaning an advanced city of key importance (şehir) which in turn comes from Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 شهر shahr (city). As Sarajevo developed, numerous nicknames came from comparisons to other cities in the Islamic world, i.e. "Damascus of the North". The most popular of these was "European Jerusalem".

Some argue that a more correct translation of saray is government office or house. Saray is a common word in Turkish for a palace or mansion; a fortified government office, or house, would still be called a saray, if it maintained the general look of an office. Otherwise it would be called kale (castle).

Ancient times

Archeologists
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 have found that the Sarajevo region has been continuously inhabited by humans since the Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 age. The most famous example of a Neolithic settlement in the Sarajevo area is that of the Butmir culture
Butmir Culture
Butmir culture existed in Butmir, near Ilidža, Bosnia and Herzegovina, dating from the Neolithic period. It is characterized by its unique pottery, and is one of the best researched European cultures from 2600-2400 BC.-History:...

. The discoveries at Butmir
Butmir
Butmir is a neighborhood of Ilidža in the Sarajevo Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is a small but fairly important and well-known neighborhood of several thousand people.Geographically, the Butmir region is very rich in flint...

 were made on the grounds of the modern-day Sarajevo suburb Ilidža
Ilidža
Ilidža is a town and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has a metro population of 157,654, making it the 7th largest city in the country. Ilidža is the chief suburb of Sarajevo. It is famous for the natural beauty of its surroundings and historical tradition dating back to...

 in 1893 by Austro-Hungarian
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 authorities during the construction of an agricultural school. The area’s richness in flint
Flint
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or brown in colour, and...

 was no doubt attractive to Neolithic man, and the settlement appears to have flourished. The settlement developed unique ceramics and pottery designs, which characterize the Butmir people as a unique culture. This was largely responsible for the International congress of archeologists and anthropologists
Anthropology
Anthropology is the study of humanity. It has origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences. The term "anthropology" is from the Greek anthrōpos , "man", understood to mean mankind or humanity, and -logia , "discourse" or "study", and was first used in 1501 by German...

 meeting in Sarajevo in 1894.

The next prominent culture in Sarajevo were the Illyrians
Illyrians
The Illyrians were a group of tribes who inhabited part of the western Balkans in antiquity and the south-eastern coasts of the Italian peninsula...

. The ancient people, who considered most of the West Balkans
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

 as their homeland, had several key settlements in the region, mostly around the river Miljacka
Miljacka
The Miljacka is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina that passes through Sarajevo and East Sarajevo. It is famous for being "Sarajevo's River", and it has come to be identified immediately with the city itself....

 and Sarajevo valley. The Illyrians in the Sarajevo region belonged to the Daesitiates, a war-like people who were probably the last Illyrian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina to resist Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 occupation. Their defeat by the Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

 in 9 A.D. marks the start of Roman rule in the region. The Romans never built up the region of modern-day Bosnia that much, but the Roman colony
Colonies in antiquity
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city—its "metropolis"—, not from a territory-at-large. Bonds between a colony and its metropolis remained often close, and took specific forms...

 of Aquae Sulphurae was located near the top of present-day Ilidža
Ilidža
Ilidža is a town and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has a metro population of 157,654, making it the 7th largest city in the country. Ilidža is the chief suburb of Sarajevo. It is famous for the natural beauty of its surroundings and historical tradition dating back to...

, and was the most important settlement of the time. After the Romans, the Goths
Goths
The Goths were an East Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin whose two branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe....

 settled the area, followed by the Slavs
Slavic peoples
The Slavic people are an Indo-European panethnicity living in Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia. The term Slavic represents a broad ethno-linguistic group of people, who speak languages belonging to the Slavic language family and share, to varying degrees, certain...

 in the 7th century.

Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 Sarajevo was part of the Bosnian province of Vrhbosna near the traditional center of the kingdom. Though a city called Vrhbosna existed, the exact settlement of Sarajevo at this time is debated. Various documents of the high Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries . The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500....

 note a place called Tornik in the region. By all indications, Tornik was a very small marketplace surrounded by a proportionally small village, and was not considered very important by Ragusan
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea coast, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641...

 merchants.

Other scholars say that Vrhbosna was a major city located at the site of modern-day Sarajevo. Papal
Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

 documents say that in 1238, a cathedral dedicated to Saint Paul
Paul of Tarsus
Paul the Apostle , also known as Saul of Tarsus, is described in the Christian New Testament as one of the most influential early Christian missionaries, with the writings ascribed to him by the church forming a considerable portion of the New Testament...

 was built in the city. Disciples of the notable saints Cyril
Saints Cyril and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius were two Byzantine Greek brothers born in Thessaloniki in the 9th century. They became missionaries of Christianity among the Slavic peoples of Bulgaria, Great Moravia and Pannonia. Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they...

 and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius were two Byzantine Greek brothers born in Thessaloniki in the 9th century. They became missionaries of Christianity among the Slavic peoples of Bulgaria, Great Moravia and Pannonia. Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they...

 stopped by the region, founding a church at Vrelobosna. Whether or not the city was located at modern-day Sarajevo, the documents attest to its and the region's importance. VrhBosna was a Slavic citadel from 1263 until it was occupied by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 in 1429.

Ottoman era

Sarajevo was founded by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 in the 1450s upon its conquest of the region, with 1461 used as the city’s founding date. The first Ottoman governor of Bosnia
Bosnia Eyalet
The Eyalet of Bosnia or Bosnia Beylerbeylik was a eyalet and beylerbeylik of the Ottoman Empire, mostly based on the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as most of Slavonia, Lika, and Dalmatia in present-day Croatia...

, Isa-Beg Ishaković
Isa-Beg Isakovic
Isa-Beg Ishaković, or Isa-Beg Isaković, was an Ottoman general and the first governor of the Ottoman Province of Bosnia. He ruled during the 1450s and 1460s. He made much of the initial conquests for the Turkish Empire in the region, and was one of the then Sultan's most trusted generals. He was...

, transformed the cluster of villages into a city and state capitol by building a number of key structures, including a mosque, a closed marketplace, a public bath, a hostel, and of course the governor’s castle (“Saray
Saray
Saray is a Turkic word of Persian origin which means 'palace'. Several locations extending from far Asia to the Balkans have been named under variants of this word...

”) which gave the city its present name. The mosque was named “Careva Džamija” (the Tsar’s Mosque) in honor of the Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
Mehmed II , was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to September 1446, and later from...

. With the improvements Sarajevo quickly grew into the largest city in the region. Many Christians converted to Islam at this time. The settlement was established as a city, named Bosna-Saraj, around the citadel in 1461. The name Sarajevo is derived from Turkish saray ovası, meaning the field around saray.

Under leader such as the second governor Gazi Husrev-beg
Gazi Husrev-beg
Gazi Husrev-beg was a Bosniak bey in the Ottoman Empire during the first half of the 16th century...

, Sarajevo grew at a rapid rate. (Husrev-beg greatly shaped the physical city, as most of what is now the Old Town was built during his reign.) Sarajevo became known for its large marketplace and numerous mosques, which by the middle of the 16th century numbered more than 100. At the peak of the empire, Sarajevo was the biggest and most important Ottoman city in the Balkans after Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

. By 1660, the population of Sarajevo was estimated to be over 80,000. By contrast, Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

 in 1838 had 12,963 inhabitants, and Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

 as late as 1851 had 14,000 people. As political conditions changed, Sarajevo was the site of warfare.

In 1699 Prince Eugene of Savoy
Prince Eugene of Savoy
Prince Eugene of Savoy , was one of the most successful military commanders in modern European history, rising to the highest offices of state at the Imperial court in Vienna. Born in Paris to aristocratic Italian parents, Eugene grew up around the French court of King Louis XIV...

 led a successful raid on the city. After his men looted thoroughly, they set the city on fire and destroyed nearly all of it in one day. Only a handful of neighborhoods, some mosques, and the orthodox church
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

 were left standing. Numerous other fires weakened the city as well, so that by 1807 it only had some 60,000 residents.

In the 1830s several battles of the Bosnian rebellion took place around the city, led by Husein Gradaščević
Husein Gradašcevic
Husein-kapetan Gradaščević was a Bosnian Muslim general who fought for Bosnian autonomy in the Ottoman Empire. He is often referred to as "Zmaj od Bosne", meaning "Dragon of Bosnia"...

. Today, a major city street is named Zmaj od Bosne (Dragon of Bosnia) in his honor. The rebellion failed and the crumbling Ottoman state remained in control of Bosnia for several more decades.

Austria-Hungary

In 1697, during the Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century.-1667–1683:...

, a raid was led by Prince Eugene of Savoy
Prince Eugene of Savoy
Prince Eugene of Savoy , was one of the most successful military commanders in modern European history, rising to the highest offices of state at the Imperial court in Vienna. Born in Paris to aristocratic Italian parents, Eugene grew up around the French court of King Louis XIV...

 of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

 against the Ottoman Empire, which conquered Sarajevo and left it plague-infected and burned to the ground. The city was later rebuilt, but never fully recovered from the destruction. The Ottoman Empire made Sarajevo an important administrative centre by 1850, but the ruling powers changed as the Austria-Hungarian Empire
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 conquered Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 as part of the Treaty of Berlin, and annexed it completely in 1908.

Sarajevo was industrialized by Austria-Hungary, who used the city as a testing area for new inventions, such as tramways
Trams in Sarajevo
The Sarajevo Tramway, one of Europe's oldest, consists of one line. It is long, being an east-west link from the city centre district to the suburb Ilidža...

, established in 1885, before installing them in Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

. Architects and engineers wanting to help rebuild Sarajevo as a modern European capital rushed to the city. A fire that burned down a large part of the central city area (čaršija) left more room for redevelopment. The city has a unique blend of the remaining Ottoman city market and contemporary western architecture. Sarajevo has some examples of Secession- and Pseudo-Moorish
Moors
The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of the Maghreb region who are predominately of Berber and Arab descent. They came to conquer and rule the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslim, although earlier the people had followed...

 styles that date from this period.

The Austria-Hungarian
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 period was one of great development for the city, as the Western power brought its new acquisition up to the standards of the Victorian age
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

. Various factories and other buildings were built at this time, and a large number of institutions were both Westernized and modernized. For the first time in history, Sarajevo’s population began writing in Latin script
Latin alphabet
The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most recognized alphabet used in the world today. It evolved from a western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, which was adopted and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome...

.

In the event that triggered World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six Bosnian Serb assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić...

, along with his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg
Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg
Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg ; 1 March 1868 – 28 June 1914) was a Czech aristocrat, the morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Their assassination sparked World War I.- Early life :...

 in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 by a self-declared Yugoslav, Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip was the Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914...

. In the ensuing war, however, most of the Balkan offensives occurred near Belgrade, and Sarajevo largely escaped damage and destruction.

Following the war, after the Balkans were unified under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...

, Sarajevo became the capital of Drina Province
Drina Banovina
The Drina Banovina or Drina Banate was a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. Its capital was at Sarajevo and it included portions of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia...

.

Yugoslavia

After World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 and contributions from the Serbian army alongside rebelling Slavic
Slavic peoples
The Slavic people are an Indo-European panethnicity living in Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia. The term Slavic represents a broad ethno-linguistic group of people, who speak languages belonging to the Slavic language family and share, to varying degrees, certain...

 nations in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

, Sarajevo became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...

. Though it held some political importance, as the center of first the Bosnian region and then the Drinska Banovina, it was not treated with the same attention or considered as significant as it was in the past. Outside of today's national bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, virtually no significant contributions to the city were made during this period.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the Kingdom of Yugoslavia put up an inadequate defense. Following a German bombing campaign, Sarajevo was captured on the 15 April 1941 by the 16th Motorized infantry Division. The Axis powers created the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
The Independent State of Croatia was a World War II puppet state of Nazi Germany, established on a part of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia. The NDH was founded on 10 April 1941, after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. All of Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed to NDH, together with some parts...

 and included Sarajevo in its territory. On October 12, 1941 a group of 108 notable Muslim citizens of Sarajevo signed the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims
Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims
The Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims or Muslim Resolution of 1941 was one of the resolutions of Muslims from Bosnia and Herzegovina declared by 108 notable Muslim citizens of Sarajevo during the Second World War in Sarajevo on October 12, 1941...

 by which they condemned the persecution of Serbs
World War II persecution of Serbs
The Serbian Genocide refers to the attempt in extermination made towards ethnic Serbs in 1939-1945 by predominantly ethnic Croat Fascists and Nazi occupational forces....

 organized by Ustaše
Ustaše
The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement was a Croatian fascist anti-Yugoslav separatist movement. The ideology of the movement was a blend of fascism, Nazism, and Croatian nationalism. The Ustaše supported the creation of a Greater Croatia that would span to the River Drina and to the border...

, made distinction between Muslims who participated in such persecutions and whole Muslim population, presented informations about the persecutions of Muslims by Serbs and requested security for all citizens of the country, regardless of their identity.

The city was bombed by the Allies from 1943 to 1944. The Yugoslav Partisan movement was represented in the city. Resistance was led by a NLA Partisan named "Walter" Perić
Valter Peric
Vladimir "Valter" Perić was the resistance leader in Sarajevo during Second World War.Valter was born in Prijepolje in 1919. After completing his economics degree, he began to work in a Sarajevo bank in 1940. During this time, he joined the Communist Party Committee for the city of Sarajevo...

. He died while leading the final liberation of the city on the 6 April 1945. Many of the WWII shell casings
Cartridge (firearms)
A cartridge, also called a round, packages the bullet, gunpowder and primer into a single metallic case precisely made to fit the firing chamber of a firearm. The primer is a small charge of impact-sensitive chemical that may be located at the center of the case head or at its rim . Electrically...

 that were used during the attacks have been carved and polished in Sarajevo tradition and are sold as art.

Following the liberation, Sarajevo was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina , known until 1963 under the name of People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was a socialist state that was a constituent country of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia...

 within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

. The communists invested heavily in Sarajevo, building many new residential blocks in Novi Grad Municipality
Novi Grad, Sarajevo
Novi Grad is the westernmost of the four municipalities that make up the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina.-History:...

 and Novo Sarajevo Municipality
Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo is a municipality in Sarajevo, and Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.-1971:111,811 total* Serbs - 45,806 * Bosniaks - 37,147...

, while simultaneously developing the city's industry and transforming Sarajevo once again into one of the Balkans' chief cities. From a post-war population of 115,000, by the end of Yugoslavia Sarajevo had 429,672 people. Sarajevo grew rapidly as it became an important regional industrial center in Yugoslavia. Modern communist-city blocks were built west of the old city, adding to Sarajevo's architectural uniqueness. The Vraca Memorial Park
Vraca Memorial Park
The Vraca Memorial Park is a park dedicated to the World War II victims in Sarajevo. It covers 78,000 square meters and mentions the names of over 11,000 men, women, and children killed during World War II.-History:...

, a monument for victims of World War II, was dedicated on 25 November, the "Day of Statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina" when the ZAVNOBIH
ZAVNOBiH
The National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was formed as the highest governing organ of the anti-fascist movement in Bosnia and Herzegovina and during World War II developed to be bearer of Bosnian statehood...

 held their first meeting in 1943.

The crowning moment of Sarajevo’s time in Socialist Yugoslavia was the 1984 Winter Olympics
1984 Winter Olympics
The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated from 8–19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Other candidate cities were Sapporo, Japan; and Gothenburg, Sweden...

. Sarajevo beat out Sapporo, Japan; and Falun
Falun
Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 36,447 inhabitants in 2005. It is also the capital of Dalarna County...

/Göteborg
Gothenburg
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated on the west coast of Sweden, the city proper has a population of 519,399, with 549,839 in the urban area and total of 937,015 inhabitants in the metropolitan area...

, Sweden for the privilege. They were followed by an immense boom in tourism, making the 1980s one of the city's best decades in a long time.

Bosnian War

The Bosnian war
Bosnian War
The Bosnian War or the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1992 and December 1995. The war involved several sides...

 resulted in large scale destruction and dramatic population shifts during the Siege of Sarajevo between 1992 and 1995. Thousands of Sarajevans lost their lives under the constant bombardment and sniper shooting at civilians by the Serb forces during the siege.

The Siege of Sarajevo is the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. Serb forces of the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 and the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
The Yugoslav People's Army , also referred to as the Yugoslav National Army , was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.-Origins:The origins of the JNA can...

 besieged Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, from 5 April 1992 to 29 February 1996 during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
The Bosnian War or the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1992 and December 1995. The war involved several sides...

.

After Bosnia and Herzegovina had declared independence from Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

, the Serbs, whose strategic goal was to create a new Serbian State of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 (RS) that would include part of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encircled Sarajevo with a siege force of 18,000 stationed in the surrounding hills, from which they assaulted the city with weapons that included artillery, mortars, tanks, anti-aircraft guns, heavy machine-guns, multiple rocket launchers, rocket-launched aircraft bombs, and sniper rifles. From 2 May 1992, the Serbs blockade
Blockade
A blockade is an effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, which are legal barriers to trade, and is distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually...

d the city. The Bosnian government defence forces
Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the military force of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina established by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992 following the outbreak of the Bosnian War...

 inside the besieged city were poorly equipped and unable to break the siege.

It is estimated that nearly 10,000 people were killed or went missing in the city, including over 1,500 children. An additional 56,000 people were wounded, including nearly 15,000 children. The 1991 census indicates that before the siege the city and its surrounding areas had a population of 525,980.

Present

Today, Sarajevo is one of the fastest developing cities in the region. Various new modern buildings have been built, most significantly the Bosmal city centre and the Avaz twist tower which is tallest skyscraper in the Balkans. A new highway was recently (2006–2011) completed between Sarajevo and the city of Kakanj. The near-future for Sarajevo is hoped to hold continued development of the city, including the construction of modern buildings and population growth. The Sarajevo city centre will be one of the biggest and most modern shopping and business centres in south-east Europe upon its completion in 2012.

Geography

Sarajevo is located near the geometric center of the triangular-shaped Bosnia-Herzegovina and within the historical region of Bosnia proper
Bosnia (region)
Bosnia is a eponomous region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging to the southern borders of the Pannonian plain, with the rivers Sava and Drina marking its northern and eastern borders. The other eponomous region, the southern, other half of the country is...

. It is situated 518 metres (1,699.5 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

 and lies in the Sarajevo valley, in the middle of the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides form a mountain chain in Southern Europe, spanning areas of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania and Montenegro....

. The valley itself once formed a vast expanse of greenery, but gave way to urban expansion and development in the post-World War II era. The city is surrounded by heavily forested hills and five major mountains. The highest of the surrounding peaks is Treskavica
Treskavica
Treskavica is a mountain in Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated in Trnovo municipality just south of city of Sarajevo.Mala Ćaba peak at 2088 meters , makes Treskavica the tallest of all the mountains circling Sarajevo, and only some 300 meters shorter than the tallest mountain in the country...

 at 2088 metres (6,850.4 ft), then Bjelašnica at 2067 metres (6,781.5 ft), Jahorina
Jahorina
Mount Jahorina , is a mountain in south-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located southeast of Sarajevo within Republika Srpska. It borders fellow Olympic mountain Trebević...

 at 1913 metres (6,276.2 ft), Trebević
Trebevic
Trebević is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is found directly to the southeast of Sarajevo, territory of East Sarajevo city, bordering Jahorina mountain. Trebević is 1627 meters tall, making it the second shortest of the Sarajevo mountains.During the Middle Ages, Trebević was...

 at 1627 metres (5,337.9 ft), with 1502 metres (4,927.8 ft) Igman
Igman
Igman is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is found directly to the southwest of Sarajevo, bordering Bjelašnica mountain and the city of Ilidža. Igman's highest point, Vlahinja Ridge, is 1502 meters , making it the shortest of the Sarajevo mountains.Igman is a popular destination...

 being the shortest. The last four are also known as the Olympic Mountains of Sarajevo (see also 1984 Winter Olympics
1984 Winter Olympics
The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated from 8–19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Other candidate cities were Sapporo, Japan; and Gothenburg, Sweden...

). The city itself has its fair share of hilly terrain, as evidenced by the many steeply inclined streets and residences seemingly perched on the hillsides.

The Miljacka
Miljacka
The Miljacka is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina that passes through Sarajevo and East Sarajevo. It is famous for being "Sarajevo's River", and it has come to be identified immediately with the city itself....

 river is one of the city's chief geographic features. It flows through the city from east through the center of Sarajevo to west part of city where eventually meets up with the Bosna river. Miljacka river is "The Sarajevo River", with its source in the town of Pale, several kilometers to the east of Sarajevo. The Bosna's source, Vrelo Bosne
Vrelo Bosne
Vrelo Bosne is the spring of the River Bosna located in the central region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, southwest of Sarajevo. It is one of the country's top natural landmarks and is one of the most famous scenes of natural beauty in the region....

 near Ilidža (west Sarajevo), is another notable natural landmark and a popular destination for Sarajevans and other tourists. Several smaller rivers and streams also run through the city and its vicinity.

Cityscape

Sarajevo is located close to the center of the triangular shape of Bosnia and Herzegovina in southeastern Europe. Sarajevo city proper consists of four municipalities (or "in Bosnian and Croatian: općina, in Serbian: opština"): Centar (Center), Novi Grad
Novi Grad, Sarajevo
Novi Grad is the westernmost of the four municipalities that make up the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina.-History:...

 (New City), Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo is a municipality in Sarajevo, and Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.-1971:111,811 total* Serbs - 45,806 * Bosniaks - 37,147...

 (New Sarajevo), and Stari Grad
Stari Grad, Sarajevo
Stari Grad is a municipality in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the oldest and most historically significant part of Sarajevo...

 (Old City), while Metropolitan area of Sarajevo (Greater Sarajevo area) includes these and the neighbouring municipalities of Ilidža
Ilidža
Ilidža is a town and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has a metro population of 157,654, making it the 7th largest city in the country. Ilidža is the chief suburb of Sarajevo. It is famous for the natural beauty of its surroundings and historical tradition dating back to...

, Hadžići
Hadžici
Hadžići is a town and a municipality located south west of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to government statistics from 2002, Hadžići Municipality has a population of 20,055 residents.- 1971 :18,508 total...

 and Vogošća
Vogošca
Vogošća is a secondary suburb and municipality of Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located about 6 kilometers north of the city center and covering some 72 km².-1971:According to 1971 population census there were 14.402 residents....

 (before the war and new (Deyton) administrative division, Metro of Sarajevo consisted also, beside above mentioned, three municipalities today's divided between Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine and Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 - Trnovo
Trnovo
Trnovo may refer to:*In Bosnia and Herzegovina:**Trnovo, Republika Srpska, a town and municipality**Trnovo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the rural part of the same pre-war municipality, presently in the Sarajevo Canton*In Bulgaria:...

, Lukavica
Lukavica
Lukavica may refer to:* Lukavica, Bardejov District, Slovakia* Lukavica, Zvolen District, Slovakia* Lukavica or East New Sarajevo* Lukavica, a plateau in central Montenegro with numerous water springs...

 and Pale)
. The city has an urban area of 1041.5 square kilometres (154.6 sq mi)

Climate

Sarajevo's climate exhibits influences of oceanic
Oceanic
Oceanic may mean:*Of or relating to the ocean*Of or relating to Oceania*A person or the peoples of Oceania, also called "Pacific Islander"*The Oceanic languages*Oceanic climate-Ships:*RMS Oceanic *RMS Oceanic...

, humid continental and humid subtropical zones, with four seasons and uniformly spread precipitation.The proximity of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

 moderates Sarajevo's climate somewhat, although the mountains to the south of the city greatly reduce this maritime influence. The average yearly temperature is 13.5 °C (56 °F), with January (0.5 °C (32.9 °F) avg.) being the coldest month of the year and July (22 °C (71.6 °F) avg.) the warmest.

The highest recorded temperature was 40.7 °C (105 °F) on 19 August 1946, while the lowest recorded temperature was -26.2 °C on 25 January 1942. On average, Sarajevo has 85 summer days per year (temperature greater than or equal to 30.0 °C). The city typically experiences mildly cloudy skies, with an average yearly cloud cover
Cloud cover
Cloud cover refers to the fraction of the sky obscured by clouds when observed from a particular location...

 of 45%.

The cloudiest month is December (75% average cloud cover) while the clearest is August (37%). Moderate precipitation occurs fairly consistently throughout the year, with an average 75 days of rainfall. Suitable climatic conditions have allowed winter sport
Winter sport
A winter sport is a sport which is played on snow or ice. Most such sports are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditionally such sports were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and ice allow more flexibility...

s to flourish in the region, as exemplified by the Winter Olympics in 1984
1984 Winter Olympics
The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated from 8–19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Other candidate cities were Sapporo, Japan; and Gothenburg, Sweden...

 that were celebrated in Sarajevo.Sarajevo is very windy city. Avreage winds are 28–48 km/h (17.4–29.8 ). Sarajevo has 2,173 hours of sunshine (2007–2010).

Administration

Capital of Bosnia & Herzegovina

Sarajevo is the capital of the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its sub-entity, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two political entities that compose the sovereign country of Bosnia and Herzegovina . The two entities are delineated by the Inter-Entity Boundary Line...

, as well as of the Sarajevo Canton
Sarajevo Canton
The Sarajevo Canton is a canton of the Federation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The capital is Sarajevo.The Canton is basically the metro area of the city it is named after that is inside the Federation...

. It is also the de jure capital of another entity, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

. Each of these levels of government has their parliament or council, as well as judicial courts, in the city. In addition many foreign embassies
Diplomatic mission
A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one state or an international inter-governmental organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation in the receiving state...

 are located in Sarajevo.

Sarajevo is home to the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the executive branch of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina.According to the Article V, Section 4 of the Constitution, the Chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina and confirmed by the...

, Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.-Overview:...

, the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the operational command of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's Parliament office in Sarajevo was damaged heavily in the Bosnian war
Bosnian War
The Bosnian War or the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1992 and December 1995. The war involved several sides...

. Due to damage the staff and documents were moved to a nearby ground level office to resume the work. In late 2006 reconstruction work started on the Parliament and was finished in 2007. The cost of reconstruction is supported 80% by the Greek Government
Politics of Greece
The Politics of Greece takes place in a large parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Greece is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Hellenic Parliament...


through the Hellenic Program of Balkans Reconstruction (ESOAV) and 20% by Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Municipalities & city government

The city comprises four municipalities Centar, Novi Grad
Novi Grad, Sarajevo
Novi Grad is the westernmost of the four municipalities that make up the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina.-History:...

, Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo is a municipality in Sarajevo, and Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.-1971:111,811 total* Serbs - 45,806 * Bosniaks - 37,147...

, and Stari Grad
Stari Grad, Sarajevo
Stari Grad is a municipality in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the oldest and most historically significant part of Sarajevo...

. Each operate their own municipal government
Local government
Local government refers collectively to administrative authorities over areas that are smaller than a state.The term is used to contrast with offices at nation-state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government...

, united they form one city government with its own constitution. The executive branch
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

  consists of a mayor, with two deputies and a cabinet. The legislative branch
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 consists of the City Council
City council
A city council or town council is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality or local government area.-Australia & NZ:Because of the differences in legislation between the States, the exact definition of a City Council varies...

, or Gradsko Vijeće. The council has 28 members, including a council speaker, two deputies, and a secretary. Councilors are elected by the municipality in numbers roughly proportional to their population. The city government also has a judicial branch
Judiciary
The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes...

 based on the post-transitional judicial system as outlined by the High Representative's
High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina
The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was created in 1995 immediately after the Dayton Peace Agreement to oversee the civilian implementation of this agreement. The High Representative and the OHR represent the...

 “High Judicial and Prosecutorial Councils”.

Sarajevo's Municipalities are further split into "local communities" (Bosnian, Mjesne zajednice). Local communities have a small role in city government and are intended as a way for ordinary citizens to get involved in city government. They are based on key neighborhoods in the city.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Sarajevo is twinned with:
Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

, Spain (since 2000) Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

, Croatia (since 2001) Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is the centre of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. It is located in the centre of the country in the Ljubljana Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 270,000 inhabitants...

, Slovenia (since 2002) Salt Lake City, United States (since 2002) Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, Egypt (since 2006) Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea coast, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641...

, Croatia (since 2006) Lillehammer
Lillehammer
is a town and municipality in Oppland county, Norway, globally known for hosting the 1994 Winter Olympics. It is part of the traditional region of Gudbrandsdal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Lillehammer. As of May 2011, the population of the town of Lillehammer was...

, Norway (since 2006) Skopje
Skopje
Skopje is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia with about a third of the total population. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre...

, Macedonia (since 2006) Konya
Konya
Konya is a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The metropolitan area in the entire Konya Province had a population of 1,036,027 as of 2010, making the city seventh most populous in Turkey.-Etymology:...

, Turkey (since 2007)

Fraternity Cities

Sarajevo's fraternity cities include:
Bursa in Turkey (since 1979) Akhisar
Akhisar
Akhisar is a county district and its town center in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Western Turkey...

 in Turkey Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

 in Turkey (since 1997) Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

 in Turkey (since 2007) Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

 in China (since 1981) Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

 in China Venice
Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

 in Italy (since 1994) Collegno
Collegno
Collegno is a comune in the Province of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 9 km west of Turin.-Twin towns — Sister cities:Collegno is twinned with the following cities:-External links:*...

 in Italy (since 1994) Ferrara
Ferrara
Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. It is situated 50 km north-northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located 5 km north...

 in Italy (since 1978) Naples
Naples
Naples is a city in Southern Italy, situated on the country's west coast by the Gulf of Naples. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields, it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples...

 in Italy (since 1976) Prato
Prato
Prato is a city and comune in Tuscany, Italy, the capital of the Province of Prato. The city is situated at the foot of Monte Retaia , the last peak in the Calvana chain. The lowest altitude in the comune is 32 m, near the Cascine di Tavola, and the highest is the peak of Monte Cantagrillo...

 in Italy (since 1995)
Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 in Hungary (since 1995) Karlovac
Karlovac
Karlovac is a city and municipality in central Croatia. The city proper has a population of 49,082, while the municipality has a population of 59,395 inhabitants .Karlovac is the administrative centre of Karlovac County...

 in Croatia Coventry
Coventry
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the county of West Midlands in England. Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and the 11th largest in the United Kingdom. It is also the second largest city in the English Midlands, after Birmingham, with a population of 300,848, although...

 in England, United Kingdom (since 1957) Wolfsburg
Wolfsburg
Wolfsburg is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located on the River Aller northeast of Braunschweig , and is mainly notable as the headquarters of Volkswagen AG...

 in Germany (since 1985) Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Magdeburg , is the largest city and the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe....

 in Germany (since 1972) Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen
This article is about a German town. For the Danish town, see Frederikshavn, and for the Finnish town, see Fredrikshamn .Friedrichshafen is a university city on the northern side of Lake Constance in Southern Germany, near the borders with Switzerland and Austria.It is the district capital of the...

 in Germany (since 1972) Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 in Spain (since 2007) Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

 in Spain (since 1986) Innsbruck
Innsbruck
- Main sights :- Buildings :*Golden Roof*Kaiserliche Hofburg *Hofkirche with the cenotaph of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor*Altes Landhaus...

 in Austria (since 1980) Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

 in the Netherlands Serre Chevalier
Serre Chevalier
Serre Chevalier is one of the major French ski resorts. Located in the southern part of the Alps, close to the Parc National des Ecrins, in the Hautes-Alpes department of the French Alps, it enjoys a large skiing area and very sunny weather, boasting 300 days of sunshine a year...

 in France (since 1995)
Skopje
Skopje
Skopje is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia with about a third of the total population. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre...

 in Macedonia (since 2007) Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

 in Sweden (since 1997) Tábor
Tábor
Tábor is a city of the Czech Republic, in the South Bohemian Region. It is named after Mount Tabor, which is believed by many to be the place of the Transfiguration of Christ; however, the name became popular and nowadays translates to "camp" or "encampment" in the Czech language.The town was...

 in Czech Republic Tirana
Tirana
Tirana is the capital and the largest city of Albania. Modern Tirana was founded as an Ottoman town in 1614 by Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler from Mullet, although the area has been continuously inhabited since antiquity. Tirana became Albania's capital city in 1920 and has a population of over...

 in Albania (since 1996) Dayton
Dayton, Ohio
Dayton is the 6th largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County, the fifth most populous county in the state. The population was 141,527 at the 2010 census. The Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 841,502 in the 2010 census...

 in the United States (since 1999) Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

 in Azerbaijan (since 1972) Kuwait City
Kuwait City
-Suburbs:Although the districts below are not usually recognized as suburbs, the following is a list of a few areas surrounding Kuwait city:Al-Salam ""السلام"" -Economy:...

 in Kuwait (since 1998) Algiers
Algiers
' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

 in Algeria Tlemcen
Tlemcen
Tlemcen is a town in Northwestern Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name. It is located inland in the center of a region known for its olive plantations and vineyards...

 in Algeria (since 1964) Tripoli
Tripoli
Tripoli is the capital and largest city in Libya. It is also known as Western Tripoli , to distinguish it from Tripoli, Lebanon. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean , describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli is a Greek name that means "Three...

 in Libya (since 1976)

Economy

After years of war, Sarajevo's economy has been subject to reconstruction and rehabilitation programs. Amongst other economic landmarks, the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the central bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the capital city, Sarajevo.The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina was established in accordance with the law adopted at the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina on June 20, 1997...

 opened in Sarajevo in 1997 and the Sarajevo Stock Exchange
Sarajevo Stock Exchange
The Sarajevo Stock Exchange or SASE is a stock exchange which operates in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.-History and structure:The Sarajevo Stock Exchange was founded in September 2001 and commenced trading on April 12, 2002, as a central marketplace for trading in securities in the Federation...

 began trading in 2002. The city's large manufacturing, administration, and tourism base, combined with a large informal market, makes it one of the strongest economic regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

While Sarajevo had a large industrial base during its communist period, only a few pre-existing businesses have successfully adapted to the market economy
Market economy
A market economy is an economy in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. This is often contrasted with a state-directed or planned economy. Market economies can range from hypothetically pure laissez-faire variants to an assortment of real-world mixed...

. Sarajevo industries now include tobacco products, furniture, hosiery, automobiles, and communication equipment. Companies based in Sarajevo include B&H Airlines
B&H Airlines
B&H Airlines is an airline with its head office in the Energoinvest Building in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, operating scheduled services, charter passenger services and small cargo services...

, BH Telecom
BH Telecom
BH Telecom is a leading telecommunication company in Bosnia and Herzegovina.It was established in 1992, and was the first company in Bosnia and Herzegovina to provide GSM, 3G, IPTV, and many other services...

, Bosnalijek
Bosnalijek
Bosnalijek is the largest pharmaceutical company in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The organisation was established in 1951 and employs ~620 workers, out of which more than 50% have university level or higher qualifications. Its product portfolio consists of ~180 products. The company continues investment...

, Energopetrol
Energopetrol
Energopetrol is a Bosnian oil company based in Sarajevo. It was founded in the 1960s as a part of the Energoinvest corporation. Its logo includes the orange letters "EP" in a serif font surrounded by an orange circle....

, Sarajevo Tobacco Factory
Sarajevo Tobacco Factory
Sarajevo Tobacco Factory is a cigarette-producing factory in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its headquarters is in Sarajevo with branches in Bihać, Tuzla, Čitluk and Banja Luka as well as in Skopje in the Republic of Macedonia and Belgrade in Serbia...

, and Sarajevska Pivara
Sarajevska Pivara
Sarajevska Pivara is a Bosnian brewing company based in Sarajevo.-History:The Sarajevska Pivara opened in 1864 as the first local industry and shortly became one of leading producers in Bosnia, with considerable amounts exported to Montenegro, Dalmatia and Albania...

 (Sarajevo Brewery).

Sarajevo has a strong tourist industry and was named by Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book and digital media publisher in the world. The company is owned by BBC Worldwide, which bought a 75% share from the founders Maureen and Tony Wheeler in 2007 and the final 25% in February 2011...

 one of the top 50 "Best Cities in the World" in 2006. Sports-related tourism uses the legacy facilities of the 1984 Winter Olympics
1984 Winter Olympics
The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated from 8–19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Other candidate cities were Sapporo, Japan; and Gothenburg, Sweden...

, especially the skiing facilities on the nearby mountains of Bjelašnica, Igman
Igman
Igman is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is found directly to the southwest of Sarajevo, bordering Bjelašnica mountain and the city of Ilidža. Igman's highest point, Vlahinja Ridge, is 1502 meters , making it the shortest of the Sarajevo mountains.Igman is a popular destination...

, Jahorina
Jahorina
Mount Jahorina , is a mountain in south-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located southeast of Sarajevo within Republika Srpska. It borders fellow Olympic mountain Trebević...

, Trebević
Trebevic
Trebević is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is found directly to the southeast of Sarajevo, territory of East Sarajevo city, bordering Jahorina mountain. Trebević is 1627 meters tall, making it the second shortest of the Sarajevo mountains.During the Middle Ages, Trebević was...

, and Treskavica
Treskavica
Treskavica is a mountain in Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated in Trnovo municipality just south of city of Sarajevo.Mala Ćaba peak at 2088 meters , makes Treskavica the tallest of all the mountains circling Sarajevo, and only some 300 meters shorter than the tallest mountain in the country...

. Sarajevo's 600 years of history, influenced by both Western and Eastern empires, is also a strong tourist attraction
Tourist attraction
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, or amusement opportunities....

. Sarajevo has hosted travellers for centuries, because it was an important trading center during the Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 and Austria-Hungarian
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 empires. Examples of popular destinations in Sarajevo include the Vrelo Bosne
Vrelo Bosne
Vrelo Bosne is the spring of the River Bosna located in the central region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, southwest of Sarajevo. It is one of the country's top natural landmarks and is one of the most famous scenes of natural beauty in the region....

 park, the Sarajevo cathedral
Cathedral of Jesus' Heart
The Cathedral of Jesus' Heart in Sarajevo, commonly referred as the Sarajevo Cathedral is the largest cathedral in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the seat of the Vrhbosanski Archbishop, currently Cardinal Vinko Puljić, and center of Catholic worship in the city...

, and the Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque. Tourism in Sarajevo is chiefly focused on historical, religious, and cultural aspects.

In 1981 Sarajevo's GDP per capita was 133% of the Yugoslav average.

Demographics

The last official census in Bosnia and Herzegovina took place 1991 and recorded 527,049 people living in city of Sarajevo (ten municipalities
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

). In the settlement of Sarajevo itself were 416,497 inhabitants. The war displaced hundreds of thousands of people, many of whom have not returned.

Today, Sarajevo's population is not known clearly and is based on estimates contributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and the Federal Office of Statistics of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two political entities that compose the sovereign country of Bosnia and Herzegovina . The two entities are delineated by the Inter-Entity Boundary Line...

, among other national and international non-profit organizations.
, the population of the city's four municipalities is estimated to be 310,605, whereas the Sarajevo Canton
Sarajevo Canton
The Sarajevo Canton is a canton of the Federation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The capital is Sarajevo.The Canton is basically the metro area of the city it is named after that is inside the Federation...

 population is estimated at 436,572. With an area of 493 square miles (1,276.9 km²), Sarajevo has a population density of about 2173 PD/km2. The Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo is a municipality in Sarajevo, and Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.-1971:111,811 total* Serbs - 45,806 * Bosniaks - 37,147...

 municipality is the most densely populated part of Sarajevo with about 7524 PD/km2, while the least densely populated is the Stari Grad
Stari Grad, Sarajevo
Stari Grad is a municipality in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the oldest and most historically significant part of Sarajevo...

, with 2742 PD/km2.

War changed the ethnic and religious profile of the city. It had long been a multicultural city, and often went by the nickname of "Europe's Jerusalem". At the time of the 1991 census, 49.2 per cent of the city's population of 527,049 were Bosniaks
Bosniaks
The Bosniaks or Bosniacs are a South Slavic ethnic group, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a smaller minority also present in other lands of the Balkan Peninsula especially in Serbia, Montenegro and Croatia...

, 29.8 per cent Serbs, 6.6 per cent Croats and 3.6 per cent other ethnicities. 10.7 per cent described themselves as Yugoslavs. By 2002, 79.6 per cent of the canton's population of 401,118 were Bosniak, 11.2 per cent Serb, 6.7 per cent Croat and 2.5 per cent others. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina census that the 2002 data is based on only included these four ethnic categories, and academic Fran Markowitz states that it is not clear "whether the state acted by fiat to turn Muslims (and perhaps Jugoslaveni [Yugoslavs] and Ostali [others]) into Bosniacs, or if its citizens through their self-declarations made that switch in identity". Many Serbs left urban areas including Sarajevo during the conflict, but the falling number of Serbs is also partly due to the redrawing of municipal boundaries as part of the Dayton Agreement
Dayton Agreement
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on...

.

Transportation

Roads

Sarajevo's location in a valley between mountains makes it a compact city
Compact City
The Compact City or city of short distances is an urban planning and urban design concept, which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses. It is based on an efficient public transport system and has an urban layout which – according to its advocates – encourages walking and...

. Narrow city streets and a lack of parking areas restrict automobile traffic but allow better pedestrian and cyclist mobility. The two main roads are Titova Ulica (Street of Marshal Tito
Josip Broz Tito
Marshal Josip Broz Tito – 4 May 1980) was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, Tito was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad, viewed as a unifying symbol for the nations of the Yugoslav federation...

) and the east-west Zmaj od Bosne
Husein Gradašcevic
Husein-kapetan Gradaščević was a Bosnian Muslim general who fought for Bosnian autonomy in the Ottoman Empire. He is often referred to as "Zmaj od Bosne", meaning "Dragon of Bosnia"...

 (Dragon of Bosnia) highway (E761).
The trans-European highway, Corridor 5C, runs through Sarajevo connecting it to Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 in the north, and Ploče
Ploce
Ploče is a town and a notable seaport in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia.The total population of Ploče is 10,102 , in the following settlements:* Baćina, population 564* Banja, population 176* Komin, population 1,222...

 at the Adriatic sea in the south.

Public transport

Sarajevo's electric tramways, in operation since 1885, are the oldest form of public transportation in the city.
Sarajevo had the first full-time (dawn to dusk) tram line in Europe. Opened on New Years Day in 1885, it was the testing line for the tram in Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and operated by horses. Originally built to 760 mm (30 in) narrow gauge
Narrow gauge
A narrow gauge railway is a railway that has a track gauge narrower than the of standard gauge railways. Most existing narrow gauge railways have gauges of between and .- Overview :...

 (Bosnian gauge), the present system in 1960 was upgraded to standard gauge
Standard gauge
The standard gauge is a widely-used track gauge . Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge...

 (1435 mm). The trams played a pivotal role in the growth of the city in the 20th century.
There are seven tramway lines supplemented by five trolleybus
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

 lines and numerous bus routes. The main railroad station in Sarajevo is located in the north-central area of the city. From there, the tracks head west before branching off in different directions, including to industrial zones in the city. Sarajevo is currently undergoing a major infrastructure renewal; many highways and streets are being repaved, the tram system is undergoing modernization, and new bridges and roads are under construction.

Aviation

Sarajevo International Airport
Sarajevo International Airport
Sarajevo International Airport , also known as Butmir Airport, is the main international airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located southwest of the railway station in the capital city of Sarajevo in the suburb of Butmir....

 , also called Butmir, is located just a few kilometers southwest of the city. During the war the airport was used for UN flights and humanitarian relief. Since the Dayton Accord
Dayton Agreement
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on...

 in 1996, the airport has welcomed a thriving commercial flight business which includes the new Sarajevo International on March 2008 221 Countries, cities and airlines. In 2010, 563.266 passengers travelled through Sarajevo airport which is a 6,2% increase from 2009, whereas only 25,000 in 1996 after the end of the war. The airport of Sarajevo has an annual growth rate between 5-10% and due to this an extension of the airport is now under planning.

Train

Sarajevo is connected to the Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

 - Ploče
Ploce
Ploče is a town and a notable seaport in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia.The total population of Ploče is 10,102 , in the following settlements:* Baćina, population 564* Banja, population 176* Komin, population 1,222...

 line that goes through Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Sarajevo - Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

 line. There are also local and regional train lines between cities in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Sarajevo has also a direct train line to Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 7 days a week.

Communications and media

As the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo is the main center of the country's media. Most of the communications and media infrastructure was destroyed during the war but reconstruction led by the Office of the High Representative have helped modernize the industry. For example, internet was first made available to the city in 1995.

Oslobođenje (Liberation), founded in 1943, is Sarajevo longest running newspaper and the only one to survive the war. However, this long running and trusted newspaper has fallen behind the Dnevni Avaz (Daily Voice), founded in 1995, and Jutarnje Novine (Morning News) in circulation in Sarajevo. Other local periodicals include the Croatian newspaper Hrvatska riječ
Hrvatska rijec
Hrvatska riječ is a Croatian language weekly newspaper in Serbia. It was founded in 1945, with the purpose to serve as the information organ for the Croatian minority of Vojvodina....

 and the Bosnian magazine Start
Start (newspaper)
Start was a short-lived daily tabloid published in Belgrade between late 2005 and early 2006.After the commercial failure of his Ekipa sports daily, Radisav Rodić, owner of Kurir and Glas javnosti dailies, decided to give Start a try in late 2005...

, as well as weekly newspapers Slobodna Bosna (Free Bosnia) and BH Dani (BH Days). Novi Plamen
Novi Plamen
Novi Plamen is a left-wing magazine for political, social and cultural issues primarily aimed at intellectual audiences on the territory of the former Yugoslavia and the related diaspora. It is a leading publication of its kind in the region, published by the Demokratska misao publishing company...

, a monthly magazine, is the most left-wing publication currently.

The Radiotelevision of Bosnia-Herzegovina is Sarajevo's public television
Public broadcasting
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing.Public broadcasting may be...

 station, one of three in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other stations based in the city include NRTV “Studio 99”, NTV Hayat
NTV Hayat
Hayat TV is a television station from Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.It is a privately-owned TV station, which started airing on February 24, 1992. Its coverage is over 1.5 million people in Bosnia, numerous cable subscribers in the neighbouring countries, and satellite viewers. Hayat TV...

, TV 1, Open Broadcast Network, TV Kantona Sarajevo and Televizija Alfa.

Sarajevo is also the headquarter of Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera is an independent broadcaster owned by the state of Qatar through the Qatar Media Corporation and headquartered in Doha, Qatar...

 for the Balkans
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

 with a broadcasting studio at the top of the BBI Center
BBI Centar
BBI Centar is a modern shopping mall in the center of Sarajevo. It is one of the largest shopping malls in Bosnia and Herzegovina, stretching to 43 000 square metre and it was opened on 6 of April, 2009. This place was built on the site where former department store has been demolished. The...

 in the heart of Sarajevo. The Bosnian
Bosnian language
Bosnian is a South Slavic language, spoken by Bosniaks. As a standardized form of the Shtokavian dialect, it is one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina....

/Croatian
Croatian language
Croatian is the collective name for the standard language and dialects spoken by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries...

/Serbian
Serbian language
Serbian is a form of Serbo-Croatian, a South Slavic language, spoken by Serbs in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia and neighbouring countries....

 language news channel is covering Bosnia and Hercegovina, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 and Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

, plus the surrounding Balkan states.

Many small independent radio stations exist, included established stations such as Radio M, Radio Stari Grad (Radio Old Town), Studentski eFM Radio, Radio 202, Radio BIR, and RSG. Radio Free Europe, as well as several American and West European stations, are available in the city, too.

Education

Higher education has a long tradition in Sarajevo. The first institution that can be classified as such was a school of Sufi
Sufism
Sufism or ' is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a '...

 philosophy established by Gazi Husrev-beg
Gazi Husrev-beg
Gazi Husrev-beg was a Bosniak bey in the Ottoman Empire during the first half of the 16th century...

 in 1531; numerous other religious schools have been established over time. In 1887, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a Sharia Law School
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

 began a five-year program. In the 1940s the University of Sarajevo
University of Sarajevo
The University of Sarajevo is the first university in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was originally established in 1531 as a Madrasah or Islamic Law college, with a modern university being established and expanded on top of that in 1949. Today, with 23 faculties and around 55,000 enrolled students, it...

 became the city's first secular higher education institute. In the 1950s post-bachelaurate graduate degrees became available. While severely damaged during the war, it was rebuilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities.

For providing better education, some of international universities are located in Sarajevo. Those are: Sarajevo School of Science and Technology
Sarajevo School of Science and Technology
Sarajevo School of Science and Technology is a private university, located in metropolitan Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, within the town of Ilidža, Bosnia and Herzegovina...

, International University of Sarajevo
International University of Sarajevo
The International University of Sarajevo is a private university located in the capital city Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The university was established by the Foundation for the Development of Education in 2004-2005. IUS is open to students from all over the world, and the language of...

, American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina
American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina is an undergraduate establishment located in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 2007, the University opened a postgraduate department in Sarajevo, offering a fast track master's degree in business administration...

, Sarajevo Graduate School of Business
Sarajevo Graduate School of Business
Sarajevo Graduate School of Business is a private university located in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is mainly focused on MBA degree....

, International Burch University
International Burch University
International Burch University was established in 2008 in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the goal of presenting a unique opportunity to rethink the very idea of a modern university and formulate a blueprint for the future...

.

University of Sarajevo
University of Sarajevo
The University of Sarajevo is the first university in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was originally established in 1531 as a Madrasah or Islamic Law college, with a modern university being established and expanded on top of that in 1949. Today, with 23 faculties and around 55,000 enrolled students, it...

 has a partial partnership with Griffith College Dublin
Griffith College Dublin
Griffith College Dublin is a private third level college in the Republic of Ireland. It is based in and named after the former Griffith Barracks on the South Circular Road in Dublin. It offers courses accredited by a number of institutions and bodies in Ireland and Britain...

, offering a joint BA in Business Studies. First two years of the degree take place in Sarajevo, and the third and final year, takes place in Dublin.
After finishing this course, students receive academic degrees from both universities. Also, one-year MBA in International Business Management is offered at University of Sarajevo, after finishing this course students receive masters degrees from the University of Sarajevo, Griffith College Dublin and Nottingham Trent University
Nottingham Trent University
Nottingham Trent University is a public teaching and research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom. It was founded as a new university in 1992 from the existing Trent Polytechnic , however it can trace its roots back to 1843 with the establishment of the Nottingham Government School of Design...

.

, in Sarajevo there are 46 elementarys (Grades 1–9) and 33 highs (Grades 10–13), including three schools for children with special needs,

'Druga gimnazija' provides the MYP
IB Middle Years Programme
The International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme is an educational programme intended for students aged approximately 11 to 16 . Thus, in the United States the programme is often taught throughout the middle school years and the first two years of high school...

 and International Baccalaureate diploma.
'Prva bošnjačka gimnazija' provides the IGCSE and GCE Advanced Level
GCE Advanced Level
The Advanced Level General Certificate of Education, commonly referred to as an A-level, is a qualification offered by education institutions in England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Cameroon, and the Cayman Islands...

.

There are also several international school
International school
An International school is loosely defined as a school that promotes international education, in an international environment, either by adopting an international curriculum such as that of the International Baccalaureate or Cambridge International Examinations, or by following a national...

s in Sarajevo, catering to the expatriate community; some of which are Sarajevo International School
Sarajevo International School
QSI International School od Sarajevo is an international school in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The language of instruction is English. The curriculum is based on US National Standards with the addition of three foreign languages. The school is funded by tuition fees. Students range from 3 to...

 and the French International School of Sarajevo, established in 1998.

Culture

Sarajevo has been home to many different religions for centuries, giving the city a range of diverse cultures. In the time of Ottoman occupation of Bosnia, Muslims, Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

, Roman Catholics, and Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...

 all shared the city while maintaining distinctive identities. They were joined during the brief occupation by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 by a smaller number of Germans
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

, Hungarians, Slovaks
Slovaks
The Slovaks, Slovak people, or Slovakians are a West Slavic people that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language.Most Slovaks today live within the borders of the independent Slovakia...

, Czechs and Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim , are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany...

.

Historically, Sarajevo was home to several famous Bosnian poets, scholars, philosophers, and writers during the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

. To list only a few; Nobel Prize-winner Vladimir Prelog
Vladimir Prelog
Vladimir Prelog FRS was a Croatian chemist and Nobel Prize winner in chemistry. Prelog lived and worked in Prague, Zagreb and Zürich during his lifetime.-Biography:...

 is from the city, as is Academy Award-winning director Danis Tanović
Danis Tanovic
Danis Tanović is a Bosnian film director and screenwriter.Tanović is best known for having directed and written the script for the 2001 Bosnian movie No Man's Land which won an Academy Award. He was a member of the jury at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival.-Biography:Danis Tanović was born in the...

. Nobel Prize-winner Ivo Andrić
Ivo Andric
Ivan "Ivo" Andrić was a Yugoslav novelist, short story writer, and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature. His writings dealt mainly with life in his native Bosnia under the Ottoman Empire...

 attended high school in Sarajevo for two years.
Sarajevo is also the home of the East West Theatre Company
East West Theatre Company
East West Theatre Company was established in 2005 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is a non-for-profit cultural institution which produces performing arts programs and music events. It also organizes touring shows, discussions, forums, master-classes and workshops...

, the only independent theatre company in Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Sarajevo National Theatre.
The Sarajevo National Theatre
Sarajevo National Theatre
The Sarajevo National Theatre was founded in November 1921.-References:...

 is the oldest professional theatre in Bosnia-Herzegovina established in 1921.

Museums

The city is rich in museums, including the Museum of Sarajevo
Museum of Sarajevo
The Museum of Sarajevo is located in central Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina and was established in 1949.-Branches:*Brusa Bezistan*Jewish Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

, the Ars Aevi Museum of Contemporary Art
Ars Aevi
Ars Aevi is a museum of contemporary art in Sarajevo. It was formed during the war as a "resistance of culture". It has approximately 130 works by renowned world artists including Michelangelo Pistoletto, Jannis Kounellis, Joseph Beuys, and Joseph Kosuth....

, Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, The Museum of Literature and Theatre Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina
National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in central Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was established in 1888, having originally been conceived around 1850...

 (established in 1888) home to the Sarajevo Haggadah
Sarajevo Haggadah
The Sarajevo Haggadah is an illuminated manuscript that contains the illustrated traditional text of the Passover Haggadah which accompanies the Passover Seder. It is one of the oldest Sephardic Haggadahs in the world, originating in Barcelona around 1350. The Haggadah is presently owned by the...

, an illuminated manuscript
Illuminated manuscript
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders and miniature illustrations...

 and the oldest Sephardic Jewish document in the world issued in Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

 around 1350, containing the traditional Jewish Haggadah, is held at the museum.

Museum Alija Izetbegović as a depandance Museum Sarajevo was open on 19 October 2007. It is located in the old town fort, more specific in the Vratnik kapi (gates) towers Ploča and Širokac. The museum is a commemoration to the character and work of Alija Izetbegović, The first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The city also hosts the National theatre of Bosnia and Herzegovina, established in 1919, as well as the Sarajevo Youth Theatre. Other cultural institutions
Cultural institutions
Cultural institutions are elements within a culture/sub-culture that are perceived to be important to, or traditionally valued among, its members for their own identity. Examples of cultural institutions in modern Western society are museums, churches, schools, work and the print media.Television...

 include the Center for Sarajevo Culture, Sarajevo City Library, Art Gallery of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Bosniak Institute
Bosniak Institute
The Bosniak Institute is a cultural center in Sarajevo focusing on Bosniak culture. It was established by Adil Zulfikarpašić. The institute is housed in a renovated sixteenth century Turkish bath and includes a library and an art center.-External links:*...

, a privately owned library and art collection focusing on Bosniak history.

Demolitions associated with the war, as well as reconstruction, destroyed several institutions and cultural or religious symbols
Religious symbolism
Religious symbolism is the use of symbols, including archetypes, acts, artwork, events, or natural phenomena, by a religion. Religions view religious texts, rituals, and works of art as symbols of compelling ideas or ideals...

 including the Gazi Husrev-beg library, the national library, the Sarajevo Oriental Institute
Oriental Institute in Sarajevo
The Oriental Institute in Sarajevo , its premises, research library and complete manuscript collection was deliberately destroyed in shelling on May 18, 1992 by Serb forces around the besieged city of Sarajevo. The Oriental Institute had clearly been singled out...

, and a museum dedicated to the 1984 Olympic games
1984 Summer Olympics
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Los Angeles, California, United States in 1984...

. Consequently, the different levels of government established strong cultural protection laws and institutions. Bodies charged with cultural preservation in Sarajevo include the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage
Cultural heritage
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations...

 of Bosnia and Herzegovina (and their Sarajevo Canton counterpart), and the Bosnia and Herzegovina Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

Music

The Sarajevo school of pop rock
Sarajevo school of pop rock
The Sarajevo school of pop rock collectively refers to the popular music created between 1960 and 1991 by artists and bands native to Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina ....

 developed in the city between 1961 and 1991. This type of music began with bands like Indexi
Indexi
Indexi was a Bosnian rock band popular in the former Yugoslavia. It formed in 1962 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, and disbanded in 2001 when singer Davorin Popović died...

, Pro Arte and singer/song writer Kemal Monteno
Kemal Monteno
Kemal Monteno is a popular Bosnian singer-songwriter. He was born to an Italian father and a Bosniak mother. He recorded his first song Lidija in 1967 and has enjoyed a prosperous career in the former Yugoslavia...

. It continued into the 1980s, with bands such as Plavi Orkestar
Plavi orkestar
Plavi orkestar is one of the most popular bands from former Yugoslavia. The band was founded in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1983.The band has remained popular to the present day with 8 albums and more than 3500 concerts worldwide...

, Crvena Jabuka
Crvena jabuka
Crvena jabuka is a Sarajevo-based pop band that originated in 1985, and since then has remained very popular. They were also a part of the so called New Primitives movement that occurred in the 1980s in the Former Yugoslavia territory....

 and Vatreni Poljubac ending with the war in 1992. Sarajevo was also the birthplace of the most popular Yugoslav rock band
Rock Band
Rock Band is a music video game developed by Harmonix Music Systems, published by MTV Games and Electronic Arts. It is the first title in the Rock Band series. The PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 versions were released in the United States on November 20, 2007, while the PlayStation 2 version was...

 of all time, Bijelo Dugme
Bijelo dugme
Bijelo dugme was a highly influential former Yugoslav rock band, based in Sarajevo. Active between 1974 and 1989, it is widely considered to have been the most popular band ever to exist in former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and one of the most important acts of the Yugoslav rock...

, somewhat of a Bosnian parallel to the Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band, formed in London in April 1962 by Brian Jones , Ian Stewart , Mick Jagger , and Keith Richards . Bassist Bill Wyman and drummer Charlie Watts completed the early line-up...

, in both popularity and fame. Sarajevo was also the home of a very notable post-punk
Post-punk
Post-punk is a rock music movement with its roots in the late 1970s, following on the heels of the initial punk rock explosion of the mid-1970s. The genre retains its roots in the punk movement but is more introverted, complex and experimental...

 urban subculture known as the New Primitives
New Primitives
New Primitivism was an urban subcultural movement that originated in Sarajevo during early-to-mid 1980s. The movement was identified with Zabranjeno pušenje and Elvis J. Kurtović & His Meteors bands, whose members were the driving forces behind it. Its creators and most notable personalities...

, which began during the early 1980s with the Baglama Band which was banned shortly after first LP and was brought into the mainstream through bands such as Zabranjeno Pušenje
Zabranjeno pušenje
Zabranjeno Pušenje is a Yugoslavian garage rock band from Sarajevo, closely associated with the New primitivism cultural movement and the radio and television satire show Top Lista Nadrealista...

 and Elvis J. Kurtović & His Meteors, as well as the Top Lista Nadrealista
Top lista nadrealista
Top lista nadrealista also known as Nadrealisti was a comedy radio broadcast on Radio Sarajevo during early 1980s and later a sketch comedy and variety show on TV Sarajevo in three separate installments from 1984 until 1991.'Top lista nadrealista' started as a segment on Boro Kontić's programme...

 radio, and later television show. Other notable bands considered to be part of this subculture are Bombaj štampa and Šume i Gore. Besides and separately from the New Primitives, Sarajevo is the hometown of one of the most significant ex-Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

n alternative industrial
Industrial music
Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle, and the creation of the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". In general, the...

-noise bands, SCH
SCH (band)
SCH is the musical and artistic project and band of Senad Hadžimusić, who is better known by his nickname Teno. Formed in the early-eighties in Sarajevo, the band has had an intensive creative and live existence...

 (1983–current).

Sarajevo also greatly influenced the pop scene of Yugoslavia with Hari Mata Hari
Hari Mata Hari
Hari Mata Hari is a popular music band from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Hari Mata Hari is the stage name for the singer Hajrudin "Hari" Varešanović. The group originated from the city of Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The group has performed over 1,000 concerts and sold 5,000,000...

 and Dino Merlin
Dino Merlin
Edin Dervišhalidović , stage name Dino Merlin, , is a prominent Bosnian singer-songwriter and musician. He is a popular singer/songwriter in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is also popular in the other countries of the former Yugoslavia such as Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia and...

.

Several new bands have been established in Sarajevo after 1992 some of them being Regina
Regina (band)
Grupa Regina is a rock band founded in 1990 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia.- Band career :Three of the members, Aleksandar, Bojan and Denis, started a garage band. It was hard for them to find the right lead singer, but after a long while of searching, they found Davor Ebner....

 who also had two albums out in Yugoslavia and Letu štuke who actually formed their band in Yugoslavia including the famous Bosnian-American writer Aleksandar Hemon
Aleksandar Hemon
Aleksandar Hemon is a Bosnian-American fiction writer. He is the winner of a MacArthur Foundation grant. He has written four acclaimed books: Love and Obstacles: Stories , The Lazarus Project: A Novel , which was a finalist for the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle...

 and got their real breakthrough later in the 2000s.

Festivals

The Sarajevo Film Festival
Sarajevo Film Festival
The Sarajevo Film Festival is the premier and largest film festival in the Balkans, and is one of the largest in Europe. It was founded in Sarajevo in 1995 during the siege of Sarajevo, and brings international and local celebrities to Sarajevo every year. It is held in August and showcases an...

, established in 1995 during the Bosnian war and has become the premier film festival in the Balkans and South-East Europe. The Sarajevo Winter Festival
Sarajevo Winter Festival
The International Festival Sarajevo “Sarajevo Winter” is a cultural festival held annually since the winter of 1984/1985.The “Sarajevo Winter” Festival has traditionally been held under the auspices of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, European Union, UNESCO, The Presidency of B&H,...

, Sarajevo Jazz Festival
Sarajevo Jazz Festival
The Jazz Fest Sarajevo is an international music festival, held annually in the first week of November in Sarajevo.- History :Jazz Fest Sarajevo is an annual celebration of contemporary music based on jazz and improvised music. It has been a regular attraction since 1997, and has grown considerably...

 and Sarajevo International Music Festival are well-known, as is the Baščaršija Nights
Bašcaršija Nights
Baščaršija Nights is the biggest festival in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Occurring annually from July 1 to July 31, the festival exhibits various aspects of the nation's culture...

 festival, a month-long showcase of local culture, music, and dance.

The Sarajevo Film Festival
Sarajevo Film Festival
The Sarajevo Film Festival is the premier and largest film festival in the Balkans, and is one of the largest in Europe. It was founded in Sarajevo in 1995 during the siege of Sarajevo, and brings international and local celebrities to Sarajevo every year. It is held in August and showcases an...

 has been hosted at the National Theater, with screenings at the Open-air theater Metalac and the Bosnian Cultural Center, all located in downtown Sarajevo and has been attended by celebrities such as Angelina Jolie
Angelina Jolie
Angelina Jolie is an American actress. She has received an Academy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards, and was named Hollywood's highest-paid actress by Forbes in 2009 and 2011. Jolie is noted for promoting humanitarian causes as a Goodwill Ambassador for the...

, Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
William Bradley "Brad" Pitt is an American actor and film producer. Pitt has received two Academy Award nominations and four Golden Globe Award nominations, winning one...

, Orlando Bloom
Orlando Bloom
Orlando Jonathan Blanchard Bloom is an English actor. He had his break-through roles in 2001 as the elf-prince Legolas in The Lord of the Rings and starring in 2003 as blacksmith Will Turner in the Pirates of the Caribbean film series, and subsequently established himself as a lead in Hollywood...

, John Malkovich
John Malkovich
John Gavin Malkovich is an American actor, producer, director and fashion designer with his label Technobohemian. Over the last 25 years of his career, Malkovich has appeared in more than 70 motion pictures. For his roles in Places in the Heart and In the Line of Fire, he received Academy Award...

, Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman is an American actor, film director, aviator and narrator. He is noted for his reserved demeanor and authoritative speaking voice. Freeman has received Academy Award nominations for his performances in Street Smart, Driving Miss Daisy, The Shawshank Redemption and Invictus and won...

, Steve Buscemi
Steve Buscemi
Steven Vincent "Steve" Buscemi is an American actor, writer and film director. An associate member of the renowned experimental theater company The Wooster Group, Buscemi has starred and supported in successful Hollywood and indie films including New York Stories, Mystery Train, Reservoir Dogs,...

, Bono Vox
Bono
Paul David Hewson , most commonly known by his stage name Bono , is an Irish singer, musician, and humanitarian best known for being the main vocalist of the Dublin-based rock band U2. Bono was born and raised in Dublin, Ireland, and attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his...

 (Bono holds Bosnian citizenship and passport in addition to Irish and is an honorary citizen of Sarajevo), Nick Cave
Nick Cave
Nicholas Edward "Nick" Cave is an Australian musician, songwriter, author, screenwriter, and occasional film actor.He is best known for his work as a frontman of the critically acclaimed rock band Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, established in 1984, a group known for its eclectic influences and...

, Coolio
Coolio
Artis Leon Ivey Jr. , better known by the stage name Coolio, is an American musician, rapper, actor and record producer.-Late 80s:He recorded two singles in the late 80s, titled "Watcha Gonna Do" and "You're Gonna Miss Me"...

, Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
Stephen Arthur Frears is an English film director.-Early life:Frears was born in Leicester, England to Ruth M., a social worker, and Dr Russell E. Frears, a general practitioner and accountant. He did not find out that his mother was Jewish until he was in his late 20s...

, Michael Moore
Michael Moore
Michael Francis Moore is an American filmmaker, author, social critic and activist. He is the director and producer of Fahrenheit 9/11, which is the highest-grossing documentary of all time. His films Bowling for Columbine and Sicko also place in the top ten highest-grossing documentaries...

, Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Xavier Marcel Depardieu is a French actor and filmmaker. He is a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, Chevalier of the Ordre national du Mérite and has twice won the César Award for Best Actor...

, Darren Aronofsky
Darren Aronofsky
Darren Aronofsky is an American film director, screenwriter and film producer. He attended Harvard University to study film theory and the American Film Institute to study both live-action and animation filmmaking...

, Sophie Okonedo
Sophie Okonedo
Sophie Okonedo, OBE is a British actress, who has starred both in successful British and American productions. In 1991, she made her acting debut in the British critically acclaimed coming-of-age drama, Young Soul Rebels...

, Gillian Anderson
Gillian Anderson
Gillian Leigh Anderson is an American actress.After beginning her career in theatre, Anderson achieved international recognition for her role as Special Agent Dana Scully on the American television series The X-Files. During the show's nine seasons, Anderson won Emmy, Golden Globe, and Screen...

, Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey, CBE is an American actor, director, screenwriter, producer, and crooner. He grew up in California, and began his career as a stage actor during the 1980s, before being cast in supporting roles in film and television...

.

In the past sixteen years, the festival has entertained people and celebrities alike, elevating it to a recognized international level. The first incarnation of the Sarajevo Film Festival was hosted in still-warring Sarajevo in 1995, and has now progressed into being the biggest and most significant festival in south-eastern Europe. A talent campus is also held during the duration of the festival, with numerous world-renowned lecturers speaking on behalf of world cinematography and holding workshops for film students from across South-Eastern Europe.

The Sarajevo Jazz Festival
Sarajevo Jazz Festival
The Jazz Fest Sarajevo is an international music festival, held annually in the first week of November in Sarajevo.- History :Jazz Fest Sarajevo is an annual celebration of contemporary music based on jazz and improvised music. It has been a regular attraction since 1997, and has grown considerably...

 has been entertaining jazz connoisseurs for over ten years and has hosted such artists as Richard Bona
Richard Bona
Richard Bona is a jazz bassist and musician. His real African name, as he said live in Montreal in a show with Bobby McFerrin, is Bona Pinder Yayumayalolo...

, The John Butler Trio
John Butler Trio
The John Butler Trio are an eclectic roots and jam band from Australia led by guitarist and vocalist John Butler. They formed in Fremantle in 1998 with Jason McGann on drums and Gavin Shoesmith on bass guitar...

, Cristina Branco
Cristina Branco
Cristina Branco is a Portuguese musician.Branco was originally drawn to jazz and forms of Portuguese music before finally opting for fado after being introduced to the music of Amália Rodrigues by her grandfather. Branco studied the poems from which major fado lyrics are taken...

, Dhafer Youssef
Dhafer Youssef
Dhafer Youssef is a composer, singer and oud player. He developed an interest in jazz at an early age and clandestinely listened to it during his education at a Qur'anic school. He later left Tunisia to start a jazz career and has lived in Europe since 1990, usually in Paris or Vienna. He also...

, Bugge Wesseltoft
Bugge Wesseltoft
Jens Christian Bugge Wesseltoft is a Norwegian jazz musician, pianist, composer and producer. He has his own label named Jazzland Records. In the 1990s, Bugge has made a transition from Nordic jazz traditions exemplified by the ECM record label to a style sometimes referred to as "future jazz" or...

 and many more. The festival takes place at the Bosnian Cultural Center (aka "Main Stage"), just down the street from the SFF, at the Sarajevo Youth Stage Theater (aka "Strange Fruits Stage"), at the Dom Vojske Federacije (aka "Solo Stage"), and at the CDA (aka "Groove Stage").

Sports

The city was the location of the 1984 Winter Olympics
1984 Winter Olympics
The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated from 8–19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Other candidate cities were Sapporo, Japan; and Gothenburg, Sweden...

. Yugoslavia won one medal, a silver in men's giant slalom awarded to Jure Franko
Jure Franko
Jure Franko is a Slovenian former alpine skier, best known for winning a giant slalom silver medal at the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo....

. Many of the Olympic facilities survived the war or were reconstructed, including Olympic Hall Zetra
Olympic Hall Zetra
Olympic Hall Juan Antonio Samaranch , also known as Zetra Ice Stadium and Zetra Arena, is an indoor multi-purpose arena in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 and Asim Ferhatović Stadion
Asim Ferhatovic Hase Stadium
Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium is a stadium owned by the city of Sarajevo. It is also known as Koševo Stadium and formerly Olympic Stadium. Koševo Stadium is located in the Koševo neighborhood of Sarajevo and it is used mostly by FK Sarajevo....

. After co-hosting the Southeast Europe Friendship games, Sarajevo was awarded the 2009 Special Olympic
Special Olympics
Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to more than 3.1 million athletes in 175 countries....

 winter games, but cancelled these plans. The ice arena for the 1984 Olympics, Zetra Stadium, was used during the war as a temporary hospital and, later, for housing NATO troops of the IFOR.

In 2011 Sarajevo was the host city of the 51st World Military Skiing Championship with over 350 participants from 23 different nations. This was the first international event of such standing since the 1984 Olympics.

Football (soccer) is popular in Sarajevo; the city hosts FK Sarajevo
FK Sarajevo
FK Sarajevo is a professional football club based in Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia-Herzegovina and is one of the most popular clubs in the country. Founded on October 24, 1946, the club was the most successful club from SR Bosnia and Herzegovina in former Yugoslavia, winning two First League...

and FK Željezničar, which both compete in European and international cups and tournaments and are have a very large trophy cabinet in the former Yugoslavia as well as independent Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other notable soccer clubs are FK Olimpik
FK Olimpik Sarajevo
FK Olimpic Sarajevo, commonly referred to as just Olimpic, is a professional football club based in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

and SAŠK
NK SAŠK Napredak
NK Famos-SAŠK Napredak is a football club from Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It came into existence in 2000 through the merger of SAŠK with NK Napredak ....

. Another popular sport is basketball; the basketball club KK Bosna Sarajevo
KK Bosna
KK Bosna is a basketball club in Sarajevo the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The club is part of the University Sport Society USD Bosna...

 won the European Championship in 1979 as well as many Yugoslav and Bosnian national championships making it one of the greatest basketball clubs in the former Yugoslavia. The chess club, Bosna Sarajevo, has been a championship team since the 1980s and is the third ranked chess club in Europe, having won four consecutive European championships in the nineties. RK Bosna also competes in the European Champions League and is considered one of the most well organised handball clubs in South-Eastern Europe with a very large fan base
Fan (person)
A Fan, sometimes also called aficionado or supporter, is a person with a liking and enthusiasm for something, such as a band or a sports team. Fans of a particular thing or person constitute its fanbase or fandom...

 and excellent national, as well as international results.
Sarajevo often holds international events and competitions in sports such as tennis and kickboxing. Rock climbing
Climbing
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands and feet to ascend a steep object. It is done both for recreation and professionally, as part of activities such as maintenance of a structure, or military operations.Climbing activities include:* Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small...

 is popular; rock-climbing events and practices are held at Sarajevo's Dariva area, where there is also an extensive network of biking trails.

Popularity of tennis has been picking up in recent years. Since 2003, BH Telecom Indoors
BH Telecom Indoors
The BH Telecom Indoors is a professional tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 2003.-Singles:...

 is an annual tennis tournament in Sarajevo.
Club Leagues Venue Established
FK Sarajevo
FK Sarajevo
FK Sarajevo is a professional football club based in Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia-Herzegovina and is one of the most popular clubs in the country. Founded on October 24, 1946, the club was the most successful club from SR Bosnia and Herzegovina in former Yugoslavia, winning two First League...

Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the top football league in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the country's most prestigious level of football competition currently contested by 16 clubs with last two teams relegated at the end of every season....


Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Football Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina |football]] in Bosnia and Herzegovina based in Sarajevo.It operates the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team, the Bosnia and Herzegovina national under-21 football team, Bosnia and Herzegovina...

Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium
Asim Ferhatovic Hase Stadium
Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium is a stadium owned by the city of Sarajevo. It is also known as Koševo Stadium and formerly Olympic Stadium. Koševo Stadium is located in the Koševo neighborhood of Sarajevo and it is used mostly by FK Sarajevo....

1946
FK Željezničar Sarajevo Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the top football league in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the country's most prestigious level of football competition currently contested by 16 clubs with last two teams relegated at the end of every season....


Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Football Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina |football]] in Bosnia and Herzegovina based in Sarajevo.It operates the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team, the Bosnia and Herzegovina national under-21 football team, Bosnia and Herzegovina...

Grbavica Stadium
Grbavica Stadium
Grbavica Stadium is located in Grbavica, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The football stadium has terraces close to the pitch and it is the home of FK Željezničar. The stadium has a capacity to hold 12,000 spectators, with 9,000 places that are seated...

1921
FK Olimpik
FK Olimpik Sarajevo
FK Olimpic Sarajevo, commonly referred to as just Olimpic, is a professional football club based in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the top football league in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the country's most prestigious level of football competition currently contested by 16 clubs with last two teams relegated at the end of every season....


Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Football Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina |football]] in Bosnia and Herzegovina based in Sarajevo.It operates the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team, the Bosnia and Herzegovina national under-21 football team, Bosnia and Herzegovina...

Otoka Stadium
Otoka Stadion
Otoka Stadium is a football stadium in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the home to FK Olimpik Sarajevo. The stadium capacity is 5,000.-Construction:The stadium was built in 1993, during the war...

1993
RK "Bosna" Sarajevo Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the top handball league in Bosnia and Herzegovina.The league is composed of 12 teams. The champion is seeded into the Champions League. Second team is seeded into EHF Cup, while third and fourth teams go to Challenge Cup...

Mirza Delibašić Arena
Dvorana Mirza Delibašic
Mirza Delibašić Hall, commonly known as Skenderija, is an indoor sporting arena located in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The seating capacity of the arena is for 7,000 people and it was opened on 23 November 1969...

1948
KK Bosna
KK Bosna
KK Bosna is a basketball club in Sarajevo the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The club is part of the University Sport Society USD Bosna...

Premier League of Basketball of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Adriatic Basketball Association
NLB League
Liga ABA, also known as Adriatic League, until September 2011 known as the NLB Liga ABA for sponsorship reasons, is a top-level regional basketball league, featuring teams from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Israel, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia.The league exists alongside scaled-down national...

Mirza Delibašić Arena
Dvorana Mirza Delibašic
Mirza Delibašić Hall, commonly known as Skenderija, is an indoor sporting arena located in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The seating capacity of the arena is for 7,000 people and it was opened on 23 November 1969...

1951
HK Bosna
HK Bosna
HK Bosna is an ice hockey club from Sarajevo, Bosnia. The club was founded in 1980, and is the most established hockey club in the country. The club is part of the University Sport Society USD Bosna ....

Bosnia and Herzegovina Hockey League
Bosnia and Herzegovina Ice Hockey Federation
Bosnia and Herzegovina Ice Hockey Federation
The Bosnia and Herzegovina Ice Hockey Federation, or Savez Hokeja Na Ledu Bosne I Hercegovine, is the governing body of ice hockey in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is responsible for the Bosnia and Herzegovina Hockey League and the Bosnia and Herzegovina national ice hockey team.-External links:** at...

Olympic Hall Juan Antonio Samaranch 1980
VK Bosna
VK Bosna
VK Bosna is a waterpolo club from Sarajevo, Bosnia. It was formed in 1984 and is the strongest waterpolo team in the Bosnia and Herzegovina Waterpolo League, which comprises five teams total. The club is part of the University Sport Society USD Bosna ....

Bosnia and Herzegovina Waterpolo League
Bosnia and Herzegovina Waterpolo League
Bosnia and Herzegovina Waterpolo League is a national water polo league played in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was launched on December 12, 2009. All participating teams are in Sarajevo.-Teams Participating:*VK Bosna...

Olimpijski Bazen Otoka
Olimpijski Bazen Otoka
Olimpijski Bazen Otoka is an indoor water arena in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the Novi Grad district. Construction was finished in 2008, making it the first olympic sized swimming pool in Sarajevo. Construction started in 2005. The main pool has a dimension of 50 times 20...

1984


See also

  • List of Sarajevans
  • Folklore of Sarajevo
    Folklore of Sarajevo
    As an historic city, Sarajevo has numerous myths and folklore. The character Nasrudin Hodža is popular throughout the former lands of the Ottoman Empire, and Sarajevo is no exception. Numerous stories about him dealing with the city have been written over the years. A famous piece of Sarajevo...

  • Sites of interest in Sarajevo
    Sites of interest in Sarajevo
    Some sites of interest in Sarajevo include:- Cultural sites of interest :*National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina*Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina*National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina*National Theater*Sarajevo Art Gallery...

  • Sarajevo International Culture Exchange
    Sarajevo International Culture Exchange
    Sarajevo International Culture Exchange was an international art project annually taking place between 2003 and 2007 in Sarajevo .SICE was hold under the patronage of the German and Japanese embassy in Sarajevo...

  • Sarajevo Tunnel
    Sarajevo Tunnel
    During the Siege of Sarajevo during Bosnian War between 1992 and 1995, the Sarajevo Tunnel was constructed by the besieged citizens of Sarajevo in order to link the city of Sarajevo, which was entirely cut-off by Serbian forces, with the Bosnian-held territory on the other end of the supposedly...

  • Istočno Sarajevo
    Istocno Sarajevo
    Istočno Sarajevo is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and de jure capital of the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina adjacent to Bosnia and Herzegovinas capital Sarajevo to its northeast. East Sarajevo consists of a few pre-war suburbal parts of Sarajevo which are now in the Republika...

  • Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods where political and social changes determined the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the region.-Medieval period:...

  • Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Like the surrounding Balkan countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina has had a turbulent past marked by frequent foreign invasions and occupation. As a result, Bosnian music is now a mixture of the national Slavic folklore with some Turkish influences along with influences from the western part of the...

  • Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina is a fast growing sector in Bosnia-Herzegovina making up an important part in the economy of the country. The tourist business environment is constantly developing with an increasingly active tourism promotional system....

  • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vrhbosna
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vrhbosna
    The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vrhbosna is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in eastern Bosnia. Its episcopal see is the city of Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was elevated to an archdiocese on July 5, 1881. The Diocese of Vrhbosna is much older...


External links

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