Salamanca
Overview
 
Salamanca is a city in western Spain, in the community
Autonomous communities of Spain
An autonomous community In other languages of Spain:*Catalan/Valencian .*Galician .*Basque . The second article of the constitution recognizes the rights of "nationalities and regions" to self-government and declares the "indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation".Political power in Spain is...

 of Castile and León
Castile and León
Castile and León is an autonomous community in north-western Spain. It was so constituted in 1983 and it comprises the historical regions of León and Old Castile...

. Because it is known for its beautiful buildings and urban environment, the Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. It is the most important university city in Spain and is known for its contributions to the teaching of the Spanish language
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

. Salamanca supplies 16% of Spain's market and attracts thousands of international students, generating a diverse multicultural environment.

It is situated approximately 200 km (120 mi) west of Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 and 80 km (50 mi) east of the Portuguese border.
Encyclopedia
Salamanca is a city in western Spain, in the community
Autonomous communities of Spain
An autonomous community In other languages of Spain:*Catalan/Valencian .*Galician .*Basque . The second article of the constitution recognizes the rights of "nationalities and regions" to self-government and declares the "indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation".Political power in Spain is...

 of Castile and León
Castile and León
Castile and León is an autonomous community in north-western Spain. It was so constituted in 1983 and it comprises the historical regions of León and Old Castile...

. Because it is known for its beautiful buildings and urban environment, the Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. It is the most important university city in Spain and is known for its contributions to the teaching of the Spanish language
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

. Salamanca supplies 16% of Spain's market and attracts thousands of international students, generating a diverse multicultural environment.

It is situated approximately 200 km (120 mi) west of Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 and 80 km (50 mi) east of the Portuguese border. The University of Salamanca
University of Salamanca
The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the third oldest European...

, which was founded in 1218, is the oldest university in Spain and the third oldest western university. With its 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, the economic engine of the city. Salamanca is the capital of the province of Salamanca
Salamanca (province)
Salamanca is a province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is bordered by the provinces of Zamora, Valladolid, Ávila, and Cáceres; and by Portugal....

, which belongs to the autonomous community of Castile and León
Castile and León
Castile and León is an autonomous community in north-western Spain. It was so constituted in 1983 and it comprises the historical regions of León and Old Castile...

 (Castilla y León). With a metropolitan population around 192,000 it is the second most populated urban area in Castile and León, after Valladolid
Valladolid
Valladolid is a historic city and municipality in north-central Spain, situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers, and located within three wine-making regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda and Cigales...

 (369,000), and closely followed by Leon
León, Spain
León is the capital of the province of León in the autonomous community of Castile and León, situated in the northwest of Spain. Its city population of 136,985 makes it the largest municipality in the province, accounting for more than one quarter of the province's population...

 (187,000) and Burgos
Burgos
Burgos is a city of northern Spain, historic capital of Castile. It is situated at the edge of the central plateau, with about 178,966 inhabitants in the city proper and another 20,000 in its suburbs. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León...

 (176,000).

History

The city was founded in the pre-Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 period by the Vacceos
Vacceos
The Vaccaei or 'Vaccei' were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain which inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania.-Origins:The Vaccaei were probably largely of Celtic descent...

, a Celtic tribe, as one of a pair of forts to defend their territory near the Duero river. In the 3rd century BC, Beto
Beto
Beto may refer to a person with the name Alberto, Albertino, Berthony, Roberto or Humberto, usually short for 'berto.-Brazilian footballers:*Alberto Antônio de Paula *Gilberto Galdino dos Santos *André Roberto Soares da Silva...

 laid siege to the city. With the fall of the Carthaginians
Carthage
Carthage , implying it was a 'new Tyre') is a major urban centre that has existed for nearly 3,000 years on the Gulf of Tunis, developing from a Phoenician colony of the 1st millennium BC...

 to the Romans
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

, the city of Helmantica, as it was known, began to take more importance as a commercial hub in the Roman Hispania
Hispania
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis....

 due to its favorable location. Salamanca lay on a Roman road
Roman road
The Roman roads were a vital part of the development of the Roman state, from about 500 BC through the expansion during the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Roman roads enabled the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate. The Roman road system spanned more than 400,000 km...

, known as the Vía de la Plata
Via de la Plata
The Vía de La Plata or Ruta de la Plata is an ancient commercial and pilgrimage path that crosses the west of Spain from north to south, connecting Mérida to Astorga, and in extension Seville with the Bay of Biscay, at Gijón...

, which connected it with Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
The Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida is one of the largest and most extensive archaeological sites in Spain. Mainly of Emerita Augusta, ancient capital of Lusitania . It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1993....

 (present day Mérida
Mérida, Spain
Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, western central Spain. It has a population of 57,127 . The Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida is a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1993.- Climate :...

) to the south and Asturica Augusta (present-day Astorga) to the north. Its Roman bridge
Roman bridge
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as its basic structure....

 dates from the first century, and was a part of this road.

With the fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

, the Alans
Alans
The Alans, or the Alani, occasionally termed Alauni or Halani, were a group of Sarmatian tribes, nomadic pastoralists of the 1st millennium AD who spoke an Eastern Iranian language which derived from Scytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian.-Name:The various forms of Alan —...

 established in Lusitania, and Salamanca was part of this region. Later the city was conquered by the Visigoth
Visigoth
The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. These tribes were among the Germans who spread through the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period...

s and included in their territory. The city was already an episcopal see, and signatures of bishops of Salamanca are found in the Councils of Toledo
Councils of Toledo
Councils of Toledo . From the 5th century to the 7th century, about thirty synods, variously counted, were held at Toledo in what would come to be part of Spain. The earliest, directed against Priscillianism, assembled in 400. The "third" synod of 589 marked the epoch-making conversion of King...

.

Salamanca surrendered to the Moors
Moors
The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of the Maghreb region who are predominately of Berber and Arab descent. They came to conquer and rule the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslim, although earlier the people had followed...

, led by Musa bin Nusair
Musa bin Nusair
Musa bin Nusayr al-Balawi was a balawi who served as a governor and general under the Umayad caliph Al-Walid I. He had ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa , and directed the islamic opening of the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania....

, in the year 712 AD. For years this area between the south of Duero River and the north of Tormes River, became the main battlefield between the Christian kingdoms and the Muslim Al-Andalus rulers. The constant fighting of the Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
The Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in AD 910 when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their capital from Oviedo to the city of León...

 first, and the Kingdom of Castile and León later against the Caliphate
Caliphate of Córdoba
The Caliphate of Córdoba ruled the Iberian peninsula and part of North Africa, from the city of Córdoba, from 929 to 1031. This period was characterized by remarkable success in trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of Islamic Iberia were constructed in this period, including the famous...

 depopulated Salamanca and reduced it to an unimportant settlement. After the battle of Simancas
Battle of Simancas
The Battle of Simancas was a military battle that started on July 19, 939, in the Iberian Peninsula between the troops of the Christian king Ramiro II of León and Muslim caliph Abd al-Rahman III near the walls of the city of Simancas...

 (939) the Christians resettled this area. After the capture of Toledo
Toledo, Spain
Toledo's Alcázar became renowned in the 19th and 20th centuries as a military academy. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 its garrison was famously besieged by Republican forces.-Economy:...

 by Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1085, the definitive resettlement of the city took place. Raymond of Burgundy
Raymond of Burgundy
Raymond of Burgundy was the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy, and was Count of Amous. He came to the Iberian Peninsula for the first time during the period 1086–1087 with Odo I, Duke of Burgundy...

, instructed by his father-in-law Alfonso VI of León, led a group of settlers of various origins in 1102.

One of the most important moments in Salamanca's history was the year 1218, when Alfonso IX of León
Alfonso IX of Leon
Alfonso IX was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death...

 granted a royal charter to the University of Salamanca
University of Salamanca
The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the third oldest European...

, while formal teaching had existed at least since 1130. Soon it became one of the most significant and prestigious academic centres in Europe.

During the XVI century the city reached its fruit splendor (around 6,500 students and a total population of 24,000). During that period the University of Salamanca
University of Salamanca
The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the third oldest European...

 hosted the most important intellectuals of the time, these groups of mostly-dominican
Dominican Order
The Order of Preachers , after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on 22 December 1216 in France...

s scholars were designated the School of Salamanca
School of Salamanca
The School of Salamanca is the renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish and Portuguese theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria...

. The juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law, and founded the fundamental body of the ulterior European law and morality concepts, including rights as a corporeal being mice (right to life), economic rights (own property) and spiritual rights (freedom of thought and to human dignity).

In 1551 the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.As...

  ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius
Vesalius
Andreas Vesalius was a Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica . Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. Vesalius is the Latinized form of Andries van Wesel...

, physician and anatomist, was in line with the Catholic doctrine. Vesalius came to Salamanca that same year to appear before the board and was acquitted.

Salamanca suffered the general smalls of the Kingdom of Castile during the XVII century, but in the XVIII century it had a new reborn. In this period the new baroque Cathedral and main square (Plaza Mayor) were finished.

In the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
The Peninsular War was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its...

 of the Napoleonic campaigns, the Battle of Salamanca
Battle of Salamanca
The Battle of Salamanca saw Anglo-Portuguese and Spanish armies under the Duke of Wellington defeat Marshal Auguste Marmont's French forces among the hills around Arapiles south of Salamanca, Spain on July 22, 1812 during the Peninsular War....

, fought July 22, 1812, was a serious setback for the French, and a mighty setback for Salamanca, whose western quarter was seriously damaged. The battle which raged that day is famous as a defining moment in military history; many thousands of men were slaughtered by cannon fire in the space of only a few short hours.

During the devastating Spanish Civil War (1936-9) the city quickly went over to the Nationalist side and was temporarily used as a capital. The Nationalists soon moved their capital to Burgos
Burgos
Burgos is a city of northern Spain, historic capital of Castile. It is situated at the edge of the central plateau, with about 178,966 inhabitants in the city proper and another 20,000 in its suburbs. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León...

, which being larger and more central was better suited for this purpose. Like much of fervently Catholic and largely rural Castille, Salamanca was a staunch supporter of the Nationalist side and Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

's regime for its long duration.

In 1988 the old city was declared UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1998 it was declared European Capital of Culture for year 2002 (shared with Bruges). During 14 and 15 October 2005 it hosted the XV the Ibero-American Summits of Heads of State and Governments.

Since 1996 Salamanca has been the designated site of the archive of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

 (Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española). The original documents were assembled by the Francoist
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

 regime, selectively obtained from the administrative departments of various institutions and organizations during the Spanish Civil War as a repressive instrument used against opposition groups and individuals. The socialist government moved the Catalan part of the archive to Barcelona in 2006 despite opposition from the local authorities and popular protests.

Main sights

The Old City of Salamanca was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 in 1988.
Code Name Location Coordenates
381-001 Old quarter of the city
381-002 Irish College
Colegio Mayor de Santiago el Zebedeo
The Colegio Mayor de Santiago, el Zebedeo, Colegio del Arzobispo or Colegio Mayor de Fonseca is a historical edifice in Salamanca, Spain, founded in 1519 by Alonso de Fonseca, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela , in order to provide Galician students with a college in which to study within the...

c/ Fonseca, 2
381-003 Iglesia de San Marcos c/ Zamora - Plaza del Ejército
381-004 Iglesia de Sancti Spiritus Sancti Spiritus, 34
381-005 Convento de las Claras c/ de Santa Clara, 2 y 12; c/ del Lucero 2 y 18
381-006 Casa-Convento de Santa Teresa c/ Crespo Rascón, 19
381-007 Iglesia de San Juan de Barbalos Pl. San Juan Bautista, 2 - c/ Luis Sevillano, 2
381-008 Iglesia de San Cristobal Plaza de San Cristobal, 8

Sightseeing in the city, many of them within the «Old quarter», are:

Squares and public spaces

  • La Plaza Mayor: of Baroque
    Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

     style, designed by architects Alberto and Nicolás Churriguera is the most important of public spaces and the heart of the city.
  • Campo de San Francisco: First public garden in the city on grounds of the former convent of San Francisco Real.
  • Huerto de Calixto y Melibea: Garden near to the cathedrals where, some say, lies the plot of the novel La Celestina
    La Celestina
    La Celestina , actually called Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea or Comedia de Calisto y Melibea, in English Tragicomedy of Calisto and Melibea), is a work composed entirely in dialogue published by Fernando de Rojas in 1499...

    by Fernando de Rojas
    Fernando de Rojas
    Fernando de Rojas was a Spanish author about whom little information is known. He possibly attended the University of Salamanca. Although his family was of Jewish ancestry, they were conversos, or Jews who had converted to Christianity under pressure from the Spanish crown...

    . Besides it are remains of the Roman
    Roman Empire
    The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

     Walls.
  • Plaza del Corrillo: Small square adjacent to the Plaza Mayor. On the left is the Romanesque
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

     church of San Martín and the right a series of houses with porches formed by columns of stone completed in pads representing the days of the week (a moon for the Monday, a Mars for Tuesday, etc.).

Religious buildings

  • Capilla de la Vera Cruz: Baroque church with Renaissance facade, headquarters of the five hundred year old Brotherhood of the Vera Cruz of Salamanca. It houses countless works of art.
  • Cathedrals: Salamanca has two cathedrals, the Old Cathedral
    Old Cathedral, Salamanca
    The Old Cathedral is one of two cathedrals in Salamanca, Spain, the other being the New Cathedral of Salamanca....

    , of the 12th century and of Romanesque
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

     style, and the New Cathedral
    New Cathedral, Salamanca
    The New Cathedral is, together with the Old Cathedral, one of the two cathedrals of Salamanca, Spain. It was constructed between the 16th in and 18th centuries in two styles: late Gothic and Baroque. Building began in 1513 and the cathedral was consecrated in 1733. It was commissioned by Ferdinand...

    , much larger, built in 16th century of Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     style and completed in 18th century. The place where it join both is known as Patio Chico and is one of the most charming corners of the city.
  • La Clerecía: currently houses the Pontifical University
    Pontifical University of Salamanca
    The Pontifical University of Salamanca is a private, catholic university, located in Salamanca, Spain, and campus in Salamanca and Madrid.- History :...

    . Building started in 1617 and was completed 150 years later as the Colegio Real del Espíritu Santo, of the Society of Jesus
    Society of Jesus
    The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

    . The style is Baroque
    Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

    . It difference the school, with an interesting cloister and the church, with an impressive facade of three bodies, two twin towers of 50 meters high and a huge dome. The Clerecía name is because it belonged to the Real Clerecía de San Marcos after the expulsion of the Jesuits.
  • Colegio de Calatrava : Built in 18th century, by initiative of the Order of Calatrava
    Order of Calatrava
    The Order of Calatrava was the first military order founded in Castile, but the second to receive papal approval. The papal bull confirming the Order of Calatrava as a Militia was given by Pope Alexander III on September 26, 1164.-Origins and Foundation:...

    , now houses the Casa de la Iglesia.
  • Convento de las Agustinas e Iglesia de la Purísima: In the church is a painting of the Immaculate Conception painted by Jusepe de Ribera. It is the only construction of totally Italian space and decor in Spain.
  • Convento de las Dueñas (15th century): Highlights the irregular Renaissance cloister.
  • Convento de las Isabeles
  • Convento de San Antonio el Real (1736): de estilo barroco, of Baroque style, its remains were divided between the Lyceum Theatre and a store where it can visit.
  • Convento de San Esteban
    Convent of St. Stephen, Salamanca
    thumb|260px|Façade of the convent.The Convent of St. Stephen is a historical religious complex in Salamanca, Spain. The building was begun in 1525 by order of brother Juan Alvarez de Toledo, bishop of Cordoba, under design by Juan de Álava, and was finished in 1618.It is composed by a monumental...

    , of the Dominican
    Dominican Order
    The Order of Preachers , after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on 22 December 1216 in France...

     friar
    Friar
    A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders.-Friars and monks:...

    s (16th century): the plateresque
    Plateresque
    Plateresque, meaning "in the manner of a silversmith" , was an artistic movement, especially architectural, traditionally held to be exclusive to Spain and its territories, which appeared between the late Gothic and early Renaissance in the late 15th century, and spread over the next two centuries...

     facade, with its shape of an arc of triumph, is a jewel of the Salamancan Renaissance
    Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

    . Impressive Baroque altarpiece by José Benito Churrriguera. Also noteworthy is the Cloister of the Kings, Renaissance.
  • Convento de la Anunciación (calle de las Úrsulas): Founded by the Archbishop Fonseca in 1512. Stresses the exterior apse of Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     style. In the inside, the Baroque
    Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

     altarpiece and the tomb of the founder, Renaissance, work by Beto
    Beto
    Beto may refer to a person with the name Alberto, Albertino, Berthony, Roberto or Humberto, usually short for 'berto.-Brazilian footballers:*Alberto Antônio de Paula *Gilberto Galdino dos Santos *André Roberto Soares da Silva...

    .
  • Convento de la Trinidad: Former Palacio de Montellano adapted in 16th century to host a Trinitarian
    Trinitarian
    The word trinitarian is used in several senses:*Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity.*A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity....

     friary.
  • Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de la Victoria, of the monk
    Monk
    A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of monks, while always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose...

    s of the Order of St. Jerome
    Hieronymites
    Hieronymites, or the Order of St. Jerome , is a common name for several congregations of hermits living according to the Rule of St. Augustine, with supplementary regulations taken from the writings of the 5th-century monk and scholar, St Jerome. The principal group with this name was founded in...

    , completed in 1513, almost destroyed by the French in the early 19th century, the Peninsular War
    Peninsular War
    The Peninsular War was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its...

    , is now integrated into the manufacturing facilities of the 19th century, of the Grupo Mirat
    Mirat
    S.A. Mirat, also known as Grupo Mirat , or just as Mirat, is a Spanish company founded in 1812 in Salamanca, dedicated mainly to production of manures and fertilizers. Nowadays it´s one of the 100 biggest companies in Castile and León and the biggest one in the agricultural sector in the province...

    .
  • Ermita de Nuestra Señora de la Misericordia (16th-17th centuries): small Baroque chapel which was begun in 1389 in the Plaza de San Cristobal. Currently very damaged, is a printing, while its bell-gable
    Bell-gable
    The bell gable is an architectural element crowning at the upper end of the wall of church buildings, usually in lieu of a church tower. It consists of a gable end in stone, with small hollow semi-circular arches where the church bells are placed...

     decorates the church of the Pizarrales neighborhood.
  • Antigua iglesia de las Bernardas work by Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón
    Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón
    Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón was a Spanish architect of the Renaissance.He was born at Rascafría. His workings include the Palace of Monterrey in Salamanca, the Palace of Guzmanes in León, and the facade of the Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso at the University of Alcalá de Henares...

    . Prototype of the Salamancan churches of the 16th century. Stresses the shell-shaped head. Today it is within the colegio de San José de Calasanz.
  • Iglesia del Carmen de Abajo: Chapel of the Third Order
    Third order
    The term Third Order designates persons who live according to the Third Rule of a Roman Catholic religious order, an Anglican religious order, or a Lutheran religious order. Their members, known as Tertiaries, are generally lay members of religious orders, i.e...

     Carmelites
    Carmelites
    The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites is a Catholic religious order perhaps founded in the 12th century on Mount Carmel, hence its name. However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain...

    , incorporated in the Friary of San Andrés. It is the only remnant of that friary, which disappeared in 19th century.
  • Iglesia de San Benito: Gothic church built under the patronage of Alonso II de Fonseca, pantheon of the Maldonado family.
  • Iglesia de San Julián: Romanesque church subsequently restored.
  • Iglesia de San Marcos: Romanesque
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

     church near the path which ran the North walls of the city. Outside cicular plant has three naves and apses inside.
  • Iglesia de San Martín: Romanesque church with Gothic reforms, Renaissance and Baroque, attached to the Plaza Mayor.
  • Iglesia de San Pablo: Baroque church belonging to the former convent of the Trinitarians, houses the image of Jesus Rescued, much venerated in the city. Parish hosts, governed by the Diocesan Laborer Priests.
  • Iglesia de Santo Tomás Cantuariense: Romanesque
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

     church founded in honor of St. Thomas
    Thomas Becket
    Thomas Becket was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion...

    , Archbishop of Canterbury in 1175, just five years after his death and two after his canonization. It has three apses and a nave with a wooden roof. Form Parish along with St. Paul, governed by the Diocesan Laborer Priests.

University buildings

  • University: Set of buildings that made up the former University of Salamanca
    University of Salamanca
    The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the third oldest European...

    , including the Escuelas Mayores, the Escuelas Menores and the Hospital de Estudio (current rectorate). These buildings are situated around the square known as Patio de Escuelas. In this same square is the home of Dr. Álvarez Abarca or of the Doctors of the Queen (15th century), whose facade is Gothic with Renaissance details and is now the Museum of Salamanca.
  • Casa-museo de Unamuno (18th century): former home of the rectors of the university. It preserved as in its time it had Miguel de Unamuno
    Miguel de Unamuno
    Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo was a Spanish essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher.-Biography:...

     when he took this position.
  • Colegio Mayor de Santiago el Zebedeo
    Colegio Mayor de Santiago el Zebedeo
    The Colegio Mayor de Santiago, el Zebedeo, Colegio del Arzobispo or Colegio Mayor de Fonseca is a historical edifice in Salamanca, Spain, founded in 1519 by Alonso de Fonseca, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela , in order to provide Galician students with a college in which to study within the...

    , also called "of the Archbishop Fonseca" or "of the Irish" (16th century).
  • Colegio de San Ambrosio (1719): Is currently General Archive of the Spanish Civil War
    General Archive of the Spanish Civil War
    The General Archive of the Spanish Civil War is an archive located in Salamanca, Spain. It was founded in 1999, and in 2007 it became part of the Centro Documental de la Memoria Histórica...

    . Houses documents and items seized by the national troops and their allies during and at the end of the Spanish Civil War
    Spanish Civil War
    The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

    . While over the entire postwar its basic objective was to preserve the information related to organizations and peoples potentially opposing the Franco regime, and therefore use this information for repressive, since the return of democracy this building would become one of the most important archives that existed in Spain to investigate the historical period of the Second Republic. Many of the documents and objects that still remain in the archive are related to the Freemasonry
    Freemasonry
    Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 under the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge...

    , including several furniture that has been rebuilt a Masonic Lodge
    Masonic Lodge
    This article is about the Masonic term for a membership group. For buildings named Masonic Lodge, see Masonic Lodge A Masonic Lodge, often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge, is the basic organisation of Freemasonry...

    .
  • Colegio Trilingüe: founded in 1554 to the teaching of Latin, Greek and Hebrew. It also preserves part of the original courtyard, remade in 1829, in the Faculty of Physics.
  • Palacio de Anaya was the last headquarters of the Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé or Colegio de Anaya founded in 15th century by Don Diego de Anaya, abolished in the early 19th century. Today is the faculty of philology. Next to the building is the iglesia of San Sebastian, former chapel of the college and the Inn, work by Joaquín de Churriguera.
  • Colegio Santa Cruz de Cañizares (16th c.): Music Conservatory. Of it only remains the old chapel, now incorporated into the assembly hall of the conservatory, and the main facade, of plateresque
    Plateresque
    Plateresque, meaning "in the manner of a silversmith" , was an artistic movement, especially architectural, traditionally held to be exclusive to Spain and its territories, which appeared between the late Gothic and early Renaissance in the late 15th century, and spread over the next two centuries...

     style.
  • Colegio de San Pelayo: founded in the mid 16th century. Since 1990 home to the Faculty of Geography and History.

Palaces and palatial houses

  • Casa de las Conchas
    Casa de las Conchas
    The Casa de las Conchas is a historical building in Salamanca, central Spain. It currently houses a public library.It was built from 1493 to 1517 by Rodrigo Arias de Maldonado, a knight of the Order of Santiago de Compostela and a professor in the University of Salamanca...

    : built in the late 15th century. of Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     civil style, its facade is decorated with about 350 shells of scallops, distinctive of the Order of Santiago
    Order of Santiago
    The Order of Santiago was founded in the 12th century, and owes its name to the national patron of Galicia and Spain, Santiago , under whose banner the Christians of Galicia and Asturias began in the 9th century to combat and drive back the Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula.-History:Santiago de...

    . Also important are the bars Gothic windows. It currently houses a public library.
  • Casa de Don Diego Maldonado: 16th century Platereque palace. It houses the Hispanic-Brazilian Cultural Foundation and the Centre for Brazilian Studies at the University of Salamanca.
  • Casa de doña María la Brava: 15th century Gothic building, prototype of the noble mansions of the time. Its owner, María Rodríguez de Monroy was the head of one of the two sides in that split the city in the 15th century. Beheaded the murderers of her children. It is located in the Plaza de los Bandos.
  • Casa Lis: Modernist
    Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

     palace of 1905 with iron facade. Built on the walls. It houses the collections of Art Nouveau and Art Deco donated by Manuel Ramos Andrade. .
  • Casa de las Muertes (early 16th century), built by Juan de Álava and named such for the skulls that decorate the facade.
  • Casa del Regidor Ovalle (18th century): in this died Miguel de Unamuno
    Miguel de Unamuno
    Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo was a Spanish essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher.-Biography:...

    .
  • Casa de Santa Teresa (16th century): The saint Teresa of Ávila
    Teresa of Ávila
    Saint Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada, was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, and writer of the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer...

     stayed here when she visited Salamanca in 1570 to found a convent and here she wrote the poem Vivo sin vivir en mí.
  • Casa de la Tierra (15th century): doorway with arched, Gothic window tracery. Headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Salamanca.
  • Casa de las Viejas (17th century): old workhouse for poors, now the headquarters of the Regional Film Archive of Castile and León. Permanent exhibition of equipment related to cinema and its history, owned by Salamancan filmmaker Basilio Martín Patino
    Basilio Martín Patino
    Basilio Martín Patino is a Spanish film director, specializing in a creative approach to documentary works. He produced important pieces on the Spanish Civil War , the infamous dictator , or his executioners . He also produced fiction...

    .
  • Fonda Veracruz : courtyard with wooden galleries in form of dead-end street. Currently catering school.
  • Arias Corvelle Palace (15th century): sgraffito
    Sgraffito
    Sgraffito is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colors to a moistened surface, or in ceramics, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip, and then in either case scratching so as to produce an...

     facade very similar to that of San Boal. It houses the School of Fine and Performing Arts of San Eloy.
  • Castellanos Palace (15th-16th centuries): The Palace of the Marquises of Castellanos construction began in the late 15th century, although the facade dates from the late 19th due which combines Gothic and Neoclassical styles. With a powerful Gothic interior courtyard, this building now serves as a hotel.
  • Garci Grande Palace (16th c.): Renaissance doorway and chamfered corner windows unique in the city. Head Office of the Savings Bank (Caja Duero).
  • Monterrey Palace: was built in the 16th century and is of plateresque
    Plateresque
    Plateresque, meaning "in the manner of a silversmith" , was an artistic movement, especially architectural, traditionally held to be exclusive to Spain and its territories, which appeared between the late Gothic and early Renaissance in the late 15th century, and spread over the next two centuries...

     style. Belongs to the House of Alba
    House of Alba
    The House of Alba is an important Spanish aristocratic family who derive from the 12th century Mozarab nobility of post-conquest Toledo. Their claim to Alba traces to 1429, when the first Álvarez de Toledo was made Lord of the City of Alba de Tormes...

     and highlight its towers and chimneys. Only it built one of the four parts that composed all designed initially.
  • Orellana Palace (16th c.): building of classical
    Classicism
    Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint...

     architecture with Mannerist
    Mannerism
    Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it, but Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century throughout much of Europe...

     inflence. The courtyard in L shape and the ladder.
  • Rodríguez de Figueroa Palace (1545): has interesting facades at the streets Concejo and Zamora and interior courtyard. Today the Salamanca Casino.
  • La Salina Palace (1546): Renaissance, work by Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón
    Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón
    Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón was a Spanish architect of the Renaissance.He was born at Rascafría. His workings include the Palace of Monterrey in Salamanca, the Palace of Guzmanes in León, and the facade of the Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso at the University of Alcalá de Henares...

    . Since 1884 is the headquarters of the Provincial Diputation.
  • San Boal Palace (15th c.): facade decorated with sgraffito
    Sgraffito
    Sgraffito is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colors to a moistened surface, or in ceramics, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip, and then in either case scratching so as to produce an...

    s. Was School of Commerce and later Faculty of Business. Since 1999 is Hispanic-Japanese Cultural Center of the University of Salamanca
    University of Salamanca
    The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the third oldest European...

    . In the same square is the Iglesia de San Boal (17th c.).
  • Solís Palace (15th c.): In this palace were married Philip II of Spain
    Philip II of Spain
    Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count....

     and Maria Manuela of Portugal in 1543. Today it houses the Telefónica
    Telefónica
    Telefónica, S.A. is a Spanish broadband and telecommunications provider in Europe and Latin America. Operating globally, it is the third largest provider in the world...

    .
  • Tower del Aire: is all that remains of the Palace of the dukes of Fermoselle
    Fermoselle
    Fermoselle is a medieval village and municipality located in the province of Zamora, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castilla y León....

    , built in the 15th century. It has beautiful Gothic windows. It is currently a student residence.
  • Tower del Clavero (15th c.): remains of a palace, apparently built by Francisco de Sotomayor, Clavero Staff of the Order of Alcántara
    Order of Alcántara
    The Order of Alcántara , also called the Knights of St. Julian, was originally a military order of León, founded in 1166 and confirmed by Pope Alexander III in 1177.-Alcántara:...

    , about 1470 . The lower part is quadrangular, while the upper is octagonal adorned with eight cylindrical turrets.
  • Torreón de los Anaya (15th c.): old manor house of Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     civil style which highlights the mullioned window and the patio de tres lados. For years it was the seat of Institute of Studies of Latin America and Portugal of the University of Salamanca
    University of Salamanca
    The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the third oldest European...

    , also known as Palacio de Abrantes.

Museums

  • Art Nouveau and Art Deco Museum. Casa Lis
  • Museum of the History of the City
  • Museum of the Trade of Salamanca
  • Casa Museo Unamuno
  • Museum of Automotive History of Salamanca
  • Museum of Salamanca
  • Cathedral Museum
  • Museum of the Convento de San Esteban 
  • University Museum - University Library
  • University Collections
  • Bullfighting Museum
  • Collections of the Convento de las Úrsulas
  • Museum of the Convento de Santa Clara
  • Teresian Museum
  • Casa Museo de Zacarías González. House where Zacarías González lived and painted, on the street Alarcón.
  • Permanent Exhibition IERONIMUS. The name of the exhibition: IERONIMUS alludes to Don Jerónimo de Périgueux, famed French-born Spanish bishop by the Diocese of Salamanca in 1102, who was commissioned the construction of the Iglesia de Santa María. This was the event that marked the origin of the 900 Years of Art and History of the Cathedrals of Salamanca. In this tour it can admire amazing places like the one offered by the gazebo next to the Tower del Gallo, the Patio Chico or the Terraza de Anaya. The circuit of the exhibition begins in the Board of Warden, continuing on the Board of the Tower Mocha, the Platform of the Superior Room and the Board of Vault. It accessed from the last tower, next to the gate of Santa Lucía (giving access to the old cathedral). In three of the rooms it can find exposed drawings, documents and religious objects related to the cathedrals, especially with its construction, it can see, both inside and outside the two cathedrals. From the "Sala del Alcaide" enjoy a splendid view of the nave and the altar of the old cathedral, and from the upper platform located on it accurately observe Tower del gallo, as well as views of the tormes and transtormes neighborhoods. It may also enjoy the vaults of the new cathedral, and again on the outside with views of the plaza Anaya, the tower del reloj, the Rua mayor and all the historical centre.

Others

  • Theatre Bretón. Now destroyed.
  • Cave of Salamanca. Located on the Carvajal slope, which states that the devil taught black magic.
  • Central Market (1899–1909). Located in the old Plaza de la Verdura. Made of iron.
  • Roman Bridge. Of its arches, fifteen are Roman of the 1st century AC. Nearby are the Mudéjar Romanesque church of Santiago (modern reconstruction) and the stone bull quoted in Lazarillo de Tormes
    Lazarillo de Tormes
    The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes and of His Fortunes and Adversities is a Spanish novella, published anonymously because of its heretical content...

    .

University

In 1218, Alfonso IX of León
Alfonso IX of Leon
Alfonso IX was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death...

 founded the University of Salamanca
University of Salamanca
The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX in 1218. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the third oldest European...

. Under the patronage of the learned Alfonso X
Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X was a Castilian monarch who ruled as the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1252 until his death...

, its wealth and reputation greatly increased (1252–1282), and its schools of canon law
Canon law
Canon law is the body of laws & regulations made or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Catholic Church , the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the Anglican Communion of...

 and civil law
Civil law (legal system)
Civil law is a legal system inspired by Roman law and whose primary feature is that laws are codified into collections, as compared to common law systems that gives great precedential weight to common law on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different...

 attracted students even from the Universities of Paris and Bologna. In the 16th century, the city's fortunes depended on those of the university. About the time Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the...

 was lecturing there on his discoveries, Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century...

 took classes at Salamanca, but returned home in 1501 at age 17, without completing his course of study. (About ten years later the conquistador
Conquistador
Conquistadors were Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain in the 15th to 16th centuries, following Europe's discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492...

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado y Luján was a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542...

 was born in Salamanca.)

It was scholars of the University such as Francisco de Vitoria
Francisco de Vitoria
Francisco de Vitoria, OP was a Spanish Renaissance Roman Catholic philosopher, theologian and jurist, founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the School of Salamanca, noted especially for his contributions to the theory of just war and international law...

 who, heavily influenced by the Paris-based Scottish philosopher John Mair
John Mair
John Mair was a Scottish philosopher, much admired in his day and an acknowledged influence on all the great thinkers of the time. He was a very renowned teacher and his works much collected and frequently republished across Europe...

, helped design in 1512 the Laws of Burgos which established the right to life and liberty of the indigenous
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

 peoples of America.

Ignatius Loyola, while studying at Salamanca in 1527, was brought before an ecclesiastical commission on a charge of sympathy with the Illuminati
Illuminati
The Illuminati is a name given to several groups, both real and fictitious. Historically the name refers to the Bavarian Illuminati, an Enlightenment-era secret society founded on May 1, 1776...

, but escaped with an admonition. In the next generation St. John of the Cross
John of the Cross
John of the Cross , born Juan de Yepes Álvarez, was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, Catholic saint, Carmelite friar and priest, born at Fontiveros, Old Castile....

 studied at Salamanca and so did the poet and writer Mateo Aleman
Mateo Alemán
Mateo Alemán y de Enero was a Spanish novelist and writer.He graduated at Seville University in 1564, studied later at Salamanca and Alcalá, and from 1571 to 1588 held a post in the treasury; in 1594 he was arrested on suspicion of malversation, but was speedily released...

. Miguel de Unamuno
Miguel de Unamuno
Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo was a Spanish essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher.-Biography:...

 was a prominent figure of the university in more modern times.

Many people continue to come from all parts of Spain to study at the University, and the students represent a significant percentage of the city's population (the University has 36,000 students, approximately). The support of the student population is one of the most important economic activities in the city. These young people (also consisting of international students studying the Spanish language) provide Salamanca with a highly active night life, specially when school is in session on both weekdays and weekends. Among the American universities that sponsor significant summer semester programs are Wake Forest University, Lamar University of Beaumont,Texas and Lamar State College of Port Arthur,Texas and the University of Georgia. This has led Salamanca to be in the top list of cities with the highest bar per inhabitant ratios in Europe, second to Bilbao
Bilbao
Bilbao ) is a Spanish municipality, capital of the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country. With a population of 353,187 , it is the largest city of its autonomous community and the tenth largest in Spain...

 .

Geography

The city lies on several hills by the Tormes River, which is crossed by a bridge 150 m long built on 26 arches, fifteen of which are of Roman origin
Roman bridge
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as its basic structure....

, while the remainder date from the a 16th century reconstruction after a flood.

Climate

Salamanca's climate is Continental Mediterranean, with cold winters, and hot summers softened by the altitude and dryness throughout the year.

Economy

The city's economy is dominated by the university and tourism, but other sectors including agriculture and livestock rearing along with construction and manufacturing are also significant. Not surprisingly, in December 2007 83% of the working population, equivalent to 55,838, were employed in the service sector.

Agriculture and livestock rearing

The 125 agricultural sector businesses accounted for 839 workers in 2007, or just 1.24% of the working population.

Industry

Industrial activity accounted for 5% of the working population, or 3,340 workers employed over 360 businesses.
Two of the largest businesses, both of them numbered among the largest 100 enterprises in the region, are the veterinary vaccine
Vaccine
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins...

 manufacturer "Laboratorios Intervet", and the fertilizer specialist manufacturers S.A. Mirat, which is the city's oldest industrial company, having been established originally as a starch factory in 1812. Another noteworthy manufacturing business is Luchina - Lizetta, a manufacturer of lingerie
Lingerie
Lingerie are fashionable and possibly alluring undergarments.Lingerie usually incorporates one or more flexible, stretchy materials like Lycra, nylon , polyester, satin, lace, silk and sheer fabric which are not typically used in more functional, basic cotton undergarments.The term in the French...

 and swimwear founded in 1952.

Communications

Railroad

Renfe
RENFE
Renfe Operadora is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the 1668-mm "Iberian gauge" and 1435-mm "European gauge" networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company ADIF .- History :The name RENFE is derived from that of the former Spanish National...

 has trains to national destinations like Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

, Valladolid
Valladolid
Valladolid is a historic city and municipality in north-central Spain, situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers, and located within three wine-making regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda and Cigales...

, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Zaragoza , also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain...

, while international destinations are Paris (via Irun
Irun
Irun is a town of the Bidasoa-Txingudi region in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain...

), Porto
Porto
Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

 and Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...


Road

Highways
  • A50: Autovía de la Cultura: Ávila - Salamanca
  • A62: Autovía de Castilla: Burgos
    Burgos
    Burgos is a city of northern Spain, historic capital of Castile. It is situated at the edge of the central plateau, with about 178,966 inhabitants in the city proper and another 20,000 in its suburbs. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León...

     - Valladolid
    Valladolid
    Valladolid is a historic city and municipality in north-central Spain, situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers, and located within three wine-making regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda and Cigales...

     - Salamanca - Ciudad Rodrigo
    Ciudad Rodrigo
    Ciudad Rodrigo is a small cathedral city in the province of Salamanca, in western Spain, with a population of about 14,000. It is the seat of a judicial district as well....

    .
  • A66: Autovía Ruta de la Plata: Gijón
    Gijón
    Gijón , officially Gijón / Xixón, is a coastal industrial city and a municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain. Early mediaeval texts mention it as "Gigia". It was an important regional Roman city, although the area has been settled since earliest history...

     - Oviedo
    Oviedo
    Oviedo is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain. It is also the name of the municipality that contains the city....

     - Mieres - Puerto de Pajares - León
    León, Spain
    León is the capital of the province of León in the autonomous community of Castile and León, situated in the northwest of Spain. Its city population of 136,985 makes it the largest municipality in the province, accounting for more than one quarter of the province's population...

     - Benavente
    Benavente, Zamora
    Benavente is a municipality in the north of the province of Zamora, in the autonomous community Castile and León of Spain. It has about 20,000 inhabitants....

     - Zamora
    Zamora, Spain
    Zamora is a city in Castile and León, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora. It lies on a rocky hill in the northwest, near the frontier with Portugal and crossed by the Duero river, which is some 50 km downstream as it reaches the Portuguese frontier...

     - Salamanca - Béjar
    Béjar
    Béjar is a town and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It lies had a population of 15,016 .-History:...

     - Plasencia
    Plasencia
    Plasencia is a walled market city in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Western Spain. , it had a population of 41,447.Situated on the bank of the Jerte River, Plasencia has a historic quarter that is a consequence of the city's strategic location along the Silver Route, or Ruta de la Plata...

     - Mérida
    Mérida, Spain
    Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, western central Spain. It has a population of 57,127 . The Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida is a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1993.- Climate :...

     - Sevilla.
  • SA-11: North access to Salamanca.
  • SA-20: South access to Salamanca.

Other roads
  • N-501: Ávila - Peñaranda de Bracamonte
    Peñaranda de Bracamonte
    Peñaranda de Bracamonte is a village and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon...

     - Salamanca.
  • N-620: Burgos - Venta de Baños
    Venta de Baños
    Venta de Baños is a village and municipality of about 5,880 located in El Cerrato, in the province of Palencia, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León, central Spain. It is located south of the provincial capital, Palencia. Noteworthy monuments include its Visigothic church of San...

     - Valladolid - Tordesillas
    Tordesillas
    Tordesillas is a town and municipality in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, central Spain.It is located 25 km southwest of the provincial capital, Valladolid at an elevation of 704 meters. The population was c. 9,000 in 2009....

     - Salamanca - Ciudad Rodrigo - Portugal.

Airport

Salamanca Airport
Salamanca Airport
Salamanca-Matacán Airport is the airport serving the province of Salamanca in the autonomous community of Castile and León.It is located in the municipalities of Machacón, Calvarrasa de Abajo y Villagonzalo de Tormes; and it is 15 km from Salamanca city....

, located in the military base of Matacán, is located about 14 km east from the city. There are regular flights to Barcelona, Paris, and charter flights to Palma de Mallorca
Palma de Mallorca
Palma is the major city and port on the island of Majorca and capital city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. The names Ciutat de Mallorca and Ciutat were used before the War of the Spanish Succession and are still used by people in Majorca. However, the official name...

 and the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...

. In the summer there are also regular flights to Palma de Mallorca, Menorca, Gran Canaria
Gran Canaria
Gran Canaria is the second most populous island of the Canary Islands, with a population of 838,397 which constitutes approximately 40% of the population of the archipelago...

, Málaga
Málaga
Málaga is a city and a municipality in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain. With a population of 568,507 in 2010, it is the second most populous city of Andalusia and the sixth largest in Spain. This is the southernmost large city in Europe...

 and Ibiza
Ibiza
Ibiza or Eivissa is a Spanish island in the Mediterranean Sea 79 km off the coast of the city of Valencia in Spain. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands, an autonomous community of Spain. With Formentera, it is one of the two Pine Islands or Pityuses. Its largest cities are Ibiza...

.

Public transport

There are 13 bus lines during the day and one night line. Also, a tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 line has been projected.

Culture and sports

In 2002 Salamanca shared the title of European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

 with Bruges
Bruges
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

. Salamanca is a popular tourist destination, especially in the summer. Tourism is the primary economic activity in the city.

Salamanca offers the amenities of a larger city while retaining an intimate small town atmosphere. Since 1923, "Los Charros", formally the Union Deportiva Salamanca, have been the Salamanca football team.

Salamanca was the setting for the 2008 political thriller Vantage Point
Vantage Point (film)
Vantage Point is a 2008 American political action thriller film directed by Pete Travis. It was adapted from a screenplay written by Barry L. Levy. The story focuses on an assassination attempt on the President of the United States as seen from a different set of vantage points through the eyes of...

, although the movie was almost exclusively filmed in Mexico.

The classic dish of the Salamancan, known as Charreria ("peasant lands"), is a cocido, a slow-cooked casserole including chickpea
Chickpea
The chickpea is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae...

s.

A traditional Salmantinian celebration is the Lunes de Aguas, "Water Monday", the Monday after the Sunday following Easter. Originally this served to celebrate the official allowance of the authorities for the prostitutes to return to the city after Lent and Easter. All the shops close and Salmantinos picnic in the countryside to eat a kind of pie called "hornazo
Hornazo
Hornazo is a Spanish meat pie eaten in the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila. It is made with flour and yeast and stuffed with pork loin, spicy chorizo sausage and hard-boiled eggs....

".

Twin towns — Sister cities

Salamanca is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

  with: Bruges
Bruges
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

, Belgium Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

, Argentina Coimbra
Coimbra
Coimbra is a city in the municipality of Coimbra in Portugal. Although it served as the nation's capital during the High Middle Ages, it is better-known for its university, the University of Coimbra, which is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest academic institution in the...

, Portugal Gijón
Gijón
Gijón , officially Gijón / Xixón, is a coastal industrial city and a municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain. Early mediaeval texts mention it as "Gigia". It was an important regional Roman city, although the area has been settled since earliest history...

, Asturies, Spain Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria commonly known as Las Palmas is the political capital, jointly with Santa Cruz, the most populous city in the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands and the ninth largest city in Spain, with a population of 383,308 in 2010. Nearly half of the people of the island...

, Canary Islands, Spain Nîmes
Nîmes
Nîmes is the capital of the Gard department in the Languedoc-Roussillon region in southern France. Nîmes has a rich history, dating back to the Roman Empire, and is a popular tourist destination.-History:...

, France Würzburg
Würzburg
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. Located at the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is Franconian....

, Germany

External links



Museums
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