Sailboat
Overview
 
A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat
Boat
A boat is a watercraft of any size designed to float or plane, to provide passage across water. Usually this water will be inland or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed to be operated from a ship in an offshore environment. In naval terms, a boat is a...

 propelled partly or entirely by sail
Sail
A sail is any type of surface intended to move a vessel, vehicle or rotor by being placed in a wind—in essence a propulsion wing. Sails are used in sailing.-History of sails:...

s. The term covers a variety of boats, larger than small vessels such as sailboards and smaller than sailing ship
Sailing ship
The term sailing ship is now used to refer to any large wind-powered vessel. In technical terms, a ship was a sailing vessel with a specific rig of at least three masts, square rigged on all of them, making the sailing adjective redundant. In popular usage "ship" became associated with all large...

s, but distinctions in the size are not strictly defined and what constitutes a sailing
Sailing
Sailing is the propulsion of a vehicle and the control of its movement with large foils called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and sometimes the keel or centre board, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the sails in order to move the boat relative to its surrounding medium and...

 ship, sailboat, or a smaller vessel (such as a sailboard) varies by region and culture.
Each part of a sailboat has a special name.
Encyclopedia
A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat
Boat
A boat is a watercraft of any size designed to float or plane, to provide passage across water. Usually this water will be inland or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed to be operated from a ship in an offshore environment. In naval terms, a boat is a...

 propelled partly or entirely by sail
Sail
A sail is any type of surface intended to move a vessel, vehicle or rotor by being placed in a wind—in essence a propulsion wing. Sails are used in sailing.-History of sails:...

s. The term covers a variety of boats, larger than small vessels such as sailboards and smaller than sailing ship
Sailing ship
The term sailing ship is now used to refer to any large wind-powered vessel. In technical terms, a ship was a sailing vessel with a specific rig of at least three masts, square rigged on all of them, making the sailing adjective redundant. In popular usage "ship" became associated with all large...

s, but distinctions in the size are not strictly defined and what constitutes a sailing
Sailing
Sailing is the propulsion of a vehicle and the control of its movement with large foils called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and sometimes the keel or centre board, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the sails in order to move the boat relative to its surrounding medium and...

 ship, sailboat, or a smaller vessel (such as a sailboard) varies by region and culture.

Parts of a Sailboat

Each part of a sailboat has a special name. Sailors everywhere take great pride in using the proper terms. The main parts of a sailboat include the hull, the spars , the sails and the rigging.

Hull

The Hull is the body of a sailboat. The front of the hull is called the bow, and the rear is called a stern. Almost all sailboats have either a keel or a centerboard. These flat pieces of metal or wood extend into the water from the bottom of the hull to prevent movement from the either side. A keel is fixed in place. But a centerboard can be raised or lowered through a slot in the bottom of a hull. Some boats, such as inland scows, may have two centerboards known as bilge boards.

Spars

Spars are poles that support the sails. They include masts
Mast (sailing)
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall, vertical, or near vertical, spar, or arrangement of spars, which supports the sails. Large ships have several masts, with the size and configuration depending on the style of ship...

, booms
Boom (sailing)
In sailing, a boom is a spar , along the foot of a fore and aft rigged sail, that greatly improves control of the angle and shape of the sail. The primary action of the boom is to keep the foot of the sail flatter when the sail angle is away from the centerline of the boat. The boom also serves...

 and gaffs
Gaff rig
Gaff rig is a sailing rig in which the sail is four-cornered, fore-and-aft rigged, controlled at its peak and, usually, its entire head by a spar called the gaff...

. Masts are upright poles that hold the sails. The mainmasts holds the largest sail. Some large sailboats have a shorter masts, called a mizzenmast, toward the stern or a shorter foremast toward the bow.
Booms and gaffs are the poles that extend at right angles to the masts and hold the sails straight out. Booms are fastened to the bottom of the sail and gaffs are fastened to the top.

Sails

The mainsail (largest sail on a sailboat) is fastened to the back of mainmast. A smaller, triangular sail in front of a mainmast is called a jib. A large jib that overlaps the mast and stretches far back next to the mainsail is called a Genoa jib
Genoa (sail)
The genoa or jenny was originally referred to as the 'overlapping jib' or the Genoa jib, being named after the city of Genoa as explained below. It is a type of large jib or staysail used on bermuda rigged craft that overlaps the main sail, sometimes eliminating it. It is used on single-masted...

, after the Italian port it was first used. The spinnaker
Spinnaker
A spinnaker is a special type of sail that is designed specifically for sailing off the wind from a reaching course to a downwind, i.e. with the wind 90°–180° off the bow. The spinnaker fills with wind and balloons out in front of the boat when it is deployed, called flying. It is constructed of...

is a large, balloon-shaped sail used for added speed when a boat sails with the wind. Spinnakers are often made in red, blue and other bright colors. Dacron has largely replaced cotton as a material for sails. This material is strong and tightly woven, and holds it shape well no matter how strong the wind blows. But spinnakers are usually of nylon, which is strong, light and elastic. Nylon is too elastic for other sails.

Rigging

It includes the ropes used in a sailboat. Standing rigging is permanent and supports the masts. It includes stays that run from the bow to the mast, and shrouds that run from the beam to the masthead. Running rigging consists of ropes used to adjust the sails and booms. The ropes that raise and lower the sails are called halyards. Those used to trim (adjust)the sails are called sheets.

Types

At present, a great number of sailboat-types may be distinguished. Apart from size, sailboats may be distinguished by a hull configuration (monohull
Monohull
rightA monohull is a type of boat having only one hull, unlike multihulled boats which can have two or more individual hulls connected to one another.-Fundamental concept:...

, catamaran
Catamaran
A catamaran is a type of multihulled boat or ship consisting of two hulls, or vakas, joined by some structure, the most basic being a frame, formed of akas...

, trimaran
Trimaran
A trimaran is a multihulled boat consisting of a main hull and two smaller outrigger hulls , attached to the main hull with lateral struts...

), keel type (full, fin, wing, centerboard etc.), purpose (sport, racing, cruising), number and configuration of mast
Mast (sailing)
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall, vertical, or near vertical, spar, or arrangement of spars, which supports the sails. Large ships have several masts, with the size and configuration depending on the style of ship...

s, and sail plan. Although sailboat terminology has varied across history, many terms now have specific meanings in the context of modern yachting
Yachting
Yachting refers to recreational sailing or boating, the specific act of sailing or using other water vessels for sporting purposes.-Competitive sailing:...

.

The following sub-sections outline the most popular monohull
Monohull
rightA monohull is a type of boat having only one hull, unlike multihulled boats which can have two or more individual hulls connected to one another.-Fundamental concept:...

 sailing vessels. Additional types of vessels, such as multi-hull, are not discussed in these sub-sections.

Sloop

Today, the most common sailboat is the sloop, which features one mast and two sails: a normal mainsail
Mainsail
A mainsail is a sail located behind the main mast of a sailing vessel.On a square rigged vessel, it is the lowest and largest sail on the main mast....

, and a headsail
Headsail
A headsail of a sailing vessel is any sail set forward of the foremost mast. The most common headsails are staysails, a term that includes jibs and the larger genoa...

. This simple configuration is very efficient for sailing towards the wind. The mainsail is attached to the mast
Mast (sailing)
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall, vertical, or near vertical, spar, or arrangement of spars, which supports the sails. Large ships have several masts, with the size and configuration depending on the style of ship...

 and the boom
Boom (sailing)
In sailing, a boom is a spar , along the foot of a fore and aft rigged sail, that greatly improves control of the angle and shape of the sail. The primary action of the boom is to keep the foot of the sail flatter when the sail angle is away from the centerline of the boat. The boom also serves...

, which is a spar
Spar
In sailing, a spar is a pole of wood, metal or lightweight materials such as carbon fiber used on a sailing vessel. Spars of all types In sailing, a spar is a pole of wood, metal or lightweight materials such as carbon fiber used on a sailing vessel. Spars of all types In sailing, a spar is a...

 capable of swinging across the boat, depending on the direction of the wind. Depending on the size and design of the headsail it can be called a jib
Jib
A jib is a triangular staysail set ahead of the foremast of a sailing vessel. Its tack is fixed to the bowsprit, to the bow, or to the deck between the bowsprit and the foremost mast...

, Genoa
Genoa (sail)
The genoa or jenny was originally referred to as the 'overlapping jib' or the Genoa jib, being named after the city of Genoa as explained below. It is a type of large jib or staysail used on bermuda rigged craft that overlaps the main sail, sometimes eliminating it. It is used on single-masted...

, or spinnaker
Spinnaker
A spinnaker is a special type of sail that is designed specifically for sailing off the wind from a reaching course to a downwind, i.e. with the wind 90°–180° off the bow. The spinnaker fills with wind and balloons out in front of the boat when it is deployed, called flying. It is constructed of...

. When sailing directly downwind, a common configuration is to have the headsail sailed to one side of the boat, and the mainsail sailed to the other; this configuration is called "wing on wing".

The forestay is a line or cable near the top of the mast to a point near the bow. In Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

, where a rig design influenced by the Latin rig appeared on boats and came to be known as the Bermuda rig
Bermuda rig
The term Bermuda rig refers to a configuration of mast and rigging for a type of sailboat and is also known as a Marconi rig; this is the typical configuration for most modern sailboats...

, a large spinnaker was carried on a spinnaker pole when running down-wind. An example of a typical sloop can be seen on the Islander 36
Islander 36
The Islander 36 sloop is an inboard-powered, family cruiser and weekend racer with berths for six.The I-36 as she is commonly referred to, was a mid-volume production, California-built, fiberglass-reinforced vessel with an early 1970s to 1984 manufacturing run of about 650 vessels...

.

Fractional rig sloop

On a fractional rig sloop the forestay does not run to the top of the mast, rather it connects at some point below. This allows the top of the mast to be raked aft by increasing the tension of the back stay, while arching the middle of the mast forward. Without great explanation, this gives a performance advantage in some conditions by flattening the sails. The big mainsail provides most of the drive, and the small headsail is easier for a short-handed crew to manage.

Cutter


The cutter is similar to a sloop with a single mast and mainsail, but generally carries the mast further aft to allow for the use of two head sails attached to two fore stays, the head stay and the inner stay, which carry the jib and stay sail respectively. This is rarely considered a racing configuration; however, it gives versatility to cruising boats, especially in high wind conditions, when a small jib can be flown from the inner stay.

Importantly, the traditional and most accurate definition of a true cutter, however, is not in the number of headsails, but rather that the outermost sails are set on stays that are not strictly structural to the rig itself. This in itself is a function of a much more complicated design set, involving mast placement, mast height, rig, boom length and fore-triangle size.

Catboat

A catboat has a single mast mounted fairly forward and does not carry a jib. Most modern designs have only one sail, the mainsail; however the traditional catboat could carry multiple sails from the gaff rig. The designer of the Catboat is Brian Husband, master sailor of the early 1940s.

Ketch

Ketches are similar to a sloop, but there is a second shorter mast to the stern of the mainmast, but forward of the rudder post. The second mast is called the mizzen mast and the sail is called the mizzen sail. A ketch can also be Cutter-rigged with two head sails.

Schooner


A schooner can have two or more masts, the aftermost mast taller or equal to the height of the forward mast(s), distinguishing this design from a ketch or a yawl. Top sail schooners are rigged to carry a square sail near the top of their foremast, but generally modern schooners are gaff or marconi rigged.

Yawl

A yawl is similar to a ketch, with the mizzen mast shorter than the main mast but the mizzen mast is carried astern of the rudder post. Generally the mizzen on a yawl is smaller than the mizzen on a ketch, and is used more for balance than propulsion.

Dhoni


Dhoni or Doni (Dhivehi: ދޯނި pronounced Dōni) is a multi-purpose sailboat with a motor or lateen sails that is used in the Maldives. It is handcrafted and its use within the multi-island nation has been very important. A dhoni resembles a dhow
Dhow
Dhow is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with lateen sails used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region. Some historians believe the dhow was invented by Arabs but this is disputed by some others. Dhows typically weigh 300 to 500 tons, and have a...

, a traditional Arab sailing vessel.

Dinghy


A dinghy
Dinghy
A dinghy is a type of small boat, often carried or towed for use as a ship's boat by a larger vessel. It is a loanword from either Bengali or Urdu. The term can also refer to small racing yachts or recreational open sailing boats. Utility dinghies are usually rowboats or have an outboard motor,...

 is a type of small sailboat. The term can also refer to small racing yacht
Yacht
A yacht is a recreational boat or ship. The term originated from the Dutch Jacht meaning "hunt". It was originally defined as a light fast sailing vessel used by the Dutch navy to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries...

s or recreational open sailing boats. They are most common in youth sailing because of their shorter LOA, simple operation and minimal maintenance. They have three (or fewer) sail
Sail
A sail is any type of surface intended to move a vessel, vehicle or rotor by being placed in a wind—in essence a propulsion wing. Sails are used in sailing.-History of sails:...

s: the mainsail
Mainsail
A mainsail is a sail located behind the main mast of a sailing vessel.On a square rigged vessel, it is the lowest and largest sail on the main mast....

, jib
Jib
A jib is a triangular staysail set ahead of the foremast of a sailing vessel. Its tack is fixed to the bowsprit, to the bow, or to the deck between the bowsprit and the foremost mast...

, and spinnaker
Spinnaker
A spinnaker is a special type of sail that is designed specifically for sailing off the wind from a reaching course to a downwind, i.e. with the wind 90°–180° off the bow. The spinnaker fills with wind and balloons out in front of the boat when it is deployed, called flying. It is constructed of...

. Sailing dinghies have an overall length of seven to sixteen feet. This category of sailboats is split up into several subcategories such as: skiffs, high performance dinghies, cruising dinghies, classic dinghies, catamarans, racing dinghies, and sports boats.

Hulls

Traditional sailboats are monohull
Monohull
rightA monohull is a type of boat having only one hull, unlike multihulled boats which can have two or more individual hulls connected to one another.-Fundamental concept:...

s, but multi-hull
Multihull
A multihull is a ship, vessel, craft or boat with more than one hull.-Description:Multihulls include: Proas, which have two differently shaped or sized hulls with lateral symmetry; catamarans, which have two hulls with longitudinal symmetry; and trimarans, which have a main hull in the center and...

 catamaran
Catamaran
A catamaran is a type of multihulled boat or ship consisting of two hulls, or vakas, joined by some structure, the most basic being a frame, formed of akas...

s and trimaran
Trimaran
A trimaran is a multihulled boat consisting of a main hull and two smaller outrigger hulls , attached to the main hull with lateral struts...

s are gaining popularity. Monohull boats generally rely on ballast for stability, and usually are displacement hulls. This stabilizing ballast can, in boats designed for racing, be as much as 50% of the weight of the boat, but is generally around 30%. It creates two problems; one, it gives the monohull tremendous inertia, making it less maneuverable and reducing its acceleration. Secondly, unless it has been built with buoyant foam or air tanks, if a monohull fills with water, it will sink.

Multihull
Multihull
A multihull is a ship, vessel, craft or boat with more than one hull.-Description:Multihulls include: Proas, which have two differently shaped or sized hulls with lateral symmetry; catamarans, which have two hulls with longitudinal symmetry; and trimarans, which have a main hull in the center and...

s rely on the geometry and the broad stance of the multiple hulls for their stability, eschewing any form of ballast. Indeed, multihulls are designed to be as light-weight as possible, yet maintain structural integrity. They are often built with foam-filled flotation chambers and many modern commercial trimarans are rated as unsinkable, meaning that, should every crew compartment be completely filled with water, the hull itself has sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat.

This absence of ballast also results in some very real performance gains in terms of acceleration, top speed, and maneuverability.
  • The lack of ballast makes it much easier to get a multihull on plane, reducing its wetted surface area and thus its drag.The absence of drag improves wind precision, giving it its great handling.
  • Compared to a monohull, acceleration to top speed is near-instantaneous.
  • Reduced overall weight means a reduced draft, with a much reduced underwater profile. This, in turn, results directly in reduced wetted surface area and drag, yielding higher top speeds.
  • Without a ballast keel, multihulls can go in shallow waters where monohulls can't.


There are some tradeoffs, however, in multihull design:
  • A well designed ballasted boat can recover from a capsize, even from turning over completely. The Swan 65
    Nautor's Swan
    Oy Nautor AB is a Finnish producer of luxury sailing yachts, based in Jakobstad. It is known for its Swan line of fiberglass yacht. The company was founded in 1966 by Pekka Koskenkylä...

     Sayula II won the 1973-74 Whitbread Round the World Race
    1973-74 Whitbread Round the World Race
    The first Whitbread Round the World Race started off from Portsmouth, England on September 8, 1973. Seventeen yachts of various sizes and rigs took part. During the race three sailors were swept over board and died: Paul Waterhouse, Dominique Guillet and Bernie Hosking...

     after doing a 180 degree capsize in the Southern Ocean
    Southern Ocean
    The Southern Ocean comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60°S latitude and encircling Antarctica. It is usually regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions...

    . Righting a multihull that has gotten upside down is difficult in any case and impossible without outside help unless the boat is small or carries special equipment for the purpose. Several round the world racing multihulls have been lost after they capsized.
  • Multihulls often prove more difficult to tack, since the reduced weight leads directly to reduced momentum, causing multihulls to more quickly lose speed when headed into the wind.
  • Also, structural integrity is much easier to achieve in a one piece monohull than in a two or three piece multihull whose connecting structure must be substantial and well connected to the hulls.


All these hull types may also be manufactured as, or outfitted with, hydrofoils
Sailing hydrofoil
A sailing hydrofoil, hydrofoil sailboat, or hydrosail is a sailboat with wing-like foils mounted under the hull. As the craft increases its speed the hydrofoils lift the hull up and out of the water, greatly reducing wetted area, resulting in decreased drag and increased speed...

.

Keel

All vessels have keel
Keel
In boats and ships, keel can refer to either of two parts: a structural element, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event...

s, it is the backbone of the hull. In traditional construction it is the structure upon which all else depends. Modern monocoque designs include a virtual keel. Even multihull
Multihull
A multihull is a ship, vessel, craft or boat with more than one hull.-Description:Multihulls include: Proas, which have two differently shaped or sized hulls with lateral symmetry; catamarans, which have two hulls with longitudinal symmetry; and trimarans, which have a main hull in the center and...

s have keels. On a sailboat the word Keel is also used to refer to the area that is added to the hull to improve its lateral plane. The lateral plane is what prevents leeway and allows sailing towards the wind. This can be an external piece or a part of the hull.

Most monohull
Monohull
rightA monohull is a type of boat having only one hull, unlike multihulled boats which can have two or more individual hulls connected to one another.-Fundamental concept:...

s larger than a dinghy require ballast, depending on the design ballast will be 20 to 50 percent of the displacement. The ballast is often integrated into their keels as large masses of lead or cast iron. This secures the ballast and gets it as low as possible to improve its effectivness. External keels are cast in the shape of the keel. A monohull's keel
Keel
In boats and ships, keel can refer to either of two parts: a structural element, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event...

 is made effective by a combination of weight, depth and length.

Most modern monohull
Monohull
rightA monohull is a type of boat having only one hull, unlike multihulled boats which can have two or more individual hulls connected to one another.-Fundamental concept:...

 boats have fin keels, which are heavy and deep, but short in relation to the hull length. More traditional yachts carried a full keel which is generally half or more of the length of the boat. A recent feature is a winged keel
Winged keel
A winged keel is a sailboat keel, usually of moderate aspect ratio, that uses a nearly horizontal foil, the "wing", at the bottom to provide additional performance. Note that the wing is upside down with relation to the boat...

, which is short and shallow, but carries a lot of weight in two "wings" which run sideways from the main part of the keel. Even more recent is the concept of canting keel
Canting keel
A canting keel is a form of sailing ballast, suspended from a rigid canting strut beneath the boat, which can be swung to windward of a boat under sail, in order to counteract the heeling force of the sail...

s, designed to move the weight at the bottom of a sailboat to the upwind side, allowing the boat to carry more sails.

Multihulls, on the other hand, have minimal need for such ballast, as they depend on the geometry of their design, the wide base of their multiple hulls, for their stability. Designers of performance multihulls, such as the Open 60's
Open Ocean Performance Sixties
The Open Ocean Performance Sixty, or simply Open 60, is a class of trimaran racing yacht defined by the Ocean Racing Multihull Association...

, go to great lengths to reduce overall boat weight as much as possible. This leads some to comment that designing a multihull is more similar to designing an aircraft

Centreboard

The centreboard or daggerboard
Daggerboard
A daggerboard is a retractable centreboard used by various sailing craft. While other types of centreboard may pivot to retract, a daggerboard slides in a casing. The shape of the daggerboard converts the forward motion into a windward lift, countering the leeward push of the...

 is in essence a very lightweight keel, which is not permanently mounted and can be pulled up to accommodate shallow water. Some sports boats are designed to plane on top of the water since they feature centerboards or light keels.

See also

  • Boat building
    Boat building
    Boat building, one of the oldest branches of engineering, is concerned with constructing the hulls of boats and, for sailboats, the masts, spars and rigging.-Parts:* Bow - the front and generally sharp end of the hull...

  • Boating
    Boating
    Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels , focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or water skiing...

  • Land yacht
  • List of sailboat designers and manufacturers
  • Puddle Duck Racer - The Easiest Sailboat In The World To Build
  • Sailboat design and manufacturing
    Sailboat design and manufacturing
    This article attempts to give an overview of the design and manufacturing of sailboats and the evolution of this industry. Details should be found and contributed through linked articles.-Early sailing vessels:...

  • Sailing (sport)
    Sailing (sport)
    Sailing is a well organized and recognized sport.There is a broad variety of kinds of races and sailboats used for racing. Much racing is done around buoys or similar marks in protected waters, while some longer offshore races cross open water...

  • Yacht racing
    Yacht racing
    Yacht racing is the sport of competitive yachting.While sailing groups organize the most active and popular competitive yachting, other boating events are also held world-wide: speed motorboat racing; competitive canoeing, kayaking, and rowing; model yachting; and navigational contests Yacht racing...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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