Sabah
Overview
 
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo
Borneo
Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located north of Java Island, Indonesia, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia....

. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan is the second largest Indonesian province, located on the Kalimantan region on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda and Balikpapan...

 of Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 in the south. In spite of its status as a Malaysian state, Sabah remains a disputed territory; the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 has a dormant claim over much of the eastern part of the territory.
Encyclopedia
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo
Borneo
Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located north of Java Island, Indonesia, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia....

. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan is the second largest Indonesian province, located on the Kalimantan region on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda and Balikpapan...

 of Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 in the south. In spite of its status as a Malaysian state, Sabah remains a disputed territory; the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 has a dormant claim over much of the eastern part of the territory. The capital of Sabah is Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu , formerly known as Jesselton, is the capital of Sabah state in East Malaysia. It is also the capital of the West Coast Division of Sabah. The city is located on the northwest coast of Borneo facing the South China Sea. The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park lies on one side and Mount...

, formerly known as Jesselton. Sabah is often referred to as "The land below the wind", because of its location just south of the typhoon-prone region around the Philippines.

Etymology

The origin of the name Sabah is uncertain, and there are many theories have arisen. One theory is that during the time it was part of the Bruneian Sultanate, it was referred to as Saba' because of the presence of pisang saba, a type of banana
Banana
Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red....

, found on the coasts of the region. Due to the location of Sabah in relation to Brunei
Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...

, it has been suggested that Sabah was a Bruneian Malay word meaning upstream or the northern side of the river. Another theory suggests that it came from the Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

 word sabak which means a place where palm sugar
Palm sugar
Palm sugar was originally made from the sugary sap of the Palmyra palm, the date palm or sugar date palm . Now it is also made from the sap of the sago, arenga pinnata and coconut palms, and may be sold as "arenga sugar" or "coconut sugar".-Description:It is quickly gaining popularity in the...

 is extracted. Sabah is also an Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 word which means morning. The presence of multiple theories makes it difficult to pinpoint the true origin of the name.

It has been said that Sabah was once referred to as Seludang in a 1365 Javanese text known as Nagarakretagama
Nagarakretagama
The Nagarakretagama or Nagarakrtagama, also known as Desawarnana, is an Old Javanese eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, a Javanese king and the monarch of the Majapahit Empire. It was written as a kakawin by Mpu Prapanca in 1365 . The Nagarakretagama contains detailed descriptions of the Majapahit Empire...

 written by Mpu Prapanca
Mpu Prapanca
Mpu Prapanca was the author of the epic poem Nagarakertagama, written in Old Javanese. It tells the story of the Majapahit Kingdom and other stories of ancient Hindu-Javanese kingdoms. The Buddhist monk Prapanca wrote the chronicle in 1365 as a eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, who brought Majapahit to...

.

Geography

The western part of Sabah is generally mountainous, containing the three highest mountains in Malaysia. The most prominent range is the Crocker Range
Crocker Range
Crocker Range , is a mountain range on the island of Borneo. Politically, it is within the boundary of the Malaysian state of Sabah, located in the northern half of Borneo. The mountain range separates the east coast and west coast of Sabah. At an average height of 1800m, it is the highest mountain...

 which houses several mountains of varying height from about 1,000 metres to 4,000 metres. At the height of 4,095 metres, Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu
Mount Kinabalu is a prominent mountain on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. It is located in the East Malaysian state of Sabah and is protected as Kinabalu National Park, a World Heritage Site. Kinabalu is the tallest peak in Borneo's Crocker Range and is the tallest mountain in the Malay...

 is the highest mountain in South East Asia . The jungles of Sabah are classified as rainforests and host a diverse array of plant and animal species. Kinabalu National Park
Kinabalu National Park
Kinabalu National Park or Taman Negara Kinabalu in Malay, established as one of the first national parks of Malaysia in 1964, is Malaysia's first World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO in December 2000 for its "outstanding universal values" and the role as one of the most important biological...

 was inscribed as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 in 2000 because of its richness in plant diversity combined with its unique geological, topographical, and climatic conditions.

Lying nearby Mount Kinabalu is Mount Tambuyukon
Mount Tambuyukon
Mount Tambuyukon or Tamboyukon is Malaysia's third highest mountain at 2,579 m . It lies close to the famous Mount Kinabalu. The mountain supports a wide range of unique flora and fauna, including a number of pitcher plant species of the genus Nepenthes....

. At a height of 2,579 metres, it is the third highest peak in the country. Adjacent to the Crocker Range is the Trus Madi Range
Trus Madi Range
The Trus Madi Range is a range of mountains in Sabah, Borneo. It includes the state's second highest peak, Mount Trus Madi, after which it is named. The Trus Madi Range is a part of the Western Hill Ranges....

 which houses the second highest peak in the country, Mount Trus Madi
Mount Trus Madi
Mount Trus Madi or Trusmadi is Malaysia's second highest mountain at . It lies in the state of Sabah, close to Mount Kinabalu. The mountain supports a wide range of unique flora and fauna, perhaps most notably Nepenthes macrophylla, a species of pitcher plant.The natural hybrid Nepenthes ×...

, at a height of 2,642 metres. There are lower ranges of hills extending towards the western coasts, southern plains, and the interior or central part of Sabah. These mountains and hills are traversed by an extensive network of river valleys and are in most cases covered with dense rainforest
Rainforest
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with definitions based on a minimum normal annual rainfall of 1750-2000 mm...

.

The central and eastern portion of Sabah are generally lower mountain ranges and plains with occasional hills. Kinabatangan River
Kinabatangan River
The Kinabatangan River is located in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It is the second longest river in Malaysia, with a length of 560 kilometers from its headwaters in the mountains of southwest Sabah, to its outlet at the Sulu Sea, east of Sandakan.Kinabatangan is known for its...

 begins from the western ranges and snakes its way through the central region towards the east coast out into the Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
The Sulu Sea is a body of water in the southwestern area of the Philippines, separated from the South China Sea in the northwest by Palawan and from the Celebes Sea in the southeast by the Sulu Archipelago. Borneo is found to the southwest and Visayas to the northeast.Sulu Sea contains a number of...

. It is the second longest river in Malaysia after Rejang River at a length of 560 kilometres. The forests surrounding the river valley also contains an array of wildlife habitats, and is the largest forest-covered floodplain in Malaysia.

Other important wildlife regions in Sabah include Maliau Basin
Maliau Basin
Maliau Basin or also Maliau Basin Conservation Area, is a region in Sabah, Malaysia, which represents a geological catchment surrounding the Maliau River. Located around the center of Sabah in the Sandakan Division, it was designated as a conservation area by the Sabah Foundation in 1981...

, Danum Valley, Tabin, Imbak Canyon and Sepilok. These places are either designated as national parks, wildlife reserves, virgin jungle reserves, or protection forest reserve.

Over three quarters of the human population inhabit the coastal plains. Major towns and urban centres have sprouted along the coasts of Sabah. The interior region remains sparsely populated with only villages, and the occasional small towns or townships.

Beyond the coasts of Sabah lie a number of islands and coral reefs, including the largest island in Malaysia, Pulau Banggi. Other large islands include, Pulau Jambongan, Pulau Balambangan, Pulau Timbun Mata, Pulau Bumbun, and Pulau Sebatik. Other popular islands mainly for tourism are, Pulau Sipadan, Pulau Selingan, Pulau Gaya
Pulau Gaya
Pulau Gaya is a sizeable Malaysian island of 1,465 ha, just 10 minutes off Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and forms part of the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park. Pulau Gaya derived its name from the Bajau word "Gayo" which means big and occupies an area of 15 km² with an elevation of up to 300 metres...

, Pulau Tiga
Tiga Island
Tiga Island, also called Tokanod, is a small, island in the South Pacific Ocean. Tiga lies from Lifou Island, and from Maré Island in the Loyalty Islands...

, and Pulau Layang-Layang.

Conservation

National or state park areas in Sabah are under the protection of Sabah Parks
Sabah Parks
Sabah Parks is a conservation-based statutory body established in 1962 with the purpose of conserving the scenic, scientific and historic heritage of the state of Sabah, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. The organisation is also responsible for the management and promotion of the various protected...

. Other reserves or protected areas are under the governance of the Sabah Forestry Department and Sabah Foundation.
  • Kinabalu Park – the highest mountain in Southeast Asia with an altitude of 4,101 metres (13,455 ft). It is lower than Puncak Jaya
    Puncak Jaya
    Puncak Jaya or Carstensz Pyramid is the highest summit of Mount Carstensz in the Sudirman Range of the western central highlands of Papua province, Indonesia . Other summits are East Carstensz Peak and Ngga Pulu...

     in Irian Jaya on the island of New Guinea
    New Guinea
    New Guinea is the world's second largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 786,000 km2. Located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, it lies geographically to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago...

    , Indonesia at 4,884 metres which is located outside of the South East Asia Region.
  • Tabin Wildlife Reserve
    Tabin Wildlife Reserve
    Tabin Wildlife Refuge is a nature preserve in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It was created in 1984 to preserve Sabah’s disappearing wild animals...

     - Stronghold for rare large mammals like Bornean elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros
    Sumatran Rhinoceros
    The Sumatran Rhinoceros is a member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It is the only extant species of the genus Dicerorhinus. It is the smallest rhinoceros, although is still a large mammal. This rhino stands high at the shoulder, with a head-and-body length of ...

    , Bornean banteng
    Banteng
    The banteng , also known as tembadau, is a species of wild cattle found in Southeast Asia.Banteng have been domesticated in several places in Southeast Asia, and there are around 1.5 million domestic banteng, which are called Bali cattle. These animals are used as working animals and for their meat...

     and Bornean clouded leopard
    Bornean Clouded Leopard
    The Sunda clouded leopard , also known as the Sundaland clouded leopard and is a medium-sized wild cat found in Borneo and Sumatra...

  • Danum Valley Conservation Area
    Danum Valley Conservation Area
    Danum Valley Conservation Area is a 438 square kilometres tract of relatively undisturbed lowland dipterocarp forest in Sabah, Malaysia. The area holds unique status in the sense that before it became a conservation area there were no human settlements within the area, meaning that hunting,...

     - another important reserve for large mammals of Borneo, including Bornean orang-utan
  • Turtle Islands Park – conservation efforts for endangered sea turtle
    Sea turtle
    Sea turtles are marine reptiles that inhabit all of the world's oceans except the Arctic.-Distribution:...

    s
  • Tunku Abdul Rahman Park – A national park consisting of five islands off the coast of Kota Kinabalu
  • Sipadan Park
    Sipadan
    Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from the seabed. It is located in the Celebes Sea off the east coast of Sabah, East Malaysia . It was formed by living corals growing on top of an extinct volcanic cone that took thousands of years to develop...

     – Located near Semporna, the oceanic island of Sipadan
    Sipadan
    Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from the seabed. It is located in the Celebes Sea off the east coast of Sabah, East Malaysia . It was formed by living corals growing on top of an extinct volcanic cone that took thousands of years to develop...

     has a very rich underwater ecosystem.
  • Pulau Tiga Park
  • Crocker Range Park
  • Tawau Hills Park

History

Earliest human migration and settlement into the region is believed to have dated back about 20,000–30,000 years ago. These early humans are believed to be Australoid
Australoid
The Australoid race is a broad racial classification. The concept originated with a typological method of racial classification. They were described as having dark skin with wavy hair, in the case of Veddoids from South Asia and Aboriginal Australians, or hair ranging from straight to kinky in the...

 or Negrito
Negrito
The Negrito are a class of several ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia.Their current populations include 12 Andamanese peoples of the Andaman Islands, six Semang peoples of Malaysia, the Mani of Thailand, and the Aeta, Agta, Ati, and 30 other peoples of the Philippines....

 people. The next wave of human migration, believed to be Austronesian Mongoloids, occurred around 3000 BC.

Brunei Empire

During the 7th century CE, a settled community known as Vijayapura, a tributary to the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Srivijaya was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, modern day Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. The earliest solid proof of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, I-Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for 6...

 empire, was thought to have been the earliest beneficiary to the Bruneian Empire
Bruneian Empire
The Bruneian Empire was founded in the early 7th century on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The empire was ruled by pagan or Hindu kings converted into Muslims by Indian, Arab and merchants from the other parts of the Malay Archipelago who came to trade and spread Islam...

 existing around the northeast coast of Borneo. Another kingdom which suspected to have existed beginning the 9th century was P'o-ni. It was believed that Po-ni existed at the mouth of Brunei River
Brunei River
The Brunei River is a river which flows through Brunei and empties into Brunei Bay towards the North-east direction. The Istana Nurul Iman, the official residence of the Sultan of Brunei, stands on its banks. The Brunei River is the shortest major river in Brunei Darussalam. Brunei Darussalam's...

 and was the predecessor to the Sultanate of Brunei. The Sultanate of Brunei began after the ruler of Brunei embraced Islam. During the reign of the fifth sultan known as Bolkiah
Bolkiah
Sultan Bolkiah was the fifth Sultan of Brunei. He ascended the throne of Brunei upon the abdication of his father, Sultan Sulaiman. He ruled Brunei from 1485 to 1524. His reign was known as the Golden Age because Brunei became the superpower of the Malay archipelago...

 between 1473–1524, the Sultanate's thalassocracy
Thalassocracy
The term thalassocracy refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as Athens or the Phoenician network of merchant cities...

 extended over Sabah, Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
The Sulu Archipelago is a chain of islands in the southwestern Philippines. This archipelago is considered to be part of the Moroland by the local rebel independence movement. This island group forms the northern limit of the Celebes Sea....

 and Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 in the north, and Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

 until Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin is the capital of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is located on a delta island near the junction of the Barito and Martapura rivers. As a result, Banjarmasin is sometimes called the "River City"...

 in the south. In 1658, the Sultan of Brunei ceded the northern and eastern portion of Borneo to the Sultan of Sulu in compensation for the latter's help in settling a civil war in the Brunei Sultanate. In 1749, the Sultanate of Borneo ceded southern Palawan to Spain.

British North Borneo

In 1761, Alexander Dalrymple
Alexander Dalrymple
Alexander Dalrymple was a Scottish geographer and the first Hydrographer of the British Admiralty. He was the main proponent of the theory that there existed a vast undiscovered continent in the South Pacific, Terra Australis Incognita...

, an officer of the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

, concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to allow him to set up a trading post in the region, although it proved to be a failure. In 1846, the island of Labuan
Labuan
Labuan is a federal territory in East Malaysia. It is an island off the coast of the state of Sabah. Labuan's capital is Victoria and is best known as an offshore financial centre offering international financial and business services via Labuan IBFC since 1990 as well as being an offshore support...

 on the west coast of Sabah was ceded to Britain by the Sultan of Brunei and in 1848 it became a British Crown Colony. Following a series of transfers, the rights to North Borneo were transferred to Alfred Dent, whom in 1881 formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd. In the following year, the British North Borneo Company
British North Borneo Company
The North Borneo Chartered Company or British North Borneo Company was a chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo in August 1881. North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British...

 was formed and Kudat
Kudat
Kudat is a town in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the northern tip of Borneo island. It serves as the administrative center for the Kudat Division, which includes the towns of Kudat, Pitas, Kota Marudu, and some offshore islands....

 was made its capital. In 1883 the capital was moved to Sandakan
Sandakan
Sandakan is the second-largest city in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the north-eastern coast of Borneo. It is located on the east coast of the island and it is the administrative centre of Sandakan Division and was the former capital of British North Borneo...

. In 1885, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Germany signed the Madrid Protocol of 1885
Madrid Protocol of 1885
The Madrid Protocol of 1885 is an agreement between Great Britain, Germany and Spain to recognize the sovereignty of Spain over the Sulu Archipelago as well as the limit of Spanish influence in the region...

, which recognised the sovereignty of Spain in the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
The Sulu Archipelago is a chain of islands in the southwestern Philippines. This archipelago is considered to be part of the Moroland by the local rebel independence movement. This island group forms the northern limit of the Celebes Sea....

 in return for the relinquishment of all Spanish claims over North Borneo. In 1888 North Borneo became a protectorate
Protectorate
In history, the term protectorate has two different meanings. In its earliest inception, which has been adopted by modern international law, it is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity...

 of the United Kingdom.

Japanese occupation

As part of the Second World War, Japanese forces landed in Labuan
Labuan
Labuan is a federal territory in East Malaysia. It is an island off the coast of the state of Sabah. Labuan's capital is Victoria and is best known as an offshore financial centre offering international financial and business services via Labuan IBFC since 1990 as well as being an offshore support...

 on 1 January 1942, and continued to invade the rest of North Borneo. From 1942 to 1945, Japanese
Empire of Japan
The Empire of Japan is the name of the state of Japan that existed from the Meiji Restoration on 3 January 1868 to the enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of...

 forces occupied North Borneo
Japanese occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak
Throughout much of World War II, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation.The Japanese Empire commenced the Pacific War with the invasion of Kota Bahru in Kelantan on 8 December 1941 at 00:25, about 90 minutes before the Attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii at 07:48 on 7...

, along with most of the island. Bombings by the allied forces
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 devastated of most towns including Sandakan, which was razed to the ground. In Sandakan there was once a brutal POW camp run by the Japanese for British and Australian POWs from North Borneo. The prisoners suffered under notoriously inhuman conditions, and Allied bombardments caused the Japanese to relocate the POW camp to inland Ranau
Ranau
Ranau is a district as well as a town in the East Malaysian state of Sabah on the island of Borneo and it is situated in the West Coast Division of Sabah...

, 260 km away. All the prisoners, then were reduced to 2504 in number, were forced to march the infamous Sandakan Death March. Except for six Australians, all of the prisoners died. The war ended on 10 September 1945. After the surrender, North Borneo was administered by the British Military Administration
British Military Administration
The British Military Administration was the interim administrator of British Malaya between the end of World War II and the establishment of the Malayan Union in 1946. Specifically, the entity lasted from September 1945 to April 1946...

 and in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. Jesselton replaced Sandakan as the capital and the Crown continued to rule North Borneo until 1963.

Federation of Malaysia

On 31 August 1963 North Borneo attained self-government. 1962, the Cobbold Commission
Cobbold Commission
The Cobbold Commission, was a Commission of Enquiry set up to determine whether the people of North Borneo and Sarawak supported the proposal to create the Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak. It was also responsible for the subsequent drafting of the Constitution...

 was set up to determine whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak favoured the proposed union, and found that the union was generally favoured by the people. Most ethnic community leaders of Sabah, namely, Tun Mustapha representing the Muslims, Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Haji Mohammad Fuad Stephens, previously known as, Donald Stephens, was the first Chief Minister of the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He played a fundamental role in bringing the state of Sabah into the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. He held the chief minister post until 1964, and again in 1976...

 representing the non-Muslim natives, and Khoo Siak Chew representing the Chinese, would eventually support the formation. On 16 September 1963 North Borneo, as Sabah, was united with Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore, to form the independent the Federation of Malaysia.
From before the formation of Malaysia till 1966, Indonesia adopted a hostile policy towards the British backed Malaya, and after union to Malaysia. This undeclared war stems from what Indonesian President Sukarno perceive as an expansion of British influence in the region and his intention to wrest control over the whole of Borneo under the Indonesian republic. Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Haji Mohammad Fuad Stephens, previously known as, Donald Stephens, was the first Chief Minister of the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He played a fundamental role in bringing the state of Sabah into the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. He held the chief minister post until 1964, and again in 1976...

 became the first chief minister of Sabah. The first Governor (Yang di-Pertuan Negeri) was Tun Mustapha. Sabah held its first state election in 1967. Until 2008, a total of 11 state elections has been held. Sabah has had 13 different chief ministers and 9 different Yang di-Pertua Negeri
Yang di-Pertua Negeri
The Yang di-Pertua Negeri is the official title of the ceremonial heads of state of the Malaysian states without hereditary rulers, namely Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak...

 as of 2009. Beginning 1970, Filipino refugees from the Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

 began arriving in Sabah as a result of the Moro insurgency taking place in that region. On14 June 1976 the government of Sabah signed an agreement with Petronas
Petronas
PETRONAS, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. Wholly owned by the Government of Malaysia, the corporation is vested with the entire oil and gas resources in Malaysia and is entrusted with the responsibility of developing and...

, the federal government-owned oil and gas company, granting it the right to extract and earn revenue from petroleum found in the territorial waters of Sabah in exchange for 5% in annual revenue as royalties
Royalties
Royalties are usage-based payments made by one party to another for the right to ongoing use of an asset, sometimes an intellectual property...

.

The state government of Sabah ceded
Cession
The act of Cession, or to cede, is the assignment of property to another entity. In international law it commonly refers to land transferred by treaty...

 the island of Labuan
Labuan
Labuan is a federal territory in East Malaysia. It is an island off the coast of the state of Sabah. Labuan's capital is Victoria and is best known as an offshore financial centre offering international financial and business services via Labuan IBFC since 1990 as well as being an offshore support...

 and its 6 smaller islands to the Malaysian federal government and it was declared a federal territory on 16 April 1984. In 2000, the state capital Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu , formerly known as Jesselton, is the capital of Sabah state in East Malaysia. It is also the capital of the West Coast Division of Sabah. The city is located on the northwest coast of Borneo facing the South China Sea. The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park lies on one side and Mount...

 was granted city status, making it the 6th city in Malaysia and the first city in the state. Also this year, Kinabalu National Park
Kinabalu National Park
Kinabalu National Park or Taman Negara Kinabalu in Malay, established as one of the first national parks of Malaysia in 1964, is Malaysia's first World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO in December 2000 for its "outstanding universal values" and the role as one of the most important biological...

 was officially designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

, making it the first site in the country to be given such designation. In 2002, the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands...

 ruled that the islands of Sipadan
Sipadan
Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from the seabed. It is located in the Celebes Sea off the east coast of Sabah, East Malaysia . It was formed by living corals growing on top of an extinct volcanic cone that took thousands of years to develop...

 and Ligitan
Ligitan
Ligitan is a small island in Tawau, Sabah, located east of the island of Borneo, in the Celebes Sea. In the past, the island was at the centre of a territorial dispute between Malaysia and Indonesia...

, claimed by Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, are part of Sabah and Malaysia.

Philippine claim

The Sultanate of Sulu was granted the north-eastern part of the territory as a prize for helping the Sultan of Brunei against his enemies and from then on that part of Borneo
Borneo
Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located north of Java Island, Indonesia, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia....

 was recognised as part of the Sultan of Sulu's sovereignty. In 1878, Baron Von Overbeck, an Austrian partner representing The British North Borneo Company
British North Borneo Company
The North Borneo Chartered Company or British North Borneo Company was a chartered company assigned to administer North Borneo in August 1881. North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British...

 and his British partner Alfred Dent, leased the territory of Sabah. In return, the company was to provide arms to the Sultan to resist the Spaniards and 5,000 Malayan dollars annual rental based on the Mexican dollar's value at that time or its equivalent in gold. This lease was continued until the independence and formation of the Malaysian federation in 1963 together with Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

 and the states of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya is the name given to a federation of 11 states that existed from 31 January 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957...

. As of 2004, the Malaysian Embassy to the Philippines had been paying cession/rental money amounting to US$1,500 per year (about 6,300 Malaysian Ringgits) to the heirs of the Sultanate of Sulu.

On 12 September 1962, during President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970...

's administration, the territory of North Borneo
North Borneo
North Borneo was a British protectorate under the sovereign North Borneo Chartered Company from 1882 to 1946. After the war it became a crown colony of Great Britain from 1946 to 1963, known in this time as British North Borneo. It is located on the northeastern end of the island of Borneo. It is...

, and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the territory were ceded by the then reigning Sultan of Sulu, HM Sultan Muhammad Esmail E. Kiram I, to the Republic of the Philippines. The cession effectively gave the Philippine government the full authority to pursue their claim in international courts. The Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 broke diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the federation had included Sabah in 1963 but probably resumed it unofficially through the Manila Accord
Manila Accord
The Manila Accord of the Diosdado Macapagal initiative was signed on 31 July 1963 by the Federation of Malaya, the Republic of Indonesia and the Republic of the Philippines, after a meeting of from 7 to 11 June 1963 at Manila The countries have agreed to the wishes of the people of Sabah and...

.

In 1968, Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 was training a team of saboteurs on Corregidor for infiltration into Sabah but instead Marcos double-crossed the saboteurs. This event is known as the Jabidah massacre
Jabidah massacre
The Jabidah massacre, also known as the Corregidor massacre, refers to an incident in which members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines massacred a number of Moro Muslim recruits under their supervision. Sources differ regarding the details, with the number of victims ranging from 14 to 68, and...

. Diplomatic ties resumed in 1989 because succeeding Philippine administrations have placed the claim on the backburner in the interest of pursuing cordial economic and security relations with Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

.

Population

The population of Sabah is 3,120,040 as of 2010, and is the third most populous state in Malaysia after Selangor
Selangor
Selangor also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity") is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west...

 and Johor
Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

. Sabah has one of the highest population growth rates in the country as a result of illegal immigration from the Muslim-dominated southern provinces of Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

.

The population estimates based on ethnic groups in 2006 are as follows:
  • Kadazan-Dusun
    Kadazan-Dusun
    Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.- History :...

    : 17.8% (533,466)
  • Bajau
    Bajau
    The Bajau or Bajaw , also spelled Bajao, Badjau, Badjaw, or Badjao, are an indigenous ethnic group of Maritime Southeast Asia...

    : 13.4% (401,598)
  • Malay: 11.5% (345,354)
  • Murut
    Murut people
    The Murut is the warrior tribe of indigenous ethnic groups inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. The Murut comprise several people groups that are scattered in parts of Borneo Island including Brunei, Kalimantan...

    : 3.3% (98,901)
  • Other bumiputra
    Bumiputra
    Bumiputera or Bumiputra is a Malay term widely used in Malaysia, embracing indigenous people of the Malay Archipelago. The term comes from the Sanskrit word bhumiputra, which can be translated literally as "son of land"...

    : 14.6% (437,562) – which consists of Rungus, Iranun, Bisaya, Tatana, Lun Dayeh, Tindal, Tobilung, Kimaragang, Suluk, Ubian, Tagal, Timogun, Nabay, Kedayan, Orang Sungai, Makiang, Minokok, Mangka’ak, Lobu, Bonggi, Tidong, Ida’an (Idahan), Begahak, Kagayan, Talantang, Tinagas, Banjar, Gana, Kuijau, Tombonuo, Dumpas, Peluan, Baukan, Sino, Jawa)
  • Chinese
    Malaysian Chinese
    Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin. Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries. Within Malaysia, they are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is also sometimes used to refer to...

     (majority Hakka
    Hakka people
    The Hakka , sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese who speak the Hakka language and have links to the provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan and Fujian in China....

    ): 9.6% (287,712)
  • Other non-bumiputra: 4.8% (143,856)
  • Non-Malaysian citizens (Filipino, Indonesian): 25% (749,250)

Language & Ethnicity

Malay (Bahasa Malaysia)
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

 is the national language spoken across ethnicities, although Sabahan dialect called Baku is different from West Malaysian dialect of Johor-Riau. Sabah also has its own slang for many words in Malay, mostly originated from indigenous or Indonesian words. In addition, indigenous languages such as Kadazan, Dusun, Bajau and Murut have their own segments on state radio broadcast as well as English.

The people of Sabah are divided into 32 officially recognised ethnic group
Ethnic group
An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, often consisting of a common language, a common culture and/or an ideology that stresses common ancestry or endogamy...

s. The largest non-bumiputra ethnic group is the Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 (13.2%). The predominant Chinese dialect group in Sabah is Hakka
Hakka
The Hakka , sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese who speak the Hakka language and have links to the provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan and Fujian in China....

, followed by Cantonese
Cantonese
Cantonese is a dialect spoken primarily in south China.Cantonese may also refer to:* Yue Chinese, the Chinese language that includes Cantonese* Cantonese cuisine, the cuisine of Guangdong province...

 and Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien is a Hokkien word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian". It may refer to:* Hokkien dialect, a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian , Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere....

. Most Chinese people in Sabah are concentrated in the major cities and towns, namely Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu , formerly known as Jesselton, is the capital of Sabah state in East Malaysia. It is also the capital of the West Coast Division of Sabah. The city is located on the northwest coast of Borneo facing the South China Sea. The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park lies on one side and Mount...

, Sandakan
Sandakan
Sandakan is the second-largest city in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the north-eastern coast of Borneo. It is located on the east coast of the island and it is the administrative centre of Sandakan Division and was the former capital of British North Borneo...

 and Tawau
Tawau
Tawau is the administrative center of Tawau Division, Malaysia and the third largest town of Sabah after Kota Kinabalu and Sandakan.-Geography:...

. The largest indigenous ethnic group is Kadazan-Dusun
Kadazan-Dusun
Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.- History :...

, followed by Bajau
Bajau
The Bajau or Bajaw , also spelled Bajao, Badjau, Badjaw, or Badjao, are an indigenous ethnic group of Maritime Southeast Asia...

, and Murut
Murut people
The Murut is the warrior tribe of indigenous ethnic groups inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. The Murut comprise several people groups that are scattered in parts of Borneo Island including Brunei, Kalimantan...

. There is a much smaller proportion of Indians and other South Asians in Sabah compared to other parts of Malaysia. Cocos
Orang Cocos
The Orang Cocos are an ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They primarily reside in Kampung Cocos near Lahad Datu in Tawau Division. Originally from the Cocos Islands , they settled this area in the 1950s...

 people is a minority ethnic residing in Sabah especially at the Tawau Division. Collectively, all persons coming from Sabah are known as Sabahans and identify themselves as such.

Sabah demography consists of many ethnic groups, for example:

  • Kadazan-Dusun
    Kadazan-Dusun
    Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.- History :...

  • Bruneian Malay
  • Malay
    Malay people
    Malays are an ethnic group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, including the southernmost parts of Thailand, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and the smaller islands which lie between these locations...

  • Kwijau
    Kwijau
    The Kwijau or Kuijau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They reside in the Interior Division within a 12-mile radius to the west and north of Keningau town. Their population was estimated at 7,910 in the year 2000...

  • Murut
    Murut people
    The Murut is the warrior tribe of indigenous ethnic groups inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. The Murut comprise several people groups that are scattered in parts of Borneo Island including Brunei, Kalimantan...

  • Bajau
    Bajau
    The Bajau or Bajaw , also spelled Bajao, Badjau, Badjaw, or Badjao, are an indigenous ethnic group of Maritime Southeast Asia...

  • Illanun
    Illanun
    The Iranun are an ethnic group of Mindanao, Philippines and the west coast of Sabah, Malaysia, in 25 villages around the Kota Belud and Lahad Datu districts; also in Kudat and Likas, Kota Kinabalu. Their current population is estimated to be around 1,000,000-1,500,000 .For centuries, the Illanun...

  • Lotud
    Lotud
    The Lotud are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They reside mainly in the Tuaran District to as far as Kampung Sukoli, Telipok in the West Coast Division of Sabah. Their population was estimated at 5,000 in the year 1985 but now believed to be...

  • Rungus
  • Tambanuo
    Tambanuo
    The Tambanuo are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They reside in Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts of Kudat Division of Sabah. Their population was estimated at 20,000 in the year 1990...

  • Dumpas
    Dumpas
    The Dumpas are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They reside in the Perancangan village in Labuk-Sugut District of Kudat Division. Their population was estimated at 1,078 in the year 2000. Their language belongs to the Paitanic branch of the...


  • Mangka'ak
    Mangka'ak
    The Mangka'ak are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They primarily reside in the Sandakan, Labuk-Sugut, and Kinabatangan districts in northeastern Sabah. Their population was estimated at 20,583 in the year 2000...

  • Orang Sungai
    Orang Sungai
    The Orang Sungai are a group of indigenous people native to the state of Sabah, Malaysia. Groups of communities live along the rivers of Kinabatangan, Paitan, Labuk and also Kudat. also Lahad Datu-External links:*...

  • Kedayan
    Kedayan
    The Kedayan are an ethnic group residing in Brunei, Labuan, Sabah, and parts of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. They are also known as Kadayan, Kadaian or simply badly spelled as Kadyan by British. The Kedayan language is the de facto national language of Brunei...

  • Bisaya
    Bisaya (Borneo)
    The Bisaya are an indigenous people of north-western and along the coast of Borneo, Malaysia, concentrated around the Beaufort district, Padas river in Sabah, Limbang river in northern Sarawak state. They also known as Malay or Islam among the Dusun, Murut or Rungus people. As early as thirteenth...

  • Tidong
  • Maragang
    Maragang
    The Maragang are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They reside in the Kota Marudu and Pitas districts of Kudat Division. Their population was estimated at 10,000 in the year 1987. They are considered a sub-group of the Kadazan-Dusun, as their...

  • Ida'an
    Ida'an
    The Ida'an are an ethnic group of Borneo, residing primarily in the Lahad Datu districts on the east coast of Sabah, Malaysia. Their current population is estimated to be around 6,000 , but it appears that they once inhabited a much larger area along the east Sabah coast than present...

  • Minokok
    Minokok
    The Minokok are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They reside near the headwaters of Kinabatangan River, in Sandakan Division. Their population was estimated at 2,000 in the year 1991...

  • Rumanau
    Rumanau
    The Rumanau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They are known as the Lobu in the Keningau District near Lanas, and the Rumanau in the Masaum, Mangkawagu, Minusu areas of the Kinabatangan District along the Kinabatangan River, in Sandakan...

  • Pait
    Pait
    The Pait is a species of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family that is found only in the Philippines. A benthopelagic fish that requires a freshwater environment; it was first identified from specimens collected from Lake Lanao in 1910 and 1922; specimens were still present as recently as a...

    an

  • Lun Bawang/Lun Dayeh
    Lun Bawang
    The Lun Bawang is an ethnic group found in Central Borneo. They are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei , southwest of Sabah and northern region of Sarawak...

  • Orang Cocos
    Orang Cocos
    The Orang Cocos are an ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They primarily reside in Kampung Cocos near Lahad Datu in Tawau Division. Originally from the Cocos Islands , they settled this area in the 1950s...

  • Suluk
  • Sabah born Chinese (Malaysian) including mixed parentage with natives (Sino)
    Malaysian Chinese
    Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin. Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries. Within Malaysia, they are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is also sometimes used to refer to...



Other inhabitants:
  • Filipino – Chavacano,Visaya,Ilocano,Suluk,Badjao,Iranun,Tausug
    Filipinos in Malaysia
    Filipinos in Malaysia comprise migrants and residents from the Philippines and their descendants living in Malaysia. Because of the short distance between the two nations, many Filipinos have emigrated there. Between 245,000 and 637,000 Filipinos live in Malaysia...

  • Indonesian – Bugis,Jawa,Timoris,Banjar
    Indonesia
    Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

  • Indian – Punjabi,Tamil
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

  • Sarawakian indigenous – Iban,Penan,Dayak
    Sarawak
    Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...


Religion

Statistics of religion by state are not provided by the Department of Statistics Malaysia. In 2000, its religious breakdown was as follows: Islam 63.7%, Christianity 27.8%, Buddhism 12%, no religion 1.0%, Taoism/Confucianism 0.4%, Others 0.3%, Hinduism 0.1%, unknown 0.3%.http://www.necf.org.my/newsmaster.cfm?&menuid=45&parentid=144&action=view&retrieveid=978. Sabah is home to the second highest proportion of Christians (Roman Catholic and Protestant) in Malaysia, behind that of Sarawak.

Economy

Sabah's economy was traditionally heavily dependent on lumber
Lumber
Lumber or timber is wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural material for construction, or wood pulp for paper production....

 based on export of tropical timber
Dipterocarp timber classification
The following table associates tree species, wood name and wood colour....

, but with increasing depletion at an alarming rate of the natural forests, ecological efforts to save the remaining natural rainforest
Rainforest
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with definitions based on a minimum normal annual rainfall of 1750-2000 mm...

 areas were done in early 1982 through forest conservation methods by collecting seeds of different species particularly acacia mangium
Acacia mangium
Acacia mangium is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to northeastern Queensland in Australia, the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, Papua, and the eastern Maluku Islands. Common names include Black Wattle, Hickory Wattle and Mangium...

 and planting it to pilot project areas pioneered by the Sandakan Forest Research Institute researchers, however, palm oil
Palm oil
Palm oil, coconut oil and palm kernel oil are edible plant oils derived from the fruits of palm trees. Palm oil is extracted from the pulp of the fruit of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis; palm kernel oil is derived from the kernel of the oil palm and coconut oil is derived from the kernel of the...

 has emerged as a choice of farmers to plant as a cash crop. Other agricultural products important in the Sabah economy include rubber and cacao. Tourism is currently the second largest contributor to the economy. There are other exports like seafood and vegetables.

In 1970, Sabah ranked as one of the richest states in the federation, with a per capita GDP second only to Selangor (which then included Kuala Lumpur). However, despite its vast wealth of natural resources
Natural Resources
Natural Resources is a soul album released by Motown girl group Martha Reeves and the Vandellas in 1970 on the Gordy label. The album is significant for the Vietnam War ballad "I Should Be Proud" and the slow jam, "Love Guess Who"...

, Sabah is currently the poorest of Malaysia's states. Average incomes are now among the lowest in Malaysia, and with a considerably higher cost of living than in West Malaysia. In 2000 Sabah had an unemployment rate of 5.6 per cent, the highest of any Malaysian state and almost twice the national average of 3.1 per cent. The state has the highest poverty level in the country at 16 per cent, more than three times the national average. Due to the lack of industry that can provide jobs for professional and highly skilled workforce, large numbers of Sabahans have migrated or moved to Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia , also known as West Malaysia , is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula. Its area is . It shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore. Across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the island of Sumatra...

, Singapore, Australia and United States. Part of the problem is the inequitable distribution of wealth
Distribution of wealth
The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society. It differs from the distribution of income in that it looks at the distribution of ownership of the assets in a society, rather than the current income of members of that society.-Definition of...

 between state and federal governments, and large numbers of illegal immigrants from Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, even from China and East Timor
East Timor
The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor , is a state in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor...

, whose population was estimated to be in the region of half a million people. Due to huge tracks of land that has been cultivated with palm oil, the industry is not fully mechanised and it is highly dependent towards immigrants with work pass and illegals. In 2004 the poverty level worsened to 22 per cent. However the state government with the assistance from the Federal government and active participation of UN and the governments where the illegal immigrants originated, steps has been taken and slowly Sabah is overcoming the crises.

The recent tabling of the Ninth Malaysia Plan
Ninth Malaysia Plan
Ninth Malaysian Plan abbreviated as '9MP', is a comprehensive blueprint prepared by the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister's Department and the Finance Ministry of Malaysia with approval by the Cabinet of Malaysia to allocate the national budget from the year 2006 to 2010 to all...

 has allocated RM16.908 billion for Sabah, the second highest state allocation after Sarawak's but it is still only 8% of the total national budget for a population of Sabah of more than 13%, and an area of more than 25%. This is clearly discriminatory and has contributed to the State of Sabah having the largest number of people below the poverty line in Malaysia, and lower than the Indonesian national poverty rate and in the same level as Aceh and Myanmar based on 2004 United Nations figures.

The fund is pledged to improve the state's rural areas, improve the state's transportation and utilities infrastructures, and boost the economy of Sabah. The government has placed its focus on three major areas of the economy which have the potential to be Sabah's growth engine. These are agriculture, manufacturing and tourism.

When this discriminatory budget against Sabah and Sarawak was pointed out, the allocation for Sabah was increased from the earlier figure of 15.7 billion RM while there is none for Sarawak. The reason given to Sarawak's Chief Minister, as reported by Borneo Post (11 November 2007) is that it is not economical to develop Sarawak. Sarawak is to be the source of renewable resources for Malaya. This situation applies to Sabah as well except that Sarawak's renewable resources are not even meant for Sabah. The percentage of the total budget is still much less than Sabah's population and area burdens.

Tourism

Tourism, particularly eco-tourism, is a major contributor to the economy of Sabah. In 2006, 2,000,000 tourists visited Sabah and it is estimated that the number will continue to rise following vigorous promotional activities by the state and national tourism boards and also increased stability and security in the region. Sabah currently has six national parks. One of these, the Kinabalu National Park
Kinabalu National Park
Kinabalu National Park or Taman Negara Kinabalu in Malay, established as one of the first national parks of Malaysia in 1964, is Malaysia's first World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO in December 2000 for its "outstanding universal values" and the role as one of the most important biological...

, was designated as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 in 2000. It is the first of two sites in Malaysia to obtain this status, the other being the Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park near Miri, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that encompasses incredible caves and karst formations in a mountainous equatorial rainforest setting...

 in Sarawak. These parks are maintained and controlled by Sabah Parks
Sabah Parks
Sabah Parks is a conservation-based statutory body established in 1962 with the purpose of conserving the scenic, scientific and historic heritage of the state of Sabah, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. The organisation is also responsible for the management and promotion of the various protected...

 under the Parks Enactment 1984. The Sabah Wildlife Department
Sabah Wildlife Department
Sabah Wildlife Department, a local wildlife authority under Sabah's state Ministry for Tourism Development, Environment, Science and Technology, enforces the "Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997" for the proper regulation, use, protection, conservation and management of wildlife, caves and...

 also has conservation, utilisation, and management responsibilities.

Urban centres and ports

There are currently 7 ports in Sabah: Kota Kinabalu Port, Sepanggar Bay Container Port, Sandakan Port, Tawau Port, Kudat Port, Kunak Port, and Lahad Datu Port. These ports are operated and maintained by Sabah Ports Authority. The major towns and city are:
Rank City Population
1 Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu , formerly known as Jesselton, is the capital of Sabah state in East Malaysia. It is also the capital of the West Coast Division of Sabah. The city is located on the northwest coast of Borneo facing the South China Sea. The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park lies on one side and Mount...

617,972
2 Sandakan
Sandakan
Sandakan is the second-largest city in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the north-eastern coast of Borneo. It is located on the east coast of the island and it is the administrative centre of Sandakan Division and was the former capital of British North Borneo...

501,195
3 Tawau
Tawau
Tawau is the administrative center of Tawau Division, Malaysia and the third largest town of Sabah after Kota Kinabalu and Sandakan.-Geography:...

402,400
4 Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu is a town and district located in Tawau Division, in the east of Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. It occupies the peninsula on the north side of Darvel Bay. Its population was estimated to be around 118,000 in 1991 and 156,059 in the 2000 census. Lahad Datu is surrounded...

213,100
5 Keningau
Keningau
Keningau is a sprawling timber and agricultural town and district located in the Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo...

195,700
6 Semporna
Semporna
Semporna is a town located in Tawau Division, in the east coast of Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 133,000 in 2006.-History:...

140,400
7 Kudat
Kudat
Kudat is a town in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the northern tip of Borneo island. It serves as the administrative center for the Kudat Division, which includes the towns of Kudat, Pitas, Kota Marudu, and some offshore islands....

85,400

Government

Sabah is a representative democracy with universal suffrage
Universal suffrage
Universal suffrage consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens as a whole, though it may also mean extending said right to minors and non-citizens...

 for all citizens above 21 years of age. However, legislation regarding state elections are within the powers of the federal government and not the state.

Executive

The Yang di-Pertua Negeri
Yang di-Pertua Negeri
The Yang di-Pertua Negeri is the official title of the ceremonial heads of state of the Malaysian states without hereditary rulers, namely Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak...

 sits at the top of the hierarchy followed by the state legislative assembly
Dewan Undangan Negeri
A state legislative assembly is the legislature of each of the 13 Malaysian states. Members of a state legislative assembly comprises elected representatives from single-member constituencies during state elections through the first-past-the-post system....

 and the state cabinet. The Yang di-Pertuan Negeri is officially the head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

 however its functions are largely ceremonial. The chief minister is the head of government
Head of government
Head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. In a parliamentary system, the head of government is often styled prime minister, chief minister, premier, etc...

 and is also the leader of the state cabinet. The legislature is based on the Westminster system
Westminster System
The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after the politics of the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom....

 and therefore the chief minister is appointed based on his or her ability to command the majority of the state assembly. A general election representatives in the state assembly must be held every five years. This is the only elected government body in the state, with local authorities being fully appointed by the state government owing to the suspension of local elections by the federal government. The assembly meets at the state capital, Kota Kinabalu.
Year Chief Minister Party
1963–1964 Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Haji Mohammad Fuad Stephens, previously known as, Donald Stephens, was the first Chief Minister of the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He played a fundamental role in bringing the state of Sabah into the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. He held the chief minister post until 1964, and again in 1976...

 
UNKO
1965–1967 Datuk Peter Lo Sui Yin  SCA
1967–1975 Tun Mustapha Datu Harun
Tun Datu Mustapha
Tun Datu Haji Mustapha bin Datu Harun or Tun Mustapha for short, was the first governor of the Malaysian state of Sabah. He was also the third Chief Minister of the state from 1967 to 1975, and was the president for the political party United Sabah National Organization...

 
USNO
United Sabah National Organization
United Sabah National Organization was a political party based in Sabah, Malaysia. The party was founded by Tun Mustapha, the third Chief Minister of Sabah. The party came into power after winning the 1967 state election...

 – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

1975–1976 Tun Said Keruak  USNO
United Sabah National Organization
United Sabah National Organization was a political party based in Sabah, Malaysia. The party was founded by Tun Mustapha, the third Chief Minister of Sabah. The party came into power after winning the 1967 state election...

 – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

1976–1985 Datuk Harris Mohd Salleh
Harris Salleh
Yang Berhormat Tan Sri Datuk Seri Panglima Harris bin Mohd Salleh, was the 6th Chief Minister of the state of Sabah, in Malaysia. He was also the president for Parti Berjaya. He held the Chief Minister's post from 1976 to 1985...

 
Berjaya – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

1985–1994 Tan Sri Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Tan Sri Datuk Seri Panglima Joseph Pairin Kitingan , is a Malaysian politician and was the seventh Chief Minister of Sabah, a state in Malaysia. He held the post from April 1985 to March 1994. Currently, he is the Deputy Chief Minister and Minister of Infrastructure Development of Sabah and has...

 
PBS
Parti Bersatu Sabah
The Parti Bersatu Sabah is a political party in Sabah, east Malaysia. It was registered as a political party on March 5, 1985...

 – Opposition (In partnership with BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

 in 1986–1990)
1994–1995 Tun Sakaran Dandai  UMNO – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

1995–1996 Datuk Salleh Tun Said Keruak  UMNO – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

1996–1998 Datuk Yong Teck Lee
Yong Teck Lee
Datuk Seri Yong Teck Lee is a Malaysian politician of Hakka Chinese descent. He is a former Chief Minister of Sabah and is currently the president of the Sabah Progressive Party .-Political History:...

 
SAPP
Sabah Progressive Party
The Sabah Progressive Party is a political party based in Sabah, East Malaysia. It was registered on 21 January 1994 by dissidents led by former Sabah Chief Minister Datuk Yong Teck Lee from Parti Bersatu Sabah . Formerly a component party in the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition, SAPP officially...

 – Independent
1998–1999 Tan Sri Bernard Dompok (now UPKO) PDS – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

1999–2001 Datuk Seri Osu Haji Sukam
Osu Sukam
Datuk Seri Osu bin Haji Sukam, is a former Chief Minister of the Malaysianstate of Sabah. He became the 12th Chief Minister of the state in 1999 and took over the post from Bernard Dompok. Following the rotation system in place at that time, Osu, an ethnic Bajau, held the post for two years...

 
UMNO – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

2001–2003 Tan Sri Chong Kah Kiat
Chong Kah Kiat
Tan Sri Chong Kah Kiat was the 13th Chief Minister of Sabah, Malaysia. He is also the former president of the Liberal Democratic Party .-History in politics:...

 
LDP – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

2003–present Datuk Seri Musa Aman
Musa Aman
Datuk Seri Panglima Haji Musa bin Haji Aman , is the 14th and current Chief Minister of the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He took over the post from Chong Kah Kiat on March 27, 2003...

 
UMNO – BN
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...


Legislature

Members of the state assembly are elected from 60 constituencies which are delineated by the Election Commission of Malaysia and may not necessarily result in constituencies of same voter population sizes. Sabah is also represented in the federal parliament
Parliament of Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The King as the Head of State is the third component of Parliament....

 by 25 members elected from the same number of constituencies.

The present elected state and federal government posts are held by Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional is a major political coalition in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance . Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence...

 (BN), a coalition
Coalition
A coalition is a pact or treaty among individuals or groups, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest, joining forces together for a common cause. This alliance may be temporary or a matter of convenience. A coalition thus differs from a more formal covenant...

 of parties which includes United Malays National Organisation
United Malays National Organisation
The United Malays National Organisation, is Malaysia's largest political party; a founding member of the National Front coalition, which has played a dominant role in Malaysian politics since independence....

 (UMNO), Sabah Progressive Party
Sabah Progressive Party
The Sabah Progressive Party is a political party based in Sabah, East Malaysia. It was registered on 21 January 1994 by dissidents led by former Sabah Chief Minister Datuk Yong Teck Lee from Parti Bersatu Sabah . Formerly a component party in the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition, SAPP officially...

 (SAPP), United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
The United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation is a political party based in Sabah, east Malaysia. It is an ethnically-based party striving to voice the rights and advance the development of Kadazan-Dusun and Murut population of Sabah and the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia.-History:The...

 (UPKO), Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS is a minor political party based in Sabah, east Malaysia. It was formed by disaffected members of the Parti Bersatu Sabah on 11 March 1994. On 10 June 1994, it was officially accepted as one of the component parties in the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition...

 (PBRS), Parti Bersatu Sabah
Parti Bersatu Sabah
The Parti Bersatu Sabah is a political party in Sabah, east Malaysia. It was registered as a political party on March 5, 1985...

 (PBS), Liberal Democratic Party
Liberal Democratic Party (Malaysia)
The Liberal Democratic Party is a Chinese political party originally founded in the town of Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia by Hiew Min Kong in 1989.The party is considered a minor political party in Malaysia, having its base mainly in Sabah...

 (LDP), and Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association is a uni-racial political party in Malaysia that represents the Malaysian Chinese ethnicity; it is one of the three major component parties of the ruling coalition in Malaysia called the Barisan Nasional in Malay, or National Front in English.Along with the largest...

 (MCA).

The last state election was in 2004 and as of 2006, the state legislature has 60 members. It comprises 59 BN state legislature members (Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri) and a single independent. Of this, 32 are from UMNO, 13 from PBS, 5 from UPKO, 4 from the SAPP, 3 from LDP, and one each from MCA and PBRS.

Political Parties

Prior to the formation of Malaysia in 1963, the then North Borneo
North Borneo
North Borneo was a British protectorate under the sovereign North Borneo Chartered Company from 1882 to 1946. After the war it became a crown colony of Great Britain from 1946 to 1963, known in this time as British North Borneo. It is located on the northeastern end of the island of Borneo. It is...

 interim government submitted a 20-point agreement
20-point agreement (Sabah)
The 20-point agreement, or the 20-point memorandum, is a list of 20 points drawn up by North Borneo, proposing terms for its incorporation into the new federation as the State of Sabah, during negotiations prior to the formation of Malaysia...

 to the Malayan government as conditions before Sabah would join the Federation. Sabah entered Malaysia as an autonomous state with a Christian Kadazan-Dusun
Kadazan-Dusun
Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.- History :...

 chief minister, but soon succumbed to Kuala Lumpur's vision of a one-party unitary Islamic state dominated by the indigenous Muslim Bajau
Bajau
The Bajau or Bajaw , also spelled Bajao, Badjau, Badjaw, or Badjao, are an indigenous ethnic group of Maritime Southeast Asia...

 and Bruneian Malay. This has created considerable friction and even occasional calls for secession
Secession
Secession is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or especially a political entity. Threats of secession also can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals.-Secession theory:...

. These tensions are further inflamed by Kuala Lumpur's colonial mentality towards Sabah, wherein 95% of the profits from Sabah's immense natural resources are taken by the federal government, leaving the state government with only 5%. Aside from nominally separate immigration controls, little evidence remains of Sabah's theoretical autonomy.

Until the Malaysian general election, 2008
Malaysian general election, 2008
The 12th Malaysian general election was held on March 8, 2008, in accordance with Malaysian laws for national elections, which states that a general election must be held no later than five years subsequent to the previous elections; the previous general election was held in 2004...

, Sabah, along with the states of Kelantan
Kelantan
Kelantan is a state of Malaysia. The capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu. The Arabic honorific of the state is Darul Naim, ....

 and Terengganu
Terengganu
Terengganu is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. The state is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Iman...

, are the only three states in Malaysia that had ever been ruled by opposition parties not part of the ruling BN coalition. Led by Datuk Seri Joseph Pairin Kitingan, PBS formed government after winning the 1985 elections and ruled Sabah until 1994. Due to certain internal troubles, BN took over the government in 1994 despite PBS winning the elections. PBS subsequently joined the BN coalition in 2002.

A unique feature of Sabah politics was a policy initiated by the BN in 1994 whereby the chief minister's post is rotated among the coalition parties every 2 years regardless of the party in power at the time, thus theoretically giving an equal amount of time for each major ethnic group to rule the state. This extremely weakens the executive branch of the state government, which was formerly much at odds with the federal government in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

. It also serves to give a disproportionate power to the indigenous Muslim Bajau
Bajau
The Bajau or Bajaw , also spelled Bajao, Badjau, Badjaw, or Badjao, are an indigenous ethnic group of Maritime Southeast Asia...

 ethnic group, at the expense of the mainly Christian indigenous Kadazan-Dusun
Kadazan-Dusun
Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.- History :...

, the largest ethnic group. This practice has since stopped with power now held by majority in the state assembly by the UMNO party, which also holds a majority in the national parliament.

There has been a conspiracy theory that the chief minister post rotation system was implemented to allow UMNO to control the post permanently by abolishing the whole system once it was UMNO's turn to hold the post. It has never been proven but it is considered impossible for UMNO to get a hold of the post through any other method. The conspiracy theory was brought up once again when a division from UMNO proposed to implement the same rotation system in Penang, when it was under BN rule. It was one of the two states which were not controlled by UMNO but was under BN rule (the other state being Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

). The proposal was raised even though UMNO abolished the system in Sabah by declaring it a failure.

UMNO had a quick rise to power since its entry into Sabah in 1991 where before that both eastern Malaysian states were not penetrated by the party, whose president is the de facto leader of the ruling coalition BN and automatically the Prime Minister of Malaysia. This has given rise to dissent as the chief minister rotation system was halted just as UMNO was holding the post. Thus the 2004 general elections saw widespread disillusionment, coupled with an ineffectual opposition. The state assembly is now dominated by the ruling party BN with only one seat held by an opposition politician who is an independent candidate. This was caused by a general sentiment where a number of voters were reluctant to cast votes for BN whose victory was almost assured but did not trust the opposition parties, most of which were not vigorously active before the election. Therefore many cast votes for independent candidates.

Sabah politics, as are Malaysia's, is very much based upon party lines. An effort by PBS, a component party of BN, to hatch a co-operation with the one opposition candidate within the state assembly, who conversely was a former UMNO member competing independently because he was not nominated for the constituency by his party, in an unprecedented attempt at bipartisanship, was harshly criticised by UPKO, another component party of BN.

Local Government

Sabah consists of five administrative divisions
Divisions of Malaysia
The states of Malaysia that lie on Borneo are subdivided into divisions. These divisions are further divided into districts.The 16 divisions are:...

, which are in turn divided into 24 districts
Districts of Malaysia
Districts in Malaysia are known as Daerah or Jajahan . A district governed directly by the federal government is known as a Federal Territory, and they are Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, and Labuan....

.

These administrative divisions are, for all purposes, just for reference. During the British rule until the transition period when Malaysia was formed, a Resident
Resident (title)
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he officially has diplomatic functions which are often seen as a form of indirect rule....

 was appointed to govern each division and provided with a palace (Istana). This means that the British considered each of these divisions equivalent to a Malayan state. The post of the Resident was abolished in favour of district officers for each of the district.
Division Name
Divisions of Malaysia
The states of Malaysia that lie on Borneo are subdivided into divisions. These divisions are further divided into districts.The 16 divisions are:...

Districts
Districts of Malaysia
Districts in Malaysia are known as Daerah or Jajahan . A district governed directly by the federal government is known as a Federal Territory, and they are Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, and Labuan....

Area (km²) Population (2006)
1 West Coast Division
West Coast Division
West Coast Division is an administrative division of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It occupies the northwest portion of Sabah. With an area of 7,588 square kilometres, it occupies 10.3% of Sabah's territory...

 
Kota Belud
Kota Belud
Kota Belud is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 72,337 in 2000, almost evenly divided between ethnic Dusun and Bajau with a sizeable proportion of Chinese ethnicity...

, Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu
Kota Kinabalu , formerly known as Jesselton, is the capital of Sabah state in East Malaysia. It is also the capital of the West Coast Division of Sabah. The city is located on the northwest coast of Borneo facing the South China Sea. The Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park lies on one side and Mount...

, Papar
Papar, Sabah
Papar is a town as well as a district located in West Coast Division of Sabah, east Malaysia. It is situated 38 kilometres south of Kota Kinabalu and is one of the main stops on the North Borneo Railway line other than Tanjung Aru, Putatan, Beaufort and Tenom in which Papar lies on the middle of...

, Penampang
Penampang
Penampang is a district as well as a small town within the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia. It has virtually become a suburb of Kota Kinabalu which is Sabah's capital. Its population was estimated to be around 132,002 in 2000, with ethnic Kadazan-Dusun as the majority.The name penampang...

, Putatan
Putatan
Putatan is a town and a suburb of Kota Kinabalu in the state of Sabah, East Malaysia.-Location:The town was located within the district of Penampang on the coast of the West Coast Division but from March 1, 2007, Putatan became a district on its own....

, Ranau, Tuaran
Tuaran
Tuaran is a town as well as a district located in West Coast Division, in the northwest of Sabah, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Tuaran district has an area of 1,166 square kilometres and an estimated population of 94,100 in 2006. About half the population consists of ethnic Dusun, a third...

 
7,588 953,900
2 Interior Division
Interior Division
Interior Division is an administrative division of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It occupies the southwest portion of Sabah, bordering on Sarawak...

 
Beaufort
Beaufort, Sabah
Beaufort which was named after former British Governor L.P. Beaufort is a town and a district located in Interior Division of Sabah in east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 61,698 in 2000...

, Nabawan
Nabawan
Nabawan is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 23,890 in 2000, and is almost entirely ethnic Murut. Nabawan covers an area of 6089km²...

, Keningau
Keningau
Keningau is a sprawling timber and agricultural town and district located in the Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo...

, Kuala Penyu
Kuala Penyu
Kuala Penyu is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 16,511 in 2000, with ethnic Kadazan or Dusun Tatana forming the largest single ethnic group. Kuala Penyu is located on the Klias Peninsula, which was once...

, Sipitang
Sipitang
Sipitang is a town, district and also a parliamentary constituency located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The population of the district was 12,076 in 1980 and 24,349 in 1991. In 2000, the population is 29,256 while in 2010, 34,680...

, Tambunan
Tambunan
Tambunan is a valley district located in the Interior Division of the state of Sabah. The district covers an area of 1,347 km2.. Its population was estimated to be around 27,852 in 2000, based on the 2000 Population and Housing Census conducted by the Department of Statistics, Malaysia....

, Tenom
Tenom
Tenom is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The town was called Fort Birch in the early colonial period. Its population was estimated to be around 46,200 in the year 2000....

18,298 420,800
3 Kudat Division
Kudat Division
Kudat Division is an administrative division of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It occupies the northern tip of Sabah. With an area of 4,623 Square kilometers , it is the smallest of the five divisions of Sabah....

 
Kota Marudu
Kota Marudu
Kota Marudu is a tiny district of Kudat Division, Malaysia with approximately 19.17 square kilometres of land and a population in 2000 of more than 58,841 people, made up mainly by Dusun , Rungus, Bajau, Orang Sungai, Suluk, and Chinese .Located in the northern region of Sabah, bordered by the...

, Kudat
Kudat
Kudat is a town in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the northern tip of Borneo island. It serves as the administrative center for the Kudat Division, which includes the towns of Kudat, Pitas, Kota Marudu, and some offshore islands....

, Pitas
4,623 189,500
4 Sandakan Division
Sandakan Division
Sandakan Division is an administrative division of Sabah, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It stretches diagonally from the northeastern coast of Sabah to the state's central region. With an area of 28,205 square kilometres, it occupies 38.3% of Sabah's territory, and is thus the largest of...

 
Beluran
Beluran
Beluran is a town and a district located in the Sandakan Division, in the east Sabah, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 70,900 in 2000. Beluran town is located about 88 km from Sandakan town. Telupid, a sub-district of Beluran, is located about 100 km...

, Kinabatangan
Kinabatangan
Kinabatangan is a district located in Sandakan Division, in the east of Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 86,783 in 2000. Kinabatangan is mostly populated with Sungei Race, one of the Indigenous Group in Sabah...

, Sandakan
Sandakan
Sandakan is the second-largest city in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the north-eastern coast of Borneo. It is located on the east coast of the island and it is the administrative centre of Sandakan Division and was the former capital of British North Borneo...

, Tongod
Tongod
Tongod is a district within Sandakan Division in Sabah, Malaysia. In 2000, Tongod has a small population of only 20,646 people. Tongod was previously a sub-district of Kinabatangan district....

 
28,205 676,000
5 Tawau Division
Tawau Division
Tawau Division is one of the five administrative sub-divisions of Sabah, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It occupies a total of 14,905 square kilometers or 20% of Sabah's territory...

 
Kunak
Kunak
Kunak is a small town located in Tawau Division, east coast of Sabah in Malaysia. It was formerly a sub-district administered under the Lahad Datu District Office, but achieved its status as a full district on 1 June, 1981....

, Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu
Lahad Datu is a town and district located in Tawau Division, in the east of Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. It occupies the peninsula on the north side of Darvel Bay. Its population was estimated to be around 118,000 in 1991 and 156,059 in the 2000 census. Lahad Datu is surrounded...

, Semporna
Semporna
Semporna is a town located in Tawau Division, in the east coast of Sabah, Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Its population was estimated to be around 133,000 in 2006.-History:...

, Tawau
Tawau
Tawau is the administrative center of Tawau Division, Malaysia and the third largest town of Sabah after Kota Kinabalu and Sandakan.-Geography:...

14,905 756,800


As in the rest of Malaysia, local government comes under the purview of state governments. However, ever since the suspension of local government elections in the midst of the Malaysian Emergency, which was much less intense in Sabah than it was in the rest of the country, there have been no local elections. Local authorities have their officials appointed by the executive council of the state government.

Universities

Official Name in Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

Name in English Acronym
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Universiti Malaysia Sabah or UMS is the ninth Malaysian public university located in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia and was established on November 24, 1994...

Malaysia Sabah University UMS
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Universiti Teknologi MARA is a coeducational public university with its main campus located in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.It is the flagship institution of the Universiti Teknologi MARA...

MARA Technology University UiTM
Universiti Terbuka Malaysia Open University Malaysia
Open University Malaysia
- About OUM :Open University Malaysia or OUM is the 7th Malaysian private university and it is owned by the , a consortium of 11 public universities in Malaysia. It leverages on the quality, prestige and capabilities of its owners - a consortium of 11 Malaysian public universities.Currently, the...

OUM

Colleges

{|class="wikitable sortable"
!Official Name in Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...


!Name in English
!Acronym
|-
|Kolej Kinabalu
|Kinabalu College
|
|-
|Institut Seni Sabah
|Sabah Institute of Art
|SIA
|-
|Kolej Yayasan Sabah
|Sabah Foundation College
|KYS
|-
|Kolej Pelancongan Asia Antarabangsa
|Asian Tourism International College
|ATIC
|-
|Sekolah Perniagaan AMC
|Advanced Management College
|AMC
|-
|Politeknik Kota Kinabalu
|Kota Kinabalu Polytechnic
|POLITEKNIK
|-
|Kolej Pentadbiran Dinamik Antarabangsa Sabah
|Sabah International Dynamic Management College
|SIDMA
|-
|Institut Sinaran
|Sinaran Institute
|SINARAN
|-
|Kolej Antarabangsa AlmaCrest
|AlmaCrest International College
|ACIC
|-
|Kolej Eastern
|Eastern College
|EASTERN
|-
|Institut Prima Bestari
|Prima Bestari Institute
|IPB
|-
|Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman
|Tunku Abdul Rahman College
|TAR
|-
|Kolej Informatics
|Informatics College
|INFORMATICS
|-
|Kolej INTI
|INTI College
|INTI
|-
|Pusat Teknologi dan Pengurusan Lanjutan
|Advanced Management and Technology Centre
|PTPL
|-
|Kolej Teknologi Cosmopoint
|Cosmopoint College of Technology
|COSMOPOINT
|-
|Kolej Multimedia
|Multimedia College
|MMC
|-
|Institut Perguruan Kampus Gaya
|Gaya Teachers Training Institute
|IPGKG
|-
|Institut Perguruan Kampus Keningau
|Keningau Teachers Training Institute
|IPGKK
|-
|Institut Perguruan Kampus Tawau
|Tawau Teachers Training Institute
|IPGKT
|-
|Institut Perguruan Kampus Kent
|Kent Teachers Training Institute
|-
|Institut Teknologi Sabah
|Sabah Institute of Technology
|S.I.T
|-

Communication

Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
The Department of Broadcasting, Malaysia, DBA Radio Televisyen Malaysia , is a Malaysian state-owned public broadcaster. It owns and operates a number of radio and television stations in Malaysia, based in Kuala Lumpur...

 operates 2 statewide free-to-air terrestrial radio channels, Sabah FM and Sabah VFM as well as district specific channels such as Keningau FM. A local television channel is due to be launched called TV Sabah
TV Sabah
TV Sabah is an upcoming state television channel owned by Radio Television Malaysia. This channel is only available in Sabah region....

, also under RTM.
KK FM is run by Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Universiti Malaysia Sabah or UMS is the ninth Malaysian public university located in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia and was established on November 24, 1994...

. Bayu FM is only available through Astro
Astro (Malaysian satellite television)
Astro is the brand name of the Malaysian direct broadcast satellite pay television service. It transmits digital satellite television and radio to households in Malaysia & Brunei...

 satellite feed.
Recently KL based AMP Radio Networks
AMP Radio Networks
Airtime Management & Programming Radio Network Sdn Bhd is a Malaysia Radio Network Company owned by Astro Malaysia Holdings Sdn Bhd that owned by Astro Holdings Sdn Bhd.- Company Background :...

 and Suria FM
Suria FM
Suria FM is a private radio station licensed to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is operated by Rimakmur Sdn. Bhd., a company owned by Star Publications Berhad.Suria FM started its operations on 30 December 2005 on a 24 hours basis...

 set up base to tap the emerging market. Sabahan DJs were hired and the content caters to Sabahan listeners.

Sabah's first established newspaper was the Sabah Times
New Sabah Times
The New Sabah Times is a newspaper in Sabah, Malaysia. It was first known as the Sabah Times when it was founded in 1949 by Donald Stephens. He later became Sabah's first Chief Minister when Sabah gained independence from the United Kingdom...

. The newspaper was founded by Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Haji Mohammad Fuad Stephens, previously known as, Donald Stephens, was the first Chief Minister of the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He played a fundamental role in bringing the state of Sabah into the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. He held the chief minister post until 1964, and again in 1976...

, who later became the first Chief Minister
Chief Minister
A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national state, provinces of Sri Lanka, Pakistan, notably a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government...

 of Sabah.
Today the main newspapers are New Sabah Times, Daily Express
Daily Express (Sabah)
The Daily Express is an English language newspaper in Sabah, Malaysia and is the sister newspaper of the Overseas Chinese Daily News . It was founded by the late Tan Sri Yeh Pao Tzu and it was first issued on March 1, 1963. It is published in English, Malay and Kadazan...

 and Borneo Post. Aside from New Sabah Times, other English daily are independent media thus making Sabah the state with the most freedom of the press in Malaysia.

Movies & TV

The earliest known footage of Sabah comes from two movies by Martin and Osa Johnson
Martin and Osa Johnson
Martin Johnson and his wife Osa Johnson were American adventurers and documentary filmmakers.-Biography:...

 titled 'Jungle Depths of Borneo' and 'Borneo'.

Another earliest movie on 1988 film and directed by Peter Markle known as BAT 21. This movie filmed into various location in West Area in Sabah which is Menggatal, Telipok, Kg.Kayumadang,Kg.Lapasan.

Sabah's first homegrown film was Orang Kita, starring Abu Bakar Ellah. Sabah produced TV programs such as dramas or documentaries are usually aired on TV1 while musicals aired through special Sabah slots in Muzik Aktif
Muzik Aktif
RTM Muzik Aktif was a music channel in Malaysia. It is the first Malaysian music channel, and one of the first Malaysian digital channels. It launched on the Astro platform in 16 March 2009...

.

Foreign films and TV shows filmed in Sabah include the reality show Survivor: Borneo
Survivor: Borneo
Survivor: Borneo is the first season of the United States reality show Survivor. It was originally broadcast under the name Survivor but its official title was changed to Survivor: Pulau Tiga to distinguish it from subsequent installments of the series, and then changed again to Survivor: Borneo to...

, The Amazing Race
The Amazing Race 4
The Amazing Race 4 is the fourth installment of the reality television show on US television The Amazing Race. The Amazing Race 4 featured 12 teams of two, with a pre-existing relationship, in a race around the world...

, Eco-Challenge
Eco-Challenge
Eco-Challenge: The Expedition Race is a multi-day expedition length adventure race in which teams of four compete. It aired from April 1995 to April 2002....

 Borneo
, films Bat*21, as well as a number of Hong Kong production films such as Born Rich
Born Rich (TV series)
Born Rich is a 2009 TVB television drama produced and created by Chong Wai-kin. The drama is promoted as TVB's "grand production", and largely features an ensemble cast, running for 39 episodes...

. Sabah was also featured in Sacred Planet, a documentary hosted by Robert Redford.

Sports

Sabah FA
Sabah FA
The Football Association of Sabah is a registered football association affiliated with the Football Association of Malaysia. The association's football team competes in Malaysia's football league representing the state of Sabah in Borneo. Sabah FA is a professional football club and one of the 14...

 won the FA Cup in 1995 then become the Premier League champion in 1996.

Matlan Marjan
Matlan Marjan
Matlan Marjan is a former professional football player from the state of Sabah, Malaysia. He is celebrated as the person whom scored 2 goals against England for Malaysia on 12 June 1991 as well as being one of the top striker in the local league in the early 1990s...

 is a former football player for Malaysia
Malaysia national football team
The Malaysian national football team nicknamed Harimau Malaya, as the Malayan Tiger, is the national team of Malaysia and is controlled by the Football Association of Malaysia...

. He scored two goals against England
England national football team
The England national football team represents England in association football and is controlled by the Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first...

 in an international friendly on 12 June 1991. The English team included Stuart Pearce, David Batty, David Platt, Nigel Clough, Gary Lineker, was captained by Bryan Robson and coached by Bobby Robson. No other Malaysian player managed to achieve this. In 1995, he along with six other Sabah
Sabah FA
The Football Association of Sabah is a registered football association affiliated with the Football Association of Malaysia. The association's football team competes in Malaysia's football league representing the state of Sabah in Borneo. Sabah FA is a professional football club and one of the 14...

 players, were arrested on suspicion of match-fixing. Although the charges were dropped, he was prevented from playing professional football and was banished
Exile
Exile means to be away from one's home , while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return...

 to another district
Districts of Malaysia
Districts in Malaysia are known as Daerah or Jajahan . A district governed directly by the federal government is known as a Federal Territory, and they are Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, and Labuan....

. He was punished under the Internal Security Act
Internal Security Act (Malaysia)
The Internal Security Act 1960 is a preventive detention law in force in Malaysia. The legislation was enacted after Malaysia gained independence from Britain in 1957. The ISA allows for detention without trial or criminal charges under limited, legally defined circumstances...

 (which allows for indefinite detention without any trial, despite being proven innocent, and even on non-security related issues).

Martin Guntali was a weightlifter who won the Commonwealth Games bronze medal.
Lim Keng Liat was a swimmer who won the Asian Games gold medal in 2006.
Arrico Jumiti is a weightlifter who won the Asian Games gold medal at Guangzhou in 2010.

Literature

Australian author Wendy Law Suart lived in Jesselton between 1949–1953 and wrote 'The Lingering Eye – Recollections of North Borneo' about her experiences.

American author Agnes Newton Keith
Agnes Newton Keith
Agnes Jones Goodwillie Newton Keith was an American author best known for her three autobiographical accounts of life in North Borneo before, during, and after the Second World War...

 lived in Sandakan between 1934–1952 and wrote several books about Sabah.

In the Earl Mac Rauch novelisation of Buckaroo Banzai
Buckaroo Banzai
Buckaroo Banzai is the lead character, played by Peter Weller, of the eponymous 1984 cult film, The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension. A renaissance man, the character is a top neurosurgeon, particle physicist, race car driver, rock star and comic book hero, and probably the...

(Pocket Books, 1984; repr. 2001), and in the DVD commentary, Buckaroo's archenemy Hanoi Xan is said to have his secret base in Sabah, in a "relic city of caves."

Ethnic dances

There are many types of traditional dances in Sabah, most notably:
  • Daling-daling
    Pangalay
    Pangalay in is the traditional “fingernail” dance of the Tausūg people of the Sulu Archipelago and Sabah....

    : Danced by Bajaus and Suluks . In its original form, it was a dance which combined Arabic belly dancing and the Indian dances common in this region, complete with long artificial finger nails and golden head gear accompanied by a Bajau and Suluk song called daling-daling which is a love story. Its main characteristic is the large hip and breast swings but nowadays it is danced with a faster tempo but less swings, called Igal-igal by the Bajau from Semporna District.
  • Sumazau: Kadazandusun traditional dance which performed during weddings and Kaamatan festival. The dance form is akin to a couple of birds flying together.
  • Magunatip: Famously known as the Bamboo dance, requires highly skilled dancers to perform. Native dance of the Muruts, but can also be found in different forms and names in South East Asia.
  • Nona Mansaya: Called Dansa among the Cocos Islanders in Sabah, the dance used violin as the primary instrument and the dance derived from the culture of Scottish and Javanese.

High Achievers

Sabah has produced a fair number of well-known high achievers. With the advent of communications and development in Malaysia, Sabah produced well known personalities compared to 4 decades before.
  • Actors: Marsha Milan Londoh, Farid Amirul Hisham('Gerak Khas' as Lim), Fung Bo Bo, Chung Shuk Wai, Tony Francis Gitom (filmmaker)

  • Broadcasting: Daphne Iking, Kamaruddin Mape, Farish Aziz

  • Radio Disc Jockey: Maryanne Raymond(Mary), Constantine Anthony(Constantine), Shahrizan Ferouz(The Shaz), Fadhil bin Luqman(Fad Da Dillio); all from TraXX FM
    TraXX FM
    TraXXfm, formerly known as Blue Network, Radio 4 and Radio Malaysia Saluran 4 is a national English radio station operated by Radio Televisyen Malaysia....

    . DJ Johnboy Lee of hitz.fm
    Hitz.fm
    hitz.fm is a Malaysian national radio station managed by AMP Radio Networks, a subsidiary of Astro All Asia Networks plc. hitz.fm is Malaysia's leading English-language station with an estimated 1.5 million listeners .-Programming:...

    , DJ Othoe of Suria FM
    Suria FM
    Suria FM is a private radio station licensed to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is operated by Rimakmur Sdn. Bhd., a company owned by Star Publications Berhad.Suria FM started its operations on 30 December 2005 on a 24 hours basis...


  • Modelling: Guess model Amber Chia
    Amber Chia
    Amber Chia is a Malaysian model. She was born in Ipoh, Malaysia, but grew up in the city of Tawau, in Sabah, East Malaysia. She began her modeling career at seventeen in Kuala Lumpur...


  • Musicians & Composers: Guitarist Roger Wang, Composer and Music Producer Bobby Patrick, Composer Julfekar and Asmin Mudin

  • Singers: Nazrey Johani of Raihan, Azharina Azhar, Peter Dicky Lee, Pete Teo
    Pete Teo
    Pete Teo , is a leading English language singer-songwriter in Malaysia. He is also an acclaimed film composer and music producer as well as a sought-after actor in what has become known as 'New Wave Malaysian Cinema'.-Biography:...

    , Jerome Kugan, Mia Palencia, Yan Qing, Gary Cao, Stacy Anam
    Stacy (Singer)
    Stracie Angie Anam , is a Malaysian singer, who rose to fame after winning the sixth season of Akademi Fantasia, receiving 43 percent of over 3.8 million votes. Her debut album, Aku Stacy, was released on March 9, 2009.-Biography:...


  • Band & Groups: JIAJA , E-Voke, One Nation Emcees, B.A.D. Boys, Lotter & Divine Masters, Richael Gimbang with Estranged

  • Interior & Furniture Designer: TL Bong

  • Internet Celebrity
    Internet celebrity
    An Internet celebrity, cyberstar or online celebrity is someone who has become famous by means of the Internet. Such fame is based less upon raw numbers, as with traditional media...

    : Abangben & Moonboy (Melbourne Shuffle)

  • International Artists: Chenelle

  • Journalist: Ruben Sario

  • Wildlife Photographer: Ced Prudente

Reality TV

Sabahan contestants attained many finalist spots and even won major reality TV show contests. This phenomenon is probably due to many hidden Sabahan talents finally uncovered through Reality TV.
  • One in a Million: Ayu (OIAM2 winner), Esther
    Esther Applunius
    Elizabeth Applunius Chin, also known as Esther Applunius or Esther OIAM 3 is a Malaysian singer. Her father, Applunius Chin of Papar, is a veteran musician on Radio Televisyen Malaysia ....

     (1st runner-up OIAM3)
  • Akademi Fantasia
    Akademi Fantasia
    Akademi Fantasia is Malaysia's first reality television show in which a number of contestants called students compete for the winning title and a chance to start their career in the entertainment industry. The first season premiered in June 3, 2003 and was one of Astro Ria's highest rated shows...

     finalist
    : Norlinda Nanuwil & Adam – AF2
    Akademi Fantasia, Season 2
    Akademi Fantasia, Season 2 is the second season of Akademi Fantasia to be aired in Astro Ria. It premiered on June 7, 2004. Unlike previous season which was solely opened for people from Peninsular Malaysia, this season was eligible for contestants from East Malaysia...

    , Felix Agus & Marsha Milan Londoh
    Marsha Milan Londoh
    Marsha Milan Londoh is a Malaysian singer and actress. Marsha gained fame for becoming contestants in a Malaysian reality show contest Akademi Fantasia, Season 3 in which she won the fourth place. After Akademi Fantasia, Marsha ventured into acting fields by acting several minor television and...

     – AF3, Velvet & Lotter – AF4, Candy & Ebi – AF5, Stacy
    Stacy (Singer)
    Stracie Angie Anam , is a Malaysian singer, who rose to fame after winning the sixth season of Akademi Fantasia, receiving 43 percent of over 3.8 million votes. Her debut album, Aku Stacy, was released on March 9, 2009.-Biography:...

     the AF6/1st Sabahan champion, Adira – AF8
    Adira
    Siti Adira Suhaimi , known widely by her stage name Adira, is a Malaysian singer. She is the runner-up of the eighth season of Astro's television reality program, Akademi Fantasia.-Early life:...

  • Gang Starz
    Gang Starz
    Gang Starz is a Malaysian-based reality singing competition that searches for the best vocal group in Southeast Asia. The winning group receives US$100,000, a recording contract, and a chance to expand their careers on a regional scale...

    : E-Voke (season 1 semi-finalist), One Nation Emcees (season 2 winner)
  • Blast-Off: Jiaja (season 2 winner)
  • Mentor: Pija (winner season 1), Fiq (winner season 2), Chaq (finalist season 3), Salma (Winner 2011)
  • Raja Lawak: Kechik (winner season 4), Alex (3rd place season 4)
  • Reality TV stars (non-finalist): Nikki Palikat (Malaysian Idol), Mas (AF2), Yazer (AF3), Nora (AF4), Farha & Noni (AF5), Rubisa & Zizi (AF7), AB & Mark Malim & Shone (OIAM2), Ema & Anum & Ain (AF8), Nera (AF9)
  • Love Me Do: Kelvin Teo (season 1 winner)

Notable residents

Mat Salleh was a Bajau leader who led a rebellion against British North Borneo Company administration in North Borneo. Under his leadership, the rebellion which lasted from 1894 to 1900 razed the British Administration Centre on Pulau Gaya and exercised control over Menggatal, Inanam, Ranau and Tambunan. The rebellion was by Bajaus, Dusuns and Muruts.

Antanum
Antanum
Antanum or Antanom was a famous and influential Murut warrior from North Borneo , Malaysia who according to local oral history claimed to have supernatural powers...

 or Antanom (full name Ontoros Antonom) (1885–1915) was a famous and influential Murut warrior who led the chiefs and villagers from Keningau, Tenom, Pensiangan and Rundum to start the Rundum uprising against the British North Borneo Company but was killed during fighting with the company army in Sungai Selangit near Pensiangan.

Another notable Sabahan is Donald Stephens
Tun Fuad Stephens
Tun Haji Mohammad Fuad Stephens, previously known as, Donald Stephens, was the first Chief Minister of the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He played a fundamental role in bringing the state of Sabah into the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. He held the chief minister post until 1964, and again in 1976...

 who helped form the state of Sabah under the UN appointed Cobbold commission. He was an initial opponent of Malaysia but was persuaded by Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew, GCMG, CH is a Singaporean statesman. He was the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore, governing for three decades...

 with an offer of 8 university places for Sabahan students at the University of Malaya, Singapore. He was also the first Huguan Siou or paramount leader of the Kadazan-dusun
Kadazan-Dusun
Kadazan-Dusun is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.- History :...

 and Murut people
Murut people
The Murut is the warrior tribe of indigenous ethnic groups inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. The Murut comprise several people groups that are scattered in parts of Borneo Island including Brunei, Kalimantan...

.

Tun Datu Mustapha
Tun Datu Mustapha
Tun Datu Haji Mustapha bin Datu Harun or Tun Mustapha for short, was the first governor of the Malaysian state of Sabah. He was also the third Chief Minister of the state from 1967 to 1975, and was the president for the political party United Sabah National Organization...

 was a Bajau-Kagayan-Suluk Muslim political leader in Sabah through the United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) party. He was a vocal supporter of Malaysia but fell out of favour with Malayan leaders despite forming UMNO
United Malays National Organisation
The United Malays National Organisation, is Malaysia's largest political party; a founding member of the National Front coalition, which has played a dominant role in Malaysian politics since independence....

 branches in Sabah and deregistering USNO. Efforts to reregister USNO have not been allowed, unlike UMNO that was allowed to be reregistered under the same name.

Former Chief Minister Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Tan Sri Datuk Seri Panglima Joseph Pairin Kitingan , is a Malaysian politician and was the seventh Chief Minister of Sabah, a state in Malaysia. He held the post from April 1985 to March 1994. Currently, he is the Deputy Chief Minister and Minister of Infrastructure Development of Sabah and has...

 is the current Huguan Siou and the President of Parti Bersatu Sabah
Parti Bersatu Sabah
The Parti Bersatu Sabah is a political party in Sabah, east Malaysia. It was registered as a political party on March 5, 1985...

 (PBS). Pairin, the longest serving chief minister of the state and one of the first Kadazandusun lawyers, was known for his defiance of the federal government in the 1980s and 90s in promoting the rights of Sabah and speaking out against the illegal immigration problems. Sabah was at the time one of only two states with opposition governments in power, the other being Kelantan. PBS has since rejoined BN and Datuk Pairin is currently the Deputy Chief Minister of Sabah.

The 8th and current Attorney General of Malaysia
Attorney General of Malaysia
The Attorney General of Malaysia, also referred to as the A-G , is the principal legal adviser to the Government of Malaysia. The Attorney General is also the highest ranking public prosecutor in the country and is also known as the Public Prosecutor, or simply PP. The powers with regards to...

, Abdul Gani Patail, comes from Sabah.

In 2006, Penampang
Penampang
Penampang is a district as well as a small town within the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia. It has virtually become a suburb of Kota Kinabalu which is Sabah's capital. Its population was estimated to be around 132,002 in 2000, with ethnic Kadazan-Dusun as the majority.The name penampang...

-born Richard Malanjum was appointed Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak and became the first Kadazandusun to hold such a post.

Datuk Hj. Railey bin Hj. Jeffery was the first and well-known Cocos
Orang Cocos
The Orang Cocos are an ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia on the island of Borneo. They primarily reside in Kampung Cocos near Lahad Datu in Tawau Division. Originally from the Cocos Islands , they settled this area in the 1950s...

 political leader. He was the Deputy Information Minister and the JKR Deputy Minister in the 1990s.

Hons. Penny Wong
Penny Wong
Penelope "Penny" Ying-yen Wong , is an Australian Labor Party senator for South Australia and the Federal Minister for Finance and Deregulation. Wong was the first Australian Minister for Climate Change and Water. Her appointment was amended on 26 February 2010, by the Prime Minister, to the...

, who was born in Sabah, is Australia's Minister for Climate Change, Energy Efficiency and Water. She was born in Kota Kinabalu in 1968 and moved to Australia at age 5.

Philip Lee Tau Sang (died 1959) was one of the most prominent Sabahan Chinese politicians in the 1950s. Of Hakka
Hakka
The Hakka , sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese who speak the Hakka language and have links to the provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan and Fujian in China....

 descent, he was greatly favoured by the British, whose colonisation Sabah was still under then, and was Member of the Advisory Council of North Borneo (1947–1950), Legislative Council of North Borneo (1950–1958) and Executive Council of North Borneo (1950–1953, 1956–1957). He has been posthumously honoured with a road named after him in the town of Tanjung Aru
Tanjung Aru
Tanjung Aru is a sub-district of Kota Kinabalu of Sabah, in Malaysia. Its main feature is its beach called Tanjung Aru Beach which stretches to over 2 kilometres long. It also has its own township called Pekan Tanjung Aru...

, near the Kota Kinabalu International Airport
Kota Kinabalu International Airport
Kota Kinabalu International Airport serves the city of Kota Kinabalu, the state capital of Sabah, Malaysia. It is located about 8 km southwest of the city centre. It is the second busiest airport in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur International Airport, handling 4.8 million passengers in 2009...

.

See also

  • 20-point agreement
  • Malaysia Agreement
    Malaysia Agreement
    The Malaysia Agreement or the Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore is the name used for the decolonization of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore which it was union in 1963 with...

  • North Borneo Federation
    North Borneo Federation
    The North Borneo Federation, also known as Kalimantan Utara or North Kalimantan was a proposed political entity which would have comprised the British Colonies of Sarawak, British North Borneo and the protectorate of Brunei.By 1956, the governments of Sarawak, North Borneo, and the State of Brunei...

  • Maphilindo
    Maphilindo
    Maphilindo was a proposed nonpolitical confederation of those countries.The original plan for a united state based on the concept of the Malay race was attempted by Wenceslao Vinzons during the Commonwealth government in the Philippines...

  • Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
    Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
    The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization , formed in 11 February 1991, in The Hague, is an international organization of political organisations and governments representing self-proclaimed "indigenous peoples, minorities, and unrecognised or occupied territories". The organization...

  • United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
    United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
    The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of countries that, according to the United Nations, are non-decolonized. The list was initially prepared in 1946 pursuant to Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter, and has been updated by the General Assembly on recommendation...


Further reading

  • Bowen, M. R., and T. V. Eusebio. 1982. Acacia mangium: updated information on seed collection and handling and germination testing. Seed Series No. 5. FAO/UNDP-MAL/78/009. Forest Research Centre, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia.
  • Gudgeon, L. W. W. 1913. British North Borneo. Adam and Charles Black, London.
  • Chin, Ung-Ho. 1999. 'Kataks', Kadazan-Dusun Nationalism and Development: The 1999 Sabah State Election (Regime Change And Regime Maintenance In Asia And The Pacific Series No 24, Department Of Political And Social Change, Research School Of Pacific And Asian Studies, Australian National University) (ISBN 0-7315-2678-3)
  • Urmenyhazi, Attila (2007) DISCOVERING NORTH BORNEO, a travelogue on Sarawak & Sabah by the author-graphic designer-publisher, National Library of Australia, Canberra, Record ID: 4272798.
  • James Chin. Politics of Federal Intervention in Malaysia, with reference to Kelantan, Sarawak and Sabah, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, Vol. 35, No 2 (July) 1997 , pp 96–120
  • James Chin. Going East: UMNO’s entry into Sabah Politics, Asian Journal of Political Science, Vol 7, No 1 (June) 1999, pp. 20–40

External links

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