The TGV POS is a TGV
The TGV is France's high-speed rail service, currently operated by SNCF Voyages, the long-distance rail branch of SNCF, the French national rail operator....

 train built by French
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 manufacturer Alstom
Alstom is a large multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in the years 2010-2011 Alstom had annual sales of over €20.9 billion, and employed more than 85,000 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are...

 which is operated by the French national rail company, the SNCF
The SNCF , is France's national state-owned railway company. SNCF operates the country's national rail services, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network...

 in France's high-speed rail lines. It was originally ordered by the SNCF for use on the new LGV Est
The LGV Est européenne is an extension to the French high-speed rail network, connecting currently Vaires-sur-Marne and Baudrecourt , and later Vaires-sur-Marne and Vendenheim . , it is the newest high-speed line in France and still under construction, with of a planned in service...

, which was put into service in 2007. "POS" stands for Paris-Ostfrankreich-Süddeutschland (German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 for Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, Eastern France, Southern Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...


Each train is formed of eight existing TGV Réseau
The SNCF TGV Réseau trains were built by Alstom between 1992 and 1996. These TGV trainsets are based on the earlier TGV Atlantique.The first Réseau sets entered service in 1993. Fifty dual-voltage trainsets were built in 1992-1994, numbered 501-550. A further 40 triple-voltage trainsets, numbered...

 single-deck carriages paired with new power cars, with a total power output of 9.6 MW and a top speed of 320 kilometres per hour (199 mph) under 25 kV current. The TGV Réseau power cars thus freed have been matched to new TGV Duplex
The TGV Duplex is a French high-speed train of the TGV family, operated by SNCF, the French national railway company. It is unique among TGV trains in that it features bi-level carriages. The Duplex inaugurated the third generation of TGV trainsets, and was specially designed to increase capacity...

 carriages to create TGV Duplex - TGV Réseau hybrid sets. This is because traffic on the LGV Est is expected to be less than on the heavily congested LGV Sud-Est
LGV Sud-Est
The LGV Sud-Est is a high-speed rail line, which links Paris' and Lyon's suburbs, in France. The inauguration of the first section between Saint-Florentin and Sathonay on 22 September 1981 marked the beginning of the re-invigoration of French passenger rail service.This line, subsequently...


Like the TGV TMST
British Rail Class 373
The British Rail Class 373 or TGV-TMST train is an electric multiple unit that operates Eurostar's high-speed rail service between Britain, France and Belgium via the Channel Tunnel...

, the TGV POS power cars have asynchronous motors and, in case of failure, isolation of an individual motor in a powered bogie
A bogie is a wheeled wagon or trolley. In mechanics terms, a bogie is a chassis or framework carrying wheels, attached to a vehicle. It can be fixed in place, as on a cargo truck, mounted on a swivel, as on a railway carriage/car or locomotive, or sprung as in the suspension of a caterpillar...

 is possible. By using IGBT
Insulated gate bipolar transistor
The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch and in newer devices is noted for combining high efficiency and fast switching...

 power packs, the new power cars are capable of developing 75% of their full rated power under 15 kV German electrification, compared to 45% for existing TGV power cars. This allows POS trains to operate at the same speed as Intercity-Express trains in Germany.

Each TGV POS trainset weighs 383 t (376.9 LT) and is numbered in the 4400 series. The livery is the same as that of TGV-Réseau sets (silver and blue). Pre-production set No 4401 had a prototype livery similar as the one used on the TGV Duplex sets, but in March 2007 the blue areas were stickered over with silver and is now in appearance the same as the other sets.

World rail speed record

A train using both power cars of the TGV POS trainset number 4402 set a new world speed record (for travel on conventional rails) on April 3, 2007. The train reached 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) As part of a series of increasingly faster runs that culminated in the official record attempt, it set an unofficial speed record of 554.3 km/h (344.4 mph) on 13 February 2007.

The trainset comprised three specially modified Duplex cars, fitted with two powered bogies similar to the AGV
Automotrice à grande vitesse
The Automotrice à grande vitesse ' is an Alstom train intended as the successor to France’s TGV high-speed trains; the name stands for automotrice à grande vitesse, or ‘high-speed self-propelled carriage’...

 prototype, marshalled between the TGV POS power car
Power car
A power car is a railroad vehicle that is closely related to the locomotive. What differentiates the two is their construction or their use. A true locomotive can be physically separated from its train and does nothing but provide propulsion . A power car, on the other hand, is frequently an...

s. The record trainset, configured as Bo'Bo'+Bo'2'2'Bo'+Bo'Bo'
UIC classification
The UIC classification of locomotive axle arrangements describes the wheel arrangement of locomotives, multiple units and trams. It is set out in the International Union of Railways "Leaflet 650 - Standard designation of axle arrangement on locomotives and multiple-unit sets". It is used in much...

, had four more powered axles than trainset 325 during the 1990 speed record, and had a theoretical maximum power output of 19.6 MW instead of the 9.3 MW on a standard TGV. Over 600 sensors were fitted on various parts of both the engines and the cars.

The train set ran with larger wheels, and the catenary
Overhead lines
Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses or trains at a distance from the energy supply point...

 voltage was increased to 31 kV from the standard 25 kV. The maximum speed was achieved near kilometer post 193 on the LGV Est
The LGV Est européenne is an extension to the French high-speed rail network, connecting currently Vaires-sur-Marne and Baudrecourt , and later Vaires-sur-Marne and Vendenheim . , it is the newest high-speed line in France and still under construction, with of a planned in service...

 between Meuse and Champagne-Ardenne TGV stations. Despite making headlines, this run is commercially impractical with this special trainset rendered out of order and normal trainsets designed for 25 kV operation only.
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