The Stabilisation Force (SFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peacekeeping
Peacekeeping is an activity that aims to create the conditions for lasting peace. It is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking....

 force in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 which was tasked with upholding the Dayton Agreement
Dayton Agreement
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on...

. It replaced the previous force IFOR
The Implementation Force was a NATO-led multinational peacekeeping force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour. Its task was to implement the military Annexes of The General Framework Agreement for...

. SFOR was established in Security Council Resolution 1088
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1088
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1088, adopted unanimously on December 12, 1996, after recalling all resolutions on the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and in particular resolutions 1031 and 1035 , the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, authorised the...

 on December 12, 1996.

Member forces

The SFOR operated under the code names Operation Joint Guard (December 21, 1996 - June 19, 1998) and Operation Joint Forge (June 20, 1998 - December 2, 2004). NATO nations providing troops included:
 Kingdom of Bulgaria
 Czech Republic
 Early Modern France
 Kingdom of Romania
 United Kingdom
 United States

Non-NATO nations providing troops included:
 New Zealand

Structure and mission

The commanders of the SFOR who each served one-year terms were General William W. Crouch
William W. Crouch
General William Wright Crouch is a retired United States Army four star general, and former Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army.-Military career:...

, General Eric Shinseki
Eric Shinseki
Eric Ken Shinseki is a retired United States Army four-star general who is currently serving as the 7th United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs. His final U.S. Army post was as the 34th Chief of Staff of the Army...

, General Montgomery Meigs
Montgomery Meigs
Montgomery Cunningham Meigs is a retired United States Army General. He is the great-great-great grandnephew of Montgomery C. Meigs...

, Lt. General Ronald Adams, Lt. General Michael Dodson, Lt. General John Sylvester
John Sylvester
John "Jack" Sylvester was an officer in the United States Navy who served from the 1930s to the 1960s and rose to the rank of Vice Admiral.-Background:...

, Lt. General William E. Ward
William E. Ward
William E. "Kip" Ward , is a retired United States Army four-star general who last served as Commander, U.S. Africa Command from October 1, 2007 to March 8, 2011. He was the first officer to hold this position. General Ward previously served as Deputy Commander, U.S. European Command. General Ward...

, and Major General Virgil Packett. http://www.nato.int/sfor/coms-sfor/prevcomm.htm, Brigadier General Steven P. Schook
Steven P. Schook
Steven P. Schook is a retired U.S. Army Brigadier General and former United Nations diplomat.-Military career:...

Troop levels were reduced to approximately 12,000 by the close of 2002, and to approximately 7,000 by the close of 2004. During NATO's 2004 Istanbul Summit
2004 Istanbul summit
The 2004 Istanbul summit was held in Istanbul, Turkey from June 28 to June 29, 2004. It was the 17th NATO summit in which NATO's Heads of State and Governments met to make formal decisions about security topics...

 the end of the SFOR mission was announced.

It was replaced by the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

's EUFOR Althea
EUFOR Althea
European Union Force Althea is a military deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina to oversee the military implementation of the Dayton Agreement. It is the successor to NATO's SFOR and IFOR. The transition from SFOR to EUFOR was largely a change of name and commanders: 80% of the troops remained in...

, on 2 December 2004 at NATO HQ, Camp Butmir, Sarajevo, B-H.

SFOR was divided into three zones of operation:
  • Mostar
    Mostar is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the largest and one of the most important cities in the Herzegovina region and the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. Mostar is situated on the Neretva river and is the fifth-largest city in the country...

     MNB(S)-Italian, French, Spanish
  • Banja Luka
    Banja Luka
    -History:The name "Banja Luka" was first mentioned in a document dated February 6, 1494, but Banja Luka's history dates back to ancient times. There is a substantial evidence of the Roman presence in the region during the first few centuries A.D., including an old fort "Kastel" in the centre of...

     MND(W)- British, Canadian, Czech, Dutch. The British code name for their activities in both IFOR and SFOR was Operation Resolute.
  • Tuzla
    Tuzla is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the time of the 1991 census, it had 83,770 inhabitants, while the municipality 131,318. Taking the influx of refugees into account, the city is currently estimated to have 174,558 inhabitants...

     MND(N)- American, Turkish, Polish, Russian, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish.

The three AOs were known collectively as Multi National Divisions until the end of 2002 where they were reduced in scope to Multi National Brigades.

SFOR was operating under peace enforcement
Peace enforcement
Peace enforcement is a practice of ensuring peace in an area or region. Part of a three part scale between peacekeeping and peacemaking, it is sometimes considered to be the midpoint. Peace enforcement is different from peacemaking where options, possibly including force, are used to bring...

, not peacekeeping
Peacekeeping is an activity that aims to create the conditions for lasting peace. It is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking....

 rules of engagement
Rules of engagement
Rules of Engagement refers to those responses that are permitted in the employment of military personnel during operations or in the course of their duties. These rules of engagement are determined by the legal framework within which these duties are being carried out...

. For example, it was cleared, in 1997, to neutralize Serb radio-television facilities.

US service people serving in SFOR were awarded the NATO Medal
NATO Medal
The NATO Medal is an international military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization . It is manufactured by Eekelers - Centini, International, of Hemiksem, Belgium...


External links

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