Russian Railways
Overview
 
The Russian Railways ( , ), is the government owned national rail carrier of the Russian Federation, headquartered in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. The Russian Railways operate over 86000 km (53,438.1 mi) of common carrier routes as well as a few hundred kilometers of industrial routes, making it the second largest network in the world exceeded only by the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The Railways also are one of the largest companies in the world employing 950,000 people and is also a monopoly within Russia.

The Russian Railways were created in 1992, to take over existing lines within Russia from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

.
The Soviet Railways ended operations in December 1991, due to the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Encyclopedia
The Russian Railways ( , ), is the government owned national rail carrier of the Russian Federation, headquartered in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. The Russian Railways operate over 86000 km (53,438.1 mi) of common carrier routes as well as a few hundred kilometers of industrial routes, making it the second largest network in the world exceeded only by the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The Railways also are one of the largest companies in the world employing 950,000 people and is also a monopoly within Russia.

The Russian Railways were created in 1992, to take over existing lines within Russia from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

.

History

The Soviet Railways ended operations in December 1991, due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. On January 20, 1992, the Ministry of Russian Railways was founded, to operate railways within the Russian Federation. However the Russian Railways were declining rapidly, mainly due to loss of direct government support. Investments were cut and funds were dropped. The railways declined greatly because there weren't enough funds to repair rolling stock, stations and maintain rapidly aging track. In 1992, freight traffic within Russia fell by 60%. Passenger travel also declined greatly. Many trains were taken out of service and the passenger sector was heavily subsidized to the freight industry. The decline greatly affected Russia's economy, since railways were the only reliable transportation system within the country. Since the railways were a vital social importance to Russia, due to low usage of automobiles, heavy usage by low income citizens, lack of roads, great distances and connections to remote parts of Russia, the railways needed to rebuild and modernize the system to meet the demands of the country.

In 1996, the Ministry of Railways developed a program to greatly restructure Russia's railways. The ministry looked into programs used in the Soviet Union and Russian Empire as well as other countries in Europe, Asia and North America. The program was set into motion May 18, 2001, when it was approved by the government. The general plan was to modernize and expand the industry to meet the demands of the economy by 2010. Many tracks were rebuilt with cement ties and expanded to two tracks or more. On September 18, 2003, a decree was passed to separate the railways from the ministry of transport, thus the Russian Railways was created as a public company
Public company
This is not the same as a Government-owned corporation.A public company or publicly traded company is a limited liability company that offers its securities for sale to the general public, typically through a stock exchange, or through market makers operating in over the counter markets...

, owning all track, stock and equipment. These new reforms proved successful as passenger traffic increased by 30% and freight traffic doubled by 2005.

Statistics, current

Russian Railways accounts for 2.5% of Russia's GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

. The percentage of freight and passenger traffic that goes by rail is unknown, since no statistics are available for private transportation such as private automobiles or company-owned trucks. In 2007, about 1.3 billion passengers and 1.3 billion tons of freight went via Russian Railways. As of 2007, the company operated state-owned 19,700 goods and passenger locomotives, 24,200 passenger cars (carriages) and 526,900 freight cars (goods wagons). A further 270,000 freight cars in Russia are privately owned .

Russia (in 2009) has 86,000 kilometers of common-carrier railroad line, of which about half is electrified and carries most of the traffic. Almost half of the total is double track or better

Russian Railways operate commuter rail and/or regional rail
Regional rail
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city center, and the middle to outer suburbs beyond 15km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis...

 services throughout the country, using mostly electric trains (known as elektrichka
Elektrichka
Elektrichka is an informal word for elektropoyezd , a Soviet or post-Soviet regional electrical multiple unit passenger train. Elektrichkas are widespread in Russia, Ukraine and other countries of the former Soviet Union....

) as well as some diesel ones, on the non-electrified railway sections. As of 2007, 4085 commuter trains a day (in each direction) were running on the Russian Railways network; 1069 of them, in Moscow metropolitan area.

In October 2010, RZD announced that its 2010 investment programme had increased to 3.15Bn Roubles (€7.45 billion), and announced an energy efficiency partnership with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 30 countries from central Europe to central Asia. Its mission was to support the formerly communist countries in the process of establishing their...

.

In December 2010, RZD announced a plan to buy 1250 new locomotives between 2011 and 2013, possibly including 2ES10
2ES10
The 2ES10 is a two unit 8 axle electric freight locomotive manufactured for RZD by Ural Locomotives, a joint venture between Siemens of Germany and Sinara Group of Russia.In May 2010, Russian Railways signed an order for 221 2ES10 locomotives...

.

See also

  • Rail transport in Russia
    Rail transport in Russia
    The Russian railways are one of the economic wonders of the 19th, 20th, and 21st century world. In length of track they are second globally to the railways of the United States. In volume of freight hauled, they are third behind the United States and China, using the standard measure of...

  • History of rail transport in Russia
    History of rail transport in Russia
    In Russia, the largest country in the world, its geography of N.-S. rivers and E.-W. commerce made it very suited to develop railroads as its basic mode of transportation...

  • Elektrichka
    Elektrichka
    Elektrichka is an informal word for elektropoyezd , a Soviet or post-Soviet regional electrical multiple unit passenger train. Elektrichkas are widespread in Russia, Ukraine and other countries of the former Soviet Union....

  • List of railways in Russia
  • Russian gauge
    Russian gauge
    In railway terminology, Russian gauge refers to railway track with a gauge between 1,520 mm and . In a narrow sense as defined by Russian Railways it refers to gauge....

  • Transport in the Soviet Union
    Transport in the Soviet Union
    Transport in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was an important part of the nation's economy. The economic centralisation of the late 1920s and 1930s led to the development of infrastructure at a massive scale and rapid pace. Before the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991, there were a wide...


  • Ministry of Railways of the USSR
    Ministry of Railways (Soviet Union)
    The Ministry of Railways oversaw the railways of the Soviet Union. It was subdivided into 32 different railway agencies, which between them had millions of employees...

  • Sibirjak
    Sibirjak
    Sibirjak is the German spelling of the Russian name of a passenger train which currently links Berlin to some of main routes and cities of Russia. Its name means Siberian...

  • Transport in Russia
    Transport in Russia
    The transport network of the Russian Federation is one of the world's most extensive. The national web of roads, railways and airways stretches almost from Kaliningrad in the west to the Kamchatka Peninsula in the east, and major cities such as Moscow and Saint Petersburg are served by extensive...

  • Trans-Siberian Railway
    Trans-Siberian Railway
    The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world...

  • Varshavsky Rail Terminal - national railway museum of Russia


In English

  • Boublikoff, A.A. "A suggestion for railroad reform" in book: Buehler, E.C. (editor) "Government ownership of railroads", Annual debater's help book (vol. VI), New York, Noble and Noble, 1939; pp. 309–318. Original in journal "North American Review, vol. 237, pp. 346+. (Title is misleading. It's 90% about Russian railways.)
  • European Conference of Ministers of Transport, "Regulatory Reform of Railways in Russia," 2004. Regulatory Reform of Railways in Russia
  • Hunter, Holland "Soviet transport experience: Its lessons for other countries", Brookings Institution 1968.
  • Pittman, Russell, "Blame the Switchman? Russian Railways Restructuring After Ten Years," working paper, Antitrust Division, U.S. Department of Justice, 2011. Blame the Switchman? Russian Railways Restructuring After Ten Years
  • "Railroad Facts" (Yearbook) Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC (annual).
  • "Transportation in America", Statistical Analysis of Transportation in the United States (18th edition), with historical compendium 1939-1999, by Rosalyn A. Wilson, pub. by Eno Transportation Foundation Inc., Washington DC, 2001. See table: Domestic Intercity Ton-Miles by Mode, pp. 12–13.
  • UN (United Nations) Statistical Yearbook. The earlier editions were designated by date (such as 1985/86) but later editions use the edition number (such as 51st). After 1985/86 the "World railway traffic" table was dropped.After the 51st ? edition, the long table: "Railways: traffic" was dropped resulting in no more UN railway statistics.
  • Urba CE, "The railroad situation : a perspective on the present, past and future of the U.S. railroad industry". Washington : Dept. of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Policy and Program Development Govt. Print. Off., 1978.
  • VanWinke, Jenette and Zycher, Benjamin; "Future Soviet Investment in Transportation, Energy, and Environmental Protection" A Rand Note. The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, 1992. Rand Soviet Transport
  • Westwood J.N, 2002 "Soviet Railways to Russian Railways" Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Ward, Christopher J., "Brezhnev's Folly: The Building of BAM and Late Soviet Socialism", University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009.

In Russian

  • Госкомстат СССР(Gov't Statistical Committee )"Народное хозяйство СССР: статистический ежегодник (The national economy of the USSR, statistical yearbook),Финансы и статистика, Mосква (various years till 1990).
  • Госкомстат СССР (Уманский, Л.) ,"Народное хозяйство СССР за 70 лет : юбилейный статистический ежегодник". Финансы и статистика", Москва, 1987.
  • Госкомстат СССР "Транспорт и связь СССР: Статистический сборник" (USSR Transportation and Communications: statistics). Москва. 1990 (and other editions: 1967, 1972, etc.)
  • ЖТ = Железнодорожный Транспорт (Railroad Transportation) a monthly magazine published since 1826. The month designation is numeric; e.g. 10-1998 is the November issue.
  • Плакс, А.В. & Пупынин, В.Н., "Электрические железные дороги" (Electric Railroads), Москва, Транспорт, 1993. *Резер, С.М., "Взаимодействие транспортных систем", Москва, Наука, 1985.
  • Шадур, Л.А. ed., Багоны: конструкция, теопия и расчёт (Railroad cars: construction, theory and calculations), Москва, Транспорт, 1980.
  • Фед=Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal government statistical service) "Транспорт в России" (Transportation in Russia) (annual) Available online
  • Филиппов, М.М. (editor), "Железные Дороги, Общий Курс" (Railroads, General Course) Москва, Транспорт, 3rd ed. 1981. 4th ed. 1991 with new editor: Уздин, М.М. .
  • Шафиркин, Б.И, "Единая Транспортная Система СССР и бзаимодействие пазличных видов транспорта" (Unified Transportation System of the USSR and interaction of various modes of transportation), Москва, Высшая школа, 1983.
  • Шадур. Л. А. (ed.), 1980, "Багоны" (Railway cars), Moscow, Транспорт.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK