Rumba
Overview
Rumba is a family of percussive rhythms, song and dance that originated in Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

 as a combination of the musical traditions of Africans brought to Cuba as slaves and Spanish colonizers. The name derives from the Cuban Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 word rumbo which means "party
Party
A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, conversation, or recreation. A party will typically feature food and beverages, and often music and dancing as well....

" or "spree". It is secular, with no religious connections. Rhythmically, Afro-Cuban folkloric rumba is based on the five-stroke pattern called clave
Clave (rhythm)
The clave rhythmic pattern is used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban music, such as rumba, conga de comparsa, son, son montuno, mambo, salsa, Latin jazz, songo and timba. The five-stroke clave pattern represents the structural core of many Afro-Cuban rhythms...

and the inherent structure it conveys.
Encyclopedia
Rumba is a family of percussive rhythms, song and dance that originated in Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

 as a combination of the musical traditions of Africans brought to Cuba as slaves and Spanish colonizers. The name derives from the Cuban Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 word rumbo which means "party
Party
A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, conversation, or recreation. A party will typically feature food and beverages, and often music and dancing as well....

" or "spree". It is secular, with no religious connections. Rhythmically, Afro-Cuban folkloric rumba is based on the five-stroke pattern called clave
Clave (rhythm)
The clave rhythmic pattern is used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban music, such as rumba, conga de comparsa, son, son montuno, mambo, salsa, Latin jazz, songo and timba. The five-stroke clave pattern represents the structural core of many Afro-Cuban rhythms...

and the inherent structure it conveys. Carlos Vidal Bolado
Carlos Vidal Bolado
Carlos Vidal Bolado was a Cuban conga drum musician and was one of the original Machito and his Afro-Cuban boys. Bolado holds the double distinction of being the first to record authentic folkloric Cuban rumba and the first to play congas in Latin jazz Carlos Vidal Bolado (1914–1996) was a...

 (better known simply as Carlos Vidal) was the first to commercially record authentic folkloric rumba (Ritmo Afro-Cubano SMC 2519-A and 2520-B, circa 1948).

The term spread in the 1930s and 1940s to the faster popular music of Cuba (the Peanut Vendor was a classic), where it was used as a catch-all term, rather as salsa today. Also, the term is used in the international Latin-American dance syllabus, where it is a misnomer: the music used for this slower dance is the bolero-son. Ballroom rumba, or rhumba, is basically son and not based on the authentic folkloric rumba. Similarly, the African style of pop music called African Rumba or soukous
Soukous
Soukous is a dance music genre that originated in the two neighbouring countries of Belgian Congo and French Congo during the 1930s and early 1940s, and which has gained popularity throughout Africa...

 is also son-based.

The term is also used today for various styles of popular music from Spain, as part of the so-called Cantes de ida y vuelta
Cantes de ida y vuelta
Cantes de ida y vuelta is a Spanish expression literally meaning roundtrip songs. It refers to a group of flamenco musical forms or palos with diverse musical features, which "travelled back" from Latin America as styles that, having originated in the interplay between Spanish musical traditions...

, or music that developed between both sides of the atlantic. Flamenco rumba is a genre that is entirely different from Cuban rumba.

Types

  • Cuban Rumba
    Cuban Rumba
    In Cuban music, Rumba is a generic term covering a variety of musical rhythms and associated dances. The rumba has its influences in the music brought to Cuba by Africans brought to Cuba as slaves as well as Spanish colonizers...

    , percussion, song and dance styles that owe their origin to African slaves in Cuba.
  • Rumba (dance)
    Rumba (dance)
    Rumba is a dance term with two quite different meanings.In some contexts, "rumba" is used as shorthand for Afro-Cuban rumba, a group of dances related to the rumba genre of Afro-Cuban music. The most common Afro-Cuban rumba is the guaguancó...

    , international dance styles that correspond to slower Cuban music, such as the bolero-son.
  • Catalan Rumba
    Catalan rumba
    The Catalan rumba is a genre of music that developed in Barcelona's Romani community beginning in the 1950s. Its rhythms are derived from the flamenco rumba, with influences from Cuban music and rock and roll....

     (rumba catalana), is a genre of music that developed in Barcelona's Romani community.
  • Flamenco Rumba, a style of flamenco music from Spain
    Spain
    Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

     also known as Gypsy Rumba or Rumba Gitana.
  • African Rumba, Inspired by the Cuban son, a style of music that originated in Congo, and evolved into soukous music.

History

Cuban music is diverse in styles and background that comes from several cultures. In this area of Cuban music, Rumba is a generic term covering a variety of musical rhythms and associated dances. In this style, that includes a combination of both music and dance, vocal and rhythmic improvisation is both involved This includes a smooth combination of music, dance and poetry to produce a unique sound and dance

Rumba has also been described by some as a folkloric music and dance complex combination. This may because of the influences rumba has from the music and culture presented by Africans who were brought by the Spanish colonizers to Cuba to be slaves. The mixing of these two cultures, among others that later came into the culture, created a deeply rooted people.

While the syncopated rhythms are clearly of African origin, the musical framework is largely based in the music traditions of Spain. The various styles of rumba derive their melodies, patterns and instrumentation from seguidillas, copla, peteneras
Peteneras
The Petenera is a flamenco palo in a 12-beat metre, with strong beats distributed as follows: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]...

, jotas
Jota (music)
The jota is a genre of music and the associated dance known throughout Spain, most likely originating in Aragon. It varies by region, having a characteristic form in Valencia, Aragon, Castile, Navarra, Cantabria, Asturias, Galicia and Murcia. Being a visual representation, the jota is danced and...

, soleares, malagueñas
Malagueñas (flamenco style)
Malagueñas is one of the traditional styles of Andalusian music , derived from earlier types of fandango from the area of Málaga, classified among the Cantes de Levante. Originally a folk-song type, it became a flamenco style in the 19th century. It is not normally used for dance, as it is...

, isas, folías and their related dances.

The Africans brought over to be slaves had a history and culture that later merged with the other cultures they had been pushed into. The African origins of Rumba can be traced to two secular dances of the Bantu origin. The two influences and roots for rumba in particular being from the “Yulea” and “Makuta” styles of dancing There are numerous other African influences in the rumba that helped shape it into what it is today but those are the main influences that are noticeable today in the styles of dance.

People of African descent in Havana
Havana
Havana is the capital city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city proper has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of — making it the largest city in the Caribbean region, and the most populous...

 and Matanzas
Matanzas
Matanzas is the capital of the Cuban province of Matanzas. It is famed for its poets, culture, and Afro-Cuban folklore.It is located on the northern shore of the island of Cuba, on the Bay of Matanzas , east of the capital Havana and west of the resort town of Varadero.Matanzas is called the...

originally used the word rumba as a synonym for party. “[Over time] rumba ceased to be simply another word for party and took on the meaning both of a defined Cuban musical genre and also of a very specific form of dance . . .”. The old use of the word is still alive in Colombia, where ir de rumba means to go out at night.

In rumba there is a dance move where the couple dancing move together and almost meet at the navel and then separate. This is similar to a dance move that the Sara people of Nigeria do while dancing. In this move done, that is similar to steps in the rumba, while dancing the Sara people has a row of boys and a row of girls. The row of boys and row of girls stand across from one another and then they move together to touch than separate from one another, then the two rows repeat this move again. This move brought by the slaves made its way into rumba and has become a part of the Cuban culture since it was more openly accepted as a dance and art form

Emerging in the mid 19th century from the marginal neighborhoods of Havana and Matanzas, this percussion based music and dance was not widely accepted. As an energetic Afro-Cuban dance, Rumba was often suppressed and restricted because it was viewed as dangerous and lewd. Because of this, when it first emerged it was done in private.

"Initially the musical instruments of rumba consisted of regular household items: the side of a cabinet functioned in the role of the present-day tumba or salidor (primary supportive drum), while an overturned drawer served as the quinto (lead drum) and a pair of spoons played the cáscara part on whatever was available"—Peñalosa (2010: xiii).


In the 1920s and 1930s the intellectual movement known as Afrocubanismo gave roots to traditional rumba When this afrocubanismo movement came along it helped open the doors to African rooted dancing and ways of expression. Rumba became more accepted among Cubans and was a recognized cultural expression that identified as a part of the Cuban people. It also provided the means at that point of public expression for those without representation in the media, the Afro-Cubans. Before that time the whites had most, if not all, of the control over any means expression, culture, and so on Rumba forming and for once being able to be expressed openly gave some of the control back to the Afro-Cubans. For the rumba, an expression place for the free and enslaved blacks to congregate was also established. The enslaved blacks’ still being able to attend only after their work was done; the free blacks having fewer restrictions

Afro-Cuban rumba, developed in rural Cuba, is still danced in Havana, Matanzas and other Cuban cities as well as rural areas, especially those with a significant or predominant African community, although now it is infused with influences from Jazz and Hip hop.

Cuban Rumba can be broken down into three basic types: Yambú, Columbia, and Guaguancó. Yambú is the oldest and slowest style that exists. Then there is the most popular style; Guaguancó. This style can be heard in songs such as "Quimbara" by Celia Cruz. Guaguancó is also a couple’s dance that is a symbolic game of flirtation that is sexually initiated.


"The male periodically attempts to “catch” his partner with a single thrust of his pelvis. This erotic movement is called the vacunao (‘vaccination’ or more specifically ‘injection’), a gesture derived from yuka and makuta, symbolizing sexual penetration. The vacunao can also be expressed with a sudden gesture made by the hand or foot. The quinto often accents the vacunao, usually as the resolution to a phrase spanning more than one cycle of clave. The vacunao is not used in yambú. The classic phrase “En el yambú no se vacuna.” (‘In yambú there is no vaccination.’) is commonly heard during yambú performances.

Holding onto the ends of her skirt while seductively moving her upper and lower body in contrary motion, the female “opens” and “closes” her skirt in rhythmic cadence with the music. The male attempts to distract the female with fancy (often counter-metric) steps, accented by the quinto, until he is in position to “inject” her. The female reacts by quickly turning away, bringing the ends of her skirts together, or covering her groin area with her hand (botao), symbolically blocking the “injection.” Most of the time the male dancer does not succeed in “catching” his partner. The dance is performed with good-natured humor—Peñalosa (2010: xiii, xvi).


“I was born in the neighborhood called Simpson. You had rumba for lunch and rumba for dinner . . . so, you had to learn rumba . . . Young and old, with great respect, and consideration. It was a whole way of life. [In other words, we’re born with the rumba] and we will die with the rumba”—Chachá Vega.


Yambu is a couple’s dance as well, however it is much slower paced. Columbia is a fast and highly acrobatic solo dancing that is performed by a male dancer. The main thing that separates these three types of rumba is choreographical differences and the pace of the music

A Cuban Rumba song often begins with the soloist singing meaningless syllables, which are called 'diana(s)'. The male dancer and singer then may proceed to improvise lyrics stating the reason for holding the present Rumba ('decimar'; span.: to make ten-line stanzas), or instead tunes into a more or less fixed song such as: "Ave Maria Morena" (Yambú, Anónimo), "Llora Como Lloré" (Guaguancó, S. Ramirez), "Cuba Linda, Cuba Hermosa" (Guaguancó, R.Deza), "China de Oro (Laye Laye)" (Columbia), "Malanga (Murió)" (Columbia)".

Rumba is now most commonly performed at informal fiestas or just in the street when the mood arises. Percussions and vocal sections make up rumba’s musical ensemble This African derived rumba dance and music also inspires poets and in turn they also inspire the dance and chants. Some poets, including Carmen Cordero and Maya Santos Febres, have said that a “poetic portrayal of dance maintains its meaning as a vehicle of resistance.” This could be taken as pushing for change and acceptance These ideas go well with the expression associated with the rumba when it first emerged and when it became more widely accepted by all Cubans.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK