Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
Overview
 
The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is a British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 officer initial training centre located in Sandhurst, Berkshire, England. The Academy's stated aim is to be "the national centre of excellence for leadership." All British Army officers, including late entry officers who were previously Warrant Officer
Warrant Officer
A warrant officer is an officer in a military organization who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, or from non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer by virtue of seniority.The rank was first...

s, as well as many from elsewhere in the world, are trained at Sandhurst.
Encyclopedia
The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is a British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 officer initial training centre located in Sandhurst, Berkshire, England. The Academy's stated aim is to be "the national centre of excellence for leadership." All British Army officers, including late entry officers who were previously Warrant Officer
Warrant Officer
A warrant officer is an officer in a military organization who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, or from non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer by virtue of seniority.The rank was first...

s, as well as many from elsewhere in the world, are trained at Sandhurst. The Academy is the British Army equivalent of the Britannia Royal Naval College Dartmouth
Britannia Royal Naval College
Britannia Royal Naval College is the initial officer training establishment of the Royal Navy, located on a hill overlooking Dartmouth, Devon, England. While Royal Naval officer training has taken place in the town since 1863, the buildings which are seen today were only finished in 1905, and...

, Royal Air Force College Cranwell
Royal Air Force College Cranwell
The Royal Air Force College is the Royal Air Force training and education academy which provides initial training to all RAF personnel who are preparing to be commissioned officers. The College also provides initial training to aircrew cadets and is responsible for all RAF recruiting along with...

 and the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines
Commando Training Centre Royal Marines
Commando Training Centre Royal Marines is the principal military training centre for the Royal Marines of the British Armed Forces. It is situated near the village of Lympstone, between the city of Exeter, and the town of Exmouth in Devon...

.

Training at Sandhurst was the subject of a three part television series, first broadcast by the BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 in October, 2011.

Location

Sandhurst straddles the counties of Berkshire
Berkshire
Berkshire is a historic county in the South of England. It is also often referred to as the Royal County of Berkshire because of the presence of the royal residence of Windsor Castle in the county; this usage, which dates to the 19th century at least, was recognised by the Queen in 1957, and...

 and Surrey
Surrey
Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. The historic county town is Guildford. Surrey County Council sits at Kingston upon Thames, although this has been part of...

; the county border marked by a small stream known as the Wish Stream, after which the Academy journal is named. Primarily, the Academy is situated in College Town, a suburb of Sandhurst, and partly in the outer region of Camberley
Camberley
Camberley is a town in Surrey, England, situated 31 miles  southwest of central London, in the corridor between the M3 and M4 motorways. The town lies close to the borders of both Hampshire and Berkshire; the boundaries intersect on the western edge of the town where all three counties...

 town. The nearest railway station is Blackwater, Hampshire
Blackwater, Hampshire
Blackwater is a small town in the north-eastern corner of the English county of Hampshire, lying in the Hart District.-Location:It is situated on the borders of both Berkshire and Surrey about north of Farnborough, west of Camberley and east of Basingstoke on the A30 road. Blackwater is situated...

.

History

The Royal Military College (RMC) opened its doors at West Street in Marlow
Marlow, Buckinghamshire
Marlow is a town and civil parish within Wycombe district in south Buckinghamshire, England...

 in 1802. Coincidentally this was the same year as both Saint-Cyr
École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr
The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr is the foremost French military academy. Its official name is . It is often referred to as Saint-Cyr . Its motto is "Ils s'instruisent pour vaincre": literally "They study to vanquish" or "Training for victory"...

 and West Point
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy at West Point is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located at West Point, New York. The academy sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, north of New York City...

 started. The College moved from Marlow into the present imposing buildings designed by James Wyatt
James Wyatt
James Wyatt RA , was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style, who far outdid Adam in his work in the neo-Gothic style.-Early classical career:...

 at Sandhurst in 1813.

On the outbreak of the Second World War, Sandhurst became the home of 161 Infantry Officer Cadet Training Unit (RMC), which moved to Mons Barracks, Aldershot in 1942; for the rest of the war Sandhurst was used as a Royal Armoured Corps Officer Cadet Training Unit (OCTU).

The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst was formed in 1947 on the site of the former Royal Military College at Sandhurst from a merger between the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich
Woolwich
Woolwich is a district in south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.Woolwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created...

 (which trained officers for the Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery , is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name, it comprises a number of regiments.-History:...

 and Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers , and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army....

 from 1741 to 1939) and the Royal Military College (1802 to 1939). Following the ending of National Service
National service
National service is a common name for mandatory government service programmes . The term became common British usage during and for some years following the Second World War. Many young people spent one or more years in such programmes...

 in the UK and the closing of the Mons Officer Cadet School
Mons Officer Cadet School
The Mons Officer Cadet School was a British military training establishment in Aldershot.1942 saw the RMC move to Mons Barracks where it became 161 OCTU. Cadets underwent a three month training programme prior to the Commisioning Passing Out Parade. Those passing out slow marched up the steps from...

 in Aldershot
Aldershot
Aldershot is a town in the English county of Hampshire, located on heathland about southwest of London. The town is administered by Rushmoor Borough Council...

 in 1972, the RMAS became the sole establishment for male initial officer training in the British Army.
The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst Collection shows the history of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, The Royal Military College and the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst. The collection includes the Royal Military Academy's Gentlemen Cadet registers, historic archive, uniforms, paintings, photographs and other artefacts.

For the 1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in London, England, United Kingdom. After a 12-year hiatus because of World War II, these were the first Summer Olympics since the 1936 Games in Berlin...

 in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, the Academy hosted the running part of the modern pentathlon
Modern pentathlon at the 1948 Summer Olympics
At the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, a single modern pentathlon event was contested.The modern pentathlon event was held at the Aldershot Lido outdoor pool in Hampshire. -Medalists:...

 competition.

Selection

Potential officers are identified by the Army Officer Selection Board (formerly the Regular Commissions Board, or RCB) situated in Westbury
Westbury, Wiltshire
Westbury is a town and civil parish in the west of the English county of Wiltshire, most famous for the Westbury White Horse.-Name:The most likely origin of the West- in Westbury is simply that the town is near the western edge of the county of Wiltshire, the bounds of which have been much the same...

 in Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Wiltshire is a ceremonial county in South West England. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. It contains the unitary authority of Swindon and covers...

. Nearly 10 percent of British cadets are female and nearly 10 percent of all cadets come from overseas. Eighty-five percent of entrants are university graduates although it is not required. Some officer cadets are serving soldiers. Technically, all cadets have the rank of private
Private
Private may refer to:* Private , a military rank* Private , a U.S. step rocket* Private , a Denmark-based band* Private , a 2004 Italian film* Private , a young-adult book series launched in 2006...

, but all are formally addressed as "Mr" or "Miss".

Courses

Sandhurst develops leadership in cadets by expanding their character, intellect and professional competences to a level demanded of an Army Officer on first appointment through military training and education. The course is accredited by various academic and professional institutions.

The Commissioning Course lasts 44 weeks and must be successfully completed by all British regular army officers (with some exceptions) before they receive their commission. It is usually followed by a further training course specific to the Regiment
Regiment
A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...

 or Corps
Corps
A corps is either a large formation, or an administrative grouping of troops within an armed force with a common function such as Artillery or Signals representing an arm of service...

 the officer will serve in. A shorter commissioning course is run for professionally qualified officers (e.g., doctors
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

, dentist
Dentist
A dentist, also known as a 'dental surgeon', is a doctor that specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aides in providing oral health services...

s, nurses, lawyer
Lawyer
A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person who is practicing law." Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political...

s, vet
Veterinary surgeon
Veterinary surgeon is a term used to describe:*The full title of a vet, who treats disease, disorder and injury in animals, in the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth countries**See also Veterinary medicine in the United Kingdom...

s and chaplain
Chaplain
Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam or lay representative of a religion attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel...

s).

Another short course is Module 4 of the Territorial Army (TA) Commissioning Course (TACC) which lasts three weeks. The TACC consists of four training modules; the first three are conducted under the supervision of RMAS at TA Regional Training Centre
Regional Training Centre
Regional Training Centres were created from the previously existing Specialist Training Teams to provide training for the United Kingdom Territorial Army...

s, with Module 4 of the Officers' training and assessment being conducted at Sandhurst. This training typically takes 2 years to complete. Upon completion, Officer Cadets become Second Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces.- United Kingdom and Commonwealth :The rank second lieutenant was introduced throughout the British Army in 1871 to replace the rank of ensign , although it had long been used in the Royal Artillery, Royal...

s in the TA or Officer Training Corps (OTC).

Sandhurst also runs a variety of other courses for officers including the Late Entry Officer Course (LEOC).

RMAS has a renowned academic faculty staffed by civilian researchers with expertise in Communication and Applied Behavioural Science, Defence and International Affairs and War Studies.

Unlike some other national military academies such as West Point
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy at West Point is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located at West Point, New York. The academy sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, north of New York City...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr
École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr
The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr is the foremost French military academy. Its official name is . It is often referred to as Saint-Cyr . Its motto is "Ils s'instruisent pour vaincre": literally "They study to vanquish" or "Training for victory"...

 in France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Sandhurst is not a university.

Organisation

In overall command of the RMAS is the Commandant of the Academy, usually an officer of Major General
Major General
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

 rank. The commissioning course is split up into three terms, each lasting fourteen weeks. Basic army training is covered in the first five weeks which, by reputation, are the most gruelling. The main RMAS Commissioning Courses start in January, May and September of each year. Each intake numbers approximately 270 cadets, each of whom is assigned to a platoon
Platoon
A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two to four sections or squads and containing 16 to 50 soldiers. Platoons are organized into a company, which typically consists of three, four or five platoons. A platoon is typically the smallest military unit led by a commissioned officer—the...

 within one of three companies
Company (military unit)
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–225 soldiers and usually commanded by a Captain, Major or Commandant. Most companies are formed of three to five platoons although the exact number may vary by country, unit type, and structure...

. Platoons are commanded by captain
Captain (British Army and Royal Marines)
Captain is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines. It ranks above Lieutenant and below Major and has a NATO ranking code of OF-2. The rank is equivalent to a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy and to a Flight Lieutenant in the Royal Air Force...

s, with a colour sergeant
Colour Sergeant
Colour sergeant or colour serjeant is a non-commissioned title in the Royal Marines and infantry regiments of the British Army, ranking above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2....

 who takes the main burden of day-to-day training, especially during the first term (unlike West Point, RMAS entrusts the majority of officer training to Senior Non-Commissioned Officers
Non-commissioned officer
A non-commissioned officer , called a sub-officer in some countries, is a military officer who has not been given a commission...

). There can be as many as ten companies within the RMAS at any one time, each commanded by a Major and named after a famous battle or campaign in which the British Army has fought. The company names have changed over the years, and are currently :
  • Gaza
    Third Battle of Gaza
    The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during the First World War. The British Empire forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke the Ottoman defensive Gaza-Beersheba line...

     Company
  • The Somme Company
  • Ypres Company
  • Alamein
    Second Battle of El Alamein
    The Second Battle of El Alamein marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. The battle took place over 20 days from 23 October – 11 November 1942. The First Battle of El Alamein had stalled the Axis advance. Thereafter, Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery...

     Company
  • Burma
    Burma Campaign
    The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily between British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army. British Commonwealth land forces were drawn primarily from...

     Company
  • Normandy Company
  • The Falklands
    Falklands War
    The Falklands War , also called the Falklands Conflict or Falklands Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the disputed Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands...

     Company
  • Imjin
    Battle of the Imjin River
    The Battle of the Imjin River, also known as the Battle of Kumgul-san, P'ap'yong-san and Solma-ri or the Battle of Xuemali , took place 22–25 April 1951 during the Korean War. Forces from People’s Republic of China attacked UN positions on the lower Imjin River in an attempt to achieve a...

     Company
  • Malaya Company
  • Waterloo
    Battle of Waterloo
    The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands...

     Company
  • Dettingen
    Battle of Dettingen
    The Battle of Dettingen took place on 27 June 1743 at Dettingen in Bavaria during the War of the Austrian Succession. It was the last time that a British monarch personally led his troops into battle...

     Company — the Short Courses mentioned above (for Territorial Army and Professionally Qualified Officers) are operated sequentially, and are each known as "Dettingen Company".


Dettingen Company is divided along the same lines as the regular intakes, though smaller courses may consist of only two platoons.

There is also a "rehabilitation" platoon — Lucknow
Siege of Lucknow
The Siege of Lucknow was the prolonged defense of the Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After two successive relief attempts had reached the city, the defenders and civilians were evacuated from the Residency, which was abandoned.Lucknow was the capital of...

 Platoon. It looks after cadets who are injured during training, with a view to preparing them to re-enter the commissioning course or processing those who are medically discharged.

Cadets who fail to meet the required standard, or who have been injured, may be "back-termed", that is, "asked" to repeat the previous term and joining a later intake, or to repeat the whole course.

Cadets nominate two regiments or corps that they seek to join, although in practice this may be influenced by their instructors, if particular strengths or weaknesses or aptitudes are seen to be important. In the middle term, interviews are held and final selections are made by the recruiting regiments and corps; there is competition for strong cadets by the units and, conversely, by cadets for prestigious or specialised units. Exceptionally, some cadets may have confirmed places in regiments before the formal selections or even before starting at Sandhurst.

Regular Army

A small number of regular army units are based at the RMAS to provide support for the colleges and their training:
  • Gurkha Demonstration Company (Sittang): this is a company-sized unit drawn from all units of the Brigade of Gurkhas
    Brigade of Gurkhas
    The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for units of the current British Army that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. The brigade, which is 3,640 strong, draws its heritage from Gurkha units that originally served in the British Indian Army prior to Indian independence, and prior to that of...

    , to provide an opposing force
    Opposing force
    An opposing force or enemy force is a military unit tasked with representing an enemy, usually for training purposes in war game scenarios...

     in battle training for the cadets.
  • 44 Support Squadron, Royal Logistic Corps
    Royal Logistic Corps
    The Royal Logistic Corps provides logistic support functions to the British Army. It is the largest Corps in the Army, comprising around 17% of its strength...

    : this is the RMAS's permanently based transport, logistic and signals support unit.
  • Until 1984, the RMAS had its own band - The RMAS Band Corps, the smallest Regiment in the British Army. Music is now provided by a variety of Corps of Army Music
    Corps of Army Music
    The Corps of Army Music is a corps of the British Army. It was formed in 1994 as an umbrella organisation, centred on the Royal Military School of Music, to oversee the 29 new permanent Military Bands formed following Options for Change, although each band continues to wear the capbadges and Full...

     bands on rotation.

Sword of Honour

The Sword of Honour is awarded to the British Army Officer Cadet considered by the Commandant to be, overall, the best of the course. The swords were formerly made by Wilkinson Sword
Wilkinson Sword
Wilkinson Sword is a brand name for companies that make gardening tools and razors. Wilkinson Sword's origins are in the manufacture of swords. The company was founded in London in 1772. The brand is currently owned by Energizer Holdings. Past product lines have included guns, bayonets, and other...

 but after the closure of their sword making division they are now presented by Pooley Sword
Pooley Sword
Pooley Sword is a sword manufacture company headquartered in Shoreham-by-Sea, England that make ceremonial swords for the British Armed Forces. Robert Pooley founded the company when Wilkinson Sword announced they would close their sword factory in Acton in August 2005. Pooley purchased the...

 who also present swords for the Royal Marines and Royal Air Force. During the Second World War, when abbreviated courses were run to increase the supply of new officers, a Belt of Honour was awarded instead.

Overseas Sword

The Overseas Sword is awarded to one of the many cadets sent by foreign armies. The Overseas Sword goes to the Overseas Cadet considered by the Commandant to be the best of the course. It was previously known as the Overseas Cane.

Queen's Medal

The Queen's Medal is awarded to the British Army Officer Cadet who achieved the highest scores in military, practical and academic studies.

Duke of Westminster's Sword

The Duke of Westminster's
Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster
Major-General Gerald Cavendish Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster, , is the son of Robert George Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster, and his wife Hon. Viola Maud Lyttelton. He is the owner of property company Grosvenor Group...

 Sword is awarded to the officer cadet considered by the Commandant to be, overall, the best of the TA Commissioning Course. This sword is also donated by Pooley Sword
Pooley Sword
Pooley Sword is a sword manufacture company headquartered in Shoreham-by-Sea, England that make ceremonial swords for the British Armed Forces. Robert Pooley founded the company when Wilkinson Sword announced they would close their sword factory in Acton in August 2005. Pooley purchased the...

.

Alumni

For more information, see List of alumni of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and the category: Sandhurst graduates.

Chapel

There are two Chapels within the Academy, The Roman Catholic Chapel and The Royal Memorial Chapel, dedicated as Christ Church, which also contains the South Africa Chapel, which was originally the sanctuary of the original Chapel before the it was enlarged. The Royal Engineers designed the original Chapel, which features red brick, terracotta moulding, interlocking pediment copies and corbels in 1879. On 2 May 1937, the chapel was dedicated after architect Captain Arthur C. Martin enlarged the building in a Byzantine style. The Memorial stained glass and Windows in the chapel honour the Brigade of Guards; Rifle Brigade; Royal Fusiliers, Hampshire Regiment etc. Some memorials, including one honouring alumni at the US Military Academy at West Point, are carved into the black marble flooring.

A Government-approved Partnering Agreement

Sandhurst has a unique partnering agreement with the 'Inspirational Development Group' (IDG), providing professional training for civilian organisations. IDG is based in Old College at Sandhurst.
They offer a range of bespoke Leadership Development programmes focussing on the interlocking areas of Leadership, Followership and Partnership, to produce accomplished leaders who are also effective followers and highly skilled team players.

Lineage

|- style="text-align: center; background: #ADD8E6;"
| style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"|Lineage
|-
| rowspan="5" style="width:25%; text-align:center;"| Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
| rowspan="2" style="width:25%; text-align:center;"| Royal Military Academy
| style="width:25%; text-align:center;"| Royal Military Academy
|-
| style="width:25%; text-align:center;"| East India Company Military Seminary
Addiscombe Military Academy
The East India Company Military Seminary, colloquially known as Addiscombe Seminary, Addiscombe College, or Addiscombe Military Academy was a British military academy at Addiscombe, Surrey, in what is now the London Borough of Croydon. It was established in 1809, and closed in 1861...


|-
| colspan="2" style="width:25%; text-align:center;"| Royal Military College
|-
| colspan="2" style="width:25%; text-align:center;"| Mons Officer Cadet School
Mons Officer Cadet School
The Mons Officer Cadet School was a British military training establishment in Aldershot.1942 saw the RMC move to Mons Barracks where it became 161 OCTU. Cadets underwent a three month training programme prior to the Commisioning Passing Out Parade. Those passing out slow marched up the steps from...


|-
| colspan="2" style="width:25%; text-align:center;"| Women's Royal Army Corps College
Women's Royal Army Corps
The Women's Royal Army Corps was the corps to which all women in the British Army except medical, dental and veterinary officers and chaplains and nurses belonged from 1949 to 1992.-History:The...



External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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