Robert A. Bruce
Robert Arthur Bruce was an internationally recognized cardiologist
Cardiology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart . The field includes diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology...

 and a professor at the University of Washington
University of Washington
University of Washington is a public research university, founded in 1861 in Seattle, Washington, United States. The UW is the largest university in the Northwest and the oldest public university on the West Coast. The university has three campuses, with its largest campus in the University...

. Because of the nature of his research and his development of the Bruce Protocol
Bruce Protocol
The Bruce protocol is a diagnostic test used in the evaluation of cardiac function, developed by Robert A. Bruce.-History:Before the development of the Bruce Protocol there was no safe, standardized protocol that could be used to monitor cardiac function in exercising patients...

 for exercise testing of cardiac patients, he was known as the "father of exercise cardiology".


Bruce received a Bachelor of Science degree from Boston College
Boston College
Boston College is a private Jesuit research university located in the village of Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA. The main campus is bisected by the border between the cities of Boston and Newton. It has 9,200 full-time undergraduates and 4,000 graduate students. Its name reflects its early...

 and graduated from the University of Rochester
University of Rochester
The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The...

 School of Medicine in 1943. He joined the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Rochester in 1946. In 1950 he was named the first Chief of Cardiology at the University of Washington School of Medicine. He was director of the Division of Cardiology until 1971, and co-director with Dr. Harold T. Dodge for another ten years after that.

Exercise stress testing

Before the development of the Bruce Protocol
Bruce Protocol
The Bruce protocol is a diagnostic test used in the evaluation of cardiac function, developed by Robert A. Bruce.-History:Before the development of the Bruce Protocol there was no safe, standardized protocol that could be used to monitor cardiac function in exercising patients...

 there was no safe, standardized protocol that could be used to monitor cardiac function in exercising patients. Master's Two-Step Test was sometimes used, but it was too strenuous for many patients, and inadequate for the assessment of respiratory and circulatory function during varying amounts of exercise. Most physicians relied upon patients' complaints about exertion, and examined them only at rest.

To address these problems, Dr. Bruce and Dr. Paul Yu began work on developing a treadmill exercise test
Cardiac stress test
Cardiac stress test is a test used in medicine and cardiology to measure the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment....

. The test made extensive use of relatively new technological developments in electrocardiographs and motorized treadmills.

A Bruce exercise test involved walking on a treadmill while the heart was monitored by an electrocardiograph with various electrodes attached to the body. Ventilation volumes and respiratory gas exchanges were also monitored, before, during and after exercise. Because the treadmill speed and inclination could be adjusted, this physical activity was tolerated by most patients.

Initial experiments involved a single-stage test, in which subjects walked for 10 minutes on the treadmill at a fixed workload. Bruce's first paper on treadmill exercise tests, published in 1949, analyzed minute-by-minute changes in respiratory and circulatory function of normal adults and patients with heart or lung ailments.

In 1950 Bruce joined the University of Washington, where he continued research on the single-stage test, particularly as a predictor of the success of surgery for valvular or congenital heart disease. Later he developed the multistage test, consisting of several stages of progressively greater workloads. It was this multistage test, a description of which was first published in 1963, that became known as the Bruce Protocol. In the initial paper, Bruce reported that the test could detect signs of such conditions as angina pectoris, a previous heart attack
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction , commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die...

, or a ventricular aneurysm
An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. Aneurysms can commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain and an aortic aneurysm occurs in the main artery carrying blood from the left ventricle of the heart...

. Bruce his and colleagues also demonstrated that exercise testing was useful in screening apparently healthy people for early signs of coronary artery disease
Coronary heart disease
Coronary artery disease is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries that supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients. It is sometimes also called coronary heart disease...


Seattle Heart Watch

Drs. Bruce and Harold T. Dodge initiated the Seattle Heart Watch program in 1971. This program involved community physicians in hospitals, offices, and the medical department of the Boeing Company. It tested the feasibility, utility and reproducibility of results of symptom-limited exercise testing in ambulatory cardiac patients and apparently healthy subjects. A database of more than 10,000 individuals was developed over the next 10 years. Signals from the treadmill monitors were sent by dataphone from 15 different test sites to the University Hospital research lab for analysis, and follow-up questionnaires from thousands of patients were accumulated for years. This database was used to develop normal standards based on age, sex and habitual pattern of activity. The duration of exercise became the principal measurement for the estimation of what Bruce termed functional aerobic impairment.

The Seattle Heart Watch program demonstrated the feasibility and safety of the Bruce Protocol. It also demonstrated that it was a powerful prognostic tool.

Other research

Dr. Bruce developed an early interest in the use of computers in cardiology and established a computer laboratory in the Division of Cardiology. He devised a method for quantifying the QRS and ST segments in the EKG during exercise. In the late 1950s, he was also one of the first to suggest the possible benefit of thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction. Bruce published more than 300 scientific articles, a major contribution to knowledge of cardiovascular physiology
Circulatory system
The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients , gases, hormones, blood cells, etc...

in health and disease. He was a founding member of the Association of University Cardiologists and its second president, in 1969.

As well as a scientific researcher, Bruce was also a clinician and a teacher. There is now a Robert A. Bruce Endowed Chair in Cardiovascular Research at the University of Washington.

External links

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