Rave
Overview
Rave, rave dance, and rave party are parties that originated mostly from acid house
Acid house
Acid house is a sub-genre of house music that emphasizes a repetitive, hypnotic and trance-like style, often with samples or spoken lines rather than sung lyrics. Acid house's core electronic squelch sounds were developed around the mid-1980s, particularly by DJs from Chicago who experimented with...

 parties, which featured fast-paced electronic music and light shows. At these parties people dance and socialize to dance music
Dance music
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement...

 played by disc jockeys and occasionally live performers
Live Music
Live Music is a reggaeton company owned by DJ Giann.-Artists:* Jowell & Randy* Tony Lenta* Watussi* De La Ghetto* Guelo Star* Galante "El Emperador"-Producers:*DJ Blass*Dexter*Mr. Greenz*DJ Giann*Los Hitmen*Dirty Joe*ALX...

. The genres of electronic dance music
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music is electronic music produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment...

 played include house
House music
House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, United States in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino American, and gay communities; first in Chicago circa 1984, then in other...

, trance
Trance music
Trance is a genre of electronic dance music that developed in the 1990s.:251 It is generally characterized by a tempo of between 125 and 150 bpm,:252 repeating melodic synthesizer phrases, and a musical form that builds up and breaks down throughout a track...

, psytrance, techno
Techno
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the United States during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988...

, electro house, drum and bass
Drum and bass
Drum and bass is a type of electronic music which emerged in the late 1980s. The genre is characterized by fast breakbeats , with heavy bass and sub-bass lines...

, breakbeat
Breakbeat
In 1992, a new style called "jungalistic hardcore" emerged, and for many ravers it was too funky to dance to. Josh Lawford of Ravescene prophesied that the breakbeat was "the death-knell of rave" because the ever changing drumbeat patterns of breakbeat music didn't allow for the same zoned out,...

, dubstep
Dubstep
Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in south London, England. Its overall sound has been described as "tightly coiled productions with overwhelming bass lines and reverberant drum patterns, clipped samples, and occasional vocals"....

, hardstyle
Hardstyle
Hardstyle is an electronic dance genre mixing influences from hardtechno, hard house, hard trance, hardcore and rave music. It is between 148 and 157 bpm in speed and is written in 4/4 time....

 and many others with the accompaniment of laser light shows
Laser lighting display
A laser lighting display or laser light show involves the use of laser light to entertain an audience. A laser light show may consist only of projected laser beams set to music, or may accompany another form of entertainment, typically a dance concert or other musical performance.Laser light is...

, projected images
Image projector
An image projector is an optical device that projects an image onto a surface, commonly a projection screen.Most projectors creates an image by shining a light through a small transparent image, but some newer types of projectors can project the image directly, by using lasers...

 and smoke machines
Fog machine
A fog machine or smoke machine is a device which emits a dense vapour that appears similar to fog or smoke. This artificial fog is most commonly used in professional entertainment applications, but smaller, more affordable fog machines are becoming common for personal use. Fog machines can also be...

.
The late 1950s in London saw the term "Rave" used to describe the "wild bohemian
Bohemian
A Bohemian is a resident of the former Kingdom of Bohemia, either in a narrow sense as the region of Bohemia proper or in a wider meaning as the whole country, now known as the Czech Republic. The word "Bohemian" was used to denote the Czech people as well as the Czech language before the word...

 parties" of the Soho
Soho
Soho is an area of the City of Westminster and part of the West End of London. Long established as an entertainment district, for much of the 20th century Soho had a reputation for sex shops as well as night life and film industry. Since the early 1980s, the area has undergone considerable...

 beatnik
Beatnik
Beatnik was a media stereotype of the 1950s and early 1960s that displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s and violent film images, along with a cartoonish depiction of the real-life people and the spiritual quest in Jack Kerouac's autobiographical...

 set.
Encyclopedia
Rave, rave dance, and rave party are parties that originated mostly from acid house
Acid house
Acid house is a sub-genre of house music that emphasizes a repetitive, hypnotic and trance-like style, often with samples or spoken lines rather than sung lyrics. Acid house's core electronic squelch sounds were developed around the mid-1980s, particularly by DJs from Chicago who experimented with...

 parties, which featured fast-paced electronic music and light shows. At these parties people dance and socialize to dance music
Dance music
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement...

 played by disc jockeys and occasionally live performers
Live Music
Live Music is a reggaeton company owned by DJ Giann.-Artists:* Jowell & Randy* Tony Lenta* Watussi* De La Ghetto* Guelo Star* Galante "El Emperador"-Producers:*DJ Blass*Dexter*Mr. Greenz*DJ Giann*Los Hitmen*Dirty Joe*ALX...

. The genres of electronic dance music
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music is electronic music produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment...

 played include house
House music
House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, United States in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino American, and gay communities; first in Chicago circa 1984, then in other...

, trance
Trance music
Trance is a genre of electronic dance music that developed in the 1990s.:251 It is generally characterized by a tempo of between 125 and 150 bpm,:252 repeating melodic synthesizer phrases, and a musical form that builds up and breaks down throughout a track...

, psytrance, techno
Techno
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the United States during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988...

, electro house, drum and bass
Drum and bass
Drum and bass is a type of electronic music which emerged in the late 1980s. The genre is characterized by fast breakbeats , with heavy bass and sub-bass lines...

, breakbeat
Breakbeat
In 1992, a new style called "jungalistic hardcore" emerged, and for many ravers it was too funky to dance to. Josh Lawford of Ravescene prophesied that the breakbeat was "the death-knell of rave" because the ever changing drumbeat patterns of breakbeat music didn't allow for the same zoned out,...

, dubstep
Dubstep
Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in south London, England. Its overall sound has been described as "tightly coiled productions with overwhelming bass lines and reverberant drum patterns, clipped samples, and occasional vocals"....

, hardstyle
Hardstyle
Hardstyle is an electronic dance genre mixing influences from hardtechno, hard house, hard trance, hardcore and rave music. It is between 148 and 157 bpm in speed and is written in 4/4 time....

 and many others with the accompaniment of laser light shows
Laser lighting display
A laser lighting display or laser light show involves the use of laser light to entertain an audience. A laser light show may consist only of projected laser beams set to music, or may accompany another form of entertainment, typically a dance concert or other musical performance.Laser light is...

, projected images
Image projector
An image projector is an optical device that projects an image onto a surface, commonly a projection screen.Most projectors creates an image by shining a light through a small transparent image, but some newer types of projectors can project the image directly, by using lasers...

 and smoke machines
Fog machine
A fog machine or smoke machine is a device which emits a dense vapour that appears similar to fog or smoke. This artificial fog is most commonly used in professional entertainment applications, but smaller, more affordable fog machines are becoming common for personal use. Fog machines can also be...

.

History

The late 1950s in London saw the term "Rave" used to describe the "wild bohemian
Bohemian
A Bohemian is a resident of the former Kingdom of Bohemia, either in a narrow sense as the region of Bohemia proper or in a wider meaning as the whole country, now known as the Czech Republic. The word "Bohemian" was used to denote the Czech people as well as the Czech language before the word...

 parties" of the Soho
Soho
Soho is an area of the City of Westminster and part of the West End of London. Long established as an entertainment district, for much of the 20th century Soho had a reputation for sex shops as well as night life and film industry. Since the early 1980s, the area has undergone considerable...

 beatnik
Beatnik
Beatnik was a media stereotype of the 1950s and early 1960s that displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s and violent film images, along with a cartoonish depiction of the real-life people and the spiritual quest in Jack Kerouac's autobiographical...

 set. In 1958 Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
Charles Hardin Holley , known professionally as Buddy Holly, was an American singer-songwriter and a pioneer of rock and roll...

 recorded the hit "Rave On," citing the madness and frenzy of a feeling and the desire for it to never end. The word "rave" was later used in the burgeoning mod youth culture of the early 1960s as the way to describe any wild party in general. People who were gregarious party animals were described as "ravers". Pop musicians such as Steve Marriott
Steve Marriott
Stephen Peter Marriott , popularly known as Steve Marriott, was an English musician, songwriter, and frontman of several notable rock and roll bands, spanning over two decades...

 of The Small Faces
The Small Faces
The Small Faces were an English rock and roll band from East London, heavily influenced by American rhythm and blues. The group was founded in 1965 by members Steve Marriott, Ronnie Lane, Kenney Jones, and Jimmy Winston, although by 1966 Winston was replaced by Ian McLagan as the band's...

 and Clare Willans were self-described "ravers".

Presaging the Word's subsequent 1980s association with electronic music, the word "rave" was a common term used regarding the music of mid-60s garage rock
Garage rock
Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that was first popular in the United States and Canada from about 1963 to 1967. During the 1960s, it was not recognized as a separate music genre and had no specific name...

 and psychedelia bands (most notably The Yardbirds
The Yardbirds
- Current :* Chris Dreja - rhythm guitar, backing vocals * Jim McCarty - drums, backing vocals * Ben King - lead guitar * David Smale - bass, backing vocals...

, who released an album in the US called "Having a Rave Up
Having a Rave Up
Having a Rave Up With The Yardbirds is the second American album by English rock band The Yardbirds. Released in 1965, the album is a mix of US-only tracks, previously released singles, and material from Five Live Yardbirds. The album spent thirty-three weeks in Billboard's Top LPs chart where it...

"). Along with being an alternative term for partying at such garage events in general, the "rave-up" referred to a specific crescendo moment near the end of a song where the music was played faster, heavier and with intense soloing or elements of controlled feedback. It was later part of the title of an electronic music performance event held on 28 January 1967 at London's Roundhouse titled the "Million Volt Light and Sound Rave". The event featured the only known public airing of an experimental sound collage created for the occasion by Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE, Hon RAM, FRCM is an English musician, singer-songwriter and composer. Formerly of The Beatles and Wings , McCartney is listed in Guinness World Records as the "most successful musician and composer in popular music history", with 60 gold discs and sales of 100...

 of The Beatles
The Beatles
The Beatles were an English rock band, active throughout the 1960s and one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed acts in the history of popular music. Formed in Liverpool, by 1962 the group consisted of John Lennon , Paul McCartney , George Harrison and Ringo Starr...

 – the legendary Carnival of Light
Carnival of Light
"Carnival of Light" is an unreleased experimental piece by The Beatles. It was recorded on 5 January 1967, after the vocal overdubbing sessions for the song "Penny Lane"...

recording.

With the rapid change of British pop culture from the mod era of 1963–1966 to the hippie
Hippie
The hippie subculture was originally a youth movement that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The etymology of the term 'hippie' is from hipster, and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into San Francisco's...

 era of 1967 and beyond, the term fell out of popular usage. During the 1970s and early 1980s until its resurrection, the term was not in vogue, one notable exception being in the lyrics of the song "Drive-In Saturday
Drive-In Saturday
"Drive-In Saturday" is a song by David Bowie from his 1973 album Aladdin Sane. It was released as a single a week before the album and, like its predecessor "The Jean Genie", became a Top 3 UK hit.-Music and lyrics:...

" by David Bowie
David Bowie
David Bowie is an English musician, actor, record producer and arranger. A major figure for over four decades in the world of popular music, Bowie is widely regarded as an innovator, particularly for his work in the 1970s...

 (from his 1973 album Aladdin Sane
Aladdin Sane
Aladdin Sane is the sixth album by David Bowie, released by RCA Records in 1973 . The follow-up to his breakthrough The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, it was the first album Bowie wrote and released as a bona fide rock star...

) which includes the line "It's a crash course for the ravers." Its use during that era would have been perceived as a quaint or ironic use of bygone slang: part of the dated 1960s lexicon along with words such as "groovy". The perception of the word changed again in the late 1980s when the term was revived and adopted by a new youth culture, possibly inspired by the use of the term in Jamaica.

In the mid to late 1980s a wave of psychedelic and other electronic dance music
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music is electronic music produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment...

, most notably acid house
Acid house
Acid house is a sub-genre of house music that emphasizes a repetitive, hypnotic and trance-like style, often with samples or spoken lines rather than sung lyrics. Acid house's core electronic squelch sounds were developed around the mid-1980s, particularly by DJs from Chicago who experimented with...

 and Techno, emerged and caught on in the clubs, warehouses, and free-parties around London and later Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

. These early raves were called Acid House Parties. They were mainstream events that attracted thousands of people (up to 25,000 instead of the 4,000 that came to earlier warehouse parties). Acid House parties were first re-branded "rave parties" in the media, during the summer of 1989 by Neil Andrew Megson
Genesis P-Orridge
Genesis Breyer P-Orridge is an English singer-songwriter, musician, writer and artist. P-Orridge's early confrontational performance work in COUM Transmissions in the late 1960s and early 1970s along with the industrial band Throbbing Gristle, which dealt with subjects such as prostitution,...

 during a television interview, however, the ambience of the rave was not fully formed until 28 May 1991. In the UK, in 1988–89, raves were similar to football matches in that they provided a setting for working-class unification, in a time with a union movement in decline and few jobs, and many of the attendees of raves were die-hard football fans.

In the late 1980s, the word "rave" was adopted to describe the subculture
Subculture
In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people with a culture which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong.- Definition :...

 that grew out of the acid house movement. Activities were related to the party atmosphere of Ibiza
Ibiza
Ibiza or Eivissa is a Spanish island in the Mediterranean Sea 79 km off the coast of the city of Valencia in Spain. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands, an autonomous community of Spain. With Formentera, it is one of the two Pine Islands or Pityuses. Its largest cities are Ibiza...

, a Mediterranean island in Spain, frequented by British, Italians, and German youth on vacation. The fear that a certain number of rave party attendees used "club drug
Club drug
Club drugs are a loosely-defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothèques in the 1970s and dance clubs, parties, and raves in the 1980s to the 2000s...

s" such as MDMA
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
MDMA is an entactogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine class of drugs. In popular culture, MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" , usually referring to its street pill form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants...

, cocaine
Cocaine
Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant of the central nervous system, an appetite suppressant, and a topical anesthetic...

, amphetamines and, more recently, ketamine
Ketamine
Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist...

, was taken by authorities as a pretext to ban those parties altogether.

British politicians responded with hostility to the emerging rave party trend. Politicians spoke out against raves and began to fine anyone who held illegal parties. Police crackdowns on these often-illegal parties drove the scene into the countryside. The word "rave" somehow caught on in the UK to describe common semi-spontaneous weekend parties occurring at various locations linked by the brand new M25 London Orbital
M25 motorway
The M25 motorway, or London Orbital, is a orbital motorway that almost encircles Greater London, England, in the United Kingdom. The motorway was first mooted early in the 20th century. A few sections, based on the now abandoned London Ringways plan, were constructed in the early 1970s and it ...

 motorway that ringed London and the Home Counties
Home Counties
The home counties is a term which refers to the counties of South East England and the East of England which border London, but do not include the capital city itself...

. (It was this that gave the band Orbital
Orbital (band)
Orbital are a British electronic dance music duo from Sevenoaks, England consisting of brothers Phil and Paul Hartnoll. Their career initially ran from 1989 until 2004, but in 2009 they announced that they would be reforming and headlining The Big Chill, in addition to a number of other live shows...

 their name.) These ranged from former warehouses and industrial sites, in London, to fields and country clubs in the countryside.

United Kingdom

From the Acid House
Acid house
Acid house is a sub-genre of house music that emphasizes a repetitive, hypnotic and trance-like style, often with samples or spoken lines rather than sung lyrics. Acid house's core electronic squelch sounds were developed around the mid-1980s, particularly by DJs from Chicago who experimented with...

 scene of the late 1980s, the scene transformed from predominantly a London-based phenomenon to a UK-wide underground youth movement. By 1991, organisations such as Fantazia, Universe, Raindance
Raindance (rave)
Raindance are British Rave event organisers. They were one of the best known rave names on the Rave scene in the late 1980s and early 1990s....

, and Amnesia House were holding massive legal raves in fields and warehouses around the country. One Fantazia party, called One Step Beyond, was an open-air, all-night affair that attracted 30,000 people. Other notable events included Vision at Pophams airfield in August 1992, with 40,000 in attendance and Universe's Tribal Gathering
Tribal Gathering
Tribal Gathering was a dance music festival that catered for different types of dance music cultures such as drum and bass, techno, rave and house. -History:...

 in 1993.

In the early 1990s, the scene was slowly changing, with local councils passing by-laws and increasing fees in an effort to prevent or discourage rave organisations from acquiring necessary licenses. This meant that the days of legal one-off parties were numbered. By the mid-90s, the scene had fragmented into many different styles of dance music, making large parties more expensive to set up and more difficult to promote. The happy old skool style was replaced by the darker jungle
Oldschool jungle
Jungle is a genre of electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, and reggae/dub/dancehall. There is debate as to whether jungle is a separate genre from drum and bass as many use the terms interchangeably...

 and the faster happy hardcore
Happy hardcore
Happy hardcore, also known as happycore, is a genre of music typified by a very fast tempo , often coupled with solo vocals and sentimental lyrics. Its characteristically 4/4 beat "happy" sound distinguishes it from most other forms of hardcore techno, which tend to be "darker". It is typically in...

. Although many ravers left the scene due to the split, promoters such as ESP Dreamscape and Helter Skelter still enjoyed widespread popularity and capacity attendances with multi-arena events catering to the various genres. Particularly notable events of this period included ESP's Dreamscape 20 on 9 September 1995 at Brafield aerodrome fields, Northants
Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire is a landlocked county in the English East Midlands, with a population of 629,676 as at the 2001 census. It has boundaries with the ceremonial counties of Warwickshire to the west, Leicestershire and Rutland to the north, Cambridgeshire to the east, Bedfordshire to the south-east,...

 and Helter Skelter's Energy 97 event on 9 Aug 1997 at Turweston Aerodrome, Northants.

The illegal free party
Free party
A free party is a party "free" from the restrictions of the legal club scene, similar to the free festival movement. It typically involves a sound system playing electronic dance music from late at night until the time when the organisers decide to go home. A free party can be composed of just one...

 scene also reached its zenith for that time after a particularly large festival, when many individual sound systems such as Bedlam
Bedlam sound system
Bedlam Sound System was founded in Dalston, east London in 1992, although was involved in organising house parties as early as 1990 all over London starting in a squat in Harlesden, North London. It was a free tekno sound system run by Steve Bedlam and four other people and many helpers...

, Circus Warp, DIY, and Spiral Tribe
Spiral Tribe
Spiral Tribe is a free party sound system which existed in the first half of the 1990s, and became active again in 2007. The collective originated in west London and later travelled across Europe and North America. According to one member, the name came to him when he was at work, staring at a...

 set up near Castlemorton
Castlemorton Common Festival
The Castlemorton Common Festival was a week-long free festival and rave held in the Malvern Hills near Malvern, Worcestershire, England in 1992....

 Common. In May 1992, the government acted. Under the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994
The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It introduced a number of changes to the existing law, most notably in the restriction and reduction of existing rights and in greater penalties for certain "anti-social" behaviours...

, the definition of music played at a rave was given as:
Sections 63, 64 & 65 of the Act targeted electronic dance music
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music is electronic music produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment...

 played at raves. The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act empowered police to stop a rave in the open air when a hundred or more people are attending, or where two or more are making preparations for a rave. Section 65 allows any uniformed constable who believes a person is on their way to a rave within a five-mile radius to stop them and direct them away from the area; non-compliant citizens may be subject to a maximum fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale
Standard scale
The standard scale is a system whereby financial criminal penalties in legislation have maximum levels set against a standard scale. Then, when inflation makes it necessary to increase the levels of the fines the legislators need to modify only the scale rather than each individual piece of...

 (£1000). The Act was officially introduced because of the noise and disruption caused by all night parties to nearby residents, and to protect the countryside. However, it has also been claimed that it was introduced to kill a popular youth movement that was taking many drinkers out of town centres, where they would drink taxable alcohol, and into fields to take untaxed recreational drugs
Recreational drug use
Recreational drug use is the use of a drug, usually psychoactive, with the intention of creating or enhancing recreational experience. Such use is controversial, however, often being considered to be also drug abuse, and it is often illegal...

.. In November 1994, the Zippies staged an act of electronic civil disobedience
Intervasion of the UK
1994 electronic civil disobedience and collective action against John Major's Criminal Justice Bill which sought to outlaw outdoor dance festivals and "music with a repetitive beat". Launched by a group called The Zippies from San Francisco's 181 Club on Guy Fawkes Day, November 5, 1994, it...

 to protest against the CJB.

After 1993, the main outlet for raves in the UK were a number of licensed venues, amongst them Helter Skelter, Life at Bowlers (Trafford Park, Manchester), The Edge (formerly the Eclipse [Coventry]), The Sanctuary (Milton Keynes) and Club Kinetic.. In London, itself, there were a few large clubs that staged raves on a regular basis, most notably "The Laser Dome", "The Fridge", "The Hippodrome", "Club U.K.", and "Trade." "The Laser Dome" featured two separate dance areas, "Hardcore" and "Garage", as well as over 20 video game machines, a silent-movie screening lounge, replicas of the "Statue of Liberty", "San Francisco Bridge", and a large glass maze. At capacity "The Laser Dome" held in excess of 6,000 people. Events proved to be one of the main forces in rave, holding legendary events across the north-east and Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

. Initially playing Techno, Breakbeat
Breakbeat
In 1992, a new style called "jungalistic hardcore" emerged, and for many ravers it was too funky to dance to. Josh Lawford of Ravescene prophesied that the breakbeat was "the death-knell of rave" because the ever changing drumbeat patterns of breakbeat music didn't allow for the same zoned out,...

, Rave and drum and bass, it later embraced hardcore techno
Hardcore techno
Hardcore techno is a type of electronic music typified by the rhythmic use of distorted and atonal industrial-like beats and samples...

 including happy hardcore and bouncy techno
Bouncy techno
Bouncy Techno is a rave hardcore dance music subgenre that was developed in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands...

. Judgement Day, History of Dance, and now REGENeration continued the Rezerection legacy. Scotland's clubs, such as the FUBAR in Stirling, Hangar 13 in Ayr
Ayr
Ayr is a town and port situated on the Firth of Clyde in south-west Scotland. With a population of around 46,000, Ayr is the largest settlement in Ayrshire, of which it is the county town, and has held royal burgh status since 1205...

, and Nosebleed in Rosyth
Rosyth
Rosyth is a town located on the Firth of Forth, three miles south of the centre of Dunfermline. According to an estimate taken in 2008, the town has a population of 12,790....

 played important roles in the development of these dance music styles.

These were nearly all pay-to-enter events; however, it could be argued that rave organisers saw the writing on the wall and moved towards more organised and "legitimate" venues, enabling a continuation of large-scale indoor raves well into the mid-nineties. One might remember that the earliest house and acid house clubs were themselves effectively "nightclubs". Public perception of raves was also overshadowed in the press by the 1995 death of Leah Betts
Leah Betts
Leah Sarah Betts was a schoolgirl from Latchingdon in Essex, England, United Kingdom. She is notable for the extensive media coverage and moral panic that followed her death several days after her 18th birthday. On 11 November, she took an Ecstasy tablet, and then drank approximately 7 litres of...

, a teenager who died after taking ecstasy; journalists and billboard campaigns focussed on drug use, despite Betts cause of death being water intoxication
Water intoxication
Water intoxication, also known as water poisoning, is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits by over-consumption of water....

 in her home, not an ecstasy overdose at a rave.

Genuine illegal raves have continued throughout the UK to this day and unlicensed parties have been organised in venues including disused quarries, warehouses, and condemned night clubs. The rise of the Internet has both helped and hindered the cause, with much wider and more accessible communication resulting in bigger parties, but consequently increasing the risk of police involvement.

The 2006 M.I.A.
M.I.A. (artist)
Mathangi "Maya" Arulpragasam , better known by her stage name M.I.A. , is an English singer-songwriter, rapper, record producer, painter and director of Sri Lankan Tamil descent. Her compositions combine elements of hip hop, electronica, dance, alternative and world music. M.I.A...

 song "XR2
Kala (album)
Kala is the second studio album by British musician M.I.A., released in August 2007. The album features musical styles ranging from dance music to alternative hip hop and makes extensive use of South Asian music such as that of the urumee, a drum used in gaana music native to Tamil Nadu, India. It...

" is an ode to the rave scene of early 1990s London.

There are also types of Rave clothes, like , 'pumps', 'Three button Shirts', 'Fluorescent Yellow Jackets','White Gloves' and White belts this is known as 'Rave gear'.

As well as clothing there were a range of accessories carried by many ravers including: Vicks Vapour Inhalers and Rub, which heightened the sensations when using Ecstasy, dummies to satisfy the need to chew caused by taking Ecstasy and glow sticks which were used whilst dancing to entertain other drug users. This led some clubs and event organisers to search participants on entry and confiscate such items due to it being evidence of drug use inside the venue.

Continental Europe

By 1987, a German party scene based on the Chicago House
House music
House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, United States in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino American, and gay communities; first in Chicago circa 1984, then in other...

 sound was well established. The following year (1988) saw acid house making as significant an impact on popular consciousness in Germany as it had in England. In 1989 German DJs Westbam
WestBam
WestBam, real name Maximilian Lenz , is techno DJs in Germany. His brother is Fabian Lenz, also known as DJ Dick....

 and Dr. Motte established the Ufo Club
Ufo (Club, Berlin)
The Ufo was the first Acid House club in Berlin. It was the pioneer place for the Techno scene during the reunification. Club's residents and guests DJs included, among others, to Tanith, Jonzon, Rok, Dr...

, an illegal party venue, and co-founded the Love Parade
Love Parade
The Love Parade was a popular electronic dance music festival and parade that originated in 1989 in West Berlin, Germany. It was held in Germany annually between 1989 and 2003 in Berlin, and then from 2006 to 2010 in the Ruhr region...

. On 9 November 1989 the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin...

 fell, free underground Techno parties mushroomed in East Berlin
East Berlin
East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. It consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin that was established in 1945. The American, British and French sectors became West Berlin, a part strongly associated with West Germany but a free city...

, and a rave scene comparable to that in the UK was established. East German DJ Paul van Dyk
Paul van Dyk
Matthias Paul, better known by his stage name Paul van Dyk is a German Grammy Award-winning Electronic Dance Music DJ, musician and record producer...

 has remarked that the Techno based rave scene was a major force in re-establishing social connections between East and West Germany during the unification period.

In 1991 a number of party venues closed, including Ufo
Ufo (Club, Berlin)
The Ufo was the first Acid House club in Berlin. It was the pioneer place for the Techno scene during the reunification. Club's residents and guests DJs included, among others, to Tanith, Jonzon, Rok, Dr...

, and the Berlin Techno scene centred itself around three locations close to the foundations of the Berlin Wall: the E-Werk, Der Bunker and the now legendary Tresor
Tresor
Tresor is an underground techno nightclub and record label. The club was founded in March 1991 in the vaults of the former old Wertheim department store in Mitte, the central part of the former East Berlin, next to the famous Potsdamer Platz, however the history of the club goes back to 1988 when...

. In the same period German DJs began intensifying the speed and abrasiveness of the sound, as an acid infused techno began transmuting into hardcore
Hardcore techno
Hardcore techno is a type of electronic music typified by the rhythmic use of distorted and atonal industrial-like beats and samples...

. This emerging sound was influenced by Dutch gabber
Gabber
Gabber , is a style of electronic music and a subgenre of hardcore techno. "Gabber" is a slang word of Yiddish origin that means "mate", "buddy" or "friend"....

 and Belgium hardcore. Other influences on the development of this style were European Electronic Body Music
Electronic body music
Electronic body music or industrial dance is a music genre that combines elements of industrial music and electronic dance music...

 groups of the mid 1980s such as DAF
Deutsch-Amerikanische Freundschaft
Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft or D.A.F. is an influential German electropunk/NDW band from Düsseldorf, formed in 1978 featuring Gabriel "Gabi" Delgado-López , Robert Görl , Kurt "Pyrolator" Dahlke , Michael Kemner and Wolfgang Spelmans...

, Front 242
Front 242
Front 242 is a pioneering Belgian electronic music group that came into prominence during the 1980s. They are known for being the premier pioneer of electronic body music and as a major influence on the electronic and industrial music genres.-Formation:...

, and Nitzer Ebb
Nitzer Ebb
Nitzer Ebb is a British EBM group formed in 1982 by Essex school friends Vaughan "Bon" Harris , Douglas McCarthy , and David Gooday .-Band name:...

. In Germany, fans referred to this sound as "Tekkno" (or "Bretter").

Across Europe, rave culture was becoming part of a new youth movement. DJs and electronic-music producers such as Westbam proclaimed the existence of a "raving society" and promoted electronic music as legitimate competition for rock and roll
Rock and roll
Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, primarily from a combination of African American blues, country, jazz, and gospel music...

. Indeed, electronic dance music and rave subculture became mass movements. Raves had tens of thousands of attendees, youth magazines featured styling tips, and television networks launched music magazines on House and Techno music. The annual Love Parade festivals in Berlin (in the Metropolitan Ruhr area onwards) attracted more than one million party-goers between 1997 and 2000. Meanwhile, the more commercial sound of happy hardcore
Happy hardcore
Happy hardcore, also known as happycore, is a genre of music typified by a very fast tempo , often coupled with solo vocals and sentimental lyrics. Its characteristically 4/4 beat "happy" sound distinguishes it from most other forms of hardcore techno, which tend to be "darker". It is typically in...

 topped the music charts across Europe. Nowadays there are only a few popular raving acts on the case in Germany, but many underground acts in Berlin and Frankfurt (Main). That is why Berlin (especially the east side) is still called the capital city of electro music and rave. Although electro composer Paul Kalkbrenner from Friedrichshain, Berlin made "Berlin Techno" world popular again, he is touring on his Berlin Calling (named after the movie he acted the main character and the soundtrack he produced for) tour through Europe and America.

United States

The upsurge in popularity of rave culture in the United States at a certain period in time often lends it characteristics common to a 'movement' or subculture
Subculture
In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people with a culture which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong.- Definition :...

. As the Disco
Disco
Disco is a genre of dance music. Disco acts charted high during the mid-1970s, and the genre's popularity peaked during the late 1970s. It had its roots in clubs that catered to African American, gay, psychedelic, and other communities in New York City and Philadelphia during the late 1960s and...

 era came to a close in the late '70s, Rave culture began to see significant growth. Rave culture incorporated Disco culture's same love of dance music, and hedonism. Although disco culture had thrived in the mainstream, the rave culture would make an effort to stay underground to avoid the animosity that was still surrounding disco and dance music.

In the late 80s, rave culture began to filter through from English ex-pats and DJs who would visit Europe. However, rave culture's major expansion in North America is often credited to Frankie Bones
Frankie Bones
Frankie Bones is an American techno and house music disc jockey from New York City. He is best known for bringing the rave culture to the United States after playing at a hangar party in the UK during 1989...

, who after spinning a party in an aircraft hangar in England helped organise some of the earliest known American raves in New York City that maintained a consistent core audience. After this, hundreds of smaller promotional groups sprung up across the east coast, and later the west coast, causing a true "scene" to develop.

Raves were also represented in mainstream culture, even this early in their existence. The film Party Monster (2003) shared aspects of the rave scene via anachronism, since it was set during the "Club Kid" era of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

American underground rave DJs from that time who would go onto international celebrity include artists like Moby
Moby
Richard Melville Hall , better known by his stage name Moby, is an American musician, DJ, and photographer. He is known mainly for his sample-based electronic music and his outspoken liberal political views, including his support of veganism and animal rights.Moby gained attention in the early...

, Josh Wink
Josh Wink
Josh Wink is an electronic music DJ, label owner, producer, remixer, and artist. He is a native of Philadelphia, United States. A pioneering DJ in the American rave scene during the early 1990s, Wink was the most prominent exponent of the tribal forms of techno and house in the U.S...

, DJ Keoki
DJ Keoki
Superstar DJ Keoki is an Electronic music,among other genres DJ. Born in El Salvador and raised in Hawaii, Keoki reached 'Superstar' status shortly after moving to New York City.-Bio:...

, DJ Carlos Soul Slinger, DJ Mr. Kleen, DJ Scott Richmond, Cinnabun, DJ Special K , Frankie Bones, Doc Martin, DJ Kool-Aid, DJ Marmik, Jon Bishop , Nigel Richards, Mark E. Quark, Steve Pagan and others. During this time publications such as Milwaukee's "Massive Magazine
Massive Magazine
Massive Magazine was a Midwestern United States electronic music publication published by Matt Bonde of Mayville, Wisconsin. Issue #1 was released in 1993 and chronicled the evolution of rave zines that were being self-published by individuals during that time...

", Chicago's "Reactor" and "A Thousand Words", Los Angeles' "Urb", and San Francisco's "XLR8R
XLR8R
XLR8R is a magazine and website thatcovers music, culture, style, and technology. It was founded as anewsprint ‘zine in 1993 by publisher Andrew Smith in Seattle; themagazine currently has offices in San Francisco and New York...

" magazines helped spread the scene from coast to coast and abroad. One of the first rave websites with event listings, music info and chemical information was Hyperreal. The popularity of rave music within the mainstream started in early to mid 1990s with such artists as Rozalla
Rozalla
Rozalla is a dance music performer, born to a Zambian mother and a Zimbabwean father...

, Praga Khan
Praga Khan
Praga Khan is a Belgian techno musician, primarily in the new beat style.-Overview:Praga Khan is one of the pioneers of the new beat / acid house / rave sound, and has contributed to the theatrical scene with his musical collaborations in The Next Dimension and Code Red.In the late 1980s, he...

, The Prodigy
The Prodigy
The Prodigy are an English electronic dance music group formed by Liam Howlett in 1990 in Braintree, Essex. Along with Fatboy Slim, The Chemical Brothers, and other acts, The Prodigy have been credited as pioneers of the big beat genre, which achieved mainstream popularity in the 1990s and 2000s...

 and The Shamen
The Shamen
The Shamen were an experimental electronic music band, from 1985–1999, initially formed in Aberdeen, Scotland, as a psychedelic-influenced indie rock act. The founding members are Colin Angus , Derek McKenzie and Keith McKenzie...

 among others. Because the movement and music both embrace and incorporate so many different elements, a common thread can be hard to find.

Some cultural tenets associated with rave culture are:
  • "Peace"
  • "Love"
  • "Unity"
  • "Respect"


The word "Responsibility" was added to the acronym PLUR
PLUR
Peace Love Unity Respect, commonly shortened with PLUR, is a credo or mantra of the rave culture. Many in the rave scene have heard this term at some time or another, although its common usage is relatively recent. Early 1990s and mid-1980s ravers often followed similar principles as did the...

 during the mid to late 90s to promote awareness of increased drug overdoses at raves. Groups that have addressed drug use at raves include the Electronic Music Defense and Education Fund (EMDEF)http://www.emdef.org, DanceSafe
DanceSafe
DanceSafe is a nonprofit organization, with 3 local chapters in the US and Canada.DanceSafe youth volunteers set up tables at raves and other events to distribute educational literature containing information describing the effects and risks associated with the use of various drugs and sell testing...

 http://www.dancesafe.org, and the Toronto Raver Info Project http://www.tripproject.ca, all of which advocate harm reduction approaches to enjoying a rave.
San Francisco

The west coast rave scene, while today being the most active and diverse scene in America, was one of the later scenes to get started. At first, small underground parties sprung up all over the SOMA district of San Francisco in vacant warehouses, loft spaces, and clubs like DV8 (on Howard st between 3rd and 4th) and 1015 Folsom (on Folsom St. between 6th and 7th), and the basement of Jessie Street that had permits to run to 6 am as long as no alcohol was served. The zero alcohol rule fuelled the ecstasy-driven parties to a much larger crowd, and soon followed were the first large-scale raves.

Rave promotion crews began achieving notoriety not only for their choices in musical entertainment, but for the entire experience as a whole (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the vibe"). Unlike concert promotion, rave promotion adds another dimension of creativity: the decorations, visualisations, theme and demographics of a party. This extra requirement that must be satisfied had small underground raves were just starting out and expanding beyond SF to include the East Bay
East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)
The East Bay is a commonly used, informal term for the lands on the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay, in the San Francisco Bay Area, in California, United States...

, the South Bay Area
Santa Clara Valley
The Santa Clara Valley is a valley just south of the San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. Much of Santa Clara County and its county seat, San José, are in the Santa Clara Valley. The valley was originally known as the Valley of Heart’s Delight for its high concentration...

 including San Jose
San Jose, California
San Jose is the third-largest city in California, the tenth-largest in the U.S., and the county seat of Santa Clara County which is located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay...

 and Santa Clara
Santa Clara, California
Santa Clara , founded in 1777 and incorporated in 1852, is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U.S. state of California. The city is the site of the eighth of 21 California missions, Mission Santa Clara de Asís, and was named after the mission. The Mission and Mission Gardens are located on the...

, and Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California in the US. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, Santa Cruz had a total population of 59,946...

 beaches (where the notorious 'full moon
Full moon
Full moon lunar phase that occurs when the Moon is on the opposite side of the Earth from the Sun. More precisely, a full moon occurs when the geocentric apparent longitudes of the Sun and Moon differ by 180 degrees; the Moon is then in opposition with the Sun.Lunar eclipses can only occur at...

 raves' took place at Bonny Doon beach every month).

One of the first regular rave nights in San Francisco was DJ Pete Avila's Osmosis. Held on Thursday nights on the top floor of the DV8 club, this event got started with a bang in the Fall of 1989. The original regular DJs included Pete Avila, Markie Mark (Wicked), Neon Leon, and DJ Ghost, now of Renegade Productions. When Markie went back to the U.K in 1990, another UK. DJ took over as a regular, Jëno (Wicked). DJ Doc Martin was a frequent guest, and many other notable DJs of the day played there, including DJ Dimitri (Dee-lite) and Keoki (Limelight).

Another notable early San Francisco rave dance was the Smartie Party, which took place on 23 March 1991 at 1052 Geary near Van Ness. Admission was $5 and the featured DJ was Markie Mark of London, UK. Several hundred people attended this event. In late 1991 raves started to explode across Northern California
Northern California
Northern California is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. The San Francisco Bay Area , and Sacramento as well as its metropolitan area are the main population centers...

 into cities like Sacramento
Sacramento, California
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the county seat of Sacramento County. It is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley. With a population of 466,488 at the 2010 census,...

, and other parts of the San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, is a populated region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, along with smaller urban and rural areas...

 besides San Francisco such as Oakland
Oakland, California
Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

 and Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley is a term which refers to the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The region is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations...

 were taking off every weekend. This proved to be the turning point in Northern California's rave history. No longer were raves a secret, where one had to know the right people to gain access to map points. Now rave flyers were to be found up and down Haight Street
Haight Street
Haight Street, in San Francisco, is perhaps best known as the principal street in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, also known as Upper Haight. It stretches from Market Street to Stanyan Street, at Golden Gate Park. It is named after California pioneer and exchange banker Henry Haight ....

 at stores like "Anubis Warpus", "Amoeba" clothes, "Behind The Post Office", and newly opened "Housewares". Raves were exploding at an enormous rate and no longer were hundreds of revellers heading out, now there were thousands of ravers living for every weekend. The second generation of raves were just starting to be realised.

The Toontown Club New Year's Eve of 1991 rave which took place in the basement of the Fashion Center in SF was the first 'true' massive in the bay area. Over 8,000 people helped welcome in the new year and at the same time put SF as a must visit city for the burgeoning world wide rave scene. This was the first of many subsequent "Toontown Club" rave dances over the next few years (all organised by rave dance promoters Dianna Jacobs, Mark Heley, and Lawrence Sutten, along with a host of dedicated partners and volunteers). The Toontown Club was notable for having the best light shows—five different light shows, each of a different type, the most beautiful and largest psychedelic black light murals
Psychedelic art
Psychedelic art is any kind of visual artwork inspired by psychedelic experiences induced by drugs such as LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. The word "psychedelic" "mind manifesting". By that definition all artistic efforts to depict the inner world of the psyche may be considered "psychedelic"...

, and the best go-go dancers (both female and male). The superb excellence of the production standards of the Toontown Club became a touchstone for all future promoters to follow. Similarly, a year later, The Gathering held New Year's Eve of 1992 in Vallejo
Vallejo, California
Vallejo is the largest city in Solano County, California, United States. The population was 115,942 at the 2010 census. It is located in the San Francisco Bay Area on the northeastern shore of San Pablo Bay...

 had over 12,000 people in attendance. The massive parties were taking place every weekend now from such disparate locations as outdoor fields to the aeroplane hangars and hilltops that surround the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean...

.

San Francisco has long been a Mecca for ravers from all over the world and true to form a lot of the early promoters and DJs were from the UK and Europe. For almost ten years after the initial raves took place, one could find up to 2 to 4 parties happening a weekend and sometimes on the same night. There was no curfew in place, which allowed the SF scene to explode by the late '90s when venues would have up to 20,000 people every weekend; Homebase, and the 85th & Baldwin Warehouse (both in Oakland near the Oakland Airport
Oakland International Airport
Oakland International Airport , also known as Metropolitan Oakland International Airport, is a public airport located south of the central business district of Oakland, a city in Alameda County, California, United States...

) were the largest venues to be used in the Bay Area. Many amazing venues were used by crews that held clout or members that were tied to the city or knew the appropriate ways to navigate the permit maze. Thus, in the late 1990s some of the most memorable raves took place in locations such as the SOMA art museum
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art is a modern art museum located in San Francisco, California. A nonprofit organization, SFMOMA holds an internationally recognized collection of modern and contemporary art and was the first museum on the West Coast devoted solely to 20th century art...

, 'Where the wild things are' museum on top of the Sony Metreon, and in the venerable Maritime hall that was used for many parties from 1998 to 2002. Some old locations appeared again brand new, such as the Concourse that saw thousands of ravers in '92, now saw the same amount in late 99. The Galleria that once held a 'concert' in '92 with artists such as Moby
Moby
Richard Melville Hall , better known by his stage name Moby, is an American musician, DJ, and photographer. He is known mainly for his sample-based electronic music and his outspoken liberal political views, including his support of veganism and animal rights.Moby gained attention in the early...

, Aphex Twin
Aphex Twin
Richard David James , best known under the pseudonym Aphex Twin, is an Irish-born electronic musician and composer described as "the most inventive and influential figure in contemporary electronic music"...

, The Prodigy
The Prodigy
The Prodigy are an English electronic dance music group formed by Liam Howlett in 1990 in Braintree, Essex. Along with Fatboy Slim, The Chemical Brothers, and other acts, The Prodigy have been credited as pioneers of the big beat genre, which achieved mainstream popularity in the 1990s and 2000s...

, and Space Time Continuum was now used for a few one-off events that utilised all 5 floors of the building with a different music style on each floor.

The mid part of the 1990s saw a general loss of the first generation of ravers, causing the scene to take a short dive. In this time, however, and into the late '90s, a new West coast sound was formed and developed by DJs such as Tony Hewitt
Tony Hewitt
Tony Hewitt is a British House Music DJ and producer. He has been resident DJ at the Gathering and Funky Tekno Tribe parties in San Francisco. He has headlined at La Terrazza in Barcelona, OTB Club in Zagreb, Croatia, Fabric in London and numerous venues worldwide.Hewitt has produced under several...

, Jeno, Spun, DJ Carlos, Galen, Solar, Harry Who?, and Rick Preston to name but a few. Venues and parties such as Stompy, Harmony, CloudFactory, the Cyborganic lounge, Mr. Floppy's Flophouse (in Oakland), the Acme warehouse among many others started to fuse the Breakbeat sound from hardcore trax with the more melodic pace of house. West coast funky break-beat was born from this and stormed the dance scene. By the end of '94 all the people that had left a gap in the rave scene in '93 were long forgotten as twice as many people now found the new sounds completely and utterly funky.

This time period saw the rise of the many facets of EDM. Now all jungle raves, or cybertrance, or Breakbeat, or just good house could be enjoyed by anyone willing to go out to any of these parties. Gone were the days of a basement, and red light and a feeling. Now one could pick an upscale club, or a warehouse, or illegal outdoors as many crews sprung forward and blossomed. Promoters started to take notice and put together the massive rave dances of the late 1990s with many music forms under one roof for huge 12 hour events (There was greatly increased prosperity in late 1990s due to the tech boom.). It was not unheard of for as many as 20,000 people to pack Homebase, or 85th/Baldwin for a night of eternal dancing at massive raves. The two major massive rave dance production companies in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1990s were Cool World Productions, which produced the Cyberfest and Planet New Year massive rave dances (sometimes with DJ Keoki as a guest DJ), and Clockwork Eventz productions, which produced the Metropolis and Atlantis massive rave dances (featuring DJs such as Ron Reeser [aka DJ Rktech], Jeno, Garth, and many others). SF was now a fabled and much talked about destination around the United States, if not the world. DJs from all corners of the globe played in San Francisco.

The year 2000 saw the beginning of the decline of massive raves as curfews were placed on permits handed out to promoters throwing parties. Instead of all night and into the next day, parties now had to end at 2 am Another problem was that the Oakland fire marshal
Fire Marshal
A fire marshal, in the United States and Canada, is often a member of a fire department but may be part of a building department or a separate department altogether. Fire marshals' duties vary but usually include fire code enforcement and/or investigating fires for origin and cause...

 began doing meticulous fire inspections of the two massive rave dance warehouses near the Oakland Airport. These two largest venues closed down soon after, and there wasn't enough momentum to sustain parties that catered to tens of thousands of people. As if a nail was driven into the coffin of the SF rave scene, the Homebase warehouse that held massive parties from 1996 to 2000 burned down to the ground in a spectacular 6-alarm fire in 2004. Another factor is that in 2003, musical styles changed and many younger people started to listen and dance to electro and electropop music played in small clubs that served alcohol instead of going to large rave dances that played house music with no alcohol. Rave dances also changed back to the new smaller, intimate venues, which continued just like they had from the start and underground raves became the norm in the years after the tech boom of the 1990s.

While San Francisco's crowd attendance and variety of DJs might have peaked, it still maintains a much smaller but dedicated cadre of various crews, DJs such as DJ Joey Tek from Redwood City, promoters and producers. Every weekend, many events are still dedicated to the various forms of electronic music across the greater Bay Area.

In September 2004, the first LoveFest (Love Parade
Love Parade
The Love Parade was a popular electronic dance music festival and parade that originated in 1989 in West Berlin, Germany. It was held in Germany annually between 1989 and 2003 in Berlin, and then from 2006 to 2010 in the Ruhr region...

) was held in San Francisco, and it has been held every autumn, winding up with a celebration at the San Francisco Civic Center. In 2010 LoveFest (now named LovEvolution) was put on hold by the city of San Francisco. This was the year of AB77, a law to limit raves by elected official Fiona Ma. While the rave community fought back through legislation, peaceful talks, and petitions there was no luck for any "Massive" in San Francisco in 2010. While AB74 is still on the table, 2011 has brought a new home for LovEvolution at The Oracle Arena.
Los Angeles

Los Angeles had Raves as early as 1988. The early rave scene thrived in Los Angeles due to the fact that the city had such a large, multi-cultural population, a dry/temperate climate, and vast amounts of space which made locations plentiful. Warehouses were often broken into or hired (often through deceptive means to unsuspecting owners), a sound system and lighting was set up on the day of the event, and people would phone the info lines on the backs of flyers on the evening of the party to find out the location. This would often involve first going to a map point, which would be a predetermined location where people would get tickets and directions to the actual event, or directions to another map point. The map points would often be used to create excitement and anticipation for the rave, but also to elude police and large numbers of people loitering outside of the venue. Raves would often range from smaller, more intimate low-budget events, to large, full scale productions with multiple international DJs and acts, expensive lasers and visual effects, and props often in theme with the event. Some of the better known early events were Alice's House, Under The Paw Paw Patch, Love. Sex. Dance, Grape Ape, Gilligan's, Truth, and Double Hit Mickey.

By the early 1990s, the Los Angeles rave scene had grown to near epic proportions, which major events occurring nearly every weekend. Parties were being thrown in every type of location promoters could get their hands on, from empty warehouses and lofts, to swap meets and strip malls, as well as open air locations such as ranches, the mountains, and the Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
The Mojave Desert occupies a significant portion of southeastern California and smaller parts of central California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona, in the United States...

. Events were getting bigger, becoming far more expensive to produce, and taking place well known locations like Wild Rivers (Water Park), Knott's Berry Farm
Knott's Berry Farm
Knott's Berry Farm is a theme park in Buena Park, California, now owned by Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, and a line of jams, jellies, preserves, and other specialty food, now part of The J. M. Smucker Company based in Placentia, California....

, the Spruce Goose dome in Long Beach, and the Shrine Auditorium
Shrine Auditorium
The Shrine Auditorium is a landmark large-event venue, in Los Angeles, California, USA. It is also the headquarters of the Al Malaikah Temple, a division of the Shriners.-History:...

. As larger raves gained in popularity, so did the scrutiny of law enforcement and news media, with news reports often featuring segments about the dangers of raves, warning parents "Do you know where your children are?" and depicting raves as drug-fuelled parties where Ecstasy use was almost mandatory. By the mid 1990s, the scene had become too big to stop, and this was either the pinnacle, or the end depending on whom you spoke to. A tradition to keep the scene underground grew, with a back to basics concept of the illegal warehouse rave again gained in popularity, although location "busts" where police shut the party down, and sometimes confiscated equipment or made arrests were becoming more and more commonplace. Despite all of this, Los Angeles remained a predominant fixture of the scene, with events regularly running all night long in well known locations such as La Casa, the Hollywood Masonic Temple
Hollywood Masonic Temple
Hollywood Masonic Temple, now known as the El Capitan Entertainment Centre, is a building on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, California that was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. The building was designed by architect John C. Austin, also noted as the lead architect of...

, Plaza Del Sol in Boyle Heights, the Alexandria Hotel, The Gotham Hall, 333 S Boylston, the Hollywood Soundstage on Santa Monica Blvd., the Masterdome
Masterdome
The Masterdome was located at 137 S. G St. in San Bernardino, California and was a popular concert, sports and rave venue until its destruction. Originally, it was a trolley barn for the Pacific Electric Railway. The Masterdome was home to many concerts, sporting events and raves from 1996 to the...

, the National Orange Show Events Center in San Bernardino, the Grand Olympic Auditorium
Grand Olympic Auditorium
The Grand Olympic Auditorium is the former name of a sports venue in Los Angeles, California, United States. Located at 1801 S. Grand Avenue, the venue was built in 1924 specifically for the 1932 Summer Olympics, which saw the boxing, weightlifting, and wrestling events held there. At the time it...

, the Arts Colonly in Pomona
Pomona, California
-2010:The 2010 United States Census reported that Pomona had a population of 149,058, a slight decline from the 2000 census population. The population density was 6,491.2 people per square mile...

, and various warehouses on the outskirts of Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, United States, located close to the geographic center of the metropolitan area...

, particularly around Santa Fe Ave., and Alameda St. A new generation of ravers were also experiencing the rise in popularity of the "desert rave," with large parties heading outside of the city, where there was less of a chance of getting busted. Some notable desert parties of the time included the "Dune," "New Moon," and "Moontribe" parties, the later of which still throws more intimate, outdoor events to this day. One of the largest outdoor events in Southern California was met with tragedy when in 1999, 5 teenagers died when their car went off a cliff while leaving the Juju Beats rave at the Snowcrest
Kratka Ridge
Kratka Ridge or Snowcrest is a skiable area on Waterman Mountain in the San Gabriel Mountains of Los Angeles County, California. Located 36 miles northeast of La Cañada and Pasadena along the Angeles Crest Highway, it reaches a height of 7515 feet .The area featured two chair lifts and a rope tow,...

 ski resort. This along with several other highly publicised fatalities occurring at outdoor raves during years prior, led many location owners to stop allowing parties to take place on their land, and the ones that still did occur were often met with stricter requirements, such as 2 am closing times, and requiring law enforcement to be present.

Although San Francisco was considered to be the epicenter of the West Coast rave scene for numerous years, this has begun to change during the past decade. Today, Los Angeles has convincingly overtaken San Francisco and arguably boasts the most thriving rave scene in the country, with numerous massives and music festivals such as Electric Daisy Carnival
Electric Daisy Carnival
Electric Daisy Carnival is an annual electronic dance music festival held in the South West United States on the last weekend of June. The event was held in Southern California from 1997 to 2010, and was moved to Las Vegas in 2011....

, Together As One, Monster Massive
Monster massive
Monster Massive is an annual electronic music festival held the weekend of, or the weekend prior to Halloween night. The festival is Halloween themed and many of the attendees dress in costume. Monster Massive is held annually in Los Angeles, California at the Los Angeles Sports Arena...

, and Nocturnal Wonderland
Nocturnal wonderland
Nocturnal Wonderland, formerly known as Nocturnal Festival, is a massive electronic music festival that has been steadily growing and brings the biggest names in music and dance to an audience of up to 50,000 musical enthusiasts.-History:...

 all being annually held within the city and its surrounding areas. Events such as these consistently attract the world's top DJs and tens of thousands of ravers and electronic dance music enthusiasts.

In 2010 Insomniac's Electric Daisy Carnival boasted a two day attendance of 185,000 at Los Angeles' memorial Coliseum, making it the largest Rave in North America and well beating other concerts such as Coachella. Reports state that about 100 people were hospitalised during the event, and near over 200 required medical attention. While the event was advertised for ages 16+, lax security allowed some minors to attend. One minor who was able to attend was Sasha Rodriguez, 15, was believed to have died from an ecstasy overdose but it was soon announced she died of hyponatremia, an electrolyte disturbance in the body, by consuming too much water too fast. Her death, along with the death of 2 others at a rave a month earlier in northern California, caused city officials to place a temporary ban on Raves at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum due to increasing media attention. Thereafter, Los Angeles police began cracking down on future rave events that do not have an 18+ age requirement, such as shutting down early Uprise and forcing the cancellation of Abtraskt Desert 2. Although, Insomniac has chose to move the annual event to Las Vegas for 2011, with a 5 year lease at the motor speedway. A much larger venue that will hold many more people safely. The event has moved to 3 days long as well. The party will also will end at sunrise, which hasn't happened in many years.
Seattle

From 1990 and into the 2000s the city of Seattle also shared in the tradition of West Coast rave culture. According to The Rocket, the first raves in Seattle were "Orbit Parties" during the summer of 1990, thrown by local DJs Todd Robbins, aka DJ Fallout (Sky Cries Mary
Sky Cries Mary
Sky Cries Mary is an American trance rock musical group from Seattle, Washington, that formed in the late 1980s.The husband and wife team of Roderick Wolgamott Romero and Anisa Romero sing dual lead vocals...

), and Mika Salmi
Mika Salmi
Mika Salmi in Helsinki, Finland, is a pioneer in new media. He has held a variety of senior positions in leading companies in the field....

. Kandi Raver style, friendship and culture became particularly popular in the West Coast rave scene, both in Seattle and San Francisco. At the peak of West Coast rave, Kandi Raver, and massive rave popularity (1996–1999,) it was common to meet groups of ravers, promoters, and DJs who frequently traveled between Seattle and San Francisco, which spread the overall sense of West Coast rave culture and the phenomenon of West Coast "massives".
San Diego

The San Diego rave community, while still growing, has shown itself to be a major historical force in the larger California area.

Midwest scene

Grave Rave, on 11 October 1992 marked the first major party crack down in the mid-west, when 973 people were arrested for attending a party at a warehouse in Milwaukee's Third Ward. Following the crackdown, most raves were promoted via fliers and distributed a phone number with an informational voice message. On the day of the party, the message changed to give the location of the map point. Upon showing up at the map point, ravers were able to purchase a map and ticket to the party. Midwest parties were commonly held at barns, camp grounds, and warehouses. Detroit actually held Raves in abandoned businesses. Through the 1980s & 1990s, another common Detroit underground party was The Red Door. In 1995 the Detroit Police Department began sending the gang squad in to raid parties.

No longer considering itself as a "rave" scene, unless using the term "rave" in a sarcastic yet nostalgic way, Detroit has a very committed fan base for all-night Techno events, better known as "parties." Detroit is known for Techno music, as demonstrated in the opening of the club The Motor Lounge (later -The Motor) of Hamtramck (Detroit) in 1996 by Steven Sowers. This allowed DJs to play at a legitimate place rather than underground Raves. The history of Techno music's origins and connotations still linger in Detroit and continue to inspire die-hard devotees who produce and progress the ideals of Techno and House gatherings in underground circumstances and production teams which are unique to Detroit. The Detroit Electronic Music Festival
Detroit Electronic Music Festival
The Detroit Electronic Music Festival , and its successors comprise an annual series of electronic dance music showcases held in Detroit each Memorial Day weekend since 2000...

 (DEMF) is an opportunity for visiting Techno tourists to experience the vibe of Detroit "parties," but the Detroit "party" scene continues year round for the locals who have, in many cases, been raised in the spirit and tradition of the Detroit Techno scene, usually for ten years or more.

Canada

Rave culture in Canada reached its peak in the 1990s and early 2000s. Scenes were established within the major Canadian cities, but most notably Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver and Edmonton. While the Toronto rave scene subsided about 2003, Montreal has thrived. Toronto during the late 1990s was home to the largest raves in Canada with attendance of 20,000. The shrinking of the Toronto rave scene was due to the actions of various Ontario based politicians and media. The Ontario Rave Act and City TV were especially influential on the scene. By creating a scare to the venue owners, it was difficult if not impossible for promoters to establish locations to house the events, and insurance companies would create a trade barrier by preventing the execution of a certificate thus preventing the event from occurring. Requirements were also created for an arbitrary amount of paid duty police constables to be on-site at events, thus greatly raising the expenses to the promoter. Montreal regularly holds large scale events with the biggest international headliners. Bal en Blanc
Bal en Blanc
Bal en Blanc is a huge rave party that is hosted annually, in April during Easter holiday weekend, in Montreal, Canada. It was first held in 1995, and the first addition had 800 attendees. It features headliner DJs from all over the world and attracts over 15,000 attendees. This event usually has...

 being one of the best known single night parties in Canada. Toronto is now more known for its shift to the Club/Drum 'n' Bass scene. The Hullabaloo
Hullabaloo (rave)
Hullabaloo was a rave promotions company based in Toronto, Canada. Hullabaloo was started in 1997 by DJ Anabolic Frolic as a way to promote Happy Hardcore music and the kind of event that got back to the roots of what a rave was...

 production company held its final party on 9 July 2005. Outdoor raves are still a mainstay of the Vancouver scene. Edmonton continues to hold a following and is currently experiencing a small resurgence.

Canadian ravers listen and dance to a variety of electronic music such as Trance
Trance music
Trance is a genre of electronic dance music that developed in the 1990s.:251 It is generally characterized by a tempo of between 125 and 150 bpm,:252 repeating melodic synthesizer phrases, and a musical form that builds up and breaks down throughout a track...

, Drum 'n' Bass
Drum and bass
Drum and bass is a type of electronic music which emerged in the late 1980s. The genre is characterized by fast breakbeats , with heavy bass and sub-bass lines...

, Techno
Techno
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the United States during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988...

, Hardcore, Happy hardcore, Psytrance
Psychedelic trance
Psychedelic trance, psytrance or just psy is a form of electronic music characterized by hypnotic arrangements of synthetic rhythms and complex layered melodies created by high tempo riffs. It appeared in the mainstream in 1995 as with reporting of the trend of Goa trance. The genre offers variety...

, Goa
Goa trance
Goa trance is a form of electronic music that originated during the late 1980s in Goa, India.-History:The music has its roots in the popularity of Goa in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a hippie capital, and although musical developments were incorporating elements of industrial music and EBM...

, Deep House
House music
House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, United States in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino American, and gay communities; first in Chicago circa 1984, then in other...

 and Dubstep
Dubstep
Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in south London, England. Its overall sound has been described as "tightly coiled productions with overwhelming bass lines and reverberant drum patterns, clipped samples, and occasional vocals"....

. A number of Canadian DJs and producers have emerged from the Canadian rave scene to reach international acclaim, including Deadmau5
Deadmau5
Joel Thomas Zimmerman , better known by his stage name deadmau5 , is a Canadian progressive, electro, and house producer based in Toronto...

, ill.Gates, Richie Hawtin
Richie Hawtin
Richard Hawtin is an English-Canadian electronic musician and DJ who was an influential part of Detroit techno's second wave of artists in the early 1990s and a leading exponent of Minimal techno since the mid 1990s...

, Excision, Datsik, Downlink, Max Graham
Max Graham
Max Graham is a Canadian DJ, composer and producer who manages to transcend genres while producing international hits in the dance music scene. He is most famous for his hits “Sun in the Winter” and “Nothing Else Matters”, His Cycles CD Series/Radio show as well as his remix of the classic song...

, Jay Tripwire
Jay Tripwire
Jay Tripwire is a house DJ and record producer from Canada.•"A full pelt wavering between tribal moments and more modest slabs of Detroit-inspired soul.The crowd responds at every turn." - Steve McLay, DJ MAG....

, Mathew Jonson, Fred Everything
Fred Everything
Fred Everything is a French-Canadian electronic musician and DJ, best known for his work in the deep house music genre.-Early life:...

,and Tiga
Tiga (musician)
Tiga is the stage name of Montreal-born DJ/producer Tiga James Sontag . His album Sexor won the 2007 Juno Award for Dance Recording of the Year.-Career:He graduated from Selwyn House School, a prestigious school in Westmount...

, among others. There is a well established and ever changing rave scene on Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island is a large island in British Columbia, Canada. It is one of several North American locations named after George Vancouver, the British Royal Navy officer who explored the Pacific Northwest coast of North America between 1791 and 1794...

 spawning many DJ's, Producers
Record producer
A record producer is an individual working within the music industry, whose job is to oversee and manage the recording of an artist's music...

 and Performers.
Commercial Raves in Canada are concentrated in Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Toronto, Edmonton
Edmonton
Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta and is the province's second-largest city. Edmonton is located on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region, which is surrounded by the central region of the province.The city and its census...

, Halifax, Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344....

, Calgary
Calgary
Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

, Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

, Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

 and Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers .The name...

, with the exception of house raves which can be found in smaller cities.

Australia

Raves flourished in Australia in the 1980s where they were generally called Dance Parties due to the parties being promoted by the gay and straight/gay scenes, until the 1990s when they began being referred to as "raves" with more UK style promoters taking it on.

In Sydney from 1983 Rat Parties
Rat Parties
Rat Parties were held in Sydney, Australia during the 1980s and marked the emergence of a consciousness that was fashion-aware, gay-friendly, hip to dance music and open, outrageous celebration...

 saw the opening up of Sydney's underground gay dance party scene to a broader community where it found an enormous appetite. By 1990 the standard setting Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras
Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras
The Sydney Mardi Gras is an annual LGBTQI pride parade and festival in Sydney, Australia, and draws in thousands of visitors from around Australia and overseas...

 party, its winter off-shoot Sleazeball and the regular Rat Parties which ran until 1992, were attracting huge crowds of gays and straights alike, while young entrepreneurs behind events like FUN, Sweatbox and Bacchanalia were booking inner city warehouses and tired old venues and transforming them into vibrant, packed party palaces. The DJ Peewee Ferris played at the first Sweatbox parties (Let them eat cake and Sign of the times) and RAT Parties from 1987. The biggest RAT Party was in 1999 with Grace Jones with 20,000 people at the Hordern Pavilion.

After the Hordern Pav lost its 24 hour license in 1990 (or thereabouts) the scene went quiet for a bit with attempts at doing similar parties in the newly constructed Darling Harbour Convention centre. These were fairly uncomparable in terms of vibe. UK magazine ID came through on its 'ID world tour' and put on a OK party there but it took a few months before real underground parties emerged in Sydney. Flim Flam, Love and other promotion entities took over inner city venues and some less than legit impromptu spaces that had incredible vibe and aesthetics. The term Rave started to be used in Sydney due to this distinct connection to the scene in the UK.

In Melbourne, the underground dance style called the "Melbourne Shuffle
Melbourne Shuffle
The Melbourne Shuffle is a rave and club dance that originated in the late 1980s in the underground rave music scene in Melbourne, Australia. The basic movements in the dance are a fast heel-and-toe action with a style suitable for various types of electronic music. Some variants incorporate arm...

" originated at these parties. Some early parties such as Every Picture Tells A Story
Every Picture Tells A Story Melbourne
In Melbourne, Australia, in 1993, the Melbourne Underground Development crew started a series of warehouse/rave parties that continued for almost 10 years, with 21 of their own Every Picture Tells A Story parties in total - drawing thousands of people to each event.- Every Picture and other M.U.D...

 were broadcast live on free-to-air television from the party's own TV station. The Melbourne raves tended to have a greater amount of artwork, video art, decor and performance as the underground arts community of Melbourne was heavily involved in producing the parties. Fashion was also a very important component, as many party goers were in the fashion industry which is very large in Melbourne, and they designed and made their own 'party' clothes and accessories. The parties became a fashion show for the designers and created strong retail sales for their works. Often outstanding dancers were sponsored to wear designers' ranges at parties.

The Melbourne underground rave community was very large with its own street press, radio stations, TV shows, clothing shops, bars, cafes, theatres, performance venues, record labels, clothing labels, and free street raves associated with the Brunswick Street festival (pictured) which regularly drew large crowds.

The first novel dedicated to the Australian rave and dance scene was set in Melbourne. Written by Tom Griffin and titled, Playgrounds: a portrait of rave culture
Playgrounds: a portrait of rave culture
Playgrounds: a portrait of rave culture, is a novel by Tom Griffin, about 90's dance and rave culture. Released in 2005, the novel is set during the peak period of the culture in the late 90's. Set in Melbourne, Australia, the novel explores the warehouse rave scene and incorporates references to...

, it was launched at a rave at Kryal Castle in 2005.

Driven by a need to be away from residential areas due to noise pollution complaints of residents, as well as in many cases a desire to evade the attention of the authorities, the Australian rave scene held their events in industrial areas.

In Perth
Perth, Western Australia
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the fourth most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000....

, Western Australia, parties were either held in warehouses in the outer eastern and southern suburbs, or on fields in semi-rural areas easily reachable from the city, such as Wanneroo
Wanneroo, Western Australia
The City of Wanneroo is a Local Government Area with City status, located in the northern suburbs of Perth, Western Australia. It is centred approximately north of Perth's central business district and forms part of the northern boundary of the Perth metropolitan area.The City's main commercial...

 and Serpentine
Serpentine, Western Australia
Serpentine is a town located south-southeast of Perth, the capital of Western Australia, and 7 km south of Mundijong. Serpentine is located on the South Western Railway between Perth and Bunbury, and was one of the original stations when the line was opened in 1893...

. Large events included the Deja Vu rave in 1992, RUSH and Emotion in 1993, and Space Garden in 1994, as well as the infamous Sunrise held on new years eve every year since its conception until new years eve 2010. 2009 was an extremely successful year for the scene, seeing multiple events a month and very little grief from the authorities. This was until an event held in a cinema theatre in which the seats provided excessive amounts of cover to buy and sell drugs, the organiser prematurely ended the event 4 hours short of the ticketed time.
The Perth rave scene was subject to a bit of turmoil in 2010, after an over-promoted and over-sold rave failed to re-ignite the scene after an abnormally long lack of events. After the closing down of the long-running Rise nightclub in early 2011 the scene was left with few mainstream dance clubs in central Perth, although events continue to occur on a weekly basis at venues such as Ambar, The Velvet Lounge, and The Rosemount, as well as occasional large parties at Metro City. There is a continued strong representation from the drum'n'bass and dubstep scenes, with artists such as ShockOne , Kito and Greg Packer successfully releasing tunes and mix CDs. The Origin festival each New Year continues to provide a line-up that reflects these musical tendencies. Smaller underground events continue to occur, spread mostly by word-of-mouth and social media. Perth also hosts many of the major summer festivals which tour Australia, such as Future Music Festival, Stereosonic, God's Kitchen and Parklife. Western Australia is the only state to host its own annual dance music industry awards, the PDMAs
Perth Dance Music Awards
The Perth Dance Music Awards highlights the year's major accomplishments in Electronic music by Western Australians.It is an annual event, with the first awards held in 1998.-2010 Awards:* Best House DJ - Paul Scott...

.
For the Sydney rave scene the industrial areas of the Western suburbs were quite common in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Following the 2000 Sydney Olympics the Sydney Olympic Park
Sydney Olympic Park
Sydney Olympic Park is a suburb in western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Sydney Olympic Park is located 16 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of Auburn Council....

 at Homebush proved a popular venue as it had ample large warehouse space available and the advantage of no close by residential areas. The "Superdome
Acer Arena
The Allphones Arena is a large entertainment and sporting complex located in Sydney, Australia. It is situated in Sydney Olympic Park, and was completed in 1999 as part of the facilities for the 2000 Summer Olympics....

" at Olympic Park has hosted a number of events due to the large capacity. Events at these venues often have ample room for amusement rides, open air "chill out" areas and food stalls. Several amusement parks have hosted dance party events (Wonderland Sydney
Wonderland Sydney
Wonderland Sydney was a theme park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The park was the largest one in the southern hemisphere. It remained open for almost nineteen years and was the premier theme park in New South Wales for much of its life, but it closed in 2004...

 and Luna Park Sydney
Luna Park Sydney
Luna Park Sydney is an amusement park, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...

).
Public attention was brought upon rave culture in Australia following the death of Sydney teenager Anna Wood who died after consuming an ecstasy tablet at a rave on 25 October 1995. Similar to the death of Leah Betts
Leah Betts
Leah Sarah Betts was a schoolgirl from Latchingdon in Essex, England, United Kingdom. She is notable for the extensive media coverage and moral panic that followed her death several days after her 18th birthday. On 11 November, she took an Ecstasy tablet, and then drank approximately 7 litres of...

, Woods had died from water intoxication
Water intoxication
Water intoxication, also known as water poisoning, is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits by over-consumption of water....

 secondary to the use of the drug, not the drug itself, because the drug had altered the way she consumed water, rendering her body unable to release it. The incident saw the closure of the club in which she purchased the drug and attended after consuming it and prompted moral panic and further drug awareness in Australia.

In Victoria, the Docklands area of Melbourne hosted numerous raves in the 90s. Bushland areas out side of Melbourne provided Doof
Doof
The slang term doof or bush doof refers to a type of outdoor dance party in Australia, generally held in a remote country area or just outside big cities in surrounding bush or rainforests and similar to raves or teknivals, but with a different, more empathetic atmosphere...

 venues, notably Mt Disappointment for Earthcore
Earthcore
Earthcore was an Australian outdoor dance music festival and electronic music events organisation. The outdoor events were generally held in forest environments around Victoria, Australia, with some events held in Queensland, Australia and overseas in New Caledonia...

 and Kryal Castle
Kryal Castle
Kryal Castle is an Australian replica medieval castle located on a foothill of Mount Warrenheip at Leigh Creek, just north of Dunnstown and 8 km east of Ballarat...

 just outside of Ballarat.

The Newcastle Rave scene made use of unused warehouses in the Newcastle CBD and at licensed entertainment venues throughout the late 90s and early 2000s. Events such as "Vital beats" and under-age dance parties were held in these venues.

South Africa

The first mega-rave in South Africa was held in a warehouse on Cape Town's foreshore. Dubbed the World Peace Party
World Peace Party
It is a widely held belief that the World Peace Party was the first warehouse Rave in Africa. The date was Friday, 13th of September, 1990.The event was produced in South Africa, by Cape Town based UFO productions. Founders Carl Mason and Jesse Stagg teamed up to start UFO...

, it featured a cross-over crowd of Cape Flats rappers, fashionistas and Clubbers dancing to rave music
Rave music
Rave music may either refer the late 1980s genre or any genre of electronic dance music that may be played at an electronic dance party such as a rave. Very rarely, the term is used to refer to less electronic related genres glam, powerpop, psychedelic rock and dub music parties...

 and progressive house. The first electronic South African Bands who performed live at the Raves were the Kraftreaktor and The Kiwi Experience. The first large Johannesburg rave was held at an old cinema in Yeoville in early 1992. Amongst the first Johannesburg rave organisers in the early 1990s were Fourth World Productions (responsible for the legendary 1993 nightclub 4th World) World's End Productions and Damn New Thing Productions.

Other production companies achieved notoriety during the 1990s and included ICE (Incubated Cyber Energy) and Mother Productions, with tours by Boy George, Northern Exposure and Carl Cox adding to the growing international recognition of South Africa as a premier RAVE destination. The most famous club at the time (and still going) is ESP in Doornfontein, renowned for its Sunday parties where the roof was thrown open and ravers danced the day away.

Kenya

Raves in Kenya begun in the late 90's, and were attended only by over 21 youths.As time went by electronic music begun to spread through out the country. By 2005 they had their own International Dance Festivals and these were attended by many teens and adults;from 13–23 too.

Electronic music only clubs, such as the Loft Lounge; List only entry, begun to spread through Nairobi.
By 2009 Rave events were mainly attended by children of the countries rich and famous, who were in High Class international schools.As of now, every week rave events are held from Thursday to Sunday Morning. They are organised by 6 am ENTERTAINMENT, iRepresent INC. and The Allies.

Dancing

Raving in itself is a syllabus free dance, whereby the movements are not predefined and the dance is performed randomly, harmonised with beats from music. Rave dance refers to the street dance
Street dance
Street dance, more formally known as vernacular dance, is an umbrella term used to describe dance styles that evolved outside of dance studios in any available open space such as streets, dance parties, block parties, parks, school yards, raves, and nightclubs, etc...

 styles that evolved alongside rave culture. Such dances are street dances since they evolved alongside the underground rave movements, thus without the intervention of dance studios. Sometimes club-oriented dances would be danced to rave music, too, for example, tecktonik is sometimes danced to fast-paced electro house.

Such dances are usually freestyle in nature, since they are very rarely choreographed in preparation for such events (although some ravers may create personal dance routines). Dances like Jumpstyle
Jumpstyle
Jumpstyle is a rave dance and electronic music genre mainly practiced in Europe, specifically Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland, Germany, northern France, and a few parts in the United States, specifically Indiana. The dance is also called Jumpen...

, Tecktonik, Liquid and digits and Shuffling
Melbourne Shuffle
The Melbourne Shuffle is a rave and club dance that originated in the late 1980s in the underground rave music scene in Melbourne, Australia. The basic movements in the dance are a fast heel-and-toe action with a style suitable for various types of electronic music. Some variants incorporate arm...

 may be sometimes highly dependent on pre-planned choreography for performances at raves, therefore such dance styles may be practised professionally. Nonetheless, rave dance styles can be completely freeform due to their simple footwork and arm movements.

Light shows

Some ravers participate in one of four light-oriented dances, called glowsticking, glowstringing, gloving, and lightshows.
Other types of light-related dancing include LED
LEd
LEd is a TeX/LaTeX editing software working under Microsoft Windows. It is a freeware product....

 lights, flash-lights and blinking strobe lights. LEDs come in various colours with different settings. The "low intensity" setting causes a strobe effect, leaving trails of dots, while "high intensity" leaves a solid line. The most common LED lights at parties are Inova micro lights or lights by LRI such as the Photon Freedom or Rav'n lights. There are many techniques used to make the lights "flow" with the music in order to create a visually pleasing and mesmerising combination of patterns. There are also a nearly infinite variety of other moves with varying levels of difficulty applied in their execution. These such moves are called a "figure eight" along with "finger rolls". Highly popular sites for raving lights, like Emazing Lights and Orbites Light Shows sell a large array of LED and other electronic items to be used by ravers. Emazing lights also employ special promoters, who use codes like HSHcrew to give anyone 5 percent off all orders.

Regardless, glowsticks and LEDs can be used at raves for interesting dance effects, because most raves (except some open air raves, e.g. technoparade
Technoparade
A Technoparade is a parade of vehicles equipped with strong loudspeakers and amplifiers playing techno music. It resembles a carnival parade in some respects, but the vehicles are usually less elaborately decorated. Also, a technoparade doesn't share the carnival parade tradition of bombarding...

s) are held in dark or nearly dark rooms. Because rave parties are popular with people who wish to show off their dancing, glowsticks can be an ancillary material for creative freestyle dance. LEDs and glowsticks now not only show up at most every rave event, but also are becoming more prominent at many electronic dance music
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music is electronic music produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment...

 clubs.

Rave names and marriages

Rave names are pseudonyms that people use to be able to give to other raves to be known by. They are usually names bestowed upon you by a fellow raver. It is considered a social faux pas to name someone else unless you have been raving for longer than a year's time. These names are given much the same way that a Native American 'deed name' is given and usually have deep symbolic meaning for people.

Ceremonies are sometimes done to 'rave marry' two people together. This shows a union of two people who are very good friends and promise to be there for each other when they need it most. It is one way in which the rave community shows the unity aspect of the P.L.U.R. acronym.

Rave magazines

During the '90s, the US Rave scene self-publication became a huge part in the way parties were advertised and known of. These publications ranged from a single sheet photocopied "zines" to expensive glossy covered magazines. Each magazine had its own reasons for being and having a dedicated audience that centred around the cities of publication of each magazine. The Midwest was known for its Milwaukee based "Massive Magazine
Massive Magazine
Massive Magazine was a Midwestern United States electronic music publication published by Matt Bonde of Mayville, Wisconsin. Issue #1 was released in 1993 and chronicled the evolution of rave zines that were being self-published by individuals during that time...

" and Chicago based "Reactor" and "A Thousand Words" photo magazine. On the East Coast you had NYC DJ Heather Heart's "Under One Sky"(actually started in 1990 or 1991) and a few years later a little magazine called "Vice" that was in the works (Feel free to add here), and later, in 1996 & 1997, NYC had DROP Magazine that was a continuation of PROJECT X Magazine, On the West Coast you had LA based "URB" , San Diego's Hypno, BPM and Sin Magazines and San Francisco based Lotus and "XLR8R". Abroad you had Germany's "Frontpage" and "De:Bug" and the United Kingdom's "Mixmag", "Atmosphere" and "Knowledge" magazines. The latter two dedicated to the UK's Breakbeat and Drum n Bass markets.

Each publication was an essential part of the local Rave scene, and was greatly appreciated by many ravers. Each issue contained interviews with artists that were not known in commercial publications. Most of these magazines started as free enterprises, usually surviving only on an advertising revenue based model. Later on, some magazines such as "Urb" and "Xlr8r" were able to legitimise and become proper publications that can now be found at local book stores. While others like "Massive Magazine" ended with a fire consuming their offices in the winter of 2004 destroying all the films and back issues making issues of "Massive Magazine" a piece of must have nostalgia fetching prices of up to 100 dollars for any early back issues on eBay.

Drug use

In the U.S., the mainstream media and law enforcement agencies have branded the subculture as a purely drug-centric
Recreational drug use
Recreational drug use is the use of a drug, usually psychoactive, with the intention of creating or enhancing recreational experience. Such use is controversial, however, often being considered to be also drug abuse, and it is often illegal...

 culture, usually drugs such as cannabis
Cannabis
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. These three taxa are indigenous to Central Asia, and South Asia. Cannabis has long been used for fibre , for seed and seed oils, for medicinal purposes, and as a...

, ecstasy
Ecstasy
Ecstasy may refer to:* Ecstasy , a trance or trance-like state in which an individual transcends normal consciousness* Religious ecstasy, a state of consciousness characterized by expanded spiritual awareness, visions or absolute euphoria...

, LSD
LSD
Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide and colloquially as acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects which can include altered thinking processes, closed and open eye visuals, synaesthesia, an...

, PCP
PCP
PCP may refer to:In medicine and pharmaceutics:*Phencyclidine, a recreational drug known by a number of street names including PCP, angel dust, embalming fluid, and rocket fuel...

, cocaine
Cocaine
Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant of the central nervous system, an appetite suppressant, and a topical anesthetic...

 and ketamine
Ketamine
Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist...

, similar to the hippie
Hippie
The hippie subculture was originally a youth movement that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The etymology of the term 'hippie' is from hipster, and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into San Francisco's...

 movement of the 1960s.

Groups that have addressed drug use at raves include the Electronic Music Defense and Education Fund (EMDEF), The Toronto Raver Info Project, and DanceSafe
DanceSafe
DanceSafe is a nonprofit organization, with 3 local chapters in the US and Canada.DanceSafe youth volunteers set up tables at raves and other events to distribute educational literature containing information describing the effects and risks associated with the use of various drugs and sell testing...

, all of which advocate harm reduction
Harm reduction
Harm reduction refers to a range of public health policies designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with recreational drug use and other high risk activities...

 approaches. Paradoxically, drug safety literature (such as those distributed by DanceSafe) is used as evidence of condoned drug use. Other groups, such as Drug Free America Foundation, Inc., characterize raves as being rife with gang activity, rape, robbery, and drug-related deaths.

In 2005, Antonio Maria Costa, Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is a United Nations agency that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations...

, advocated drug testing on highways as a countermeasure against drug use at raves.

In recent times, as opposed to the past decades, rave venues have taken to hiring local law enforcement to reduce drug use.

Ecstasy

There have been a number of deaths attributed to PMA, a potent and highly neurotoxic hallucinogenic amphetamine, being sold as ecstasy. PMA is unique in its ability to quickly elevate body temperature and heart rate at relatively low doses, especially in comparison to MDMA. Hence, a user believing he is consuming two 120 mg pills of MDMA could actually be consuming a dose of PMA that is potentially lethal, depending on the purity of the pill. Not only does PMA cause the release of serotonin but it also acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, MAOI
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. They are particularly effective in treating atypical depression....

. When combined with an MDMA or an MDMA-like substance, serotonin syndrome
Serotonin syndrome
Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that may occur following therapeutic drug use, inadvertent interactions between drugs, overdose of particular drugs, or the recreational use of certain drugs...

 can result. Combining MAO inhibitors with certain legal prescription and over the counter medications can also lead to (potentially fatal) serotonin syndrome.

According to one report in 2000, drug related deaths in the rave scene have caused parents to forbid their children from attending while baby boomers find it implausible to deny these young people from these drugs and entertainment In 2000 parents of one overdose victim, 23 year-old Jamie Britten, expressed a desire for safeguards instead of prohibition. Britten was a newcomer to the rave scene, and died after taking enough ecstasy to make the level in his blood 2.5 mg per litre. Another death, that of 17 year-old Jillian Kirkland is reported to have outraged medical professionals and law makers. This caused federal agents to start an investigation, and eventually a grand jury indicted three men who ran the night club she took the drugs in. Prosecutors used a 1986 law called the Crack House Statute which prohibits maintaining property for the purpose of distributing controlled substances. In a federal probe, undercover Drug Enforcement Administration agents were able to get their hands on as much as 13g of ecstasy. In an attempt to discourage drug use in many of these raves, venue owners and law enforcement are banning some of the rave related items such as glow sticks and pacifiers

See also

  • Acid house party – Forerunner of raves typically staged in UK warehouses around 1987–89.
  • Circuit party
    Circuit party
    A circuit party is a large dance event, extending through a night and into the following day, almost always with a number of affiliated events in the days leading up to and following the main event...

  • Doof
    Doof
    The slang term doof or bush doof refers to a type of outdoor dance party in Australia, generally held in a remote country area or just outside big cities in surrounding bush or rainforests and similar to raves or teknivals, but with a different, more empathetic atmosphere...

  • Free party
    Free party
    A free party is a party "free" from the restrictions of the legal club scene, similar to the free festival movement. It typically involves a sound system playing electronic dance music from late at night until the time when the organisers decide to go home. A free party can be composed of just one...

     – The modern, illegal version of raves.
  • Massive Magazine
    Massive Magazine
    Massive Magazine was a Midwestern United States electronic music publication published by Matt Bonde of Mayville, Wisconsin. Issue #1 was released in 1993 and chronicled the evolution of rave zines that were being self-published by individuals during that time...

     – The original US Rave magazine from Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
  • Melbourne Shuffle
    Melbourne Shuffle
    The Melbourne Shuffle is a rave and club dance that originated in the late 1980s in the underground rave music scene in Melbourne, Australia. The basic movements in the dance are a fast heel-and-toe action with a style suitable for various types of electronic music. Some variants incorporate arm...

     – A rave dance style culture that has evolved in Melbourne, Australia over the past 15 years.
  • Merry Pranksters
    Merry Pranksters
    The Merry Pranksters were a group of people who formed around American author Ken Kesey in 1964 and sometimes lived communally at his homes in California and Oregon...

     – Their early escapades were best chronicled by Tom Wolfe in The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test.
  • New Rave
    New Rave
    New rave is a term applied to several types of music that fuse elements of electronic music, new wave, rock, indie, techno, bastard pop, breakbeat hardcore and electro house...

     – A new genre of music mixing elements of rave culture, disco and rock.
  • Rat Parties
    Rat Parties
    Rat Parties were held in Sydney, Australia during the 1980s and marked the emergence of a consciousness that was fashion-aware, gay-friendly, hip to dance music and open, outrageous celebration...

     – When Sydney's gay dance party scene opened up to the broader community in the 1980s.
  • RAVE Act – An American law targeting raves.
  • Rave Board Game
    Rave Board Game
    Rave is a board game that was created by WOW Enterprises in 1991. The game is based on the subcultural dance movement of the early 1990s.The game was created by Patrick Treloar and designed by The Style Bandits . It contains a section designed by Jamie Hewlett of Gorillaz and Tank Girl fame...

     – 1991 board game based on the UK Rave scene
  • Rave music
    Rave music
    Rave music may either refer the late 1980s genre or any genre of electronic dance music that may be played at an electronic dance party such as a rave. Very rarely, the term is used to refer to less electronic related genres glam, powerpop, psychedelic rock and dub music parties...

     – Music and music styles at raves
  • Technoshamanism
    Technoshamanism
    Technoshamanism is a term used to describe various methods of integrating modern technology into shamanic practice . Methods of doing this include such diverse disciplines as synthetic drug use, modern psychotherapy, and raving....

     – A technique employed by some ravers, often utilising electronic music
    Electronic music
    Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production. In general a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound...

     and psychoactive drugs.
  • Tecktonik, a dance style based on rave music, developed in Paris, France and well known throughout Europe.
  • Zippies

Further reading

  • Del Pinal, Janelly. Altered State: The Story of Ecstasy and Acid House. London: 1997 : Serpent's Tail – How rave dances began in Manchester, England in the Summer of 1988 (the Second Summer of Love
    Second Summer of Love
    The Second Summer of Love is a name given to the period in 1988-89 in Britain, during the rise of acid house music and the euphoric explosion of unlicensed MDMA -fuelled rave parties...

    ) and the aftermath. ISBN 1-85242-604-7
  • Reynolds, Simon
    Simon Reynolds
    Simon Reynolds is an English music critic who is well-known for his writings on electronic dance music and for coining the term "post-rock". Besides electronic dance music, Reynolds has written about a wide range of artists and musical genres, and has written books on post-punk and rock...

    . Generation Ecstasy: Into the world of Techno and Rave culture. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1998. ISBN 0-316-74111-6
  • Ott, Brian L. and Herman, Bill D. Excerpt from Mixed Messages: Resistance and Reappropriation in Rave Culture. 2003.
  • Evans, Helen. Out of Sight, Out of Mind: An Analysis of Rave culture. Wimbledon School of Art, London. 1992. Includes bibliography through 1994.
  • St John, Graham (ed). 2004. Rave Culture and Religion. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31449-6


Video

Sunrise was one of the biggest raves to hit Europe during what some people called "The second summer of love." An estimated 20,000 people attended the event.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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