Trance music
Overview
 
Trance is a genre of electronic dance music
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music is electronic music produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment...

 that developed in the 1990s.:251 It is generally characterized by a tempo of between 125 and 150 bpm,:252 repeating melodic
Melodic music
Melodic Imitation is a term that covers various genres of non-classical music which are primarily characterised by the dominance of a single strong melody line. Rhythm, tempo and beat are subordinate to the melody line or tune, which is generally easily memorable, and followed without great...

 synthesizer
Synthesizer
A synthesizer is an electronic instrument capable of producing sounds by generating electrical signals of different frequencies. These electrical signals are played through a loudspeaker or set of headphones...

 phrases
Phrase (music)
In music and music theory, phrase and phrasing are concepts and practices related to grouping consecutive melodic notes, both in their composition and performance...

, and a musical form
Musical form
The term musical form refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections...

 that builds up and breaks down throughout a track. It is a combination of many forms of sound
Sound
Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.-Propagation of...

 such as techno
Techno
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the United States during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988...

,:15,17 house
House music
House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, United States in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino American, and gay communities; first in Chicago circa 1984, then in other...

, industrial
Industrial music
Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle, and the creation of the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". In general, the...

, new age
New Age music
New Age music is music of various styles intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, and reading as a method of stress management or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments, and is often...

, pop
Pop music
Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

:16, chill-out,:17 ambient
Ambient music
Ambient music is a musical genre that focuses largely on the timbral characteristics of sounds, often organized or performed to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual" or "unobtrusive" quality.- History :...

, electronic art music, classical music
Classical music
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times...

,:16:35 and film music.:35 It is usually more melodic than techno, and the harder styles usually have harder beats than house.
Encyclopedia
Trance is a genre of electronic dance music
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music is electronic music produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment...

 that developed in the 1990s.:251 It is generally characterized by a tempo of between 125 and 150 bpm,:252 repeating melodic
Melodic music
Melodic Imitation is a term that covers various genres of non-classical music which are primarily characterised by the dominance of a single strong melody line. Rhythm, tempo and beat are subordinate to the melody line or tune, which is generally easily memorable, and followed without great...

 synthesizer
Synthesizer
A synthesizer is an electronic instrument capable of producing sounds by generating electrical signals of different frequencies. These electrical signals are played through a loudspeaker or set of headphones...

 phrases
Phrase (music)
In music and music theory, phrase and phrasing are concepts and practices related to grouping consecutive melodic notes, both in their composition and performance...

, and a musical form
Musical form
The term musical form refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections...

 that builds up and breaks down throughout a track. It is a combination of many forms of sound
Sound
Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.-Propagation of...

 such as techno
Techno
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the United States during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988...

,:15,17 house
House music
House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, United States in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino American, and gay communities; first in Chicago circa 1984, then in other...

, industrial
Industrial music
Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle, and the creation of the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". In general, the...

, new age
New Age music
New Age music is music of various styles intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, and reading as a method of stress management or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments, and is often...

, pop
Pop music
Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

:16, chill-out,:17 ambient
Ambient music
Ambient music is a musical genre that focuses largely on the timbral characteristics of sounds, often organized or performed to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual" or "unobtrusive" quality.- History :...

, electronic art music, classical music
Classical music
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times...

,:16:35 and film music.:35 It is usually more melodic than techno, and the harder styles usually have harder beats than house. The origin of the term is uncertain, with some suggesting that the term is derived from the Klaus Schulze
Klaus Schulze
Klaus Schulze is a German electronic music composer and musician. He also used the alias Richard Wahnfried. He was briefly a member of the electronic bands Tangerine Dream and Ash Ra Tempel before launching a solo career consisting of more than 60 albums released across five decades.-1970s:In...

 album Trancefer
Trancefer
Trancefer is the fourteenth album by Klaus Schulze. It was originally released in 1981, and in 2006 was the twenty-third Schulze album reissued by Revisited Records...

(1981) or the early trance act Dance 2 Trance
Dance 2 Trance
Dance 2 Trance was a German trance duo composed of Rolf Ellmer and DJ Dag Lerner. They had a small number of hit singles in the mid 1990s and were associated with Jam & Spoon.-Musical career:...

. Others, though, argue the name may refer to an induced emotional feeling, high, euphoria, chills, or uplifting rush
Uplifting trance
Uplifting trance, often synonymous with epic trance, anthem trance, emotional trance, or euphoric trance is a term used to describe a large sub-genre of trance music. The name, which emerged in the wake of progressive trance in 1997, is derived from the feeling which listeners claim to get...

 listeners claim to experience. Yet others trace the name to the actual trance-like states that the earliest forms of the music attempted to generate in the 1990s before the genre's focus changed.:252

Trance also employs dynamics to a greater extent than most other forms of electronic music. A characteristic of many trance songs is the mid-song break in which the rhythm tracks are faded out, leaving the melody and/or atmospherics to stand alone for a few moments. The break adds some dynamics to the song, makes it more interesting to the ear, and provides dancers with a few moments in which they can improvise if they wish. Fashion tends to go back and forth between vocal and instrumental pieces every few years; usually when vocals are present, they are sung by a female singer with a soaring, operatic type voice.

Origin

Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 is the birthplace of trance music,:251 with the original melodic sound first appearing around 1992 in Frankfurt.:15

Some trace trance's antecedents back to Klaus Schulze
Klaus Schulze
Klaus Schulze is a German electronic music composer and musician. He also used the alias Richard Wahnfried. He was briefly a member of the electronic bands Tangerine Dream and Ash Ra Tempel before launching a solo career consisting of more than 60 albums released across five decades.-1970s:In...

, a German experimental electronic music artist who concentrated on blending minimalist music
Minimalist music
Minimal music is a style of music associated with the work of American composers La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass. It originated in the New York Downtown scene of the 1960s and was initially viewed as a form of experimental music called the New York Hypnotic School....

 with repetitive rhythms and arpeggiated sounds. In France, Jean Michel Jarre
Jean Michel Jarre
Jean Michel André Jarre is a French composer, performer and music producer. He is a pioneer in the electronic, ambient and New Age genres, and known as an organiser of outdoor spectacles of his music featuring lights, laser displays, and fireworks.Jarre was raised in Lyon by his mother and...

, an early electronic musician, released two albums in the late 1970s: Oxygène
Oxygene
Oxygène is an album of instrumental electronic music composed, produced, and performed by the French composer Jean Michel Jarre. It was first released in France in December 1976, on Disques Dreyfus with license to Polydor. The album's international release was in summer 1977...

 in 1976 and Equinoxe
Equinoxe
Équinoxe was the second major-label album release by French musician Jean Michel Jarre, released on Disques Dreyfus in late 1978....

 in 1978. Also a possible antecedent, Neil Young
Neil Young
Neil Percival Young, OC, OM is a Canadian singer-songwriter who is widely regarded as one of the most influential musicians of his generation...

's 1982 electronic album, Trans
Trans (album)
Trans is the twelfth studio album by Canadian musician Neil Young, released in 1982. Recorded partially and released during his notorious Geffen era in the 1980s, Trans baffled many Neil Young fans. Some suggested that the album could be a satirical message that Young was trying to send about the...

, bears a resemblance to the trance music genre.

Examples of early Trance releases include but are not limited to German duo Jam & Spoon
Jam & Spoon
Jam & Spoon was an electronic dance duo from Frankfurt, Germany, that consisted of composers and producers Rolf Ellmer and Markus Löffel . They also worked under the pseudonyms Tokyo Ghetto Pussy, Storm and Big Room...

's 1992 12" Single remix of The Age Of Love.:15, German duo Dance 2 Trance
Dance 2 Trance
Dance 2 Trance was a German trance duo composed of Rolf Ellmer and DJ Dag Lerner. They had a small number of hit singles in the mid 1990s and were associated with Jam & Spoon.-Musical career:...

's 1990 track "We Came in Peace",:251 Also, Hi-NRG
Hi-NRG
Hi-NRG describes a form of high-tempo disco music as well as a genre of electronic dance music originating in the United States during the late 1970s...

 is also often regarded as the origin of the earlier forms of vocal trance music.

As for the roots of contemporary trance, some trace it to Paul van Dyk
Paul van Dyk
Matthias Paul, better known by his stage name Paul van Dyk is a German Grammy Award-winning Electronic Dance Music DJ, musician and record producer...

's 1993 remix of Humate's 'Love Stimulation'.:15. In subsequent years, one genre, vocal trance, arose as the combination of progressive elements and pop music, and the development of another subgenre, epic trance, had some of its origins in classical music.:15, with film music also being influential.:35

Popular

Historically, the most popular DJs in the world often played Trance music; in 12 of the last 13 years, such DJs always ranked #1 in the world in the DJ Mag ranking: Paul Oakenfold
Paul Oakenfold
Paul Mark Oakenfold is a British record producer and a trance DJ.-Early Career: 1979–84:Paul Oakenfold's career was set to be a chef, after having hopes of becoming part of a band. He describes his early life as a "bedroom deejay" in a podcasted interview with Vancouver's 24 Hours, stating he grew...

 (1998–1999), Sasha
Sasha (DJ)
Sasha is a Welsh DJ and record producer. Sasha began his career playing acid house dance music in the late 1980s...

 (2000), John Digweed
John Digweed
John Digweed is an English DJ, record producer and acclaimed actor.-Biography:John Digweed began DJing around age 4...

 (2001), Tiësto
Tiësto
Tijs Michiel Verwest, , known as Tiësto , is a Dutch musician, DJ and record producer of electronic dance music. Although he has used many aliases in the past, he is best known for his work as DJ Tiësto...

 (2002–2004), Paul van Dyk
Paul van Dyk
Matthias Paul, better known by his stage name Paul van Dyk is a German Grammy Award-winning Electronic Dance Music DJ, musician and record producer...

 (2005–2006), Armin van Buuren (2007–2010).

By 1995 trance emerged as a popular genre of dance music.

Meanwhile, a different type of trance, generally called uplifting trance
Uplifting trance
Uplifting trance, often synonymous with epic trance, anthem trance, emotional trance, or euphoric trance is a term used to describe a large sub-genre of trance music. The name, which emerged in the wake of progressive trance in 1997, is derived from the feeling which listeners claim to get...

, became popular. Uplifting trance had buildups and breakdowns that were longer and more exaggerated, being more direct and less subtle than progressive, with more easily identifiable tunes and anthems. Many such trance tracks follow a set form, featuring an introduction, steady build, a breakdown, and then an anthem, a form aptly called the "build-breakdown-anthem" form. Uplifting vocals, usually female, were also becoming more and more prevalent, adding to trance's popular appeal.

Artists like Tiësto
Tiësto
Tijs Michiel Verwest, , known as Tiësto , is a Dutch musician, DJ and record producer of electronic dance music. Although he has used many aliases in the past, he is best known for his work as DJ Tiësto...

, Paul van Dyk
Paul van Dyk
Matthias Paul, better known by his stage name Paul van Dyk is a German Grammy Award-winning Electronic Dance Music DJ, musician and record producer...

, Armin van Buuren, Brian Transeau, Robert Miles
Robert Miles
Robert Miles is an Italian record producer, composer, musician and DJ in electronica and alternative music.-Biography:...

, Above & Beyond
Above & Beyond (band)
Above & Beyond are a British trance music group formed in 2000 and consists of the members Jono Grant, Tony McGuinness, and Finnish Paavo Siljamäki. They have their own record label Anjunabeats, which releases trance and progressive music, and they also host their own weekly radio show Trance...

, Darren Tate
Darren Tate
Darren Tate is an English record producer and club DJ.-Biography and personality:As a classically trained musician, Tate has worked with international artists and songwriters with whom he collaborates regularly...

, Ferry Corsten
Ferry Corsten
Ferry Corsten, also known under the alias System F, is a Dutch producer of trance music, in addition to being a DJ and remixer. He also hosts his own weekly radio show, Corsten's Countdown. He routinely plays at events all over the world with crowds in excess of tens of thousands. In 2009 Ferry...

, Johan Gielen, ATB
ATB
ATB may refer to:*The US Reorder tone is often referred to as an ATB, for All Trunks Busy*Active Time Battle system is a feature of role-playing games*Mountain bike is an off-road bicycle...

, and Paul Oakenfold
Paul Oakenfold
Paul Mark Oakenfold is a British record producer and a trance DJ.-Early Career: 1979–84:Paul Oakenfold's career was set to be a chef, after having hopes of becoming part of a band. He describes his early life as a "bedroom deejay" in a podcasted interview with Vancouver's 24 Hours, stating he grew...

 became popular as producers and remixers. Many of these producers also DJ'd in clubs playing their own productions as well as those by other trance DJs. By the end of the 1990s, trance maintained a healthy following in most of the world's key dance markets.

Post-popular

As an alternative evolution, some artists have attempted to fuse trance with other genres such as drum'n'bass(DnB). Others have experimented with more minimalist sounds.

Trance elements were often introduced into other genres such as acid techno
Acid techno
Acid techno is the term used to describe a style of techno that developed out of late 1980s Chicago Acid house. Acid house was essentially house music made with a specific sound, obtained by using very distinctive instruments created mainly by Roland, such as the TB-303 for bass and lead sounds,...

 and nustyle gabber
Gabber
Gabber , is a style of electronic music and a subgenre of hardcore techno. "Gabber" is a slang word of Yiddish origin that means "mate", "buddy" or "friend"....

, resulting in the post-trance genres hard trance
Hard trance
Hard trance is a subgenre of trance music that originated in Western Europe in the mid-1990s as the breakbeat hardcore production community began to diversify into new and different styles of electronic music, all influenced by UK hard house, happy hardcore and jungle/drum & bass...

 and hardstyle
Hardstyle
Hardstyle is an electronic dance genre mixing influences from hardtechno, hard house, hard trance, hardcore and rave music. It is between 148 and 157 bpm in speed and is written in 4/4 time....

, respectively. Nu-NRG has been the core element of hardstyle
Hardstyle
Hardstyle is an electronic dance genre mixing influences from hardtechno, hard house, hard trance, hardcore and rave music. It is between 148 and 157 bpm in speed and is written in 4/4 time....

 since 2007, thus making hardstyle much more melodical in nature, resulting in many artists of the genre ditching its hard trance elements in favor of a more bouncy techno
Bouncy techno
Bouncy Techno is a rave hardcore dance music subgenre that was developed in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands...

 -like sound.

Trance has retained popularity on the internet with the abundance of legal music download sites, including Juno Download
Juno Records
Juno Records is a UK-based online dance music retail store, selling vinyl records, CDs, music downloads and music accessories, founded by Richard Atherton and Sharon Boyd. The website was created in 1996 as an information-only site called The Dance Music Resource Pages, listing new dance music...

, and Beatport
Beatport
Beatport is an online music store specializing in electronic dance music and culture. Beatport is a privately held company owned and operated by Beatport LLC and based in Denver, Colorado.-History:...

, enabling enthusiasts to avoid tracking down hard to find vinyl by downloading mp3s and uncompressed wavs. As a result, both commercial and progressive trance now have a much more global, if not chart-bound, presence, with big-draw artists such as Armin van Buuren, Ferry Corsten
Ferry Corsten
Ferry Corsten, also known under the alias System F, is a Dutch producer of trance music, in addition to being a DJ and remixer. He also hosts his own weekly radio show, Corsten's Countdown. He routinely plays at events all over the world with crowds in excess of tens of thousands. In 2009 Ferry...

, Above & Beyond
Above & Beyond (band)
Above & Beyond are a British trance music group formed in 2000 and consists of the members Jono Grant, Tony McGuinness, and Finnish Paavo Siljamäki. They have their own record label Anjunabeats, which releases trance and progressive music, and they also host their own weekly radio show Trance...

, Paul van Dyk
Paul van Dyk
Matthias Paul, better known by his stage name Paul van Dyk is a German Grammy Award-winning Electronic Dance Music DJ, musician and record producer...

, Tiësto
Tiësto
Tijs Michiel Verwest, , known as Tiësto , is a Dutch musician, DJ and record producer of electronic dance music. Although he has used many aliases in the past, he is best known for his work as DJ Tiësto...

, ATB
ATB
ATB may refer to:*The US Reorder tone is often referred to as an ATB, for All Trunks Busy*Active Time Battle system is a feature of role-playing games*Mountain bike is an off-road bicycle...

, Markus Schulz
Markus Schulz
Markus Schulz, born , is a German trance music DJ and producer who resides in Miami, Florida, USA. He is best-known for his weekly radio show titled Global DJ Broadcast that airs on Digitally Imported radio, After Hours FM and other online stations...

, Rank 1
Rank 1
Rank 1 is a Dutch trance group, formed in the Netherlands in 1997. Widely regarded as one of the originators of the Dutch trance sound, the group have produced a number of dancefloor hits since their conception...

, Gareth Emery
Gareth Emery
Gareth Emery is a trance-genre producer and DJ. In 2011 he was voted the #13 DJ in the world by DJ Mag Poll.-Background:...

, Dash Berlin
Dash Berlin
Dash Berlin is a progressive-trance project created in 2007 in The Hague, Netherlands by Eelke Kalberg and Sebastiaan Molijn . The front man of the group is the DJ Jeffrey Sutorius...

, Paul Oakenfold
Paul Oakenfold
Paul Mark Oakenfold is a British record producer and a trance DJ.-Early Career: 1979–84:Paul Oakenfold's career was set to be a chef, after having hopes of becoming part of a band. He describes his early life as a "bedroom deejay" in a podcasted interview with Vancouver's 24 Hours, stating he grew...

, and the US's Christopher Lawrence
Christopher Lawrence (DJ)
Christopher Lawrence is an American DJ and producer, specializing in progressive trance music. He has released 10 mix CDs since 1997.Lawrence has an international audience and makes frequent appearances worldwide...

 and George Acosta
George Acosta
- Biography :All great music reaches into your very soul, captures the mind and touches the heart. It can tell a story, take you on an incredible journey and target many different types of emotions. Music such as this can only come from the hard work of a great artist, an artist such as George...

 able to maintain their esteemed positions while upcoming producers and DJs can also break through into the public domain.

Production

Classic trance usually employs a "four-to-the-floor" time signature
Time signature
The time signature is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and which note value constitutes one beat....

, a tempo of 125 to 150 BPM, 32 beat phrases
Phrase (music)
In music and music theory, phrase and phrasing are concepts and practices related to grouping consecutive melodic notes, both in their composition and performance...

,:252 and is somewhat faster than house music
House music
House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, United States in the early 1980s. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino American, and gay communities; first in Chicago circa 1984, then in other...

:35, with the 'harder' styles of trance (such as psytrance) generally being a higher BPM. Occasionally, trance may be faster and slower. A kick drum
Bass drum
Bass drums are percussion instruments that can vary in size and are used in several musical genres. Three major types of bass drums can be distinguished. The type usually seen or heard in orchestral, ensemble or concert band music is the orchestral, or concert bass drum . It is the largest drum of...

 is usually placed on every downbeat and a regular open hi-hat
Hi-hat
A hi-hat, or hihat, is a type of cymbal and stand used as a typical part of a drum kit by percussionists in R&B, hip-hop, disco, jazz, rock and roll, house, reggae and other forms of contemporary popular music.- Operation :...

 is often placed on the upbeat or every 1/8th division of the bar,:253 though trance featuring breakbeat
Breakbeat
In 1992, a new style called "jungalistic hardcore" emerged, and for many ravers it was too funky to dance to. Josh Lawford of Ravescene prophesied that the breakbeat was "the death-knell of rave" because the ever changing drumbeat patterns of breakbeat music didn't allow for the same zoned out,...

s is not uncommon. Extra percussive elements are usually added, and major transitions, builds or climaxes are often foreshadowed by lengthy "snare rolls"—a quick succession of snare drum hits that build in velocity, frequency, and volume towards the end of a measure or phrase.:266

Synthesizers form the central elements of most trance tracks. As with other genres of electronic music, important synthesizers are the Roland TR-808
Roland TR-808
The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer was one of the first programmable drum machines . Introduced by the Roland Corporation in early 1980, it was originally manufactured for use as a tool for studio musicians to create demos. Like earlier Roland drum machines, it does not sound very much like a real...

, TR-909, and TB-303, which is the source of the "acid" sound. There are also several synthesizer sounds that are almost completely unique to its genre. One of these sounds is the supersaw, a waveform made famous by the Roland JP-8000
Roland JP-8000
The Roland JP-8000 is an analog modeling synthesizer released by the Roland Corporation in 1997.- Overview :The Roland JP-8000 was released in early 1997 to compete with the other analog modeling synthesizers of the period such as the Access Virus, Clavia Nord Lead the Korg MS2000 and the Yamaha AN1x...

. Other classic trance synthesisers include the Novation Supernova
Novation Supernova
The Novation SuperNova is a virtual analogue synthesizer made by the British company Novation. It was the predecessor of the cut-down Nova and was considered, at the time, to be the company's flagship synthesizer.-Overview:...

, the Access Virus
Access Virus
The Access Virus is a virtual analog synthesizer made by the German company Access Music GmbH. It was first produced in 1997 and has since been upgraded frequently, with the company releasing new models about every two years. Early models include the Virus A, Virus B, and Virus C series, each...

 and the Clavia Nord Lead
Clavia Nord Lead
Clavia Nord Lead is a virtual analog subtractive synthesizer, which was developed in Sweden, being released to the public by Clavia in 1995.The Nord Lead was the first synthesizer on the market to emulate analog synthesis. The now widely accepted term "virtual analog", was first coined by Clavia...

.
A synthesiser technique called gating (sometimes referred to as a trance gate) is often employed in creating lead sounds. The technique selectively mutes portions of a played note according to a predetermined pattern, found in both hardware and software synthesizers.

Rapid arpeggio
Arpeggio
An arpeggio is a musical technique where notes in a chord are played or sung in sequence, one after the other, rather than ringing out simultaneously...

s and minor scale
Minor scale
A minor scale in Western music theory includes any scale that contains, in its tonic triad, at least three essential scale degrees: 1) the tonic , 2) a minor-third, or an interval of a minor third above the tonic, and 3) a perfect-fifth, or an interval of a perfect fifth above the tonic, altogether...

s are common features. Trance tracks often use one central "hook
Hook (music)
A hook is a musical idea, often a short riff, passage, or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a song appealing and to "catch the ear of the listener". The term generally applies to popular music, especially rock music, hip hop, dance music, and pop. In these genres, the hook is often...

," or melody which runs through almost the entire song, repeating at intervals anywhere between 2 beats and several bars, in addition to harmonies and motifs in different timbres from the central melody.:266

While many trance tracks contain no vocals at all, other tracks rely heavily on vocals, and thus a sub-genre
Vocal trance
Vocal trance is a subgenre of trance music that focuses on vocals and melodies. The sub-genre came into existence in the early 1990s, when trance was still developing...

 has developed. The sound and quality of the production relies to a large degree upon the technology available. Vintage analog equipment is still in common use, with names such as Moog
Moog Music
Moog Music is an American company based in Asheville, North Carolina which manufactures electronic musical instruments. The current Moog Music is the second company to trade under that name.-R.A. Moog Co. and the original Moog Music:...

, Roland
Roland Corporation
is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, electronic equipment and software. It was founded by Ikutaro Kakehashi in Osaka on April 18, 1972, with ¥33 million in capital. In 2005 Roland's headquarters relocated to Hamamatsu in Shizuoka Prefecture. Today it has factories in Japan,...

, and Oberheim
Oberheim
Oberheim Electronics is an American company, founded in 1969 by Tom Oberheim , which manufactured audio synthesizers and a variety of other electronic musical instruments.-Oberheim Electronics:...

 staples in the trance sound palette. However, the mainstream availability of digital technology has allowed a whole new group of producers to emerge. While top shelf digital (or analog modeling) synthesizers cost thousands of US dollars, high demand and a small supply of clean vintage analog synthesizers causes them to be extremely expensive.

Trance records are often heavily loaded with reverb
Reverberation
Reverberation is the persistence of sound in a particular space after the original sound is removed. A reverberation, or reverb, is created when a sound is produced in an enclosed space causing a large number of echoes to build up and then slowly decay as the sound is absorbed by the walls and air...

 and delay
Delay (audio effect)
Delay is an audio effect which records an input signal to an audio storage medium, and then plays it back after a period of time. The delayed signal may either be played back multiple times, or played back into the recording again, to create the sound of a repeating, decaying echo.-Early delay...

 effects on the synthesizer sounds, vocals and often parts of the percussion section. This provides the tracks with the sense of vast space that trance producers tend to look for in order to achieve the genre's quality. Flangers, phasers
Phaser (effect)
A phaser is an audio signal processing technique used to filter a signal by creating a series of peaks and troughs in the frequency spectrum. The position of the peaks and troughs is typically modulated so that they vary over time, creating a sweeping effect...

, and other effects are also commonly used at extreme settings; in trance there is no mandatory requirement for sounds to resemble any real-world instrument, although real-world instruments or synthesizer sounds which replicate them are not uncommon.

As is the case with many dance music tracks, trance tracks are usually built with sparser intros and outros in order to enable DJs to blend them together more readily.:19 Records that adhere to this "build up, strip down" arrangement during intros and outros are referred as being "DJ friendly". As trance is more melodic and harmonic than much dance music, the construction of trance tracks in such a way is particularly important in order to avoid dissonant (or "key clashing," i.e., out of tune with one another) mixes by DJs who do not mix harmonically
Harmonic mixing
Harmonic mixing or key mixing is a DJ's continuous mix between two pre-recorded tracks that are most often either in the same key, or their keys are relative or in a subdominant or dominant relationship with one another....

.

Sub-genres

Trance music is broken into a large number of sub-genres. Chronologically, the major sub-genres are Classic trance, Acid trance
Acid trance
Acid trance is a style of trance music that emerged in the late '80s early '90s focusing on utilising the acid sound. The trademark sound of "acid" is produced with a Roland TB-303 by playing a sequenced melody while altering the instrument's filter cutoff frequency, resonance, envelope modulation,...

, Progressive trance, and Uplifting Trance
Uplifting trance
Uplifting trance, often synonymous with epic trance, anthem trance, emotional trance, or euphoric trance is a term used to describe a large sub-genre of trance music. The name, which emerged in the wake of progressive trance in 1997, is derived from the feeling which listeners claim to get...

. Uplifting Trance
Uplifting trance
Uplifting trance, often synonymous with epic trance, anthem trance, emotional trance, or euphoric trance is a term used to describe a large sub-genre of trance music. The name, which emerged in the wake of progressive trance in 1997, is derived from the feeling which listeners claim to get...

 is also known as "Anthem trance", "Epic trance", "Stadium trance", or "Euphoric trance", and has been strongly influenced by classical music both in the 1990s and at present with the development of the sub-genre "Orchestral uplifting trance" or "Uplifting trance with symphonic orchestra" by such artists as Andy Blueman
Andy Blueman
Andrej Komatovic, widely known as Andy Blueman is a Slovenian Trance producer. His release Time to Rest was included in Armin van Buuren's trance compilation A State Of Trance 2008, and 'Everlasting ' was included in A State Of Trance Yearmix 2009...

, Soundlift, and Arctic Moon. Closely related to Uplifting Trance is Euro-trance
Euro-trance
The term Euro-trance describes all "trance"-like European imports into the American dance music market, especially those recorded in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium.-Dream house:...

, which has become a general term for a wide variety of highly commercialized European dance music. Several subgenres are crossovers with other major genres of electronic music. For instance, tech trance
Tech Trance
Tech Trance is a sub-genre within electronic dance music that draws upon the techno and trance genres as the name suggests.-History:Tech trance was pioneered by among others Oliver Lieb in the mid 1990's. Other early examples of tech trance producers are Humate, Chris Cowie and Marmion. Tech trance...

 is a mixture of trance and techno, Vocal Trance
Vocal trance
Vocal trance is a subgenre of trance music that focuses on vocals and melodies. The sub-genre came into existence in the early 1990s, when trance was still developing...

 adds vocals and a pop-like structure to the songs, and ambient trance is a mixture of ambient
Ambient music
Ambient music is a musical genre that focuses largely on the timbral characteristics of sounds, often organized or performed to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual" or "unobtrusive" quality.- History :...

 and trance. Balearic beat
Balearic Beat
Balearic Beat or either Balearic House and Balearic Trance is an eclectic blend of DJed dance music that originally emerged in the mid-1980s. It later became the name of a more specific style of electronic dance music that was popular into the mid-1990s...

, which is associated with the laid back vacation lifestyle of Ibiza, Spain, is often called "Ibiza trance". Similarly, Dream trance is sometimes called "Dream House", and is a subgenre of relaxing trance pioneered by Robert Miles
Robert Miles
Robert Miles is an Italian record producer, composer, musician and DJ in electronica and alternative music.-Biography:...

 in the mid 90s. In recent years, trance has been blended with elements of heavy metal music
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States...

 (mostly melodic death metal
Melodic death metal
Melodic death metal is a heavy metal music style that combines elements from the New Wave of British Heavy Metal with elements of death metal. The style was developed during the early and mid-1990s, primarily in England and Scandinavia...

). This fusion genre is often termed "trance metal".
Chinese trance is a subgenre of trance music that originated in China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 in 2000. It features accelerated tempo, between 160 and 190 bpm. It derives from House, Techno, Psy and Indian Goa Trance.

Another important distinction is between European trance and Goa trance
Goa trance
Goa trance is a form of electronic music that originated during the late 1980s in Goa, India.-History:The music has its roots in the popularity of Goa in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a hippie capital, and although musical developments were incorporating elements of industrial music and EBM...

 which originated in Goa
Goa
Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 around the same time trance was evolving in Europe. Goa trance was influential in the formation of Psychedelic Trance
Psychedelic trance
Psychedelic trance, psytrance or just psy is a form of electronic music characterized by hypnotic arrangements of synthetic rhythms and complex layered melodies created by high tempo riffs. It appeared in the mainstream in 1995 as with reporting of the trend of Goa trance. The genre offers variety...

, which features the use of harmonic minor keys in its composition. Psytrance is also very popular in Israel, with psychedelic trance producers such as Infected Mushroom
Infected Mushroom
Infected Mushroom is an Israeli psychedelic trance DJ act and electronic group originally formed in late 1997 as a duo by producers Erez Eisen and Amit Duvdevani in Haifa...

, Astrix
Astrix
Astrix is a Psychedelic trance DJ and producer specialising in the sub-genre of Full On Psychedelic Trance....

, and Yahel Sherman achieving world wide fame.

The Netherlands

Electronic Dance Music festivals in the Netherlands are mainly organized by four companies ALDA Events, ID&T
ID&T
ID&T is a Dutch entertainment and medium enterprise that was founded in the early 1990s.ID&T stands for the initials of three founders of the company, Irfan, Duncan and Theo, all residents of Amsterdam...

, UDC and Q-Dance
Q-Dance
Q-Dance is a Dutch entertainment company based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The company promotes and produces electronic music festivals in Europe and Australia. Q-Dance focuses on Hardstyle and Hardcore Techno. In 2009 Q-Dance hosted twenty-one music events in eight countries. Some of the most...

:
  • Armin Only
    Armin Only
    Armin Only is an all-night dance event featuring solo performance by Armin van Buuren. The event consists of various genres of electronic dance music , light, laser and firework shows and supporting acts of vocalists such as Nadia Ali, Racoon, Ilse de Lange, and Audrey Gallagher.-Album promotion:In...

    , Jaarbeurs Utrecht, Utrecht: the only DJ to mix at this event is Armin van Buuren. Organized by ALDA Events. Armin Only 2005 was held in Ahoy, Rotterdam. The 2008 and 2010 editions were held in Jaarbeurs Utrecht.
  • Dance Valley
    Dance Valley
    Dance Valley is an annual dance music festival held in the summer in Spaarnwoude, Netherlands. The first edition was in 1995 when 8.000 people attended . Dance Valley grew rapidly, both in duration and number of visitors...

    , Spaarnwoude: an outdoor festival organized by UDC.
  • Sensation
    Sensation (event)
    Sensation is an indoor electronic dance music event which originated in the Netherlandsand organized by ID&T. The original event, which ran exclusively in the Amsterdam ArenA for a period of five years until 2005, is now located throughout Poland, Spain, Austria, Chile, Germany, Belgium, Hungary,...

    , Amsterdam Arena. Organized by ID&T.
  • Energy
    Trance Energy
    Energy is a Dutch dance event featuring Electronic Dance Music DJs from around the world. It is organized by ID&T and has been held from 1999 to the present day in various venues in the Netherlands twice a year. Traditionally, there was a "small" edition and a big edition each year...

    , (Formerly Trance Energy) Jaarbeurs, Utrecht: Previously Trance only under the name "Trance Energy", the festival was renamed "Energy" in 2011 and begun to incorporate other genres. Organized by ID&T.
  • Amsterdam dance event
    Amsterdam dance event
    The Amsterdam Dance Event is a conference for electronic music and a large-scale club event festival based in the city of Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. The festival is held annually in mid-October and takes place in 40 clubs spread all over the city...

    , One of the worlds trance and electronic music festivals held every year in Amsterdam in October.
  • A State of Trance
    A State of Trance
    A State Of Trance is the title of a weekly radio show hosted by prominent trance producer DJ Armin van Buuren. First airing in March 2001 on ID&T Radio , the show takes the format of a two hour mix in which he plays new trance music, both promotional and commercially released...

    , Armin van Buurens weekly radio show A State of Trance
    A State of Trance
    A State Of Trance is the title of a weekly radio show hosted by prominent trance producer DJ Armin van Buuren. First airing in March 2001 on ID&T Radio , the show takes the format of a two hour mix in which he plays new trance music, both promotional and commercially released...

     celebrates every 50th episode with an event. Episode 400 was held in Rotterdam, Episode 450 was not held in the Netherlands, episode 500 was held in the Brabandhallen, Den Bosch, and episode 550 will be in Den Bosch as well.

United Kingdom

  • Gatecrasher
    Gatecrasher
    Gatecrasher is an international clubbing brand made famous by the Gatecrasher dance music events held at the Gatecrasher One nightclub in Sheffield, England during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The event received awards such as "Club Of The Year" at the Ericsson Muzik Magazine Dance Awards in...

     also promote sporadic events and have in the past also used venues such as Birmingham N.E.C
    National Exhibition Centre
    The National Exhibition Centre is an exhibition centre in Birmingham, England. It is near junction 6 of the M42 motorway, and is adjacent to Birmingham International Airport and Birmingham International railway station. It has 20 interconnected halls, set in grounds of 628 acres making it the...

    . Gatecrasher is currently on hiatus until further notice due to fire damage.

North America

Electronic Dance Music festivals in North America feature various genres such as Trance, House, Techno, Electro, Dubstep, Breaks, and Drum & Bass:
  • Nocturnal Festival
    Nocturnal wonderland
    Nocturnal Wonderland, formerly known as Nocturnal Festival, is a massive electronic music festival that has been steadily growing and brings the biggest names in music and dance to an audience of up to 50,000 musical enthusiasts.-History:...

    , an annual southern California massive, held at the NOS Events Center in San Bernardino
    San Bernardino
    San Bernardino, California is a large city in the Inland Empire Metropolitan Area of Southern California.San Bernardino may also refer to:-Landforms:*San Bernardino , a torrent that flows through the Italian province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola...

     in either August or September. Typically bringing in crowds of over 50,000 although this number has been steadily growing.
  • World Electronic Music Festival
    World Electronic Music Festival
    The World Electronic Music Festival is an electronic music event held annually in Southern Ontario over a period of three days. It was run by Destiny Productions out of Toronto. In summer of 2008 Destiny put on what was said to be their last WEMF in Madawaska, however the event has returned in...

     (WEMF): held annually in Canada, this three-day-long outdoor event, consisting mainly of Trance, Hard Dance and Jungle (also featuring happy hardcore) has been held since the 1990s. The 2008 festival was planned to be the final one in its current form, though another WEMF was held in 2011.
  • Bal en Blanc
    Bal en Blanc
    Bal en Blanc is a huge rave party that is hosted annually, in April during Easter holiday weekend, in Montreal, Canada. It was first held in 1995, and the first addition had 800 attendees. It features headliner DJs from all over the world and attracts over 15,000 attendees. This event usually has...

    : is a huge rave party that is hosted annually, in April during Easter holiday weekend, in Montreal, Canada. It features headliner DJs from all over the world and attracts over 15,000 attendees. This event usually has two separate rooms, one catering to house music and the other to trance music. It usually lasts for more than 14 hours. April 2009 15th anniversary line up: Insomnia
    Insomnia
    Insomnia is most often defined by an individual's report of sleeping difficulties. While the term is sometimes used in sleep literature to describe a disorder demonstrated by polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep, insomnia is often defined as a positive response to either of two questions:...

    , Markus Schulz
    Markus Schulz
    Markus Schulz, born , is a German trance music DJ and producer who resides in Miami, Florida, USA. He is best-known for his weekly radio show titled Global DJ Broadcast that airs on Digitally Imported radio, After Hours FM and other online stations...

    , Above and Beyond
    Above & Beyond (band)
    Above & Beyond are a British trance music group formed in 2000 and consists of the members Jono Grant, Tony McGuinness, and Finnish Paavo Siljamäki. They have their own record label Anjunabeats, which releases trance and progressive music, and they also host their own weekly radio show Trance...

    , Armin Van Buuren, Roger Shah, King Louis, Uppercut, Offer Nissim
    Offer Nissim
    Offer Nissim is a popular Israeli DJ and producer. He was born in 1964 in Tel Aviv, Israel.Nissim produces house music in mostly tribal, hard and progressive styles, including exclusive tracks featuring female vocalists and Meital De Razon...

    , Ana Paula, Axwell
    Axwell
    Axwell is a DJ, remixer, record producer and record label owner from Sweden. He is part of a three person group dubbed the Swedish House Mafia along with Sebastian Ingrosso and Steve Angello...

    , Deadmau5
    Deadmau5
    Joel Thomas Zimmerman , better known by his stage name deadmau5 , is a Canadian progressive, electro, and house producer based in Toronto...

    , Victor Calderone
    Victor Calderone
    Victor Calderone is a house music producer, DJ and remixer.-History:Raised in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn, Calderone was introduced into New York City's nightlife by his older brother, Cesar, who was very active in the club music business. Calderone began to dabble with turntables and...

    .

Other

  • Portugal: Boom Festival
    Boom Festival
    The Boom Festival is a biennial festival which takes place in Portugal.The festival features music, paint, sculpture, video art, installations cinema, theater and a concept of crosspollination of different art forms....

     (the last edition was in Idanha-a-Nova) since 1997. This event is an outdoor festival running every two years with a duration of several days, focusing in psychedelic goa trance. The festival also features workshops, presentations, and cinema.
  • Switzerland: Street Parade
    Street Parade
    The Street Parade is the most attended technoparade in Europe, since the end of Love Parade 2010. It takes place in Zurich, Switzerland. Comparable to Berlin's Love Parade, the Street Parade is one of the largest techno parties in the world and the largest annual event in Zurich...

     – The world's biggest electronic music festival (more than one million visitors attend this event year by year).
  • Belgium: Tomorrowland (festival)
    Tomorrowland (festival)
    Tomorrowland is a Belgian outdoor dancing event organised every year in the Flemish town of Boom since 2005. The first names that showed up were Push , Armin Van Buuren, Cor Fijneman, Yves Deruyter, Technoboy and Coone in that year....

     – The largest Belgian open-air electronic music festival. 2010 had more than 120.000 visitors. Tomorrowland in 2011 will have a capacity of up to 180.000 visitors. DJs such as David Guetta
    David Guetta
    Pierre David Guetta , known professionally as David Guetta , is a French house music producer and DJ. Originally a DJ at nightclubs during the 1980s and 1990s, he co-founded Gum Productions and released his first album, Just a Little More Love, in 2002. Later, he released Guetta Blaster and Pop Life...

    , Armin Van Buuren, Bob Sinclar
    Bob Sinclar
    Bob Sinclar, originally spelled "Sinclair" - , is a French record producer, House music DJ, remixer and owner of the label Yellow Productions.- Career history :...

    , Roger Sanchez
    Roger Sanchez
    Roger Sanchez, also known as Roger S. and The S Man, is a Grammy award-winning American House music DJ who has scored many hits in the European and World Charts...

    , Felix The Housecat and many more.
  • India: Sunburn Festival
    Sunburn Festival
    Sunburn is an electronic dance music festival held in Candolim Beach, Goa, India. The festival is an amalgamation of music, entertainment, food and shopping, and was ranked by CNN in 2009 as the ninth best festival in the world. The festival by Shailendra Singh of Percept, in partnership with...

     launched in December 2007 as South Asia's first electronic music festival, and featured heavyweights like Carl Cox and John '00' Fleming. Located seaside in Goa, on India's west coast, the festival has its roots in Goa trance. Sunburn treated more than 5,000 electro revelers to a three-day party by the beach in December 2008. At the 2009 festival, heavyweights such as Armin Van Buuren, Roger Sanchez
    Roger Sanchez
    Roger Sanchez, also known as Roger S. and The S Man, is a Grammy award-winning American House music DJ who has scored many hits in the European and World Charts...

    , and Sander van Doorn
    Sander van Doorn
    Sander van Doorn Sander van Doorn Sander van Doorn (born Sander Ketelaars [] on February 28, 1979 in Eindhoven, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands is a Dutch tech trance DJ and producer...

     participated with audience numbers running between 15,000 to 18,000 making it the biggest edition yet.As of the 2010 festival, it showed the likes of Paul Van Dyk and many other DJ's with estimated crowds of 30,000 people.
  • Thailand: Full Moon Party
    Full Moon Party
    The Full Moon Party is an all-night beach party that originated in Haad Rin on the island of Ko Pha Ngan, Thailand on the night before or after every full moon....

    Held each month on the island of Koh Phangan. Thousands of people from across the world gather on Haad Rin Nok (Sunrise Beach) to dance under the moonlight.

External links

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