Rajput
Overview
 
A Rajput is a member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and in some parts of Pakistan. Rajputs are descendants of one of the major ruling warrior classes in the Indian subcontinent, particularly North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

. Although much of Gujarat, Saurashtra
Saurashtra
Saurashtra is a region of western India, located on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is a peninsula also called Kathiawar after the Kathi Darbar who ruled part of the region once. The Peninsula is shared with the Kachchh region which occupies the north, Saurashtra or Sorath forming the...

, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 and Northwest India have presented significant source for their rise, colonization, back-and-forth migration and dominance across the sub-continent from Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 and Vedic
Vedic
Vedic may refer to:* the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indic texts** Vedic Sanskrit, the language of these texts** Vedic period, during which these texts were produced** Vedic pantheon of gods mentioned in Vedas/vedic period...

 period.
Encyclopedia
A Rajput is a member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and in some parts of Pakistan. Rajputs are descendants of one of the major ruling warrior classes in the Indian subcontinent, particularly North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

. Although much of Gujarat, Saurashtra
Saurashtra
Saurashtra is a region of western India, located on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is a peninsula also called Kathiawar after the Kathi Darbar who ruled part of the region once. The Peninsula is shared with the Kachchh region which occupies the north, Saurashtra or Sorath forming the...

, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 and Northwest India have presented significant source for their rise, colonization, back-and-forth migration and dominance across the sub-continent from Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 and Vedic
Vedic
Vedic may refer to:* the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indic texts** Vedic Sanskrit, the language of these texts** Vedic period, during which these texts were produced** Vedic pantheon of gods mentioned in Vedas/vedic period...

 period. Especially the timeline between Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

 to Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

 along with Kshatrapas
Satrap
Satrap was the name given to the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sassanid Empire and the Hellenistic empires....

 empires in Surashtra and post destruction of Vallabhi
Vallabhi
Vallabhi is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. Also known as Vallabhipura, it was the capital of the ancient Maitraka dynasty.- Origins and history :...

, from where emigration and settlements took place across the Rajputana
Rajputana
Rājputāna was the pre-1949 name of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān, the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. George Thomas was the first in 1800 A.D., to term this region as Rajputana...

 and along with Rajputana
Rajputana
Rājputāna was the pre-1949 name of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān, the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. George Thomas was the first in 1800 A.D., to term this region as Rajputana...

 it prevailed again far up the northern India and Himalayas. Rajputs - Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

 retained the hold across Rajputana
Rajputana
Rājputāna was the pre-1949 name of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān, the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. George Thomas was the first in 1800 A.D., to term this region as Rajputana...

 and Kannauj
Kannauj
Kannauj , also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is traditionally derived from the term Kanyakubja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital...

 empires until succeeding invasions and dominance of Mughals
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

.

After evenly distributed Rajput divisions in Saurashtra
Saurashtra
Saurashtra is a region of western India, located on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is a peninsula also called Kathiawar after the Kathi Darbar who ruled part of the region once. The Peninsula is shared with the Kachchh region which occupies the north, Saurashtra or Sorath forming the...

, Gujarat, and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

, current-day Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 is also a home to most of the Rajputs, although demographically the Rajput population and the former Rajput states are found spread through much the subcontinent, particularly in north, west and central India. Populations are found in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

, Gujarat and Saurashtra
Saurashtra
Saurashtra is a region of western India, located on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is a peninsula also called Kathiawar after the Kathi Darbar who ruled part of the region once. The Peninsula is shared with the Kachchh region which occupies the north, Saurashtra or Sorath forming the...

, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

, Haryana
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

, Jammu
Jammu
Jammu , also known as Duggar, is one of the three administrative divisions within Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state in India.Jammu city is the largest city in Jammu and the winter capital of Jammu and Kashmir...

, Punjab, Uttaranchal, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

, Bihar
Bihar
Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

.

There is no mention of the term Rajput in the historical record as pertaining to a social group prior to the 6th century AD. Rajputs rose to prominence during the 6th to 12th centuries, and until the 20th century Rajputs ruled in the "overwhelming majority" of the princely states of Punjab, Kashmir, Rajasthan and Saurashtra, where the largest number of princely states were found.

History

Early history (6th to 8th centuries)

One of the Rajput King
King
- Centers of population :* King, Ontario, CanadaIn USA:* King, Indiana* King, North Carolina* King, Lincoln County, Wisconsin* King, Waupaca County, Wisconsin* King County, Washington- Moving-image works :Television:...

 Akhand Pratap Singh came to Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 and built a fort of Bathinda along the banks of Sutlej
Sutlej
The Sutlej River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroad region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. It is located north of the Vindhya Range, south of the Hindu Kush segment of the Himalayas, and east of the Central Sulaiman Range in Pakistan.The Sutlej...

 river and declared its Capital. He occupied the areas up to Peshawar
Peshawar
Peshawar is the capital of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative center and central economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan....

. Rajputs remained in power in Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

 till 1010 AD. Waryah or Warya was from the 26th Vikrmaditya. Rajput Ganpal ,Vineypal, Vijaypal and Satpal were from the lineage of Waryah.
Later in 1502 AD some of the generation of Ganpal adopted religion of Islam and settled in Central Pakistan near Beas river, Sutlej,Burewala,Abdul Hakeem, Kamalia, Chicha Watni, Mian Channu ,Multan, Khanewal and Saraye Siddhu etc. Indian British Government had one of their Dewan Mr.Ganpal Rao in 1811 AD.
The Rai Dynasty
Rai Dynasty
The Rai Dynasty was an Aryan dynasty of Sindh, from c. 489–690 AD. The influence of the Rai empire extended from Kashmir in the east, Makran and Debal port in the west, Surat port in south, Kandahar, Sistan, Suleyman, Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north, ruling an area of over 600,000...

, who ruled Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 in the 6th and 7th centuries were displaced by an Arab invasion led by Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi was a Umayyad general who, at the age of 17, began the conquest of the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was born in the city of Taif...

. The dynasty is considered a ruling class of Rajputs. According to some sources, Bin Qasim also attacked Chittorgarh
Chittorgarh
Chittorgarh is a city and a municipality in Rajasthan state of western India. It lies on the Berach River, a tributary of the Banas, and is the administrative headquarters of Chittorgharh District and a former capital of the Sisodia clans of Rajputs of Mewar...

, and was defeated by Bappa Rawal
Bappa Rawal
Bappa Rawal , eighth ruler of the Guhilot Rajput Dynasty and founder of the Mewar Dynasty in present-day Rajasthan, India...

. Certain other invasions by marauding Yavvanas (literally: "Ionian/Greek") are recorded in this era. The appellation Yavvana was used to describe any tribe that emerged from the west or northwest of present-day Pakistan. These invasions may therefore have been a continuation of the usual invasions into India by warlike but less civilized tribes from the northwest, and not a reference specifically to Greeks or Indo-Greeks. Lalitaditya Muktapida
Lalitaditya Muktapida
Lalitaditya Muktapida was a Hindu emperor of the Karkota dynasty from Kashmir, India. He ruled from , during this period he conquered most of Northern India and Central Asia. He was the son of emperor Durlabhvardhana, a ashwa-ghas kayastha...

 of Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

 defeated one such Yavvana invasion in the 8th century and the Gurjara-Pratihara empire rebuffed another in the 9th century.

Rajput kingdoms (8th to 11th centuries)

The first Rajput kingdoms date back to the 7th century, and it was during the 9th to 11th centuries that the Rajputs rose to prominence.

Bappa Rawal
Bappa Rawal
Bappa Rawal , eighth ruler of the Guhilot Rajput Dynasty and founder of the Mewar Dynasty in present-day Rajasthan, India...

 of the Gahlot
Gahlot
Gahlot is a Rajput clan in India, which traces its ancestry to the Suryavanshi Kshatriyas. The variations of the name include Gehlot, Guhila, Gohil or Guhilote. As a clan name, Gahlot and its variations are found among a number of communities which includes the Rajputs,& GurjarsThe royal Gahlots...

 dynasty established his rule in 734 CE at Chittor. Chittor was until that time ruled by the Mori
Mori (clan)
The Mori clan is one of 36 royal Rajput clans of India and falls in 24 eka clans which are not divided further. Mori Rajputs claim they are the descendants of the Maurya emperors, although this is not widely believed. Mori Rajputs are sub clan of the Parmara Rajputs of Agnivansh...

 clan of Rajputs. Maan Mori was their last king at Chittor.

The Kachwaha
Kachwaha
Kachwaha are a Suryavanshi Kshatriya clan who ruled a number of kingdoms and princely states in India such as Alwar, Maihar, Talcher, while the largest kingdom was Jaipur which was founded by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in 1727...

s or Kacchapghata dynasty were originally from Bihar; they founded Gwalior and Narwar
Narwar
Narwar is a town and a nagar panchayat in Shivpuri district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Narwar is a historic town and the Narwar Fort is just east of the Kali Sindh River and is situated at a distance of 42 km from Shivpuri. Narwar was known as Narwar District during the times of...

 in the 8th century. One of their descendants, Dulah Rai (grandson of Raja Isha Singh and son of Prince Sodh Dev of Narwar
Narwar
Narwar is a town and a nagar panchayat in Shivpuri district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Narwar is a historic town and the Narwar Fort is just east of the Kali Sindh River and is situated at a distance of 42 km from Shivpuri. Narwar was known as Narwar District during the times of...

) established his rule in Dhundhar
Dhundhar
Dhundhar is a historical region of Rajasthan state in western India. It includes the districts of Jaipur, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, and Tonk and the northern part of Karauli District...

 in the 11th century.

In 1156 Rawal Jaisal Bhati, the sixth in succession from Deoraj, founded the fort and city of Jaisalmer, and made it his capital as he moved from his former capital at Lodhruva (which is situated about 15 km to the north-west of Jaisalmer).

The imperial Pratiharas established their rule over Malwa and ruled from the cities of Bhinmal
Bhinmal
Bhinmal is a town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, India. It is 72 km south of Jalore town. The name Bhinmal is derived from the word Shrimal.Bhinmal was old capital of the kingdom of the Gurjars during medieval period....

 and Ujjain
Ujjain
Ujjain , is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River , today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini...

 in the 8th and 9th centuries. One branch of the clan established a state in Mandore
Mandore
Mandore , is a town located 9 km north of Jodhpur city, in the Indian state of Rajasthan.-History:Mandore is an ancient town, and was the seat of the Mandorva branch of the Parihar dynasty which ruled the region in the 6th century AD by King Nahar Rao Parihar...

 in the Marwar
Marwar
Marwar is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert. In Rajasthani dialect "wad" means a particular area. The word Marwar is derived from Sanskrit word 'Maruwat'. English translation of the word is 'The region of desert'., The Imperial Gazetteer...

 region in 6th and 7th centuries where they held sway until they were supplanted by the Rathore
Rathore
The Rathore is a Suryavanshi Rajput clan same caste as Lohana. Their Kuldevi is Nagnechiya Mata and "Karani Mata". Rathores are originally from Kannauj in Uttar Pradesh. Rathores are historically considered the samurais of India...

s in the 14th century. Around 816 CE, the Pratiharas of Ujjain conquered Kannauj
Kannauj
Kannauj , also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is traditionally derived from the term Kanyakubja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital...

, and from this city they ruled much of northern India for a century. They went into decline after Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
The Rashtrakuta Empire was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and the 10th centuries. During this period they ruled as several closely related, but individual clans. Rastrakutas in inscriptions represented as descendants of Satyaki, a Yadava well known...

 invasions in the early 10th century.

The Chandela
Chandela
The Chandela is a Rajput clan found in North India. A section of the Chandelas ruled much of the Bundelkhand region of central India for long periods between the 10th and the 13th centuries AD. The Chandela dynasty is famous in Indian history for King Vidyadhar, who repulsed the attacks of Mahmud...

 clan ruled Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand anciently known as Chedi Kingdom is a geographic region of central India...

 after the 10th century, occupying Kalinjar Fort; they later built the temples at Khajuraho Group of Monuments.

The organization of Rajput clans crystallized in this period. Intermarriage among the Rajput clans interlinked the various regions of India and Pakistan, facilitating the flow of trade and scholarship. Archaeological evidence and contemporary texts suggest that Indian society achieved significant prosperity during this era.

The literature composed in this period, both in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 and in the Apabhraṃśas, constitutes a substantial segment of classical Indian literature. The early 11th century saw the reign of the polymath
Polymath
A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas. In less formal terms, a polymath may simply be someone who is very knowledgeable...

 King Bhoja
Bhoja
Bhoja was a philosopher king and polymath of medieval India, who ruled the kingdom of Malwa in central India from about 1000 to 1050 CE. Also known as Raja Bhoja Of Dhar, he belonged to the Paramara dynasty...

, Paramara ruler of Malwa. He was not only a patron of literature and the arts but was a distinguished writer. His Samarangana Sutradhara deals with architecture and his Raja-Martanda is a commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are 194 Indian sūtras that constitute the foundational text of Rāja Yoga. Yoga is one of the six orthodox āstika schools of Hindu philosophy, and Rāja Yoga is the highest practice....

. Many major monuments of northern and central India, including those at Khajuraho, date from this period.

Islamic invasions (11th to 12th centuries)

The fertile and prosperous plains of northern India had always been a destination of choice for streams of invaders coming from the northwest. The last of these waves of invasions were of tribes who had previously converted to Islam. For geographic reasons, Rajput-ruled states suffered the brunt of aggression from various Mongol
Mongols
Mongols ) are a Central-East Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in the countries of Mongolia, China, and Russia. In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia...

Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

Afghan
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 warlords who repeatedly invaded the subcontinent. In his New History of India Stanley Wolpert
Stanley Wolpert
Stanley Wolpert is an American Indologist, author, and academic. He is considered one of the world's foremost authorities on the political and intellectual history of modern India and Pakistan and has written fiction and nonfiction books on the topics...

 wrote, "The Rajputs were the vanguard of Hindu India in the face of the Islamic onslaught."

In the early 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...

 conquered the Hindu Kabul Shahi kingdom in the Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

. His raids into northern India weakened the Pratihara kingdom, which was drastically reduced in size and came under the control of the Chandelas. In 1018 CE, Mahmud sacked the city of Kannauj
Kannauj
Kannauj , also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is traditionally derived from the term Kanyakubja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital...

, seat of the Pratihara kingdom, but withdrew immediately to Ghazni
Ghazni
For the Province of Ghazni see Ghazni ProvinceGhazni is a city in central-east Afghanistan with a population of about 141,000 people...

, being interested in booty rather than empire. In the ensuing chaos, the Gahadvala
Gahadvala
The Gahadvala or Gaharwar is a Hindu Rajput dynasty that ruled the kingdom of Kannauj for around a hundred years, beginning the late 11th century.-Rebuilding of Kannauj Kingdom:...

 dynasty established a modest state centered around Kannauj, ruling for about a hundred years. They were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor
Muhammad of Ghor
Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori , originally called Mu'izzuddīn Muḥammad Bin Sām , was a ruler of the Ghurid dynasty who reigned over a territory spanning present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India.Shahabuddin Ghori reconquered the city of Ghazna Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori...

, who sacked the city in 1194 CE.

Meanwhile, a nearby state centered around present-day Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 was ruled successively by the Tomara and Chauhan clans. Prithviraj Chauhan, ruler of Delhi, defeated Muhammad of Ghor at the First Battle of Tarain
First Battle of Tarain
The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori, were fought in 1191 and 1192 near the town of Tarain , near Thanesar in present-day Haryana, approximately 150 kilometres north of Delhi, India, between the Muslim Ghurid army led by Sultan Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri and the Hindu Rajput...

 (1191 CE). Muhammad returned the following year and defeated Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain
Battles of Tarain
The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori, were fought in 1191 and 1192 near the town of Tarain , near Thanesar in present-day Haryana, approximately 150 kilometres north of Delhi, India, between the Muslim Ghurid army led by Sultan Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri and the Hindu Rajput...

 in 1192 CE. In this battle, as in many others of this era, rampant internecine conflict among Rajput kingdoms facilitated the victory of the invaders.

In the late 11th century, a battle between Parmal and Prithviraj Chauhan took place in Mahoba
Mahoba
Mahoba is a city and Mahoba District of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, in the Bundelkhand region. Mahoba is known for its closeness to Khajuraho, Laundi and other historic places like Kulpahar, Charkhari, Kalinjar, Orchha, and Jhansi...

, a small town in Uttar Pradesh. Alha
Alha
Alha of Banaphar Rajput clan was the famous general of great Chandela King Paramdidev or Parmal who fought Prithviraj Chauhan in 1182 CE.Alha's mother Devaki was Ahir...

 and Udal were the generals of Parmal's army, who fought bravely but lost the battle. The descendants of Alha are Aharwar
Aharwar
The Ahirwar, or Aharwar are a Hindu caste found in North India. The historian Robert Vane Russell noted that the Ahirwar are among the Bharia groups with a name connoting descent from a mixed marriage or outside entrance into the clan, with Ahirwar meaning, "descendants of an Ahir".The Ahirwar was...

 Rajput. However, historians such as Henry M Elliot, W.E Purser and Herbert Charles Fanshawe regard Ahars as being predecessors of the Ahirs
Ahirs
Ahir is an Indian caste. The term can be used synonymously with Yadav, as the latter term refers to Ahirs who have identified as Yadavs. The major divisions of Ahirs are: Yaduvanshi, Nandvanshi, and Gwalvanshi.-Etymology:...

.

Medieval Rajput states (12th to 16th centuries)

Prithviraj Chauhan proved to be the last Rajput ruler of Delhi. The Chauhans, led by Govinda, grandson of Prithviraj, later established a small state centered around Ranthambore in present-day Rajasthan. The Songara
Songara
Sonigara or Songira is the name of a branch of the Chauhan clan of Agnivanshi Rajputs. They had their seat of power at Jalore in the state of Rajasthan , India. Kanhad Dev Sonigara is perhaps the most famous of the Sonigara rulers of Jalore...

 branch of the Chauhan clan later ruled Jalore
Jalore
Jalor, also known as Jalore , is a city in Rajasthan state of western India. It is the administrative headquarters of Jalor District.- Geography :...

, while the Hada branch established their rule over the Hadoti
Hadoti
Hadoti , is a region of Rajasthan state in western India...

 region in the mid-13th century. The Rever
Rêver
"Rêver" is a 1995 song recorded by French singer-songwriter Mylène Farmer. It was the fifth single from her fourth album Anamorphosée and was released on 16 November 1996...

 Maharaja Ranavghansinh ruled Taranga
Taranga (Jain Temple)
Taranga is a Svetambara-affiliated Jain temple and pilgrimage center in Mehsana district, Gujarat, India. It was constructed in 1121 by the Solanki king Kumarpal, under the advice of his teacher Acharya Hemachandra. A 2.75 m marble statue of Rishabha is the central idol. The compound consists of 14...

 in the 11th century. The Tomaras later established themselves at Gwalior, and the ruler Man Singh built the fortress which still stands there. Muhammad's armies brought down the Gahadvala kingdom in 1194 CE. Some surviving members of the Gahadvala dynasty are said to have refugeed to the western desert, formed the Rathore clan, and later founded the state of Marwar
Marwar
Marwar is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert. In Rajasthani dialect "wad" means a particular area. The word Marwar is derived from Sanskrit word 'Maruwat'. English translation of the word is 'The region of desert'., The Imperial Gazetteer...

. The Kachwaha
Kachwaha
Kachwaha are a Suryavanshi Kshatriya clan who ruled a number of kingdoms and princely states in India such as Alwar, Maihar, Talcher, while the largest kingdom was Jaipur which was founded by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in 1727...

 clan came to rule Dhundhar (later Jaipur
Jaipur
Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

) with their capital at Amber.

Other relocations surmised to have occurred in this period include the emigration of Rajput clans to the Himalayas. The Katoch
Katoch
Katoch is the name of a Rajput clan belonging to the Chandervanshi kshatriya lineage. Their traditional areas of residence was Trigarta Kingdom, Jalandhar, Multan i.e...

 clan, the Chauhans of Chamba and certain clans of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

 and Nepal are counted among this number.

Conflict with the Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

 was founded by Qutb ud din Aybak, Muhammad of Ghor's successor, in the early 13th century. Sultan Ala ud din Khilji conquered Gujarat (1297), Malwa (1305), Ranthambore (1301), Chittorgarh
Chittorgarh
Chittorgarh is a city and a municipality in Rajasthan state of western India. It lies on the Berach River, a tributary of the Banas, and is the administrative headquarters of Chittorgharh District and a former capital of the Sisodia clans of Rajputs of Mewar...

 (1303), Jalore
Jalore
Jalor, also known as Jalore , is a city in Rajasthan state of western India. It is the administrative headquarters of Jalor District.- Geography :...

, and Bhinmal
Bhinmal
Bhinmal is a town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, India. It is 72 km south of Jalore town. The name Bhinmal is derived from the word Shrimal.Bhinmal was old capital of the kingdom of the Gurjars during medieval period....

 (1311). All were conquered after long sieges and fierce resistance from their Rajput defenders.

The "First Jauhar
Jauhar
Jauhar and Saka refer to the ancient Indian tradition of honorary self immolation of women and subsequent march of men to the battle field to end their life with respect. It was followed by the Rajput clans in order to avoid capture and dishonour at the hands of their enemies...

" occurred during the siege of Chittor (1303). Jauhar is the mass self-immolation of the female population to avoid capture in time of war. Concurrently, the male population would perform Saka: a fight to the death against impossible odds. The defence of Chittor by the Guhilas, the sagas of Rani Padmini
Rani Padmini
Rani Padmini was the queen of Chittor and the wife of King Rawal Ratan Singh. She features in Padmavat, an epic poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540.- Jauhar :...

, and the memory of the Jauhar have had a defining impact upon the Rajput character.

Ala ud din Khilji delegated the administration of the newly conquered areas to his principal Rajput collaborator, Maldeo Songara, ruler of Jalore. Maldeo Songara was soon displaced by his son-in-law Hammir, a scion of the lately displaced Guhila clan, who re-established the state of Mewar
Mewar
Mewar is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. It includes the present-day districts of Pratapgarh, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara and some of the part of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The region was for centuries a Rajput kingdom that later...

 c. 1326 CE. Mewar was to emerge as a leading Rajput state, after Rana Kumbha expanded his kingdom at the expense of the sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat.

Mughal era (16th–18th century)

The Delhi sultanate was extinguished when Babur
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

 defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat
First battle of Panipat
The first battle of Panipat took place in Northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery.-Details:...

 in 1526. Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
-Historical Fact:Maharana Sangram Singh was the ruler of Mewar state, a region lying within the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan, a desert region, between 1509 and 1527. He was a scion of the Sisodia clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs...

, ruler of Mewar, rallied an army to challenge Babur. Rana Sanga used traditional war tactics and weapons and Babur used modern tactics and cannons, the first example of their use in northern India. Overmatched, Sanga was defeated by Babur at the Battle of Khanua on March 16, 1527. However, it was not until the reign of Akbar fifteen years later that the structure of relations between the Mughal imperium and the Rajput states began to take definitive shape.

Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar

The region of Mewar held out against the Mughal empire and gave battle to all invaders. Rana Sanga, the grandfather of Rana Pratap, fought against Babur
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

. Later, Babur's grandson Akbar attacked Chittor in 1567 CE. After a struggle, Mewar's chief citadel of Chittor finally fell to Akbar in 1568. The third (and last) Jauhar
Jauhar
Jauhar and Saka refer to the ancient Indian tradition of honorary self immolation of women and subsequent march of men to the battle field to end their life with respect. It was followed by the Rajput clans in order to avoid capture and dishonour at the hands of their enemies...

 of Chittor transpired on this occasion. When the fall of the citadel became imminent, the ladies of the fort committed collective self-immolation to save their chastity, and the men sallied out of the fort to meet the invading Muslim army in a fight to the death.

Prior to this event, Mewar's ruler, Rana Udai Singh II, had retired to the nearby hills where he founded the new town of Udaipur
Udaipur
Udaipur , also known as the City of Lakes, is a city, a Municipal Council and the administrative headquarters of the Udaipur district in the state of Rajasthan in western India. It is located southwest of the state capital, Jaipur, west of Kota, and northeast from Ahmedabad...

. He was succeeded while in exile by his son Pratap Singh of Mewar as head of the Sisodia
Sisodia
The Sisodia are Chattari Rajputs of the Suryavanshi lineage who ruled the kingdom of Mewar in Rajasthan. Prior to Rana Hamir the clan was known as Gehlot or Guhilot. In 1303 CE Alla-ud-din Khilji attacked Chittor...

 clan. Under the able leadership of Pratap Singh, they harassed the Mughals enough to cause them to make accommodatory overtures. Pratap Singh, a present-day Rajput icon, rebuffed these overtures of friendship from Akbar and rallied an army to meet the Mughal forces. He was defeated by the Mughal forces at the battle of Haldighati
Haldighati
Haldighati is a mountain pass in the Aravalli Range of Rajasthan in western India. It connects Rajsamand and Pali districts, 40 kilometres from Udaipur...

 in June 1576. He escaped and carried out a relentless guerilla struggle from his hideout in the hills, and by the time of his death, he had reconquered nearly all of his kingdom from the Mughals except for the fortress of Chittor and Mandal Garh. He died in 1597 CE.

After Rana pratap Singh's death, his son Rana Amar Singh continued the struggle for 18 years and faced constant attacks from Mughals. He fought eighteen wars during this period. Finally, he entered into a peace treaty with the Mughals but with certain exemptions: the Rana of Mewar did not have to attend the Mughal court personally, but the crown prince would attend the court, and it was not necessary for the Rana and the Sisodias to enter into marriage alliances with the Mughals. The treaty was signed by Rana Amar Singh and Prince Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad (later Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

) in 1615 CE at Gogunda
Gogunda
Gogunda is a small town and tehsil headqaurters located about 35 km in north-west from Udaipur in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is situated on a high mountain in Aravalli hills and is reached by crossing a difficult mountain pass. The great Mewar king Maharana Pratap's Raj Tilak was performed...

. Singh thus regained control of his state as a vassal of the Mughals. The Sisodias, rulers of Mewar, were the last Rajput dynasty to enter into an alliance with the Mughals.

The internal conflicts which existed among the Rajput communities were significant in enabling the Mughal invaders to achieve control over them, while nonetheless recognising the role of the Rajputs as a ruling class. European travellers of the period also documented this internal strife and, noting that the Rajputs ate meat and used opium, believed that those two traits explained their passionate nature.

Maratha empire

As the central authority of the Mughal empire disintegrated following the death of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

, the power of the Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

s was being consolidated under the leadership of Shivaji Bhonsle (his grandfather, Maloji Bhonsle, claimed descent from the Sisodia clan of Rajputs). The only major defeat in Shivaji's rise to power came against the Kachwaha ruler, Mirza Raja Jai Singh I
Jai Singh I
Mirza Raja Jai Singh was a senior general of the Mughal Empire and a ruler of the kingdom of Amber . His father was Maha Singh the Raja of Garha, and his mother was Damayanti, a princess of Mewar.The great Raja Man Singh of Amber had several sons, the most capable of whom were the eldest Jagat...

 of Amber, who was commanded by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (ruled 1658–1707). When in Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

, on a visit to Aurangzeb, Shivaji was deceitfully kept under house arrest. With the assistance of Mirza Raja Jai Singh I and his son Ram Singh I, Shivaji managed to escape to the Maratha Empire.

Having been able to cross the Narmada River
Narmada River
The Narmada , also called Rewa is a river in central India and the fifth largest river in the Indian subcontinent. It is the third largest river that completely flows within India after Ganges and Godavari...

 by 1728, Peshwa Bajirao and his successor Balaji Bajirao were able to organise military expeditions initially into Malwa and then into other parts of Hindustan. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam of Hyderabad in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent. The Maratha expansion was temporarily halted after their defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat
Third battle of Panipat
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat , about 60 miles north of Delhi between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Confederacy and a coalition of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali with 2 Indian Muslim allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab, and the...

 in 1761. For the Rajput states of the former empire in the north of the Indian subcontinent it was a period of constantly shifting alliances and military conflicts with the various forces competing for power.

The Maratha's constant attempt to extract tribute and conduct raids greatly antagonised the people of the Rajput states and Jat community and was one of the reasons for the emergence of military alliances between the Rajput states and the East India Company
East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 by the early 19th century. In a notable incident of this period, Jayappa Scindia
Jayappa Scindia
Jayappa Scindia was a Maratha general. He ruled Gwalior State in northern India from 1745 to 1755, succeeding his father Ranoji Scindia who had founded it....

, one of the Maratha generals, was murdered at Nagaur
Nagaur
Nagaur is a city in the state of Rajasthan in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Nagaur District. The Nagaur city lies about midway between Jodhpur and Bikaner. It was founded by the Naga Kshatriyas.- History :...

 while trying to collect taxes. In another incident, Ishwari Singh, ruler of Jaipur, committed suicide. The public of Jaipur was very much infuriated by this incident. On January 20, 1751, when 4,000 Maratha soldiers came on an informal visit to Jaipur, all the gates of the city were closed, and the Rajput army along with the civilian population attacked the Marathas and killed them. Almost 3,000 Marathas died. 1,000 were injured and managed to escape.

In May 1787 the Marathas suffered a defeat in the Battle of Lalsot. On June 20, 1790, the Battle of Patan
Battle of Patan
The Battle of Patan was fought on 20 June 1790 between the Maratha Confederacy and the Rajputs of Jaipur and their Mughal allies.-Background:...

 was fought between the Maratha Confederacy and the Rajputs of Jaipur and their Mughal allies, in which the Rajputs suffered a severe blow. The Marathas demanded taxes and damages. The Rana of Mewar could not pay these taxes and had to mortgage some of his properties to the Scindia family to raise the funds.

The Rajput states remained loyal to the Mughals. But the Mughals changed their liberal policy towards Rajputs and other Hindus, resulting in a major Hindu revolt by the Sikhs, Jats, Marathas, Satnamis and Rajputs. The outrage ultimately weakened the Mughal empire irreparably. At the last the emperor became merely a nominal head. Mughals fought among themselves and Rajputs were unjustifiably held responsible for the fighting. In this uncertainty and chaos the Rajputs chose to begin to withdraw their support from the Mughals. Whether they physically supported the Mughals with troops depended upon their own interests and the status quo of the respective states. This became the main concern of the rulers of Delhi and other Rajput states, rather than the reemergence of a powerful Mughal regime. The English East India Company
East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 established control in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
The Battle of Plassey , 23 June 1757, was a decisive British East India Company victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies, establishing Company rule in South Asia which expanded over much of the Indies for the next hundred years...

, where they defeated the Nawab of Bengal
Nawab of Bengal
The Nawabs of Bengal were the hereditary nazims or subadars of the subah of Bengal during the Mughal rule and the de-facto rulers of the province.-History:...

. After a period of chaos and unrest culminating in the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

, Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India on 1 May 1876, officially supplanting the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II
Bahadur Shah II
His Royal Highness Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar , also known as Bahadur Shah or Bahadur Shah II was the last of the Mughal emperors in India, as well as the last ruler of the Timurid Dynasty.He was the son of Akbar Shah II and Lalbai, who was a Hindu Rajput...

 and the rule of the East India Company.

The British colonial period

The Maratha Confederacy began to be in conflict with the British Raj beginning in 1772. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
The Third Anglo-Maratha War was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India. The war left the Company in control of most of India. It began with an invasion of Maratha territory by 110,400 British East India Company troops, the largest...

 (1817–1818), all the states in the Rajputana
Rajputana
Rājputāna was the pre-1949 name of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān, the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. George Thomas was the first in 1800 A.D., to term this region as Rajputana...

 region, entered into subsidiary alliance
Subsidiary alliance
A subsidiary alliance is an alliance between a dominant nation and a nation that it dominates.-British policy in India:The doctrine of subsidiary alliance was introduced by Marquess Wellesley, British Governor-General of India from 1798 to 1805...

 with the East India Company and became princely state
Princely state
A Princely State was a nominally sovereign entitity of British rule in India that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule such as suzerainty or paramountcy.-British relationship with the Princely States:India under the British Raj ...

s under the British Raj. The British took direct control of Ajmer
Ajmer
Ajmer , formerly written as Ajmere, is a city in Ajmer District in Rajasthan state in India. Ajmer has a population of around 800,000 , and is located west of the Rajasthan state capital Jaipur, 200 km from Jodhpur, 274 km from Udaipur, 439 km from Jaisalmer, and 391 km from...

, which became the province of Ajmer-Merwara
Ajmer-Merwara
Ajmer-Merwara is a former province of British India in the historical Ajmer region. The territory of the province was ceded to the British by Daulat Rao Sindhia by a treaty on June 25, 1818....

 There were about 13 main Rajput states and 2 Jat states namely Bharatpur
Bharatpur
Bharatpur may refer to:Nepal*Bharatpur, Nepal, a city in Nepal.*Bharatpur, Dhanusa, village in Nepal*Bharatpur, Mahottari, village in NepalIndia*Bharatpur, Rajasthan, a city, Rajasthan, India....

 & Dholpur
Dholpur
Dholpur is a city in eastern-most parts of the Rajasthan state of India. It is the administrative headquarters of Dholpur District and was formerly seat of the Dholpur princely state, before Independence....

 in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 region.During British regime three more states were created in Rajputana.They were Tonk
Tonk
Tonk as a place may refer to:* Tonk, India* Tonk, PakistanTonk as a person may refer to:*Yash Tonk, Indian actorTonk may also refer to:* Tonk * Tonk, an expression within logic - see logical harmony...

, Jhalawar
Jhalawar
Jhalawar is a city in southeastern Rajasthan. It was the capital of the former princely state of Jhalawar, and is the administrative headquarters of Jhalawar District. Jhalawar was once known as Brijnagar .-Jhalawar town:...

 and Dholpur
Dholpur
Dholpur is a city in eastern-most parts of the Rajasthan state of India. It is the administrative headquarters of Dholpur District and was formerly seat of the Dholpur princely state, before Independence....

. A large number of other Rajput states in central and western India made a similar transition. Most of them were placed under the authority of the Central India Agency
Central India Agency
The Central India Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. The Central India Agency was made up entirely of princely states, which were under native rulers...

 and the various states' agencies of Kathiawar
Kathiawar
Kathiawar or Kathiawad is a peninsula in western India, which is part of the Saurashtra region on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is bounded on the north by the great wetland of the Rann of Kutch, on the northwest by the Gulf of Kutch, on the west and south by the Arabian Sea, and on...

.

Some British colonial officials were impressed by the military qualities of the Rajputs. In his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan James Tod
James Tod
Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod was an English officer of the British East India Company and an Oriental scholar.Tod was born in London and educated in Scotland, later joining the East India Company as a military officer. He travelled to India in 1799 as a cadet in the Bengal Army where he rose...

 writes:
In this instance, it should be noted that Tod was unusually enamoured of the Rajputs, is venerated by them to this day, and is viewed by many historians since the late nineteenth-century as being a not particularly reliable commentator. Jason Freitag, his only significant biographer, has said that Tod is "manifestly biased".

The perceived Rajput practice of female infanticide
Infanticide
Infanticide or infant homicide is the killing of a human infant. Neonaticide, a killing within 24 hours of a baby's birth, is most commonly done by the mother.In many past societies, certain forms of infanticide were considered permissible...

 and sati
Sati
Sati may refer to:*An alternative name for Hindu goddess Dakshayani, Shiva's first wife*Sati , an ancient Indian tradition of the immolation of a widow on her husband's funeral pyre, now illegal*Mindfulness...

(widow immolation) was another matter regarding which the British colonialists had an interest. It was believed that the Rajputs were the primary adherents to these practices, which the Raj considered to be savage and which was the initial impetus for British ethnographic
Ethnography
Ethnography is a qualitative method aimed to learn and understand cultural phenomena which reflect the knowledge and system of meanings guiding the life of a cultural group...

 studies of the subcontinent that eventually manifested itself as a much wider exercise in social engineering
Social engineering
Social engineering may refer to:* Social engineering , efforts to influence society on a large scale* Social engineering , the practice of obtaining confidential information by manipulating and/or deceiving people....

.

In reference to the role of the Rajput soldiers serving under the British banner, Captain A. H. Bingley states:
Bingley went on to describe the role of the Rajput infantries in the Gurkha War
Gurkha War
The Gurkha War , sometimes called the Gorkha War or the Anglo–Nepalese War, was fought between the Kingdom of Nepal and the British East India Company as a result of border tensions and ambitious expansionism...

 (1814 to 1816) and the Anglo-Afghan Wars, and stated that the Rajput troops were instrumental in the victory of the Anglo-Sikh wars in Punjab. He detailed the role the Rajput troopers in the Egyptian campaign of 1882 as well as their victorious action in the Third Anglo-Burmese War
Third Anglo-Burmese War
The Third Anglo-Burmese War was a conflict that took place during 7–29 November 1885, with sporadic resistance and insurgency continuing into 1887. It was the final of three wars fought in the 19th century between the Burmese and the British...

 of 1885. The Rajputs retained their principal role in Indian society, serving in armies wherever necessary throughout this period, as they do to this day. Rajput soldiers remain an integral part in the armies of India and Pakistan.

When India gained its independence in 1947, the Rajput states became a part of the Dominions of India
Dominion of India
The Dominion of India, also known as the Union of India or the Indian Union , was a predecessor to modern-day India and an independent state that existed between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950...

 and Pakistan
Dominion of Pakistan
The Dominion of Pakistan was an independent federal Commonwealth realm in South Asia that was established in 1947 on the partition of British India into two sovereign dominions . The Dominion of Pakistan, which included modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, was intended to be a homeland for the...

.

Identity and major clans

Rajput is from the Sanskrit word Raja-Putra (son of a king). The word is found in ancient texts, including the Vedas
Vedas
The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

, the Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

, and the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

. It was used by the ancient Sanskrit grammarian Pāṇini in the 4th century BCE. The word Kshatriya ("warrior") was used for the Vedic community of warriors and rulers. To differentiate royal warriors from other Kshatriyas the word Rajputra was used. Rajputra eventually was shortened to Rajput; gradually it became a caste
Caste system in India
The Indian caste system is a system of social stratification and social restriction in India in which communities are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called Jātis....

. Rajputs belong to one of three great patrilineages, which are Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi and Agnivanshi. Further, many Rajputs also claim patrilineage from Nagavanshi
Nagavanshi
The Nagavanshi dynasty is one of the ancient Kshatriya dynasties of India. The Vedas do not mention Kshatriyas of either Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi, Nagavanshi, Agnivanshi or such Vanshas or lineages. The Puranas, of debatable dating, constructed such genealogies. The Puranas were supposedly...

 clan.

Suryavanshi lineage: the sun

The Suryavanshi, which means Sun Dynasty, claim descent from Surya
Surya
Surya Suraya or Phra Athit is the chief solar deity in Hinduism, one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wives, Aditi; of Indra; or of Dyaus Pitar . The term Surya also refers to the Sun, in general. Surya has hair and arms of gold...

, the solar deity. The Sun Dynasty is oldest among Kshatriyas. The first person of this dynasty was Vivasvan, which means the Fire Bird. Ikshvaku
Ikshvaku
Ikshvaku pāli: Okkāka) was the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty and founder of the Solar Dynasty of Kshatriyas in Vedic civilization in ancient India.-In Hinduism:He is remembered in Hindu scriptures as a righteous and glorious king...

 was the first important king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Kakutsth Harishchandra
Harishchandra
Harishchandra, in Hindu religious texts is the 36th king of the Solar Dynasty, Surya Maharishi Gothram . His legend is very popular and often told as a benchmark for an ideal life. He was renowned for his piety and justice. His name is Sanskrit for "having golden splendour".Harishchandra had two...

, Sagar, Dileepa
Dileepa
Dilīpa in Hindu mythology is said to have been one of the most righteous and chivalrous emperors that the Solar Dynasty or the Ikshvaku dynasty, had ever produced. He was childless for a long time. In the matter of begetting an heir, he took the advice of Vasishta...

, Bhagiratha
Bhagiratha
Bhageeratha was a great king in Hindu mythology who brought the River Ganges to Earth.-Early life:Bhageeratha was the king of Kosala, a kingdom in ancient India. He was a descendent of the great king Sagara of the Suryavamsa, or Sun Dynasty...

, Raghu
Raghu
The Great Emperor Raghu was a valorous king of the Ikshvaku dynasty. According to the Raghuvamsha, he was born to king Dilipa and his queen Sudakshina. His name in Sanskrit means the fast one, deriving from Raghu's chariot driving abilities. So celebrated were the exploits of Raghu, that his...

, Dashratha, and Rama
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

. The poet Kalidasa
Kalidasa
Kālidāsa was a renowned Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language...

 wrote the great epic Raghuvaṃśa
Raghuvamsa
Raghuwamsa or Raghu race is a legendary lineage of warrior kings tracing its ancestry to the Hindu solar deity Surya. Kalidasa's famous work, Raghuvaṃśa depicts the legend of this race. The progenitor of the lineage was Raghu, son of the emperor Dileepa. Raghu was father of Aja, and thus...

 about the dynasty of Raghu. Rajput Suryavanshi clans that claim descent from Rama include the Rathore
Rathore
The Rathore is a Suryavanshi Rajput clan same caste as Lohana. Their Kuldevi is Nagnechiya Mata and "Karani Mata". Rathores are originally from Kannauj in Uttar Pradesh. Rathores are historically considered the samurais of India...

s, Chattar
Chattar
Chattar Chattari, Chhatri or Chatri, is the mother caste of Suryavanshi Rajputs which originated from Rajputana . However, there are many gotras and sub-castes in other major dynasties which emerged from the Chattari lineage...

s, Jamwal
Jamwal
Jamwal is a suryavanshi Rajput clan of Chattari lineage in Jammu and Kashmir that claims solar origin by direct descent from Sri Rama Chandra of Raghav Rajput clan. Jamwal traditions state that their ancestor, Raja Agnigarba, came from Ayodhya and founded a small state on the banks of River Tawi...

s, Lohana
Lohana
The Lohana also referred to as Luvana are an Indian caste,largely classified as merchants and are categorized as Vaishya or Bania caste although their ancient history proves that they are Kshatriya of Suryavanshi descant, claiming their lineage from Lava, son of Rama...

, Raghav (surname), Pundir
Pundir
The Pundir is a Suryavanshi branch of Rajputs. The word itself is derived from the Sanskrit word Purandara literally meaning "the destroyer of forts". The Pundir Rajputs hold riyasat in Nahan, Garhwal, Nagaur and Saharanpur where their Kuldevis are situated...

s, Sisodia
Sisodia
The Sisodia are Chattari Rajputs of the Suryavanshi lineage who ruled the kingdom of Mewar in Rajasthan. Prior to Rana Hamir the clan was known as Gehlot or Guhilot. In 1303 CE Alla-ud-din Khilji attacked Chittor...

s, Hill Chauhan
House of Tulsipur
The Royal House of Tulsipur or Tulsipur-Dang was one of 22 principalities in the Baise Rajya confederation of the western Rapti region before the unification of Nepal, c. 1760. The Rajas of Tulsipur-Dang belonged to the Chauhan clan...

s, Bargujars, Durgvanshi
Durgvanshi
Durgvanshi is a Hindu Rajput kshatriya clan whose origins date to the medieval periods in history. The exact origins with the roots being debated as being from modern day Gujarat or Madhya Pradesh....

, Minhas
Minhas
Minhas or Manhas or Minhas-Dogra is a Suryavanshi Rajput clan from the Punjab region and Jammu & Kashmir in India and Pakistan. It is an off-shoot of Jamwal-Dogra Rajputs, the founders of the city and state of Jammu and its rulers from ancient times to 1948 CE...

 (Manhas), Kashyap
Kashyap
Kashyapa was an ancient sage , who is one of the Saptarshis in the present Manvantara; with others being Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja...

 (Gotra
Gotra
In the Hindu society, the term Gotra broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Panini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram , which means "the word gotra denotes the progeny beginning with the son's son"...

), Jhala
Jhala
Jhala is a term in Hindustani classical music which denotes the fast-paced conclusions of classical compositions. It is often characterized by the overwhelming of the melodic component by the rhythmic component. This is sometimes effected by the rapid striking together of the chikari between notes....

s, and the Kachwaha
Kachwaha
Kachwaha are a Suryavanshi Kshatriya clan who ruled a number of kingdoms and princely states in India such as Alwar, Maihar, Talcher, while the largest kingdom was Jaipur which was founded by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in 1727...

.

Chandravanshi lineage: the moon

The Chandravanshi, which means Moon Dynasty, claim descent from Chandra
Chandra
In Hinduism, Chandra is a lunar deity and a Graha. Chandra is also identified with the Vedic Lunar deity Soma . The Soma name refers particularly to the juice of sap in the plants and thus makes the Moon the lord of plants and vegetation. He is described as young, beautiful, fair; two-armed and...

, the lunar deity. This Lunar Dynasty is very ancient, but is younger than the Sun Dynasty. Som was the first king of this dynasty. Other important kings were Pururawa, Nahush, Yayati
Yayati
Yayati was a Puranic king and the son of king Nahusha and one of ancestors of Pandavas. He was a great scholar of Vedas. He had five brothers, Yati, Samyati, Ayati, Viyati and Kriti. He had two wives, Devayani and Sharmishtha. Devayani was the daughter of Shukracharya, the priest of Asuras ....

, Dushyant, Bharata
Bharata (emperor)
Bharata was a legendary emperor of India, and is referred to in Hindu and Jain mythology. He was son of King Dushyanta and Shakuntala and thus a descendant of the Lunar Dynasty of the Kshatriya caste. Bharata conquered all of greater Greater India, uniting it into a single entity which was named...

, Kuru, Shantanu, and Yudhishthir. The ancient text Harivamsa
Harivamsa
The Harivamsha is an important work of Sanskrit literature, containing 16,374 verses, mostly in metre. The text is also known as . This text is believed as a khila to the Mahabharata and is traditionally ascribed to Krishna Dvaipayana Veda Vyasa...

 gives details of this dynasty and the Suryavanshi.

The Yaduvanshi lineage, claiming descent from the Hindu god Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

 and from Yadu
Yadu
Yadu is one of the five Indo-Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rig Veda . The Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas mention Yadu as the eldest son of king Yayati and his queen Devayani. The prince of King Yayati, Yadu was a self-respecting and a very established ruler...

, eldest son of Yayati
Yayati
Yayati was a Puranic king and the son of king Nahusha and one of ancestors of Pandavas. He was a great scholar of Vedas. He had five brothers, Yati, Samyati, Ayati, Viyati and Kriti. He had two wives, Devayani and Sharmishtha. Devayani was the daughter of Shukracharya, the priest of Asuras ....

, are a major sect of the Chandravanshi. Rajput Chandravanshi clans that claim descent from Krishna and Yadu are the Saini
Saini
Saini is a Rajput descent caste of India. Sainis, also known as Shoorsaini in Puranic literature, are now found by their original name only in Punjab and in the neighboring states of Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh...

s of Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

, Bhatti, Doad
Doad
Doad is a clan of Rajput Chandravanshi. Large settlements of Doads are found in Dist. Hoshiarpur , Nawanshahar and Dist Una . But there are also Doads found in Faridkot, Bathinda, Ferozpur etc. Some Doads who have immigrated to North America and Europe from village Jalwehra have changed their...

, Jadaun
Jadaun
The Jadaun are a clan of Chandravanshi Rajputs found in North India and Pakistan.-Origins:...

, Jadeja
Jadeja
Jadeja belong to the Yaduvanshi rajputs or Chandravanshi rajputs. They are one of the 36 royal dynasties of old tracing their origins to Lord Krishna...

, Khanzada
Khanzada
The Khanzada, or Khanzadah, is a subdivision of Rajputs, now found mainly in the Rajasthan, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh of India; and Sindh, Punjab provinces of Pakistan. Khanzadahs, the royal family of Muslim Jadon Rajputs, accepted Islam on their association with the Sufi Saints...

, Meo
Meo
Mayo or Meo or Mewati is a prominent Muslim Rajput tribe from North-Western India. A considerable number of Meos migrated to Pakistan after independence in 1947 and now they are estimated to be over 12 million. In Pakistan, Meos have lost their distinct group identity and cultural traditions and...

s, Yadav
Yadav
Yādav refers to an umbrella group of traditionally non-elite pastoral communities, or castes, in India and Nepal which since the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has claimed descent from the mythological King Yadu as a part of a movement of social and political resurgence.The term 'Yadav' now...

s, Tanwar, Sulehria
Sulehria
The Suleria are a clan of Chandravanshi Rajputs. The Sikh and Hindu Sulehria live in India. The Muslim Sulehria are considered a clan of Muslim Rajputs and nearly all live in Pakistan...

, Pathania
Pathania
Pathania is the name of the branch of the Tomara Clan of Chandravanshi, Rajputs, descended from Lord Arjuna, the hero of Mahabharata. It is one of the ruling Rajput clans of India. They mostly live in and around Himachal Pradesh, in North India...

 and Katoch
Katoch
Katoch is the name of a Rajput clan belonging to the Chandervanshi kshatriya lineage. Their traditional areas of residence was Trigarta Kingdom, Jalandhar, Multan i.e...

.

Agnivanshi lineage: fire

The Agnivanshi lineage claims descent from Agni
Agni
Agni is a Hindu deity, one of the most important of the Vedic gods. He is the god of fire and the acceptor of sacrifices. The sacrifices made to Agni go to the deities because Agni is a messenger from and to the other gods...

, the Vedic God of Fire. They were the earliest lineage to rise to political prominence. The legend which addresses the origin of the Agnivanshi Rajputs is disputed. According to Puranic legend, as found in Bhavishya Purana
Bhavishya Purana
The Bhavishya Purana is one of the eighteen major Hindu Puranas. It is written in Sanskrit and attributed to Rishi Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedas. The title Bhavishya Purana signifies a work that contains prophecies regarding the future...

 (an ancient religious text), many but not all of the traditional kshatriyas of the land were exterminated by Parashurama
Parashurama
Parashurama , is the sixth avatar of Vishnu and belongs to the treta yuga, and is the son of a Brahmin father Jamadagni and mother Renuka. He is considered one of the seven immortal human. He received an axe after undertaking a terrible penance to please Shiva, from whom he learned the methods of...

, an avatar
Avatar
In Hinduism, an avatar is a deliberate descent of a deity to earth, or a descent of the Supreme Being and is mostly translated into English as "incarnation," but more accurately as "appearance" or "manifestation"....

 of Vishnu. The sage Vasishta performed a great a yagna (ritual of sacrifice) at Mount Abu, at the time of emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

's sons (Ashoka died around 232 BCE). From the influence of mantras of the four Vedas, four kshatriyas were born. They were the founders of the four Agnivanshi clans:
  • Parmar (Paramara
    Paramara
    Paramara is a Maratha, Gurjar,& Rajput clan of India.The Paramara clan belongs to the Agnivansha of Rajputs ancient Kshatriyas...

    )
  • Chamahanas (Chauhan
    Chauhan
    Chauhan, Chouhan or Chohan , , - is a clan who ruled parts of northern India in the Middle Ages. The clan is most famous for Rajput King Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan...

    )
  • Solanki (Chalukya)
  • Parihara (Pratihara
    Pratihara
    The Gurjara Pratihara , often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power , the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its...

    )


Only these four clans out of the many Rajput clans are considered to be Agnivanshi.

Consciousness of clan and lineage

The aforementioned three patrilineages (vanshas) sub-divide into 36 main clans (kulas), which in turn divide into numerous branches (shakhas), to create the intricate clan system
Rajput clans
The Rajputs are a martial race and caste of the Indian subcontinent. They are a Hindu caste whose members generally consider themselves to belong to the Kshatriya varna ; however, Encyclopædia Britannica notes that their members have come from a variety of lineages, including from foreign...

 of the Rajputs. The principle of patrilineage is staunchly adhered to in determining one's place in the system and a strong consciousness of clan and lineage is an essential part of the Rajput character. Authoritative listings of the 36 Rajput clans
Rajput clans
The Rajputs are a martial race and caste of the Indian subcontinent. They are a Hindu caste whose members generally consider themselves to belong to the Kshatriya varna ; however, Encyclopædia Britannica notes that their members have come from a variety of lineages, including from foreign...

 are to be found in the Kumārpāla Charita of Jayasimha and the epic poem Prithvirāj Rāso
Prithviraj Raso
The Prithviraj Raso or Prithvirajaraso is an epic poem composed by court poet, Chand Bardai, on the life of Prithviraj III, a Chauhan king who ruled Ajmer and Delhi between 1165 and 1192.Chand Bardai claimed to be contemporary of Prithviraj Chauhan.The historicity of Prithviraj Raso was proved...

of Chandbardai.

Languages

Rajputs typically speak whatever languages are spoken by the general population of the areas in which they live. Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 and Rajasthani
Rajasthani language
Rajasthani Rajasthani Rajasthani (Devanagari: , Perso-Arabic: is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family. It is spoken by 50 million people in Rajasthan and other states of India and in some areas of Pakistan. The number of speakers may be up to 80 million worldwide...

 are the primary languages, as most are situated in Hindi-speaking states, but Gujarati is also spoken among Rajputs residing in Gujarat.

Culture and ethos

The Rajputs were designated by the British as a "Martial Race
Martial Race
Martial Race was a designation created by Army officials of British India, where they classified each ethnic group into one of two categories: 'Martial' and 'Non-Martial'. A 'martial race' was typically considered brave and well built for fighting. The 'non-martial races' were those whom the...

." The martial race was a designation created by officials of British India
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 to describe "races" (ethnic groups) that were thought to be naturally warlike and aggressive in battle and to possess qualities like courage, loyalty, self sufficiency, physical strength, resilience, orderliness, a hard working nature, a fighting tenacity, and military strategy. The British recruited heavily from these "martial races" for service in the colonial army.

Rajput lifestyle

The double-edged scimitar known as the khanda
Khanda (sword)
The blade is usually broad and quite heavy and broadens from the hilt to the tip. The blade transforms into tip rather abruptly. The hilt has a small metal spike coming out in the opposite direction typical of the khanda...

 was a popular weapon among the Rajputs of that era. On special occasions, a primary chief would break up a meeting of his vassal chiefs with khanda nariyal, the distribution of daggers and coconuts. Another affirmation of the Rajput's reverence for his sword was the Karga Shapna ("adoration of the sword") ritual, performed during the annual Navaratri festival, after which a Rajput is considered "free to indulge his passion for rapine and revenge".

By the late 19th century, there was a shift of focus among Rajputs from politics to a concern with kinship. Many Rajputs of Rajasthan are nostalgic about their past and keenly conscious of their genealogy, emphasizing a Rajput ethos that is martial in spirit, with a fierce pride in lineage and tradition.

See also

  • Punjabi Rajput
  • History of Rajputs
    History of Rajputs
    The Rajput are a ruling class of the Indian subcontinent and south east Asia. In the Hindustani language, those belonging to the Kshatriya Varna of Hindus are generally referred to as "Rajputs"...

  • List of Rajputs
  • Rajput clans
    Rajput clans
    The Rajputs are a martial race and caste of the Indian subcontinent. They are a Hindu caste whose members generally consider themselves to belong to the Kshatriya varna ; however, Encyclopædia Britannica notes that their members have come from a variety of lineages, including from foreign...

  • Religious liberalism in Rajput courts
    Religious liberalism in Rajput courts
    There are some manifestations of religious liberalism in Rajput courts, evident in the acts of Rajput rulers who held sway over substantial areas of the Northern India in past centuries.-Support of Zoroastrianism:...

  • Sikh Rajputs
    Sikh Rajputs
    Sikh Rajputs are the followers of Sikhism belonging to the Rajput Ethnic group. Rajputs are a warrior clan. According to the 1901 British census of India, there were 20,000 Rajput converts to Sikhism....

  • Muslim Rajputs
    Muslim Rajputs
    Muslim Rajputs or Musulman Rajputs are Muslims belonging to the Hindu Rajput Kshatriya groups of Indian subcontinent, who converted to Islam.-History:...


Further reading

  • Kasturi, Malavika, Embattled Identities Rajput Lineages, Oxford University Press (2002) ISBN 0-19-565787-X
  • M K A Siddiqui (ed.), Marginal Muslim Communities In India, Institute of Objective Studies, New Delhi (2004)
  • W. W. Hunter, The Indian empire, its people, history and products. First published: London, Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1886. ISBN 81-206-1581-6.
  • Dasharatha Sharma
    Dasharatha Sharma
    Professor Dasharatha Sharma was an Indologist and a noted expert in the history of the Rajasthan region in India. He was born in the Rajasthani city of Churu and studied at Churu, the city of Bikaner in Rajasthan and at the University of Delhi. Prof. Sharma had degrees of Master of Arts in...

     Rajasthan through the Ages a comprehensive and authentic history of Rajasthan, prepared under the orders of the Government of Rajasthan. First published 1966 by Rajasthan Archives.

External links

  • Rajputs Columbia Encyclopedia
    Columbia Encyclopedia
    The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. First published in 1935, and continuing its important relationship with Columbia University, the encyclopedia underwent major revisions in 1950 and 1963; the current edition is...

    , Sixth Edition; 2005
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK