RL circuit
Overview
Infinite impulse response
Infinite impulse response is a property of signal processing systems. Systems with this property are known as IIR systems or, when dealing with filter systems, as IIR filters. IIR systems have an impulse response function that is non-zero over an infinite length of time...
electronic filter
Electronic filter
Electronic filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both...
s. It consists of a resistor
Resistor
A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's...
and an inductor
Inductor
An inductor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in a magnetic field. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries...
, either in series or in parallel, driven by a voltage source
Voltage source
In electric circuit theory, an ideal voltage source is a circuit element where the voltage across it is independent of the current through it. A voltage source is the dual of a current source. In analysis, a voltage source supplies a constant DC or AC potential between its terminals for any current...
.
The fundamental passive
Passivity (engineering)
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems...
linear
Linear
In mathematics, a linear map or function f is a function which satisfies the following two properties:* Additivity : f = f + f...
circuit elements are the resistor
Resistor
A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's...
(R), capacitor
Capacitor
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric ; for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated...
(C) and inductor
Inductor
An inductor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in a magnetic field. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries...
(L). These circuit elements can be combined to form an electrical circuit in four distinct ways: the RC circuit
RC circuit
A resistor–capacitor circuit ', or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source...
, the RL circuit, the LC circuit
LC circuit
An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit or tuned circuit, consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C...
and the RLC circuit
RLC circuit
An RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor, connected in series or in parallel. The RLC part of the name is due to those letters being the usual electrical symbols for resistance, inductance and capacitance respectively...
with the abbreviations indicating which components are used.
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
A resistor-inductor circuit (RL circuit), or RL filter or RL network, is one of the simplest analogue infinite impulse response
electronic filter
s. It consists of a resistor
and an inductor
, either in series or in parallel, driven by a voltage source
.
linear
circuit elements are the resistor
(R), capacitor
(C) and inductor
(L). These circuit elements can be combined to form an electrical circuit in four distinct ways: the RC circuit
, the RL circuit, the LC circuit
and the RLC circuit
with the abbreviations indicating which components are used. These circuits exhibit important types of behaviour that are fundamental to analogue electronics
. In particular, they are able to act as passive filters. This article considers the RL circuit in both series and parallel as shown in the diagrams.
In practice, however, capacitors (and RC circuits) are usually preferred to inductors since they can be more easily manufactured and are generally physically smaller, particularly for higher values of components.
s) of an inductor with inductance L (in henries) is
The complex frequency s is a complex number
,
where
eigenfunctions of ANY linear
time-invariant (LTI) system are of the following forms:
, or letting and rewriting; , and collecting terms is
From Euler's formula
, the real-part of these eigenfunctions are exponentially-decaying sinusoids:
and the evaluation of s becomes
across the inductor is:
and the voltage across the resistor is:.
for the inductor is
Similarly, the transfer function for the resistor is
In addition, the transfer function for the inductor has a zero
located at the origin
.
and,
and the phase angles
are:
and.
representing the output:.
for each voltage is the inverse Laplace transform of the corresponding transfer function. It represents the response of the circuit to an input voltage consisting of an impulse or Dirac delta function
.
The impulse response for the inductor voltage is
where u(t) is the Heaviside step function
and
is the time constant
.
Similarly, the impulse response for the resistor voltage is
The ZIR of an RL circuit is:
.
expressions. Analysis of them will show which frequencies the circuits (or filters) pass and reject. This analysis rests on a consideration of what happens to these gains as the frequency becomes very large and very small.
As :.
As :.
This shows that, if the output is taken across the inductor, high frequencies are passed and low frequencies are attenuated (rejected). Thus, the circuit behaves as a high-pass filter
. If, though, the output is taken across the resistor, high frequencies are rejected and low frequencies are passed. In this configuration, the circuit behaves as a low-pass filter
. Compare this with the behaviour of the resistor output in an RC circuit
, where the reverse is the case.
The range of frequencies that the filter passes is called its bandwidth. The point at which the filter attenuates the signal to half its unfiltered power is termed its cutoff frequency
. This requires that the gain of the circuit be reduced to.
Solving the above equation yieldsrad
/s
orHz
which is the frequency that the filter will attenuate to half its original power.
Clearly, the phases also depend on frequency, although this effect is less interesting generally than the gain variations.
As :.
As :
So at DC
(0 Hz
), the resistor voltage is in phase with the signal voltage while the inductor voltage leads it by 90°. As frequency increases, the resistor voltage comes to have a 90° lag relative to the signal and the inductor voltage comes to be in-phase with the signal.
The most straightforward way to derive the time domain behaviour is to use the Laplace transforms of the expressions for and given above. This effectively transforms . Assuming a step input
(i.e. before and then afterwards):
and.
Partial fraction
s expansions and the inverse Laplace transform yield:.
Thus, the voltage across the inductor tends towards 0 as time passes, while the voltage across the resistor tends towards V, as shown in the figures. This is in keeping with the intuitive point that the inductor will only have a voltage across as long as the current in the circuit is changing — as the circuit reaches its steady-state, there is no further current change and ultimately no inductor voltage.
These equations show that a series RL circuit has a time constant, usually denoted being the time it takes the voltage across the component to either fall (across L) or rise (across R) to within of its final value. That is, is the time it takes to reach and to reach .
The rate of change is a fractional per . Thus, in going from to , the votage will have moved about 63% of the way from its level at toward its final value. So the voltage across L will have dropped to about 37% after , and essentially to zero (0.7%) after about . Kirchhoff's voltage law implies that the voltage across the resistor will rise at the same rate. When the voltage source is then replaced with a short-circuit, the voltage across R drops exponentially with t from towards 0. R will be discharged to about 37% after , and essentially fully discharged (0.7%) after about . Note that the current, , in the circuit behaves as the voltage across R does, via Ohm's Law
.
The delay in the rise/fall time of the circuit is in this case caused by the back-EMF from the inductor which, as the current flowing through it tries to change, prevents the current (and hence the voltage across the resistor) from rising or falling much faster than the time-constant of the circuit. Since all wires have some self-inductance
and resistance, all circuits have a time constant. As a result, when the power supply is switched on, the current does not instantaneously reach its steady-state value, . The rise instead takes several time-constants to complete. If this were not the case, and the current were to reach steady-state immediately, extremely strong inductive electric fields would be generated by the sharp change in the magnetic field — this would lead to breakdown of the air in the circuit and electric arc
ing, probably damaging components (and users).
These results may also be derived by solving the differential equation
describing the circuit:,
and.
The first equation is solved by using an integrating factor
and yields the current which must be differentiated to give ; the second equation is straightforward. The solutions are exactly the same as those obtained via Laplace transforms.
With complex impedances:
and.
This shows that the inductor lags the resistor (and source) current by 90°.
The parallel circuit is seen on the output of many amplifier circuits, and is used to isolate the amplifier from capacitive loading effects at high frequencies. Because of the phase shift introduced by capacitance, some amplifiers become unstable at very high frequencies, and tend to oscillate. This affects sound quality and component life (especially the transistors), and is to be avoided.
Infinite impulse response
Infinite impulse response is a property of signal processing systems. Systems with this property are known as IIR systems or, when dealing with filter systems, as IIR filters. IIR systems have an impulse response function that is non-zero over an infinite length of time...
electronic filter
Electronic filter
Electronic filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both...
s. It consists of a resistor
Resistor
A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's...
and an inductor
Inductor
An inductor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in a magnetic field. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries...
, either in series or in parallel, driven by a voltage source
Voltage source
In electric circuit theory, an ideal voltage source is a circuit element where the voltage across it is independent of the current through it. A voltage source is the dual of a current source. In analysis, a voltage source supplies a constant DC or AC potential between its terminals for any current...
.
Introduction
The fundamental passivePassivity (engineering)
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems...
linear
Linear
In mathematics, a linear map or function f is a function which satisfies the following two properties:* Additivity : f = f + f...
circuit elements are the resistor
Resistor
A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's...
(R), capacitor
Capacitor
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric ; for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated...
(C) and inductor
Inductor
An inductor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in a magnetic field. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries...
(L). These circuit elements can be combined to form an electrical circuit in four distinct ways: the RC circuit
RC circuit
A resistor–capacitor circuit ', or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source...
, the RL circuit, the LC circuit
LC circuit
An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit or tuned circuit, consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C...
and the RLC circuit
RLC circuit
An RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor, connected in series or in parallel. The RLC part of the name is due to those letters being the usual electrical symbols for resistance, inductance and capacitance respectively...
with the abbreviations indicating which components are used. These circuits exhibit important types of behaviour that are fundamental to analogue electronics
Analogue electronics
Analogue electronics are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two different levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal...
. In particular, they are able to act as passive filters. This article considers the RL circuit in both series and parallel as shown in the diagrams.
In practice, however, capacitors (and RC circuits) are usually preferred to inductors since they can be more easily manufactured and are generally physically smaller, particularly for higher values of components.
- This article relies on knowledge of the complex impedanceElectrical impedanceElectrical impedance, or simply impedance, is the measure of the opposition that an electrical circuit presents to the passage of a current when a voltage is applied. In quantitative terms, it is the complex ratio of the voltage to the current in an alternating current circuit...
representation of inductors and on knowledge of the frequency domainFrequency domainIn electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, frequency domain is a term used to describe the domain for analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time....
representation of signals.
Complex Impedance
The complex impedance Z_{L} (in ohmOhm
The ohm is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.- Definition :The ohm is defined as a resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of 1 volt, applied to these points, produces in the conductor a current of 1 ampere,...
s) of an inductor with inductance L (in henries) is
The complex frequency s is a complex number
Complex number
A complex number is a number consisting of a real part and an imaginary part. Complex numbers extend the idea of the one-dimensional number line to the two-dimensional complex plane by using the number line for the real part and adding a vertical axis to plot the imaginary part...
,
where
- j represents the imaginary unitImaginary unitIn mathematics, the imaginary unit allows the real number system ℝ to be extended to the complex number system ℂ, which in turn provides at least one root for every polynomial . The imaginary unit is denoted by , , or the Greek...
:
- is the exponential decay constant (in radians per second), and
- is the angular frequencyAngular frequencyIn physics, angular frequency ω is a scalar measure of rotation rate. Angular frequency is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity...
(in radians per second).
Eigenfunctions
The complex-valuedComplex number
A complex number is a number consisting of a real part and an imaginary part. Complex numbers extend the idea of the one-dimensional number line to the two-dimensional complex plane by using the number line for the real part and adding a vertical axis to plot the imaginary part...
eigenfunctions of ANY linear
Linear
In mathematics, a linear map or function f is a function which satisfies the following two properties:* Additivity : f = f + f...
time-invariant (LTI) system are of the following forms:
, or letting and rewriting; , and collecting terms is
From Euler's formula
Euler's formula
Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the deep relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function...
, the real-part of these eigenfunctions are exponentially-decaying sinusoids:
Sinusoidal Steady State
Sinusoidal steady state is a special case in which the input voltage consists of a pure sinusoid (with no exponential decay). As a result,and the evaluation of s becomes
Series circuit
By viewing the circuit as a voltage divider, we see that the voltageVoltage
Voltage, otherwise known as electrical potential difference or electric tension is the difference in electric potential between two points — or the difference in electric potential energy per unit charge between two points...
across the inductor is:
and the voltage across the resistor is:.
Current
The current in the circuit is the same everywhere since the circuit is series:.Transfer functions
The transfer functionTransfer function
A transfer function is a mathematical representation, in terms of spatial or temporal frequency, of the relation between the input and output of a linear time-invariant system. With optical imaging devices, for example, it is the Fourier transform of the point spread function i.e...
for the inductor is
Similarly, the transfer function for the resistor is
Poles and zeros
Both transfer functions have a single pole located atIn addition, the transfer function for the inductor has a zero
Zero (complex analysis)
In complex analysis, a zero of a holomorphic function f is a complex number a such that f = 0.-Multiplicity of a zero:A complex number a is a simple zero of f, or a zero of multiplicity 1 of f, if f can be written asf=g\,where g is a holomorphic function g such that g is not zero.Generally, the...
located at the origin
Origin (mathematics)
In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space. In a Cartesian coordinate system, the origin is the point where the axes of the system intersect...
.
Gain and phase angle
The gains across the two components are found by taking the magnitudes of the above expressions:and,
and the phase angles
Phase (waves)
Phase in waves is the fraction of a wave cycle which has elapsed relative to an arbitrary point.-Formula:The phase of an oscillation or wave refers to a sinusoidal function such as the following:...
are:
and.
Phasor notation
These expressions together may be substituted into the usual expression for the phasorPhasor (electronics)
In physics and engineering, a phase vector, or phasor, is a representation of a sine wave whose amplitude and angular frequency are time-invariant. It is a subset of a more general concept called analytic representation. Phasors decompose the behavior of a sinusoid into three independent...
representing the output:.
Impulse Response
The impulse responseImpulse response
In signal processing, the impulse response, or impulse response function , of a dynamic system is its output when presented with a brief input signal, called an impulse. More generally, an impulse response refers to the reaction of any dynamic system in response to some external change...
for each voltage is the inverse Laplace transform of the corresponding transfer function. It represents the response of the circuit to an input voltage consisting of an impulse or Dirac delta function
Dirac delta function
The Dirac delta function, or δ function, is a generalized function depending on a real parameter such that it is zero for all values of the parameter except when the parameter is zero, and its integral over the parameter from −∞ to ∞ is equal to one. It was introduced by theoretical...
.
The impulse response for the inductor voltage is
where u(t) is the Heaviside step function
Heaviside step function
The Heaviside step function, or the unit step function, usually denoted by H , is a discontinuous function whose value is zero for negative argument and one for positive argument....
and
is the time constant
Time constant
In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter \tau , is the risetime characterizing the response to a time-varying input of a first-order, linear time-invariant system.Concretely, a first-order LTI system is a system that can be modeled by a single first order...
.
Similarly, the impulse response for the resistor voltage is
Zero input response (ZIR)
The Zero input response, also called the natural response, of an RL circuit describes the behavior of the circuit after it has reached constant voltages and currents and is disconnected from any power source. It is called the zero-input response because it requires no input.The ZIR of an RL circuit is:
.
Frequency domain considerations
These are frequency domainFrequency domain
In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, frequency domain is a term used to describe the domain for analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time....
expressions. Analysis of them will show which frequencies the circuits (or filters) pass and reject. This analysis rests on a consideration of what happens to these gains as the frequency becomes very large and very small.
As :.
As :.
This shows that, if the output is taken across the inductor, high frequencies are passed and low frequencies are attenuated (rejected). Thus, the circuit behaves as a high-pass filter
High-pass filter
A high-pass filter is a device that passes high frequencies and attenuates frequencies lower than its cutoff frequency. A high-pass filter is usually modeled as a linear time-invariant system...
. If, though, the output is taken across the resistor, high frequencies are rejected and low frequencies are passed. In this configuration, the circuit behaves as a low-pass filter
Low-pass filter
A low-pass filter is an electronic filter that passes low-frequency signals but attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency varies from filter to filter. It is sometimes called a high-cut filter, or treble cut filter...
. Compare this with the behaviour of the resistor output in an RC circuit
RC circuit
A resistor–capacitor circuit ', or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source...
, where the reverse is the case.
The range of frequencies that the filter passes is called its bandwidth. The point at which the filter attenuates the signal to half its unfiltered power is termed its cutoff frequency
Cutoff frequency
In physics and electrical engineering, a cutoff frequency, corner frequency, or break frequency is a boundary in a system's frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be reduced rather than passing through.Typically in electronic systems such as filters and...
. This requires that the gain of the circuit be reduced to.
Solving the above equation yieldsrad
Radian
Radian is the ratio between the length of an arc and its radius. The radian is the standard unit of angular measure, used in many areas of mathematics. The unit was formerly a SI supplementary unit, but this category was abolished in 1995 and the radian is now considered a SI derived unit...
/s
Second
The second is a unit of measurement of time, and is the International System of Units base unit of time. It may be measured using a clock....
orHz
Hertz
The hertz is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. One of its most common uses is the description of the sine wave, particularly those used in radio and audio applications....
which is the frequency that the filter will attenuate to half its original power.
Clearly, the phases also depend on frequency, although this effect is less interesting generally than the gain variations.
As :.
As :
So at DC
Direct current
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through...
(0 Hz
Hertz
The hertz is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. One of its most common uses is the description of the sine wave, particularly those used in radio and audio applications....
), the resistor voltage is in phase with the signal voltage while the inductor voltage leads it by 90°. As frequency increases, the resistor voltage comes to have a 90° lag relative to the signal and the inductor voltage comes to be in-phase with the signal.
Time domain considerations
- This section relies on knowledge of e, the natural logarithmic constant.
The most straightforward way to derive the time domain behaviour is to use the Laplace transforms of the expressions for and given above. This effectively transforms . Assuming a step input
Heaviside step function
The Heaviside step function, or the unit step function, usually denoted by H , is a discontinuous function whose value is zero for negative argument and one for positive argument....
(i.e. before and then afterwards):
and.
Partial fraction
Partial fraction
In algebra, the partial fraction decomposition or partial fraction expansion is a procedure used to reduce the degree of either the numerator or the denominator of a rational function ....
s expansions and the inverse Laplace transform yield:.
Thus, the voltage across the inductor tends towards 0 as time passes, while the voltage across the resistor tends towards V, as shown in the figures. This is in keeping with the intuitive point that the inductor will only have a voltage across as long as the current in the circuit is changing — as the circuit reaches its steady-state, there is no further current change and ultimately no inductor voltage.
These equations show that a series RL circuit has a time constant, usually denoted being the time it takes the voltage across the component to either fall (across L) or rise (across R) to within of its final value. That is, is the time it takes to reach and to reach .
The rate of change is a fractional per . Thus, in going from to , the votage will have moved about 63% of the way from its level at toward its final value. So the voltage across L will have dropped to about 37% after , and essentially to zero (0.7%) after about . Kirchhoff's voltage law implies that the voltage across the resistor will rise at the same rate. When the voltage source is then replaced with a short-circuit, the voltage across R drops exponentially with t from towards 0. R will be discharged to about 37% after , and essentially fully discharged (0.7%) after about . Note that the current, , in the circuit behaves as the voltage across R does, via Ohm's Law
Ohm's law
Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points...
.
The delay in the rise/fall time of the circuit is in this case caused by the back-EMF from the inductor which, as the current flowing through it tries to change, prevents the current (and hence the voltage across the resistor) from rising or falling much faster than the time-constant of the circuit. Since all wires have some self-inductance
Inductance
In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the ability of an inductor to store energy in a magnetic field. Inductors generate an opposing voltage proportional to the rate of change in current in a circuit...
and resistance, all circuits have a time constant. As a result, when the power supply is switched on, the current does not instantaneously reach its steady-state value, . The rise instead takes several time-constants to complete. If this were not the case, and the current were to reach steady-state immediately, extremely strong inductive electric fields would be generated by the sharp change in the magnetic field — this would lead to breakdown of the air in the circuit and electric arc
Electric arc
An electric arc is an electrical breakdown of a gas which produces an ongoing plasma discharge, resulting from a current flowing through normally nonconductive media such as air. A synonym is arc discharge. An arc discharge is characterized by a lower voltage than a glow discharge, and relies on...
ing, probably damaging components (and users).
These results may also be derived by solving the differential equation
Differential equation
A differential equation is a mathematical equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and its derivatives of various orders...
describing the circuit:,
and.
The first equation is solved by using an integrating factor
Integrating factor
In mathematics, an integrating factor is a function that is chosen to facilitate the solving of a given equation involving differentials. It is commonly used to solve ordinary differential equations, but is also used within multivariable calculus, in this case often multiplying through by an...
and yields the current which must be differentiated to give ; the second equation is straightforward. The solutions are exactly the same as those obtained via Laplace transforms.
Parallel circuit
The parallel RL circuit is generally of less interest than the series circuit unless fed by a current source. This is largely because the output voltage is equal to the input voltage — as a result, this circuit does not act as a filter for a voltage input signal.With complex impedances:
and.
This shows that the inductor lags the resistor (and source) current by 90°.
The parallel circuit is seen on the output of many amplifier circuits, and is used to isolate the amplifier from capacitive loading effects at high frequencies. Because of the phase shift introduced by capacitance, some amplifiers become unstable at very high frequencies, and tend to oscillate. This affects sound quality and component life (especially the transistors), and is to be avoided.
See also
- LC circuitLC circuitAn LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit or tuned circuit, consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C...
- RC circuitRC circuitA resistor–capacitor circuit ', or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source...
- RLC circuitRLC circuitAn RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor, connected in series or in parallel. The RLC part of the name is due to those letters being the usual electrical symbols for resistance, inductance and capacitance respectively...
- Electrical networkElectrical networkAn electrical network is an interconnection of electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, transmission lines, voltage sources, current sources and switches. An electrical circuit is a special type of network, one that has a closed loop giving a return path for the current...
- List of electronics topics