from 246 BC to 221 BC during the Warring States Period
. He became the first emperor
of a unified China in 221 BC. He ruled until his death in 210 BC at the age of 49.
Calling himself the First Emperor (始皇帝) after China's unification, Qin Shi Huang is a pivotal figure in Chinese history, ushering nearly two millennia of imperial rule.
To have a great peace, the state must be united. The King do what it must to fulfill his responsible as a king.
I have collected all the writings of the Empire and burnt those which were of no use.
from 246 BC to 221 BC during the Warring States Period
. He became the first emperor
of a unified China in 221 BC. He ruled until his death in 210 BC at the age of 49.
Calling himself the First Emperor (始皇帝) after China's unification, Qin Shi Huang is a pivotal figure in Chinese history, ushering nearly two millennia of imperial rule. After unifying China, he and his chief advisor Li Si
passed a series of major economic and political reforms. He undertook gigantic projects, including the first version of the Great Wall of China
, the now famous city-sized mausoleum
guarded by a life-sized Terracotta Army
, and a massive national road system, all at the expense of numerous lives. To ensure stability, Qin Shi Huang outlawed and burned many books and buried some scholars alive
Name of Shi Huangdi
Title meaningDuring the preceding Zhou Dynasty
(700 BCE-221 BCE), later rulers of the independent states of China
by convention used the title “King
” . Following his defeat of the last of the Warring States in 221 BC
, King Zheng of Qin
became de facto
ruler of all China
. To celebrate this achievement and consolidate his power base, King Zheng created a new title calling himself the First Sovereign Qin Emperor , often shortened to Qin Shi Huang .
- The character (始) means “first”. The first emperor's heirs would then be successively called "Second Emperor", "Third Emperor" and so on down the generations.
- The characters "皇帝" come from the mythical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors Era (3rd century BC), from which the two characters (皇帝) are extracted. By adding such a title, Qín Shǐ Huángdì hoped to appropriate some of the previous Yellow EmperorYellow EmperorThe Yellow Emperor or Huangdi1 is a legendary Chinese sovereign and culture hero, included among the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Tradition holds that he reigned from 2697–2597 or 2696–2598 BC...
's (黃帝) divine status and prestige.
- Additionally, the character "Huáng" (皇) literally means "shining" or "splendid" and was "most frequently used as an epithet of Heaven."
UsageBoth names, "Qin Shi Huangdi" (秦始皇帝) and "Qin Shi Huang" (秦始皇), appear in the Records of the Grand Historian
written by Sima Qian
. The longer name "Qin Shi Huangdi" (秦始皇帝) appears first in chapter 5, though the shorter name "Qin Shi Huang" (秦始皇) was the name of chapter 6 (秦始皇本紀). However, the name Qin Shi Huangdi is believed to be the correct one since Ying Zheng joined together the words Huang (Imperial) and Di (ruler), to create Huangdi (emperor).
Family history and birthA rich merchant in the State of Han
, named Lü Buwei
, met Master Yiren (公子異人). Lü Buwei's manipulation helped Yiren become King Zhuangxiang of Qin
. At the time, King Zhuangxiang of Qin was a prince of Qin
blood, who took residence at the court of the State of Zhao
as a hostage to guarantee an armistice
between the two states.
According to the Records of the Grand Historian
, the first emperor was born in 259 BC as the eldest son of King Zhuangxiang of Qin
. King Zhuangxiang of Qin saw a concubine belonging to Lü Buwei
, and she bore the first emperor. At birth, he was given the personal name Zheng (政). Because Zheng was born in Handan
, capital of the enemy state of Zhao
(趙), he thus had the name Zhao Zheng. Zhao Zheng's ancestors are said to have come from Gansu province.
Birth controversyAccording to the Records of the Grand Historian
, written by Sima Qian
during the next dynasty and avowedly hostile to Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor was not the actual son of King Zhuangxiang of Qin. By the time Lü Buwei
introduced the dancing girl Zhao Ji (趙姬, or the Concubine from Zhao) to the future King Zhuangxiang of Qin, she was allegedly Lü Buwei's concubine and had already become pregnant by him. According to translations of the Annals of Lü Buwei
the woman gave birth to the future emperor in the city of Handan
in 259 BC, the first month of the 48th year of King Zhaoxiang of Qin. The idea that the emperor was an illegitimate child added to the negative view of him for most of the next 2000 years after his death. Today there is skepticism amongst some scholars about this claim as recorded by Sima Qian. There is some inconsistency between the date of birth and the theory of Lü Buwei being the real father of the first emperor. In the view of some scholars, the length of the pregnancy, lasting a full year if the accusation is true, is impossible according to modern medicine. Professors John Knoblock and Jeffrey Riegel, in their translation of Lü Buwei's Spring and Autumn Annals
, call the story "patently false, meant both to libel Lü and to cast aspersions on the First Emperor."
Teenage yearsIn 246 BC, when King Zhuangxiang died after a short reign of just three years, he was succeeded to the throne by his 13-year-old son. At the time, Zhao Zheng was still young, so Lü Buwei
acted as the regent prime minister of the State of Qin , which was still waging war against the other six states
Lao Ai's attempted coupAs King Zheng grew older, Lü Buwei became fearful that the boy king would discover his liaison with his mother Zhao Ji (趙姬). He decided to distance himself and look for a replacement for the queen dowager. He found a man named Lao Ai (嫪毐). According to the Record of Grand Historian, Lao Ai was disguised as a eunuch
by plucking his beard. Later Lao Ai and queen Zhao Ji got along so well they secretly had two sons together. Lao Ai then became ennobled as Marquis
Lao Ai, and was showered with riches. Lü Buwei's plot was supposed to replace King Zheng with one of the hidden sons. But during a dinner party drunken Lao Ai was heard bragging about being the young king's step father. In 238 BC the king was traveling to the ancient capital of Yong
(雍). Lao Ai seized the queen mother's seal and mobilized an army in an attempt to start a coup
A price of 1 million copper coins
was placed on Lao Ai's head if he was taken alive or half a million if dead. Lao Ai's supporters were captured and beheaded
; then Lao Ai was tied up and torn to five pieces by horse carriages, while his entire family was executed to the third degree. The two hidden sons were also killed, while mother Zhao Ji was placed under house arrest until her death many years later. Lü Buwei drank a cup of poison wine and committed suicide in 235 BC. Ying Zheng then assumed full power as the King of the Qin state. Replacing Lü Buwei, Li Si
was also now the new chancellor
Jing Ke's assassination missionKing Zheng and his troops continued to take over different states. The state of Yan
was small, weak and frequently harassed by soldiers. It was no match for the Qin state. So Crown Prince Dan of Yan
plotted an assassination attempt to get rid of King Zheng, begging Jing Ke
to go on the mission in 227 BC. Jing Ke
was accompanied by Qin Wuyang
in the plot. Each was supposed to present a gift to King Zheng, a map of Dukang and the decapitated
head of Fan Wuji.
Qin Wuyang first tried to present the map case gift, but trembled in fear and moved no further towards the king. Jing Ke continued to advance toward the king, while explaining that his partner "has never set eyes on the Son of Heaven
", which is why he is trembling. Jing Ke had to present both gifts by himself. While unrolling the map, a dagger
was revealed. The king drew back, stood on his feet, but struggled to draw the sword to defend himself. At the time, other palace officials were not allowed to carry weapons. Jing Ke pursued the king, attempting to stab him, but missed. King Zheng drew out his sword and cut Jing Ke's thigh. Jing Ke then threw the dagger, but missed again. Suffering eight wounds from the king's sword, Jing Ke realised his attempt had failed. Both Jing Ke and Qin Wuyang would be killed afterwards. The Yan state was conquered by the Qin state five years later.
Gao Jianli's assassination missionGao Jianli was a close friend of Jing Ke
, who wanted to avenge his death. As a famous lute
player, one day he was summoned by King Zheng to play the instrument. Someone in the palace who had known him in the past exclaimed, "This is Gao Jianli". Unable to bring himself to kill such a skilled musician, the emperor ordered his eyes put out. But the king allowed Gao Jianli to play in his presence. He praised the playing and even allowed Gao Jianli to get closer. As part of the plot, the lute was fastened with a heavy piece of lead
. He raised the lute and struck at the king. He missed, and his assassination attempt failed. Gao Jianli was later executed.
First unification of ChinaIn 230 BC, King Zheng unleashed the final campaigns of the Warring States Period
, setting out to conquer the remaining independent kingdoms, one by one.
The first state to fall was Han
(韓; sometimes called Hann to distinguish it from the Han 漢 of Han dynasty
), in 230 BC. Then Qin took advantage of a natural disaster
, the 229 BC Zhao state earthquake, to invade and conquer Zhao where Qin Shi Huang had been born. He now avenged his poor treatment as a child hostage there, seeking out and killing his enemies.
Qin armies conquered the state of Zhao
in 228 BC, the northern country of Yan
in 226 BC, the small state of Wei
in 225 BC, and the largest state and greatest challenge, Chu
, in 223 BC.
In 222 BC, the last remnants of Yan and the royal family were captured in Liaodong in the northeast. The only independent country left was now state of Qi
, in the far east, what is now the Shandong
peninsula. Terrified, the young king of Qi sent 300,000 people to defend his western borders. In 221 BC, the Qin armies invaded from the north, captured the king, and annexed Qi.
For the first time, all of China was unified under one powerful ruler. In that same year, King Zheng proclaimed himself the "First Emperor" (始皇帝), no longer a king in the old sense and now far surpassing the achievements of the old Zhou Dynasty rulers.
In the South, military expansion continued during his reign, with various regions being annexed to what is now Guangdong
province and part of today's Vietnam
Division and politicsIn an attempt to avoid a recurrence of the political chaos of early imperial China, the conquered states were not allowed to be referred to as independent nations. The empire was then divided into 36 commanderies (郡), later more than 40 commanderies. The whole of China was now divided into administrative units: first commanderies, then districts (縣), counties
(鄉) and hundred-family units (里). This system was different from the previous dynasties, which had loose alliances and federations. People could no longer be identified by their native region or former feudal state, as when a person from Chu
was called "Chu person" (楚人). Appointments were now based on merit instead of hereditary rights.
EconomyQin Shi Huang and Li Si
unified China economically by standardizing the Chinese units of measurement
s such as weights and measures
, the currency
, the length of the axle
s of cart
s to facilitate transport on the road system. The emperor also developed an extensive network of roads and canals connecting the provinces to improve trade between them. The currency of the different states were also standardized to the Ban liang coin
(半兩). Perhaps most importantly, the Chinese script
was unified. Under Li Si, the seal script
of the state of Qin was standardized through removal of variant forms within the Qin script itself. This newly standardized script was then made official throughout all the conquered regions, thus doing away with all the regional scripts to form one language, one communication system for all of China.
IdentificationQin Shi Huang also followed the school of the five elements, earth, wood, metal, fire and water. It was believed that the royal house of the previous dynasty Zhou
had ruled by the power of fire, which was the color red. The new Qin dynasty must be ruled by the next element on the list, which is water, represented by the color black. Black became the color for garments, flags, pennants. Other associations include north as the cardinal direction
, winter season and the number six. Tallies and official hats were six inches long, carriages six feet wide, one pace
(步) was 6 ft (1.8 m).
Zhang Liang's assassination attemptIn 230 BC, the state of Qin had defeated the state of Han
. A Han aristocrat named Zhang Liang swore revenge on the Qin emperor. He sold all his valuables and in 218 BC, he hired a strongman
assassin and built him a heavy metal cone weighing 120 jin
(roughly 160 lb or 97 kg). The two men hid among the bushes along the emperor's route over a mountain. At a signal, the muscular assassin hurled the cone at the first carriage and shattered it. However, the emperor was actually in the second carriage, as he was traveling with two identical carriages for this very reason. Thus the attempt failed. Both men were able to escape in spite of a huge manhunt.
North: Great wallThe Qin fought nomad
ic tribes to the north and northwest. The Xiongnu
tribes were not defeated and subdued, thus the campaign was tiring and unsuccessful, and to prevent the Xiongnu from encroaching on the northern frontier any longer, the emperor ordered the construction of an immense defensive wall. This wall, for whose construction hundreds of thousands of men were mobilized, and an unknown number died, is a precursor to the current Great Wall of China
. It connected numerous state walls which had been built during the previous four centuries, a network of small walls linking river defenses to impassable cliffs. A great monument of China to this day, the Great Wall still stands, open to the public to challenge its million steps.
South: Lingqu canalA famous South China quotation was "In the North there is the Great wall, in the South there is the Lingqu canal" (北有長城、南有靈渠). In 214 BC the Emperor began the project of a major canal to transport supplies to the army. The canal allows water transport between north and south China. The canal, 34 kilometers
in length, links the Xiang River
which flows into the Yangtze
and the Li Jiang
, which flows into the Pearl River
. The canal connected two of China's major waterways and aided Qin's expansion into the southwest. The construction is considered one of the three great feats of Ancient Chinese engineering, the others being the Great Wall and the Sichuan
Dujiangyan Irrigation System
End of hundred schools of thoughtWhile the previous Warring States era was one of constant warfare, it was also considered the golden age of free thought. Qin Shi Huang eliminated the Hundred Schools of Thought
which incorporated Confucianism
and other philosophies. After the unification of China, with all other schools of thought banned, legalism
became the endorsed ideology of the Qin dynasty. Legalism was basically a system that required the people to follow the laws or be punished accordingly.
Book burning periodBeginning in 213 BC, at the instigation of Li Si and to avoid scholars' comparisons of his reign with the past, Qin Shi Huang ordered most existing books to be burned with the exception of those on astrology, agriculture, medicine, divination, and the history of the State of Qin
. This would also serve the purpose of furthering the ongoing reformation of the writing system by removing examples of obsolete scripts. Owning the Book of Songs or the Classic of History
was to be punished especially severely. According to the later Records of the Grand Historian
, the following year Qin Shi Huang had some 460 scholars buried alive for owning the forbidden books. The emperor's oldest son Fusu
criticised him for this act. The emperor's own library still had copies of the forbidden books but most of these were destroyed later when Xiang Yu
burned the palaces of Xianyang in 206 BC.
Other achievementsAfter the unification, Qin Shi Huang moved out of Xianyang palace (咸陽宮), and began building the gigantic Epang palace (阿房宫) south of the Wei river
, Epang is the most loved concubine of Qin Shi Huang. Other achievements such as the 12 bronze colossi
were also made from the melted-down collected weapons.
Elixir of lifeLater in his life, Qin Shi Huang feared death and desperately sought the fabled elixir of life
, which would supposedly allow him to live forever. He was obsessed with acquiring immortality and fell prey to many who offered him supposed elixirs. He visited Zhifu Island
three times in order to achieve immortality.
In one case he sent Xu Fu
, a Zhifu islander, with ships carrying hundreds of young men and women in search of the mystical Penglai mountain. They were sent to find Anqi Sheng
, a 1,000-year-old magician whom Qin Shi Huang had supposedly met in his travels and who had invited him to seek him there. These people never returned, perhaps because they knew that if they returned without the promised elixir, they would surely be executed. Legends claim that they reached Japan
and colonized it. It is also possible that the book burning, a purge on what could be seen as wasteful and useless literature, was, in part, an attempt to focus the minds of the Emperor's best scholars on the alchemical quest. Some of the executed scholars were those who had been unable to offer any evidence of their supernatural schemes. This may have been the ultimate means of testing their abilities: if any of them had magic powers, then they would surely come back to life when they were let out again.
Since the great emperor was afraid of death and, "evil spirits", he had workers build a series of tunnels and passage ways to each of his palaces (over 200 were owned by him), because these would keep him safe from the evil spirits, as he traveled unseen.
DeathIn 211 BC a large meteor
is said to have fallen in Dongjun (東郡) in the lower reaches of the Yellow River
. On it, an unknown person inscribed the words "The First Emperor will die and his land will be divided." When the emperor heard of this, he sent an imperial secretary to investigate this prophecy
. No one would confess to the deed, so all the people living nearby were put to death. The stone was then burned and pulverized.
The emperor died during one of his tours of Eastern China, on September 10, 210 BC (Julian Calendar
) at the palace in Shaqiu prefecture
(沙丘平台), about two months away by road from the capital Xianyang
. Reportedly, he died due to ingesting mercury
pills, made by his court scientists and doctors. Ironically, these pills were meant to make Qin Shi Huang immortal.
After the emperor's death Prime Minister Li Si, who accompanied him, became extremely worried that the news of his death could trigger a general uprising in the empire. It would take two months for the government to reach the capital, and it would not be possible to stop the uprising. Li Si decided to hide the death of the emperor, and return to Xianyang. Most of the imperial entourage accompanying the emperor was left ignorant of the emperor's death; only a younger son, Ying Huhai, who was traveling with his father, the eunuch Zhao Gao
, Li Si, and five or six favorite eunuchs knew of the death. Li Si also ordered that two carts containing rotten fish be carried immediately before and after the wagon of the emperor. The idea behind this was to prevent people from noticing the foul smell emanating from the wagon of the emperor, where his body was starting to decompose severely as it was summertime. They also pulled down the shade so no one could see his face, changed his clothes daily, brought food and when he had to have important conversations they would act as if he wanted to send them a message.
Second emperor conspiracyEventually, after about two months, Li Si and the imperial court reached Xianyang, where the news of the death of the emperor was announced. Qin Shi Huang did not like to talk about his own death and he had never written a will
. After his death, the eldest son Fusu
would normally become the next emperor.
Li Si and the chief eunuch
conspired to kill Fusu because Fusu's favorite general was Meng Tian
, whom they disliked and feared; Meng Tian's brother, a senior minister, had once punished Zhao Gao. They believed that if Fusu was enthroned, they would lose their power. Li Si and Zhao Gao forged a letter from Qin Shi Huang saying that both Fusu and General Meng must commit suicide. The plan worked, and the younger son Huhai became the Second Emperor, later known as Qin Er Shi
or "Second Generation Qin."
Qin Er Shi, however, was not as capable as his father. Revolts quickly erupted. His reign was a time of extreme civil unrest, and everything built by the First Emperor crumbled away within a short period. One of the immediate revolt attempts was the 209 BC Daze Village Uprising led by Chen Sheng
and Wu Guang
Mausoleum of the First emperorThe Chinese historian Sima Qian
, writing a century after the First emperor's death, wrote that it took 700,000 men to construct it. The British historian John Man points out that this figure is larger than any city of the world at that time and calculates that the foundations could have been built by 16,000 men in two years. While Sima Qian never mentioned the terracotta army, the statues were discovered by a group of farmers digging wells on March 29, 1974. The soldiers were created with a series of mix-and-match clay molds and then further individualized by the artists' hand. Han Purple was also used on some of the warriors.
Qin Shi Huang's tombOne of the first projects the young king accomplished while he was alive was the construction of his own tomb. In 215 BC Qin Shi Huang ordered General Meng Tian
with 300,000 men to begin construction. Other sources suggested he ordered 720,000 unpaid laborers to build his tomb to specification. Again, given John Man's observation regarding populations of the time (see paragraph above), these historical estimates are debatable. The main tomb (located at 34°22′52.75"N 109°15′13.06"E) containing the emperor has yet to be opened and there is evidence suggesting that it remains relatively intact. Sima Qian
's description of the tomb includes replicas of palaces and scenic towers, "rare utensils and wonderful objects", 100 rivers made with mercury
, representations of "the heavenly bodies
", and crossbow
s rigged to shoot anyone who tried to break in. The tomb was built on Li Mountain, which is only 30 kilometers away from Xi'an
. Modern archaeologists have located the tomb, and have inserted probes deep into it. The probes revealed abnormally high quantities of mercury, some 100 times the naturally occurring rate, suggesting that some parts of the legend are credible. Secrets were maintained, as most of the workmen who built the tomb were killed.
Family of Qin Shi HuangThe following are some family members of Qin Shi Huang:
- King Zhuangxiang of Qin
- Lady Zhao
- Half siblings:
- Chengjiao, Lord of Chang'an
- Two half-brothers born to Lady Zhao and Lao Ai
- FusuFusuFusu was the first son of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, and hence the heir apparent. He believed that society would be impeccably run if everyone shared perfect knowledge ....
, Crown Prince
- HuhaiQin Er ShiQin Er Shi , literally Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty, personal name Huhai, was emperor of the Qin Dynasty in China from 210 BC until 207 BC.-Name:...
, later Qin Er ShiQin Er ShiQin Er Shi , literally Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty, personal name Huhai, was emperor of the Qin Dynasty in China from 210 BC until 207 BC.-Name:...
Qin Shi Huang had about 28 children, but most of their names are unknown. He had numerous concubines
Historiography of Qin Shi HuangIn traditional Chinese historiography
, the First Emperor of the Chinese unified states was almost always portrayed as a brutal tyrant who had obsessive fear of assassination
. Ideological antipathy towards the Legalist State of Qin was established as early as 266 BC, when Confucian philosopher Xun Zi
disparaged it. Later Confucian historians condemned the emperor who had burned the classics and buried Confucian scholars alive. They eventually compiled a list of the Ten Crimes of Qin
to highlight his tyrannical actions.
The famous Han poet and statesman Jia Yi
concluded his essay The Faults of Qin (過秦論) with what was to become the standard Confucian judgment of the reasons for Qin's collapse. Jia Yi's essay, admired as a masterpiece of rhetoric and reasoning, was copied into two great Han histories and has had a far-reaching influence on Chinese political thought as a classic illustration of Confucian theory. He attributed Qin's disintegration to its failure to display humanity and righteousness or to realise that there is a difference between the power to attack and the power to consolidate.
In more modern times, historical assessment of the First Emperor different from traditional Chinese historiography began to emerge. The reassessment was spurred on by weakness of China in the latter half of 19th century and early 20th century, and Confucian traditions at that time began to be seen by some as an impediment to China's entry into the modern world, opening the way for changing perspectives.
At a time when Chinese territory was encroached upon by foreign nations, leading Kuomintang
historian Xiao Yishan emphasized the role of Qin Shi Huang in repulsing the northern barbarians, particularly in the construction of the Great Wall.
Another historian, Ma Feibai (馬非百), published in 1941 a full-length revisionist
biography of the First Emperor entitled Qin Shi Huangdi Zhuan (秦始皇帝傳), calling him "one of the great heroes of Chinese history". Ma compared him with the contemporary leader Chiang Kai-shek
and saw many parallels in the careers and policies of the two men, both of whom he admired. Chiang's Northern Expedition of the late 1920s, which directly preceded the new Nationalist government at Nanjing
was compared to the unification brought about by Qin Shi Huang.
With the coming of the Communist Revolution
in 1949, new interpretations again surfaced. The establishment of the new, revolutionary regime prompted another re-evaluation of the First Emperor, this time in accordance with Maoist
thought. The new interpretation given of Qin Shi Huang was generally a combination of traditional and modern views, but essentially critical. This is exemplified in the Complete History of China, which was compiled in September 1955 as an official survey of Chinese history. The work described the First Emperor's major steps toward unification and standardisation as corresponding to the interests of the ruling group and the merchant
, not the nation or the people, and the subsequent fall of his dynasty as a manifestation of the class struggle
. The perennial debate about the fall of the Qin Dynasty was also explained in Marxist terms, the peasant
rebellions being a revolt against oppression – a revolt which undermined the dynasty, but which was bound to fail because of a compromise with "landlord
Since 1972, however, a radically different official view of Qin Shi Huang has been given prominence throughout China. The re-evaluation was initiated by Hong Shidi's biography Qin Shi Huang. The work was published by the state press as a mass popular history, and it sold 1.85 million copies within two years. In the new era, Qin Shi Huang was seen as a farsighted ruler who destroyed the forces of division and established the first unified, centralized state in Chinese history by rejecting the past. Personal attributes, such as his quest for immortality, so emphasized in traditional historiography, were scarcely mentioned. The new evaluations described how, in his time (an era of great political and social change), he had no compunctions against using violent methods to crush counter-revolutionaries, such as the "industrial and commercial slave owner" chancellor Lü Buwei. However, he was criticized for not being as thorough as he should have been, and as a result, after his death, hidden subversives under the leadership of the chief eunuch Zhao Gao
was able to seized power and used it to restore the old feudal order.
To round out this re-evaluation, a new interpretation of the precipitous collapse of the Qin Dynasty was put forward in an article entitled "On the Class Struggle During the Period Between Qin and Han" by Luo Siding, in a 1974 issue of Red Flag, to replace the old explanation. The new theory claimed that the cause of the fall of Qin lay in the lack of thoroughness of Qin Shi Huang's "dictatorship
over the reactionaries, even to the extent of permitting them to worm their way into organs of political authority and usurp important posts."
, chairman of the People's Republic of China
, was reviled for his persecution of intellectuals. On being compared to the First Emperor, Mao responded: "He buried 460 scholars alive; we have buried forty-six thousand scholars alive... You [intellectuals] revile us for being Qin Shi Huangs. You are wrong. We have surpassed Qin Shi Huang a hundredfold."
Works of Fiction
- During the Korean WarKorean WarThe Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...
, the play Song of the Yi River was produced. The play was based on the attempted assassination of the king by Jing Ke. In the play, Ying Zheng was portrayed as a cruel tyrant and an aggressor and invader of other states. In contrast, Jing Ke was a chivalrousChivalryChivalry is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood which has an aristocratic military origin of individual training and service to others. Chivalry was also the term used to refer to a group of mounted men-at-arms as well as to martial valour...
warrior who said that "tens of thousands of injured people are all my comrades." A huge newspaper ad for this play proclaimed: "Invasion will definitely end in defeat; peace must be won at a price." The play portrayed an underdog fighting against a cruel, powerful foreign invader with help from a sympathetic foreign volunteer.
- Jorge Luis BorgesJorge Luis BorgesJorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo , known as Jorge Luis Borges , was an Argentine writer, essayist, poet and translator born in Buenos Aires. In 1914 his family moved to Switzerland where he attended school, receiving his baccalauréat from the Collège de Genève in 1918. The family...
(1899–1986), the ArgentineArgentinaArgentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...
writer, wrote an acclaimed essay on Qin Shi Huang, "The Wall and the Books" ("") in the 1952 collection Other Inquisitions (). It muses on the opposition between large-scale construction of the Great Wall and destruction book-burning that defined his reign.
- The 1956 book Lord of the East is a historical romance about the favorite daughter of Qin Shi Huang, who runs away with her lover. The story uses Qin Shi Huang to create the barrier for the young couple.
- The 1984 book Bridge of BirdsBridge of BirdsBridge of Birds is a fantasy novel by Barry Hughart, first published in 1984. It is the first of three novels in the The Chronicles of Master Li and Number Ten Ox series...
(by Barry HughartBarry HughartBarry Hughart in Peoria, Illinois, is an American author of fantasy novels.- Background :Hughart was born in Peoria, Illinois on March 13, 1934. His father, John Harding Page, served as a naval officer. His mother, Veronica Hughart, was an architect.Hughart was educated at Phillips Academy...
) portrays Qin Shi Huang as a power-hungry megalomaniac who achieved immortality by having his heart removed by an "Old Man of the mountain".
- The Chinese Emperor, by Jean Levi, appeared in 1984. This work of historical fictionHistorical fictionHistorical fiction tells a story that is set in the past. That setting is usually real and drawn from history, and often contains actual historical persons, but the principal characters tend to be fictional...
moves from discussions of politics and law in the Qin state to an exploration of Qin Shi Huang's psychology, in which his terracotta army were actually automataAutomataAutomata is the plural form of automaton, a self-operating machine. It may also refer to:* "Automata", a short story by E. T. A. Hoffmann* "Automata", a hardboiled science fiction crime series by Penny Arcade...
created to replace fallible humans.
- In the 1985 Contact (novel)Contact (novel)Contact is a science fiction novel written by Carl Sagan and published in 1985. It deals with the theme of contact between humanity and a more technologically advanced, extraterrestrial life form. It ranked No. 7 on the 1985 U.S. bestseller list....
(by Carl SaganCarl SaganCarl Edward Sagan was an American astronomer, astrophysicist, cosmologist, author, science popularizer and science communicator in astronomy and natural sciences. He published more than 600 scientific papers and articles and was author, co-author or editor of more than 20 books...
), the character Xi Qiaomu—who had been involved in excavations of the tomb of Emperor Qin during the Cultural Revolution—is visited by a personified alien in the form of the Emperor Qin.
- In the Area 51Area 51 novelsThe Area 51 novels are a series of science fiction novels by American author Robert Mayer, under the pseudonym Robert Doherty.-Plot:In the opening book of the series, it is revealed that in the late 1940s, two flying saucers and a mile long spacecraft with an interstellar drive were discovered in...
book series, Qin Shi Huang is revealed to be an alien exile stranded on Earth during an interstellar civil war. The Great Wall is actually designed to display the symbol for 'help' in his language, and he orders it built in the hope that a passing spaceship would notice it and rescue him.
- In Hydra's Ring, the 39th novel in the OutlandersOutlandersOutlanders is a long-running series of science-fiction novels created by Mark Ellis and published by Gold Eagle, an imprint of Harlequin Enterprises.- Plot :...
series, Qin Shi Huang is revealed to be still alive in the early 23rd century through extraterrestrial nano-technology that has bestowed a form of immortality.
- In the Magic Tree House book series, one book is titled Day of the Dragon King, named for Qin Shi Huangdi.
- Ten Dragon Tails by Candy Taylor Tutt contains "The Wall", a historical fiction short story based on the building of the Great Wall.
- Emperor!: A Romance of Ancient China by Lanny Fields centers around Qin Shi Huang and a former Roman soldier named Marcus Lucius Scipio, whom Qin Shi Huang befriends after Marcus Scipio saves his life on multiple occasions. This fictional account is told through the eyes of the historian Sima Qian, who writes about Marcus Scipio after he travels from Rome to China.
- In Terry Pratchett's Interesting Times, the wizard, Rincewind, discovers a suit of armor owned by a previous emperor which gives him control of a terracotta army. As with most of Pratchett's Discworld series, this book is a play on a real-world concept. In this case, the model is Emperor Qin Shi Huang's cultural impact on modern-day China.
- The Tiger Warrior by David Gibbins (Bantam; June 2009) weaves in the history of Qin Shi Huang and his quest for immortality with Roman legionnaires, Indian tribes, Victorian-era British soldiers and a modern archaeological-adventure story.
- In the Wraith: the OblivionWraith: The OblivionWraith: The Oblivion is a role-playing game set in the afterlife of White Wolf Game Studio's World of Darkness. In the game, players take on characters who are recently dead and are now ghosts...
roleplaying game books, the ghost of "Qin Shihuang" continues to rule despotically over the afterlife of China to this day, assisted by an army of nigh-invincible ghost soldiers based on the terracotta army.
- Shin No Shikoutei (1963) - The film portrays Qin Shi Huang as a battle-hardened emperor with his roots in the military. Despite his rank, Qin Shi Huang is shown lounging around a campfire with common men. A female character, Lady Chu, serves as a foil who questions whether Qin Shi Huang's cause is just. Qin Shi Huang converts her from an enemy to a loyal concubine.
- Big Trouble in Little ChinaBig Trouble in Little ChinaBig Trouble in Little China is a 1986 American martial arts comedy film directed by John Carpenter. It stars Kurt Russell as truck driver Jack Burton, who helps his friend Wang Chi rescue Wang's green-eyed fiancee from bandits in San Francisco's Chinatown...
(1986) - The film mentions Qin Shi Huang's name twice as the person who imposed the curse of no flesh on Lopan in 272 BC.
- The Emperor's ShadowThe Emperor's ShadowThe Emperor's Shadow is a 1996 Chinese historical film directed by Zhou Xiaowen and starring Jiang Wen, Ge You, Xu Qing and Ge Zhijun. It was the most expensive Chinese film produced at the time of its release.-Plot:...
(1996) - The film focuses on Qin Shi Huang's relationship with the musician Gao JianliGao JianliGao Jianli was a citizen of Yan, a Chinese state during the Warring States Period, and a player of the zhu . After Jing Ke was killed in his assassination attempt on Qin Shi Huang, Gao changed his name and became an assistant in a wine shop as Qin Shi Huang retaliated against all friends of Jing Ke...
, a friend of the assassin Jing KeJing KeJing Ke was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination attempt of Ying Zheng, King of Qin state, who later became China's first emperor...
. Gao played the Song of Yishui for Jing Ke before the latter embarked on his assassination mission.
- The Emperor and the AssassinThe Emperor and the AssassinThe Emperor and the Assassin, also known as The First Emperor, is a 1998 Chinese historical romance film based primarily on Jing Ke's assassination attempt on the King of Qin, as described in Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian. The film was directed by Chen Kaige and stars Gong Li, Zhang...
(1999) - The film centers on the identity of Qin Shi Huang's father, his supposed heartless treatment of his officials, and a betrayal by his childhood lover, paving the way for Jing Ke's assassination attempt. Director Chen KaigeChen KaigeChen Kaige is a Chinese film director and a leading figure of the fifth generation of Chinese cinema. His films are known for their visual flair and epic storytelling.-Early life:...
sought to question whether Qin Shi Huang's motives were meritorious. A major theme in this film is the conflict between Qin Shi Huang's dedication to his vows and to his lover, Lady Zhao.
- HeroHero (2002 film)Hero is a 2002 wuxia film directed by Zhang Yimou. Starring Jet Li as the nameless protagonist, the film is based on the story of Jing Ke's assassination attempt on the King of Qin in 227 BC....
(2002) - The film starred Jet LiJet LiThe fame gained by his sports winnings led to a career as a martial arts film star, beginning in mainland China and then continuing into Hong Kong. Li acquired his screen name in 1982 in the Philippines when a publicity company thought his real name was too hard to pronounce...
, a nameless assassin who plans an assassination attempt on the King of Qin (Chen DaomingChen DaomingChen Daoming is a famous Chinese actor known for his flexibility and longevity. He has been branded the Emperor of Chinese drama, having starred in all types of dramas and films....
). Both the king and the assassin may be references to Qin Shi Huang and Jing Ke respectively.
- The Myth (2005) - The film starred Jackie ChanJackie ChanJackie Chan, SBS, MBE is a Hong Kong actor, action choreographer, comedian, director, producer, martial artist, screenwriter, entrepreneur, singer and stunt performer. In his movies, he is known for his acrobatic fighting style, comic timing, use of improvised weapons, and innovative stunts...
as Meng YiMeng YiMeng Yi was a minister who served Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of China, during the Qin Dynasty.-Biography:Meng Yi was the younger brother of the general Meng Tian. During the later years of Qin Shi Huang's reign, he became the closest and most trusted of the emperor's advisors...
, a military general serving under Qin Shi Huang. Meng is reincarnated into the present-day as an archaeologist. Kim Hee-sun co-starred as a Korean princess who was forced to marry the emperor.
- The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon EmperorThe Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon EmperorThe Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor is a 2008 American action adventure film and sequel to The Mummy and The Mummy Returns . The film stars Brendan Fraser, Maria Bello, John Hannah, Luke Ford, and Jet Li, and was released on August 1, 2008 in the United States...
(2008) - The film starred Jet LiJet LiThe fame gained by his sports winnings led to a career as a martial arts film star, beginning in mainland China and then continuing into Hong Kong. Li acquired his screen name in 1982 in the Philippines when a publicity company thought his real name was too hard to pronounce...
, the resurrected mummy called the "Han Emperor" and may be a reference to Qin Shi Huang. The emperor's role is highly fictionalised as he possesses magical powers.
- Rise of the Great WallRise of the Great WallRise of the Great Wall is a 1986 Hong Kong television series based on the biography of Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of China and founder of the Qin Dynasty...
(1986) - a 63 episode TV series chronicling the events from the emperor's birth until his death. It was produced by Hong Kong's ATVAsia Television LimitedAsia Television Limited is one of the two free-to-air television broadcasters in Hong Kong, the other being rival Television Broadcasts Limited . It launched in 1957 under the name Rediffusion Television as the first television station in Hong Kong...
. The lyrics of the opening theme song summarized most of the story: "The land shall be under my foot; nobody shall be equal to me."
- Histeria!Histeria!Histeria! is a 1998 American animated series created by Tom Ruegger and produced by Warner Bros. Animation. Unlike other animated series produced by Warner Bros. in the 1990s, Histeria! stood out as the most explicit edutainment program in order to meet FCC requirements for...
(1998–1999) - an animated series. Pepper Mills wants Shi Huang Di's autograph, thinking he was Scooby Doo.
- The Not-So-Great Wall Of China (1999) - one of the episodes of History BitesHistory BitesHistory Bites was a television series on the History Television network that ran from 1998-2003. Created by Rick Green, History Bites explored what would be on television if the medium had been around for the last 5,000 years of human history. Typically, a significant historical event was chosen...
. Bob BainboroughBob BainboroughBob Bainborough is a Canadian actor. He is known for playing the role of Dalton Humphrey in the Canadian comedy series The Red Green Show, and appearances on History Bites...
played Qin Shi Huang.
- My Date with a VampireMy Date with a VampireMy Date with a Vampire is a 1998 Hong Kong television series produced by ATV. It was followed by My Date with a Vampire II and My Date with a Vampire III . The drama starred Eric Wan and Joey Meng in the leading roles. The plot is based on future events of the story in Vampire Expert, a similar...
II (1999) - a Hong Kong supernatural-fantasy TV series. There is a flashback scene showing Qin Shi Huang being deceived into believing that turning into a vampire is the key to attaining immortality.
- A Step into the PastA Step Into The PastA Step into the Past is a 2001 Hong Kong historical-science fiction television series produced by TVB and based on Huang Yi's novel of the same Chinese title. The series tells the story of a 21st century Hong Kong VIPPU officer who travels back in time to the Warring States Period of ancient China...
(2001) - a Hong Kong TVBTelevision Broadcasts LimitedTelevision Broadcasts Limited, commonly known as TVB, is the second over-the-air commercial television station in Hong Kong. It commenced broadcasting on 19 November 1967...
production based on a science fictionScience fictionScience fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, and paranormal abilities...
novel by Huang YiHuang YiHuang Zuqiang , better known by his pen name Huang Yi , is a Hong Kong writer of wuxia and science fiction novels. He graduated from the Department of Fine Arts of the Chinese University of Hong Kong and once worked as the Assistant Chairperson of Hong Kong Museum of Art.In the 1990s, after its...
. It starred Raymond LamRaymond LamRaymond Lam Fung is a Hong Kong actor and singer contracted to the television station TVB and EEG's Music Plus label. He has been famous with his "choking" look.-Early years:Raymond Lam was born into a wealthy family...
as Zhao Pan, a man of the Zhao stateZhao (state)Zhao was a significant Chinese state during the Warring States Period, along with six others...
who took on his new identity of Ying Zheng and rose to power as Qin Shi Huang. He is assisted by Xiang Shaolong, a time travelTime travelTime travel is the concept of moving between different points in time in a manner analogous to moving between different points in space. Time travel could hypothetically involve moving backward in time to a moment earlier than the starting point, or forward to the future of that point without the...
ler from the 21st century.
- Qin Shi HuangQin Shi Huang (2001 TV series)Qin Shi Huang is a Chinese television series based on the life story of Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor who unified China under the Qin Dynasty. The series was filmed between 1999 and 2000 and was first released in 2001 in Hong Kong and Thailand, and in 2002 in Singapore...
(2002) - a mainland Chinese TV series production. It features a semi-fictionalized story of the emperor's life, from his childhood until his death. Zhang FengyiZhang FengyiZhang Fengyi is a Chinese actor most famous for his role in Farewell My Concubine, as a Chinese stage actor dealing with China's changing political climate and the affections of his singing partner...
starred as Qin Shi Huang.
- Martin MysteryMartin MysteryMartin Mystery may refer to:*Martin Mystère, an Italian comic book published in the U.S. as Martin Mystery*Martin Mystery, a television animation series inspired by the comic character...
(2003–2006) - an animated series. The protagonist finds that the Terracotta Army was actually created to keep the First Emperor inside his tomb and not to help him in the spiritual world.
- First Emperor: The Man Who Made China (2006) - a drama-documentary special about Qin Shi Huang. James PaxJames PaxJames Pax is best known as an actor. He has acted in Hollywood, Hong Kong and Japan.-Early years and education:He earned a degree in business from New York University and later studied film production/directing at the University of Southern California. He has lived and worked around the globe...
played the emperor. It was shown on Channel 4Channel 4Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began working on 2 November 1982. Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority , the station is now owned and operated by the Channel...
in the United KingdomUnited KingdomThe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...
- Secrets of China's First Emperor, Tyrant and Visionary (2006) - a documentary by National Geographic. It provided an in-depth look at the magnificent and controversial ruler.
- China's First EmperorChina's First EmperorChina's First Emperor was a documentary aired on The History Channel on 2008.It tells the story of Qin Shi Huang's career as a military leader and ruthless ruler and how he unified China during the Qin Dynasty.He is played by Xu Peng Kai....
(2008) - a special three-hour documentary by The History ChannelThe History ChannelHistory, formerly known as The History Channel, is an American-based international satellite and cable TV channel that broadcasts a variety of reality shows and documentary programs including those of fictional and non-fictional historical content, together with speculation about the future.-...
. Xu Pengkai played Qin Shi Huang.
- The MythThe Myth (TV series)The Myth is a 2010 Chinese television series based on the 2005 Hong Kong film of the same title. Jackie Chan, who starred in the original film, was credited as producer for the series, while Stanley Tong, the director of the film, was creative director for the series. The series was first aired on...
(2010) - a Chinese TV series produced by Jackie ChanJackie ChanJackie Chan, SBS, MBE is a Hong Kong actor, action choreographer, comedian, director, producer, martial artist, screenwriter, entrepreneur, singer and stunt performer. In his movies, he is known for his acrobatic fighting style, comic timing, use of improvised weapons, and innovative stunts...
and based on the 2005 film of the same title. Two men are accidentally transported back in timeTime travelTime travel is the concept of moving between different points in time in a manner analogous to moving between different points in space. Time travel could hypothetically involve moving backward in time to a moment earlier than the starting point, or forward to the future of that point without the...
to the Qin Dynasty period. They take on the new identities of Meng YiMeng YiMeng Yi was a minister who served Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of China, during the Qin Dynasty.-Biography:Meng Yi was the younger brother of the general Meng Tian. During the later years of Qin Shi Huang's reign, he became the closest and most trusted of the emperor's advisors...
and Zhao GaoZhao GaoZhao Gao was the chief eunuch during the Qin Dynasty of China. He played an instrumental role in the downfall of the Qin Dynasty.- Early life :...
and become rivals in the Qin imperial court.
- Stargate SG-1Stargate SG-1Stargate SG-1 is a Canadian-American adventure and military science fiction television series and part of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Stargate franchise. The show, created by Brad Wright and Jonathan Glassner, is based on the 1994 feature film Stargate by Dean Devlin and Roland Emmerich...
In the TV series, the system Lord Yu Huang Shang Ti is reportedly based on this Emperor.
- Qin Shi Huang is the protagonist in the opera The First EmperorThe First EmperorThe First Emperor is an opera in two acts with a libretto written in English by Tan Dun and Ha Jin, and music by Tan Dun. The opera received its premiere at the Metropolitan Opera at the Lincoln Center in New York City on 21 December 2006, conducted by the composer and with Plácido Domingo in the...
- Swedish musician Evert TaubeEvert TaubeEvert Axel Taube was a Swedish author, artist, composer and singer. He is best known for his folk songs, and is widely regarded as one of Sweden's most respected musicians.-Biography:...
explores Qin Shi Huang's actions and motives in his song "Muren Och Böckerna" ("The Wall And The Books").
- The 1995 video game Qin: Tomb of the Middle KingdomQin: Tomb of the Middle KingdomQin: Tomb of the Middle Kingdom is a Myst-like graphic adventure computer game developed by Learn Technologies Interactive published by Time Warner Interactive and released for DOS, Windows, and Macintosh systems.-Plot:...
depicts a fictional archaeological mission to explore the First Emperor's burial site. The emperor is featured in several voice-overs in Mandarin Chinese.
- In the 2002 computer game Prince Of Qin, the user plays Qin Shi Huang's first son Fusu, who was forced to commit suicide. But in this game, Fusu does not die, he will fight for his birth right to inherit the throne and seek the truth of Qin Shi Huang's death.
- The 2003 video game Indiana Jones and the Emperor's TombIndiana Jones and the Emperor's TombIndiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb is an action video game developed by The Collective and published by LucasArts in 2003 for PlayStation 2, Xbox, Macintosh and Windows. It features cover art by Drew Struzan. The game is a new adventure of fictional archeologist Indiana Jones. The story is set in...
portrays Indiana JonesIndiana JonesColonel Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., Ph.D. is a fictional character and the protagonist of the Indiana Jones franchise. George Lucas and Steven Spielberg created the character in homage to the action heroes of 1930s film serials...
entering the tomb of Qin Shi Huang to recover "The Heart of the Dragon".
- In the 2005 video game Civilization IVCivilization IVSid Meier's Civilization IV is a turn-based strategy, 4X computer game released in 2005 and developed by lead designer Soren Johnson under the direction of Sid Meier and Meier's studio Firaxis Games. It is the fourth installment of the Civilization series...
, Qin Shi Huang is one of the two playable leaders of China.
- In the computer game Emperor: Rise of the Middle KingdomEmperor: Rise of the Middle KingdomEmperor: Rise of the Middle Kingdom is the sixth title in the City Building Series. BreakAway Games was contracted for Emperor after having previously worked on Queen of the Nile...
, the Qin Dynasty campaign has the player as the head architect of Qin Shi Huang, in charge of overseeing the construction of the capital, the Lingqu canal, the Great Wall, as well as his tomb and the terracotta army, although the game takes liberties with the time frames in which these events actually took place.
- The PlayStationPlayStationThe is a 32-bit fifth-generation video game console first released by Sony Computer Entertainment in Japan on December 3, .The PlayStation was the first of the PlayStation series of consoles and handheld game devices. The PlayStation 2 was the console's successor in 2000...
title Fear Effect 2: Retro HelixFear Effect 2: Retro HelixFear Effect 2: Retro Helix is an action-adventure game for the PlayStation in 2001. It was developed by Kronos Digital Entertainment and published by Eidos Interactive. Fear Effect 2 is a prequel chronicling the events that lead up to the original Fear Effect...
deals heavily with the myths of the emperor's tomb, and The Eight Immortals.
- In Rise of NationsRise of NationsRise of Nations is a real-time strategy computer game, developed by Big Huge Games and published by Microsoft on May 20, 2003. The development of the game was led by veteran Brian Reynolds, of Civilization II and Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri. Concepts taken from turn-based strategy games have been...
, the player (or enemy) can build the "Terracotta Army" as one of the many "wonders of the world" featured in the game.
- Qin Shi Huang is also revealed to be the final boss of the video game Shin Sangoku Musou: Multi Raid 2
- In Assassin's Creed IIAssassin's Creed IIAssassin's Creed II is a historical third-person action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It is the second video game installment of the Assassin's Creed series, and is a sequel to the 2007 video...
it is said that a deceased assassin, Wei Yu, killed Qin Shi Huang with a spear.
- In Tomb Raider IITomb Raider IITomb Raider II is an action-adventure video game in the Tomb Raider series and is the sequel to the 1996 video game Tomb Raider. Developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive, the game was originally released for PlayStation, Windows 95 in November 1997, Macintosh in 1998 and on the...
(1997), adventurer Lara CroftLara CroftLara Croft is a fictional character and the protagonist of the Square Enix video game series Tomb Raider. She is presented as a beautiful, intelligent, and athletic British archaeologist-adventurer who ventures into ancient, hazardous tombs and ruins around the world...
discovers the 'Dagger of Xian' after visiting, among other Chinese sites, the 'Temple of Xian'. This level shows a resemblance with the descriptions of the Tomb of Qin, including a room with a (decorative) terracotta army.
- Qin Shi Huang is one of the 32 historical figures who appear as special characters in the video game Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI by KoeiTecmo KoeiTecmo Koei Holdings Co., Ltd. , is a holding company created in 2009 by the merger of Japanese video game developers and publishers Koei and Tecmo....
. He is addressed by his personal name "Ying Zheng" in the game. He has higher governance stats than all other characters, except Guan ZhongGuan ZhongGuǎn Zhòng was a politician and statesman during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. His given name was Yíwú . Zhong was his courtesy name. Recommended by Bao Shuya, he was appointed Prime Minister by Duke Huan of Qi in 685 BC.-Achievements:Guan Zhong modernized the Qi State by...
- The popular MMORPGMMORPGMassively multiplayer online role-playing game is a genre of role-playing video games in which a very large number of players interact with one another within a virtual game world....
Silkroad OnlineSilkroad OnlineSilkroad Online is a fantasy MMORPG set in the 7th century AD, along the Silk Road between China and Europe. The game requires no periodic subscription fee, but players can purchase premium items to customize or accelerate gameplay.- Gameplay :...
has a Qin-Shi Tomb area. It is available only to players of level 75 or higher.