Puerto Ricans in the United States
Overview
 
Stateside Puerto Ricans (or "Puerto Rican Diaspora
Diaspora
A diaspora is "the movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland" or "people dispersed by whatever cause to more than one location", or "people settled far from their ancestral homelands".The word has come to refer to historical mass-dispersions of...

," "Nuyorican
Nuyorican
Nuyorican is a portmanteau of the terms "New York" and "Puerto Rican" and refers to the members or culture of the Puerto Rican diaspora located in or around New York State especially the New York City metropolitan area, or of their descendants...

s" for those born in New York, "stateside or mainland Puerto Ricans," or in ) are American citizens
Citizenship in the United States
Citizenship in the United States is a status given to individuals that entails specific rights, duties, privileges, and benefits between the United States and the individual...

 of Puerto Rican origin, including those who migrated from Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and those who were born outside of Puerto Rico in the United States. Puerto Ricans form the second largest Hispanic group in the United States. Most stateside Puerto Ricans descend from a combination of Europeans
European ethnic groups
The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe....

 (especially Spanish
Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico
Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico began in to the present day. On 25 September 1493, Christopher Columbus set sail on his second voyage with 17 ships and 1,200–1,500 men from Cádiz, Spain...

), the indigenous Ta
ino
Taíno people
The Taínos were pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. It is thought that the seafaring Taínos are relatives of the Arawak people of South America...

 peoples, and Africans, with later smaller waves of immigrants from Latin America, a small number of Asians
Asian people
Asian people or Asiatic people is a term with multiple meanings that refers to people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.- Central Asia :...

 (mostly Chinese
Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico
Large scale Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico and the Caribbean began during the 19th century. Unlike their European counterparts, Chinese immigrants had to face various obstacles which prohibited or restricted their entry in Puerto Rico....

), and non-Hispanic people from the United States.

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 is a Commonwealth or unincorporated territory of the United States.
Encyclopedia
Stateside Puerto Ricans (or "Puerto Rican Diaspora
Diaspora
A diaspora is "the movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland" or "people dispersed by whatever cause to more than one location", or "people settled far from their ancestral homelands".The word has come to refer to historical mass-dispersions of...

," "Nuyorican
Nuyorican
Nuyorican is a portmanteau of the terms "New York" and "Puerto Rican" and refers to the members or culture of the Puerto Rican diaspora located in or around New York State especially the New York City metropolitan area, or of their descendants...

s" for those born in New York, "stateside or mainland Puerto Ricans," or in ) are American citizens
Citizenship in the United States
Citizenship in the United States is a status given to individuals that entails specific rights, duties, privileges, and benefits between the United States and the individual...

 of Puerto Rican origin, including those who migrated from Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and those who were born outside of Puerto Rico in the United States. Puerto Ricans form the second largest Hispanic group in the United States. Most stateside Puerto Ricans descend from a combination of Europeans
European ethnic groups
The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe....

 (especially Spanish
Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico
Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico began in to the present day. On 25 September 1493, Christopher Columbus set sail on his second voyage with 17 ships and 1,200–1,500 men from Cádiz, Spain...

), the indigenous Ta
ino
Taíno people
The Taínos were pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. It is thought that the seafaring Taínos are relatives of the Arawak people of South America...

 peoples, and Africans, with later smaller waves of immigrants from Latin America, a small number of Asians
Asian people
Asian people or Asiatic people is a term with multiple meanings that refers to people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.- Central Asia :...

 (mostly Chinese
Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico
Large scale Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico and the Caribbean began during the 19th century. Unlike their European counterparts, Chinese immigrants had to face various obstacles which prohibited or restricted their entry in Puerto Rico....

), and non-Hispanic people from the United States.

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 is a Commonwealth or unincorporated territory of the United States. The residents of the island have been United States citizens since 1917, through the Jones-Shafroth Act
Jones-Shafroth Act
The Jones–Shafroth Act was a 1917 Act of the United States Congress by which Puerto Ricans were collectively made U.S. citizens, the people of Puerto Rico were empowered to have a popularly-elected Senate, established a bill of rights, and authorized the election of a Resident Commissioner to a...

 of the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

.

There are over four million Puerto Ricans living stateside, with reports that this number exceeded the population in Puerto Rico for the first time in 2003. Despite new demographic trends, New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 continues to be the home of the largest Puerto Rican community in the United States, with Philadelphia second, but Puerto Ricans live in all 50 states and the territories, with large numbers in New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

, Connecticut
Connecticut
Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

, Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

, Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

, New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

, and Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

. The strong presence of Puerto Ricans in Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, Arizona
Arizona
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

, and California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 is partially due to previous generations moving to those states in the early 20th century to work as farm laborers.

Introduction

Stateside Puerto Ricans have been receiving attention recently in the media as a potential swing vote
Swing vote
Swing vote is a term used to describe a vote that may go to any of a number of candidates in an election, or, in a two-party system, may go to either of the two dominant political parties...

, especially in Florida, promoting greater interest in this community. While Puerto Rican-Americans have a long history of fighting against prejudice and ignorance in the United States, there is a longstanding concern that the people of Puerto Rico are not as informed as they should be about the history and challenges faced by their compatriotas who have entered the United States since the mid-19th century.

The Puerto Rican community is experiencing dramatic demographic changes. According to the latest figures from the Census Bureau (unpublished data from their Current Population Survey
Current Population Survey
The Current Population Survey is a statistical survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics . The BLS uses the data to provide a monthly report on the Employment Situation. This report provides estimates of the number of unemployed people in the United...

), the stateside Puerto Rican population in 2003 was estimated at 3,855,608. On the other hand, the Census Bureau estimated that the total population of Puerto Rico was 3,878,532 in 2003. The 2000 Census count found that Puerto Ricans constituted 95.1 percent of the island’s population (other Latinos made up another 3.4 percent, and 1.2 percent were non-Latinos) therefore in 2003, the island’s residents who identified themselves as Puerto Rican was 3,692,362. Thus, in 2003, it was estimated for the first time that there were 4.4 percent more Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. than on the island.

This development was a major turning point in Puerto Rican demographics history. The phenomenon of a country’s diaspora outnumbering its own population is unprecedented in the hemisphere. By comparison, the largest ethnic group in the United States, the German American
German American
German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

s, is 52.1 percent the size of the population of Germany. Among Spanish speakers, Mexican American
Mexican American
Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican descent. As of July 2009, Mexican Americans make up 10.3% of the United States' population with over 31,689,000 Americans listed as of Mexican ancestry. Mexican Americans comprise 66% of all Hispanics and Latinos in the United States...

s make up the largest group by far (over 26 million in 2004), representing the largest population outside of Mexico with 25.4 percent.

To give a sense of the scale of this demographic phenomenon, the only comparable situation would be that of the Irish
Irish people
The Irish people are an ethnic group who originate in Ireland, an island in northwestern Europe. Ireland has been populated for around 9,000 years , with the Irish people's earliest ancestors recorded having legends of being descended from groups such as the Nemedians, Fomorians, Fir Bolg, Tuatha...

. As a result of the catastrophic potato famine of the 19th century and other developments, in 2004, the Irish American
Irish American
Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

 population was close to six times (594.7 percent) as large as the combined populations of Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

 and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

.

The implications are not lost on the government of Puerto Rico. The government has designed programs to reach out to the Puerto Rican communities in the United States in cultural affairs, civic participation and other areas, recognizing that this is a population whose future is closely linked with that of Puerto Rico.

The term "stateside Puerto Ricans" is used here to describe the Puerto Rican population residing in the United States. It is less ambiguous than other terms more generally used, such as "mainland Puerto Ricans", "Puerto Ricans in the United States", "U.S.-based Puerto Ricans" and Nuyoricans (Puerto Ricans living in New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

).

Puerto Rican identity

As a group, Puerto Ricans in the United States continue to have a strong connection to the people of Puerto Rico. A strong indicator of the Puerto Rican identity of stateside Puerto Ricans is their use of the Spanish language. Most Puerto Rican Americans speak English as well. They make up the largest multi-lingual population in New York City and other cities.
Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the United States since the 19th century and have a long history of collective social advocacy for their political and social rights and preserving their cultural heritage. In New York City, which has the largest concentration of Puerto Ricans in the United States, they began running for elective office in the 1920s, electing one of their own to the New York State Assembly
New York State Assembly
The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York State Legislature. The Assembly is composed of 150 members representing an equal number of districts, with each district having an average population of 128,652...

 for the first time in 1937.

Important Puerto Rican institutions have emerged from this long history. Aspira, a leader in the field of education, was established in New York City in 1961 and is now one of the largest national Latino nonprofit organizations in the United States. There is also the National Puerto Rican Coalition in Washington, DC, the National Puerto Rican Forum, the Puerto Rican Family Institute, Boricua College, the Center for Puerto Rican Studies of the City University of New York at Hunter College, the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, the National Conference of Puerto Rican Women, and the New York League of Puerto Rican Women, Inc., among others.

One indicator of the strength of Puerto Rican identity and pride is the annual National Puerto Rican Day Parade
Puerto Rican Day Parade
The Puerto Rican Day Parade takes place annually along Fifth Avenue in New York City, on the second Sunday in June, in honor of the nearly 4 million inhabitants of Puerto Rico and all people of Puerto Rican birth or heritage residing in the mainland U.S...

 in New York City, which is the subject of the poetry work Empire of Dreams by islander Giannina Braschi
Giannina Braschi
Giannina Braschi is a Puerto Rican writer. She is credited with writing the first Spanglish novel YO-YO BOING! and the poetry trilogy Empire of Dreams , which chronicles the Latin American immigrant's experiences in the United States...

. There are 50 other Puerto Rican parades throughout the country.

The government of Puerto Rico has a long history of involvement with the stateside Puerto Rican community. In July 1930, Puerto Rico's Department of Labor established an employment service in New York City. The Migration Division (known as the "Commonwealth Office"), also part of Puerto Rico’s Department of Labor, was created in 1948, and by the end of the 1950s, was operating in 115 cities and towns stateside. The Department of Puerto Rican Affairs in the United States was established in 1989 as a cabinet-level department in Puerto Rico. Currently, the Commonwealth operates the Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration, which is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and has 12 regional offices throughout the United States.

A five-city telephone survey conducted in 2002 by Bendixen & Associates for the Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration found a number of important indicators of what was termed a strong "dual identity" among stateside Puerto Ricans. The survey found that:
  • 68% say that most of their children’s friends are Hispanic or Puerto Rican;
  • 63% attend Puerto Rican celebrations like the Puerto Rican Day parade;
  • 54% are very connected to their family back in Puerto Rico.


The strength of stateside Puerto Rican identity is fueled by a number of factors. These include the large circular migration between the island and the United States, a long tradition of the government of Puerto Rico promoting its ties to those stateside, the continuing existence of racial-ethnic prejudice and discrimination in the United States, and high residential and school segregation.

Puerto Rican migration

Since 1493, Puerto Rico has been under the control of colonial powers. Even during Spanish rule, Puerto Ricans settled in the U.S. However, it was not until the end of the Spanish-American War
Spanish-American War
The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence...

 that the huge influx of Puerto Rican workers to the U.S. began. With its victory in 1898, the United States acquired Puerto Rico from Spain and has retained sovereignty
Sovereignty
Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory. It can be found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal explanation can be provided...

 ever since. The 1917 Jones–Shafroth Act made all Puerto Ricans U.S. citizens, freeing them from immigration barriers. The massive migration of Puerto Ricans to the United States was the largest in the early and late 20th century.

U.S. political and economic interventions in Puerto Rico created the conditions for emigration, "by concentrating wealth in the hands of U.S. corporations and displacing workers." Policymakers promoted "colonization plans and contract labour programs to reduce the population. U.S. employers, often with government support, recruited Puerto Ricans as a source of low-wage labour to the United States and other destinations." Puerto Ricans migrated in search of higher-wage jobs, first to New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, and later to other cities such as Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, Philadelphia, Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

,Cleveland, Miami, Tampa
Tampa, Florida
Tampa is a city in the U.S. state of Florida. It serves as the county seat for Hillsborough County. Tampa is located on the west coast of Florida. The population of Tampa in 2010 was 335,709....

, and Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

.

New York City

Although the bulk of New York's Puerto Rican population migrated to the Bronx, the largest influx was to Spanish Harlem
Spanish Harlem
East Harlem, also known as Spanish Harlem and El Barrio, is a section of Harlem in the northeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan. East Harlem is one of the largest predominantly Latino communities in New York City. It includes the area formerly known as Italian Harlem, in which...

 and Loisaida
Loisaida
Loisaida is a term derived from the Latino pronunciation of "Lower East Side", a neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City. The term was originally coined by poet/activist Bittman "Bimbo" Rivas in his 1974 poem "Loisaida"...

, in Manhattan, from the 1950s all the way up to 1980s. Labor recruitment was the basis of this particular community. In 1970, the number of stateside Puerto Ricans living in New York City as a whole was "88%, as 69% were living in East Harlem [alone]." They helped others settle, find work, and build communities by relying on social networks containing friends and family. There are significant Puerto Rican communities in all five boroughs.

Philippe Bourgois
Philippe Bourgois
Philippe Bourgois is a Richard Perry University Professor of Anthropology & Family and Community Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He also served as founding Chair of the Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco from 1998...

, an anthropologist who has studied Puerto Ricans in the inner city, suggests that "the Puerto Rican community has fallen victim to poverty through social marginalization due to the transformation of New York into a global city." The Puerto Rican population in East Harlem and New York City as a whole remains the poorest among all migrant groups in U.S. cities. As of 1973, about "46.2% of the Puerto Rican migrants in East Harlem were living below the federal poverty line." The struggle for legal work and affordable housing remains fairly low and the implementation of favorable public policy fairly inconsistent.

It is often considered that the transformation of the U.S. economy in 1973 and the 1980s mostly affected the entire Puerto Rican population of East Harlem. Puerto Ricans were first desired for cheaper labor. The economy shift from manufacturing to the service sector forcing these people into hard times, as many of them had worked in factories and relied on these particular jobs to support their families back home in Puerto Rico. The importance of factory jobs for a decent standard of living for these former rural workers proved crucial:

... labour in industrial production is still crucial and central to the global economy. However, the export of production from the center to the less media-visible periphery, and the development of the informational service economy, is an outright assault on working-class populations.

Chicago

The Puerto Rican community in Chicago
Puerto Ricans in Chicago
Puerto Ricans in Chicago are people living in Chicago who have citizenship or ancestral connections to the island of Puerto Rico. They have contributed to the economic, social and cultural well-being of Chicago for more than seventy years.- History :...

 has a history that stretches back more than 70 years. The first small migration came in the 1930s, not from the island, but from New York City. The first large wave of migration occurred in the late 1940s. Starting in 1946, many people were recruited by Castle Barton Associates as low-wage non-union foundry workers and domestic workers. As soon as they were established in Chicago, many brought their families.

By the 1960s, the Puerto Rican community was centered in West Town and Humboldt Park
Humboldt Park, Chicago
Humboldt Park is one of 77 officially designated community areas located on the northwest side of Chicago, Illinois. The Humboldt Park neighborhood is widely known for its large Puerto Rican presence...

 on the Northwest Side and in Lincoln Park
Lincoln Park
Lincoln Park is an urban park in Chicago, which gave its name to the Lincoln Park, Chicago community area.Lincoln Park may also refer to:-Urban parks:*Lincoln Park , California*Lincoln Park, San Francisco, California...

 on the North Side. There were also many Puerto Ricans in Lawndale
Lawndale
- Places :In the United States* Lawndale, California, a city in Los Angeles County* Lawndale, San Mateo County, California, former name of the town of Colma* Lawndale, Illinois, an unincorporated community in Logan County...

 on the city's West Side. Gentrification
Gentrification
Gentrification and urban gentrification refer to the changes that result when wealthier people acquire or rent property in low income and working class communities. Urban gentrification is associated with movement. Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size...

 in Lincoln Park in the late 1960s displaced the community, forcing people to move to the west.

From the 1950s to the early 1990s, the Humboldt Park
Humboldt Park, Chicago
Humboldt Park is one of 77 officially designated community areas located on the northwest side of Chicago, Illinois. The Humboldt Park neighborhood is widely known for its large Puerto Rican presence...

 neighborhood was considered an economic dead zone by city planners and developers. It became a motherland to gangs such as the Insane Spanish Cobras
Spanish Cobras
The Spanish Cobras started in Humboldt Park in Chicago during the early 1960s. The Insane Spanish Cobras were under the Folk Nation until they started fighting with the Maniac Latin Disciples.-Symbols and Traditions:...

, Maniac Latin Disciples
Maniac Latin Disciples
The Maniac Latin Disciples are the second largest Latino street gang in Chicago and the largest Latino gang in the Folks alliance . Originally known as the Latin Scorpions, the gang was founded by Albert "Hitler" Hernandez and Roberto Ramos Rios, in the Humboldt Park community in approximately...

, and the Latin Kings one of the largest Latino gangs in the country. Also, the Young Lords
Young Lords
The Young Lords, later Young Lords Organization and in New York , Young Lords Party, was a Puerto Rican nationalist group in several United States cities, notably New York City and Chicago.-Founding:...

 hail from this area, they are considered to be the Puerto Rican equivalent of the Black Panther Party. Despite the fact that there was a vital community of families, property owners, and businesses, many people from both the inside and out saw little opportunity.

However, in 1995, Division Street
Division Street (Chicago)
Division Street is a major east-west street in Chicago, Illinois, located at 1200 North . Division Street begins in the Gold Coast neighborhood near Lake Shore Drive, passes through Polonia Triangle at Milwaukee Avenue into Wicker Park and continues to Chicago's city limits and into the city's...

 found new life when city officials and Latino leaders offered a symbolic gesture to recognize the neighborhood and the residents' roots. They christened it "Paseo Boricua
Paseo Boricua
Paseo Boricua is a street section in the West Side of Chicago. It is located on Division Street, between Western Avenue and California Avenue, in the neighborhood of Humboldt Park, more commonly known as little Puerto Rico...

" and installed two metal Puerto Rican flags
Flag of Puerto Rico
The flags of Puerto Rico represent and symbolize the island and people of Puerto Rico. The most commonly used flags of Puerto Rico are the current flag, which represents the people of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico; municipal flags, which represent the different regions of the island; political...

—each weighing 45 tons, measuring 59 feet (18 m) vertically, and stretching across the street—at each end of the strip. The struggling neighborhood transformed itself into one of the most vibrant Latino neighborhoods in Chicago, uniting the once fragmented Puerto Rican community, 601,890 strong. The occupancy rate of the area rose to about 90 percent, and home prices stabilized. A culture center was established, and local Puerto Rican politicians relocated their offices to Division Street. Recently, the City of Chicago set aside money for Paseo Boricua property owners who want to restore their buildings' facades. The Humboldt Park Paseo Boricua neighborhood is the political and cultural capital of the Puerto Rican community in the Midwest and some say in the Puerto Rican Diaspora.

Philadelphia

Puerto Ricans represent the largest Latino community in Philadelphia, with over a century of settlement in the city. Puerto Ricans represent about 70% of Philadelphia's 190,000 Hispanics. Although U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans migrating to Philadelphia encountered racism, discrimination, and limited economic opportunities. Retaining strong ties to the island, they also worked hard to make a home here and build a community structure of businesses, organizations, houses of worship, and other institutions that have become the foundation of Latino life in the city. Throughout the 1950s, many Puerto Rican migrants settled east and west along Spring Garden Street. Puerto Ricans were not always welcome newcomers, however, and many faced prejudice and discrimination in their neighborhoods. As the Puerto Rican population continued to grow in the 1960s, it expanded east towards the Delaware River and north towards Lehigh Avenue. During the 1980s and 1990s, the Puerto Rican community grew further north into Olney and into the lower sections of the Northeast. The majority of Philadelphia's Puerto Rican community resides in North Philadelphia.

Demographics of stateside Puerto Ricans

Official Immigration to the U.S
Year of
Immigration
Net migration
to the U.S
mainland
Total passenger
traffic
1900-09 2,000 2,000
1910-19 11,000 11,000
1920-29 35,638 35,638
1930-39 12,715 12,715
1940-49 145,010 145,010
1950-59 446,693 460,826
1960-1969 221,763 151,770
1970-79 26,683 85,198
1980-89 490,562 287,451
1990-99 325,875
2000-10 489,509
Total 1,717,969 1,191,382
Figures between 1900-1949 are for total passenger traffic only.
*The minus sign (-) indicates the movement of passengers
to the island of Puerto Rico.
Race by Puerto Rican national origin
2010 Census
Total population: 4,623,716
White Black
Black Hispanic
In the United States, a Black Hispanic or Afro American Hispanic is an American citizen or resident who is officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget and other U.S. government agencies as a Black American of Hispanic descent. African American/Black...

Asian Indian Mixed
Multiracial
The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestries come from multiple races. Unlike the term biracial, which often is only used to refer to having parents or grandparents of two different races, the term multiracial may encompass biracial people but can also include people with...

53.1% 8.7% 0.5% 0.9% 36.7%
2,455,534 403,372 24,312 42,504 1,697,681

Between 1990 and 2000, the stateside Puerto Rican population grew by 12.5 percent, from 3.2 to 3.4 million. This growth rate was significantly higher than the 8.4 percent growth of Puerto Rico during this same period.

In the most recent census in 2010, there were 4,623,716 Puerto Rican Americans, both native and foreign born, representing 11.3% of all Hispanics in the U.S.
About 53.1% identified themselves as white
White people
White people is a term which usually refers to human beings characterized, at least in part, by the light pigmentation of their skin...

, which is the second largest population of all other major Hispanic groups. (However, 75% of Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico self-identify themselves as white.) About 8.7% considered themselves black
Black people
The term black people is used in systems of racial classification for humans of a dark skinned phenotype, relative to other racial groups.Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and often social variables such as class, socio-economic status also plays a...

. 0.5% considered themselves Asian and 0.9% considered themselves Native American. While 36.7% mixed or "other" (mainly made up of mulattos and tri-racials). The majority of Puerto Ricans are racially mixed, but that they do not feel the need to identify as such. Furthermore, Puerto Ricans are of Black African, American Indian, and European ancestry and only identify themselves as mixed if having parents "appearing" to be of separate "races", and being that many Puerto Ricans are light-skinned, most choose to identify as "white". Although the U.S. Census shows that the majority of Puerto Ricans have self-described themselves as "white", they are essentially an amalgam of cultures stemming from various parts of the world and, thus, not "white". The racial identification issue of Puerto Ricans in the U.S. is controversial and heatly debated, a cause of ethnic prejudice towards Puerto Ricans and also between those living Stateside and on the Island.

The states with the five largest Puerto Rican populations in 2010 were New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

, and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

. The states with the largest Puerto Rican percentage of their total populations were
  • Connecticut
    Connecticut
    Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

    : 6.5 percent
  • New York: 5.5 percent
  • New Jersey: 4.9 percent
  • Florida: 4.5 percent
  • Massachusetts: 4.0 percent


States where Puerto Ricans constituted the highest percentage of their Hispanic populations were:
  • Pennsylvania: 49.2 percent
  • Connecticut: 48.9 percent
  • Massachusetts: 42.0 percent
  • Delaware
    Delaware
    Delaware is a U.S. state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, and to the north by Pennsylvania...

    : 34.6 percent
  • New York: 32.1 percent


The major cities with the five largest Puerto Rican populations in 2010 were New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, Philadelphia, Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, Springfield
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

, and Hartford
Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, it is the second most populous city on New England's largest river, the Connecticut River. As of the 2010 Census, Hartford's population was 124,775, making...

. In 2000-2010, among the cities with the largest Puerto Rican populations, the fastest-growing were:
  • Buenaventura Lakes, Florida
    Buenaventura Lakes, Florida
    Buenaventura Lakes is a census-designated place in northern Osceola County, Florida, United States, near Kissimmee. Its population was 26,079 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Orlando–Kissimmee Metropolitan Statistical Area...

    : 202 percent
  • Poinciana, Florida
    Poinciana, Florida
    Poinciana is a census-designated place in Osceola and Polk counties in the U.S. state of Florida. It lies southwest of Kissimmee and about east of Haines City...

    : 195 percent
  • Orlando, Florida
    Orlando, Florida
    Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

    : 136 percent
  • Allentown, Pennsylvania
    Allentown, Pennsylvania
    Allentown is a city located in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is Pennsylvania's third most populous city, after Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, and the 215th largest city in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 118,032 and is currently...

    : 81 percent
  • Tampa, Florida
    Tampa, Florida
    Tampa is a city in the U.S. state of Florida. It serves as the county seat for Hillsborough County. Tampa is located on the west coast of Florida. The population of Tampa in 2010 was 335,709....

    : 75 percent
  • Reading, Pennsylvania
    Reading, Pennsylvania
    Reading is a city in southeastern Pennsylvania, USA, and seat of Berks County. Reading is the principal city of the Greater Reading Area and had a population of 88,082 as of the 2010 census, making it the fifth most populated city in the state after Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown and Erie,...

    : 60 percent
  • New Britain, Connecticut
    New Britain, Connecticut
    New Britain is a city in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. It is located approximately 9 miles southwest of Hartford. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 71,254....

    : 43 percent
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

    : 35 percent


Today, many cities and smaller communities in the Northeast
Northeastern United States
The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States as defined by the United States Census Bureau.-Composition:The region comprises nine states: the New England states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; and the Mid-Atlantic states of New...

 and Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 (especially Central Florida
Central Florida
Central Florida is a regional designation for the area surrounding Orlando in east central Florida, United States. The area represents the third largest population concentration in Florida, after the South Florida and Tampa Bay regions, respectively....

) have large percentages of Puerto Ricans as well. The 25 U.S. communities with the highest percentage of Puerto Ricans in 2010 were:
  1. Yeehaw Junction, Florida
    Yeehaw Junction, Florida
    Yeehaw Junction is a census-designated place in Osceola County, Florida, United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 240...

    : 67.24 percent
  2. Holyoke, Massachusetts
    Holyoke, Massachusetts
    Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States, between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range of mountains. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 39,880...

    : 59.46 percent
  3. Hartford, Connecticut
    Hartford, Connecticut
    Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, it is the second most populous city on New England's largest river, the Connecticut River. As of the 2010 Census, Hartford's population was 124,775, making...

    : 48.77 percent
  4. Springfield, Massachusetts
    Springfield, Massachusetts
    Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

    : 38.9 percent
  5. Camden, New Jersey
    Camden, New Jersey
    The city of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey. It is located across the Delaware River from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 77,344...

    : 35.46 percent
  6. Perth Amboy, New Jersey
    Perth Amboy, New Jersey
    Perth Amboy is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. The City of Perth Amboy is part of the New York metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city population was 50,814. Perth Amboy is known as the "City by the Bay", referring to Raritan Bay.-Name:The Lenape...

    : 30.56 percent
  7. Poinciana, Florida
    Poinciana, Florida
    Poinciana is a census-designated place in Osceola and Polk counties in the U.S. state of Florida. It lies southwest of Kissimmee and about east of Haines City...

    : 29.23 percent
  8. Azalea Park, Florida
    Azalea Park, Florida
    Azalea Park is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area in Orange County, Florida, United States. The population was 11,073 at the 2000 census...

    : 27.34 percent
  9. Lancaster, Pennsylvania
    Lancaster, Pennsylvania
    Lancaster is a city in the south-central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the county seat of Lancaster County and one of the older inland cities in the United States, . With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities...

    : 26.55 percent
  10. Bronx, New York: 25.96 percent
  11. Kissimmee, Florida
    Kissimmee, Florida
    Kissimmee is a city in Osceola County, Florida, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 59,682. It is the county seat of Osceola County...

    : 24.66 percent
  12. Vineland, New Jersey
    Vineland, New Jersey
    Vineland is a city in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 60,724...

    : 23.61 percent
  13. Providence, Rhode Island
    Providence, Rhode Island
    Providence is the capital and most populous city of Rhode Island and was one of the first cities established in the United States. Located in Providence County, it is the third largest city in the New England region...

    : 23.56 percent
  14. Bridgeport, Connecticut
    Bridgeport, Connecticut
    Bridgeport is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Located in Fairfield County, the city had an estimated population of 144,229 at the 2010 United States Census and is the core of the Greater Bridgeport area...

    : 23.06 percent
  15. Lawrence, Massachusetts
    Lawrence, Massachusetts
    Lawrence is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States on the Merrimack River. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a total population of 76,377. Surrounding communities include Methuen to the north, Andover to the southwest, and North Andover to the southeast. It and Salem are...

    : 21.95 percent
  16. New Britain, Connecticut
    New Britain, Connecticut
    New Britain is a city in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. It is located approximately 9 miles southwest of Hartford. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 71,254....

    : 21.94 percent
  17. Lorain, Ohio
    Lorain, Ohio
    Lorain is a city in Lorain County, Ohio, United States. The municipality is located in northeastern Ohio on Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Black River, about 30 miles west of Cleveland....

    : 21.03 percent
  18. Willimantic, Connecticut
    Willimantic, Connecticut
    Willimantic is a census-designated place and former city located in the town of Windham in Windham County, Connecticut, United States. The population was estimated at 15,823 at the 2000 census. It is home to Eastern Connecticut State University, as well as the Windham Textile and History Museum....

    : 20.92 percent
  19. Windham, Connecticut
    Windham, Connecticut
    Windham is a town in Windham County, Connecticut, United States. It contains the city of Willimantic and the villages of Windham Center, North Windham, and South Windham. The city of Willimantic was consolidated with the town in 1983...

    : 19.52 percent
  20. Egg Harbor City, New Jersey
    Egg Harbor City, New Jersey
    Egg Harbor City is a city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city population was 4,243....

    : 19.36 percent
  21. Ellenville, New York
    Ellenville, New York
    Ellenville is a village in Ulster County, New York, United States. The population was 4,135 at the 2010 census. The postal ZIP code is 12428. The telephone exchange is predominantly 647 and an overlaid 210 in the 845 area code.- Geography :...

    : 17.85 percent
  22. Southbridge, Massachusetts
    Southbridge, Massachusetts
    The Town of Southbridge is a city in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 16,719 at the 2010 census.-History:...

    : 17 .62 percent
  23. Woodbine, New Jersey
    Woodbine, New Jersey
    Woodbine is a borough in Cape May County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the Ocean City Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2000 United States Census, the borough population was 2,716....

    : 17.60 percent
  24. North Bay Shore, New York
    North Bay Shore, New York
    North Bay Shore is an unincorporated neighborhood on Long Island in the Town of Islip in Suffolk County, New York, United States. The area is a suburb of New York City. The hamlet of North Bay Shore is within the northern part of the CDP of Bay Shore, New York. The Census-designated place named...

    : 17.20 percent
  25. Interlachen, Florida
    Interlachen, Florida
    Interlachen is a town in Putnam County, Florida, United States. The population was 1,475 at the 2000 census. The town is part of the Palatka Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Interlachen is located at ....

    : 17.08 percent
  26. Buena, New Jersey
    Buena, New Jersey
    Buena is a borough in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the United States 2010 Census, the borough population was 4,603.Landisville and Minotola are unincorporated areas located within Buena Borough, both of which had postal facilities established with those names in 1871 and 1897,...

    : 17.04 percent


However, despite these dramatic growth rates, it was the decline in New York City during the 1990s that became a focus of discussion of many Puerto Ricans following Census 2000, along with the dramatic growth in Florida. During this period, the city’s Puerto Rican population dropped by over 100,000, or 12 percent. Because of this, New York was the only state to register a decrease in its Puerto Rican population during this time period (a phenomenon limited to the three biggest counties in New York City). This is a good example of how complex Puerto Rican demographics have become. While overall there was a significant drop in the 1990s, there was also significant growth in two of its five boroughs (or counties). In addition, despite this decline, New York City remains a major hub for migration from Puerto Rico and within the United States. Numbering close to 800,000, New York City’s Puerto Rican community remains its largest Latino population group.

Four other major cities experienced a drop in 1990-2000:
  • Chicago
    Chicago
    Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

    , Illinois: -6,811 (a 2 percent drop)
  • Jersey City, New Jersey
    Jersey City, New Jersey
    Jersey City is the seat of Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City lies between the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay across from Lower Manhattan and the Hackensack River and Newark Bay...

    : -13,567 (4 percent)
  • Newark, New Jersey
    Newark, New Jersey
    Newark is the largest city in the American state of New Jersey, and the seat of Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Newark had a population of 277,140, maintaining its status as the largest municipality in New Jersey. It is the 68th largest city in the U.S...

    : -11,895, (5 percent)
  • Paterson, New Jersey
    Paterson, New Jersey
    Paterson is a city serving as the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 146,199, rendering it New Jersey's third largest city and one of the largest cities in the New York City Metropolitan Area, despite a decrease of 3,023...

    : -3,567 (13 percent)


The reasons for and impact of these declines are not well understood. Especially in the New York case, this has been the subject of much speculation but little serious analysis to date. Between New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago, the cities with the three largest Puerto Rican populations, Philadelphia is the only one that actually seen an increase, while the other two seen decreases. This is probably due to Philadelphia's proximity to New York City, as well as it's cheaper cost of living.

To put this population decline in a broader context, it is important to note that beyond these major cities, the stateside Puerto Rican population dropped in 1990-2000 in 164 other smaller cities throughout the United States, 10.8 percent of the 1,503 cities and other places surveyed by the 2000 Census (CDPs or Census-designated places). Of the ten places in the country with the highest percentage drop in their Puerto Rican population, five were in California, two each in Florida and New Jersey, and one in Massachusetts. None were in the Northeast or Midwest.
The five places with the largest 1990-2000 declines were:
  • Olympia Heights, Florida
    Olympia Heights, Florida
    Olympia Heights is a census-designated place in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The population was 13,488 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Olympia Heights is located at ....

    : -72.4 percent
  • Marina, California
    Marina, California
    Marina is a city in Monterey County, California, United States. The population was 19,718 at the 2010 census. Marina is located along the central coast of California, west of Salinas, and 8 miles north of Monterey, at an elevation of 43 feet . Marina was incorporated in 1975 and is the newest city...

    : -59.0 percent
  • Seaside, California
    Seaside, California
    Seaside is a city in Monterey County, California, United States, with a population of 33,025 as of the 2010 census. Seaside is located east-northeast of Monterey, at an elevation of 33 feet...

    : -55.1 percent
  • Baldwin Park, California
    Baldwin Park, California
    Baldwin Park is a city located in the central San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 75,390, down from 75,837 at the 2000 census.- History :...

    : -48.4 percent
  • Pompano Beach Highlands, Florida
    Pompano Beach Highlands, Florida
    Pompano Beach Highlands was a census-designated place in Broward County, Florida, United States. The population was 6,505 at the 2000 census. Residents of the unincorporated community voted in late 2004 to join the city of Pompano Beach, Florida....

    : -43.8 percent

Dispersion

Like other groups, the theme of "dispersal" has had a long history with the stateside Puerto Rican community. This history extends from the early concerns of overpopulation of Puerto Rico to those in the 1940s and 1950s about the need to disperse the rapidly growing Puerto Rican population dramatically concentrating in New York City, Chicago and other U.S. urban centers after World War II.

More recent demographic developments appear at first blush as if the stateside Puerto Rican population has been dispersing in greater numbers. However, upon closer examination, it is a process probably best described as a “reconfiguration” or even the “nationalizing” of this community throughout the United States. One popular explanation for the lack of Puerto Rican political power compared to blacks has been that Puerto Ricans were less concentrated geographically.

New York City was the center of the stateside Puerto Rican community for most of the 20th century. With the 2000 Census, this picture changed in dramatic ways. New York City was once home to over 80 percent of stateside Puerto Ricans and a place where Puerto Ricans were the majority of its Latino population. By 2000, Puerto Ricans in New York City had dropped only 23 percent of all stateside Puerto Ricans, and made up 37 percent of the city’s Latino population. Nevertheless, they remain the largest Latino group in the city. Numbering close to 800,000 in 2000, their population is almost double that of Puerto Rico’s capital city, San Juan (estimated at 433,412 in 2002 by the Census Bureau).

The dramatic growth of the Puerto Rican population in Florida has generated considerable attention, especially given its important political implications for U.S. presidential elections. Between 1990 and 2000, their numbers almost doubled from 247,016 to 482,027 (a 95.1 percent increase). According to the Current Population Survey, in 2003, the Puerto Rican population in the state was estimated to be 760,127, a growth of 57.7 percent since 2000.

However, as already stated, it is not at all clear whether these settlement changes can be characterized as simple population dispersal. It is a fact that Puerto Rican population settlements today are less concentrated than they were in places like New York City, Chicago and a number of cities in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey. However, 67.0 percent of stateside Puerto Ricans in 2003 still resided in the two most traditional areas, the Northeast and Midwest.

The most dramatic Puerto Rican population growth in the 1990s, as it was for Latinos as a whole, took place in smaller cities and towns, such as Allentown, Pennsylvania
Allentown, Pennsylvania
Allentown is a city located in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is Pennsylvania's third most populous city, after Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, and the 215th largest city in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 118,032 and is currently...

, and other metro areas, such as Houston, Texas
Houston, Texas
Houston is the fourth-largest city in the United States, and the largest city in the state of Texas. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a population of 2.1 million people within an area of . Houston is the seat of Harris County and the economic center of , which is the ...

, the DC Metro Area, and the Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, it is the second most populous city on New England's largest river, the Connecticut River. As of the 2010 Census, Hartford's population was 124,775, making...

-Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

 region. But while this type of growth outside of central cities is usually associated with suburbanization and upward mobility, in the Puerto Rican case, this has not been the case. While there was an element of upward mobility, there was also a dispersal of the poor and low wage workers. At the point when stateside Puerto Ricans began relocating to the suburbs, these areas had begun in general to take on many of the negative characteristics of the urban centers: housing and school segregation, poverty, rising crime and so on.

Rather than simple dispersal, what may be occurring is a reconcentration and an increasingly complex migration circuit for stateside Puerto Ricans. Undoubtedly driven largely by the current powerful force of globalization and its attendant economic restructuring, this redistribution of such a large portion of the stateside and island Puerto Rican populations is creating a significant social reconfiguration as well, with an uncertain long-term impact.

Concentration

Despite these significant population movements, even in 2000, the Puerto Rican population of cities outside of the traditional regions of the Northeast and Midwest did not rank high; Tampa and Orlando, both in Florida, were only 20th and 23rd, respectively. Puerto Ricans continued to be one of the most urbanized groups in the United States, with 55.8 percent living in central cities in 2003. This was more than double the 25 percent of non-Latinos and higher than Mexicans (43.1 percent), Cubans (22.3 percent), and Central/South Americans (47.9 percent).

Residential segregation
Residential Segregation
Residential segregation is the physical separation of cultural groups based on residence and housing, or a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level."...

 is another cause of stateside Puerto Rican population concentration. While blacks are the most residentially segregated group in the United States, stateside Puerto Ricans are the most segregated among U.S. Latinos. Residential segregation is a serious problem related primarily to housing discrimination, especially for groups like Puerto Ricans, who have been migrating stateside for close to a century. Residential concentrations are associated with high poverty conditions and a host of other social problems, including low-performing schools, poor health and low-paying jobs. Using a measure of degree of segregation called the Index of Dissimilarity, for which a score of 60 or above indicates a high level of segregation, Puerto Ricans exceeded this level in nine major metropolitan areas. They were the most segregated in the following six metro areas in 2000:
  • Bridgeport, Connecticut (score of 73)
  • Hartford, Connecticut (70)
  • New York City (69)
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (69)
  • Newark, New Jersey (69)
  • Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, Ohio (68)


Stateside Puerto Ricans also find themselves concentrated in a third interesting way — they are disproportionately clustered in what has been called the "Boston-New York-Washington Corridor" along the East Coast. This area, coined a "megalopolis" by geographer Jean Gottman in 1956, is the largest and most affluent urban corridor in the world, being described as a "node of wealth ... [an] area where the pulse of the national economy beats loudest and the seats of power are well established." With major world class universities clustered in Boston and stretching throughout this corridor, the economic and media power and international power politics in New York City, and the seat of the federal government in Washington, DC, this is a major global power center.

The actual and potential impact that stateside Puerto Ricans are and can have on the United States and globally because of their significant presence in this Boston-New York-Washington megalopolis has been considerable. It is a locational advantage that can best be leveraged if this community is able to develop the leadership and infrastructure to exploit it. It certainly helps to account for the most disproportionate projection of stateside Puerto Rican images globally through the media and institutions of higher education since the "great migration" of the 1950s.

Segmentation

These changes in the settlement patterns of stateside Puerto Ricans between so-called traditional and new areas have resulted in a greater economic and social segmentation or polarization of this population along spatial lines. The Northeast, which in 2003 was home to 59.2 percent of stateside Puerto Ricans, was also where 88.5 percent of them receiving public assistance lived. The average household income in 2002 of $42,032 was the lowest of any major racial-ethnic group in the Northeast; this was the only region where it was lower than the national average for stateside Puerto Ricans. The Northeast was also the region where stateside Puerto Ricans had the lowest homeownership rate, 31.9 percent, aside from California (the two most expensive housing markets in the United States in general).

Because of its greater visibility and the dramatic growth of its Puerto Rican population, Florida is usually identified as the main engine behind this polarization. However, there are more dramatic differences in socioeconomic indicators between the Northeast and states like California, Texas and Hawaii. This is the case as well for states like New Jersey and Illinois, which are in the more traditional Puerto Rican settlement regions. The regional socioeconomic polarization is more complex than it may appear at first glance. While the greater affluence of the Puerto Rican population in states like California (for example the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley is a large valley landform in Southern California. The valley extends for approximately 45 miles in Riverside County southeast from the San Bernardino Mountains to the saltwater Salton Sea, the largest lake in California...

) and Texas (such as Austin
Austin, Texas
Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of :Texas and the seat of Travis County. Located in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, it is the fourth-largest city in Texas and the 14th most populous city in the United States. It was the third-fastest-growing large city in...

) may be well-established, the future of a state like Florida (especially the Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

 metro area) in this regard is not at all clear, given the rapidity and size of the migration and the different economic forces and labor markets at play.

While the 1990-2000 population growth rate of stateside Puerto Ricans of 24.9 percent was impressive compared to the 13.1 percent growth for the overall population, it was less than half of the growth rate of the total Latino population of 57.9 percent. In cities like New York, the Puerto Rican share of the Latino population decreased, though in Florida it increased. Overall, stateside Puerto Ricans make up about from 9 to 10 percent of the national Latino population.

These shifts in the relative sizes of Latino populations have also changed the role of the stateside Puerto Rican community. In many cases, Puerto Rican community leaders have become major advocates for immigration reform despite the fact that Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens. In some cases, because this community has had a longer history in dealing with the political system, the increasing numbers of Puerto Ricans elected and appointed government officials play gate-keeping and other roles in terms of the growing non-Puerto Rican Latino communities. Thus, many long established Puerto Rican institutions have had to revise their missions (and, in some cases, change their names) to provide services and advocacy on behalf of non-Puerto Rican Latinos. Some have seen this as a process that has made the stateside Puerto Rican community nearly invisible as immigration and a broader Latino agenda seem to have taken center stage, while others view this is a great opportunity for stateside Puerto Ricans to increase their influence and leadership role in a larger Latino world.

Income

The stateside Puerto Rican community has usually been characterized as being largely poor and part of the urban underclass in the United States. Studies and reports over the last fifty years or so have documented the high poverty status of this community. However, the picture at the start of the 21st century also reveals significant socioeconomic progress and a community with a growing economic clout.

In 2002, the average individual income for stateside Puerto Ricans was $33,927, only 68.7 percent that of whites ($48,687) and below the average of Asians ($49,981), Cubans ($38,733) and Mexicans ($38,200). However, it was higher than that of Dominicans ($28,467), and Central and South Americans ($30,444). In 2002, there were an estimated 24,450 stateside Puerto Ricans with individual incomes of $100,000 or more, compared to 4,059 a decade earlier.

The Latino market and remittances to Puerto Rico

The combined income for stateside Puerto Ricans in 2002 was $54.5 billion. This exceeded the total personal income
Total personal income
Total personal income is defined by the United States' Bureau of Economic Analysis asincome received by persons from all sources. It includes income received from participation in production as well as from government and business transfer payments...

 of Puerto Rico, which was $42.6 billion in 2000. This is a significant share of the large and growing Latino market in the United States that has been attracting increased attention from the media and the corporate sector. In the last decade or so, major corporations have discovered the so-called "urban markets" of blacks and Latinos that had been neglected for so long. This has spawned a cottage industry of marketing firms, consultants and publications that specialize in the Latino market.

One important question this raises is the degree to which stateside Puerto Ricans contribute economically to Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Planning Board estimated that remittances totaled $66 million in 1963. The only recent study that could be identified that examines the issue of remittances by stateside Puerto Ricans to Puerto Rico limited itself to migrants (those living stateside who were born on the island) and found that 38 percent of them indicated they sent money to Puerto Rico, averaging $1,179 per year per person (these are unpublished figures not included in the report that was released by DeSipio, et al. 2003). Using 2002 figures for island-born adult stateside Puerto Ricans, this would represent $417.8 million in remittances annually from that group alone. Since the island-born represented only 34 percent of the stateside Puerto Rican population in 2003, actual remittances from the entire community are probably more than double this number, possibly approaching or exceeding $1 billion a year. It is also important to keep in mind that these are family remittances and do not include investments in businesses and property in Puerto Rico, visitor expenditures and the like by stateside Puerto Ricans.

The full extent of the stateside Puerto Rican community’s contributions to the economy of Puerto Rico is not known, but it is clearly significant. The role of remittances and investments by Latino immigrants to their home counties has reached a level that it has received much attention in the last few years, as countries like Mexico develop strategies to better leverage these large sums of money from their diasporas in their economic development planning. Yet, the income disparity between the stateside community and those living on the island is not as great as those of other Latin-American countries, and the direct connection between second-generation Puerto Ricans and their relatives is not as conducive to direct monetary support. Many Puerto Ricans still living in Puerto Rico also remit to family members who are living stateside.

Gender

The average income in 2002 of stateside Puerto Rican men was $36,572, while women earned an average $30,613, 83.7 percent that of the men. Compared to all Latino groups, whites, and Asians, stateside Puerto Rican women came closer to achieving parity in income to the men of their own racial-ethnic group. In addition, stateside Puerto Rican women had incomes that were 82.3 percent that of white women, while stateside Puerto Rican men had incomes that were only 64.0 percent that of white men. Stateside Puerto Rican women were closer to income parity with white women than were women who were Dominicans (58.7 percent), Central and South Americans (68.4 percent), but they were below Cubans (86.2 percent), "other Hispanics" (87.2 percent), blacks (83.7 percent), and Asians (107.7 percent).

Stateside Puerto Rican men were in a weaker position in comparison with men from other racial-ethnic groups. They were closer to income parity to white men than men who were Dominicans (62.3 percent), and Central and South Americans (58.3 percent). Although very close to income parity with blacks (65.5 percent), stateside Puerto Rican men fell below Mexicans (68.3 percent), Cubans (75.9 percent), other Hispanics (75.1 percent), and Asians (100.7 percent).

Educational attainment

Stateside Puerto Ricans, along with other U.S. Latinos, have experienced the long-term problem of a high school dropout rate that has resulted in relatively low educational attainment. Of those 25 years and older, 63.2 percent graduated from high school, compared to 84.0 percent of whites, 73.6 percent of blacks, 83.4 percent of Asians, 68.7 percent of Cubans, and 72.6 percent of other Latinos. The rate, however, exceeded that of Mexicans (48.7 percent), Dominicans (51.7 percent) and Central and South Americans (60.4 percent).

While in Puerto Rico, according to the 2000 Census, 24.4 percent of those 25 years and older had a four-year college degree, for stateside Puerto Ricans the figure was only 9.9 percent. By 2003, it had increased to 13.1 percent, below the rate for whites (26.1 percent), blacks (14.4 percent) and Asians (43.3 percent). Among Latinos, only Mexicans (6.2 percent) fared worse, with other groups having higher rates: Dominicans (10.9 percent), Cubans (19.4 percent), Central and South Americans (16.0 percent) and other Latinos (16.1 percent).

Only 3.1 percent of stateside Puerto Ricans 25 and older in 2003 had graduate school degrees, compared to 4.7 percent in Puerto Rico in 2000. This rate was lower than that of whites (8.7 percent), blacks (4.1 percent) and Asians (15.6 percent). Among Latinos, Stateside Puerto Ricans fared better than Mexicans (1.4 percent) and Dominicans (1.8 percent), but worse than Cubans (6.7 percent), Central and South Americans (4.2 percent) and other Latinos (5.6 percent).

The University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico
The University of Puerto Rico is the state university system of Puerto Rico. The system consists of 11 campuses and has approximately 64,511 students and 5,300 faculty members...

 is the major Hispanic-serving institution
Hispanic-serving institution
A Hispanic-serving institution, or HSI, is a term used for a Federal program designed to assist colleges or universities in the United States that attempt to assist first generation, majority low income Hispanic students...

 of higher education in the United States that has the capacity, with increased federal government assistance, to open its doors much more aggressively to stateside Puerto Ricans.

Employment

In 2003, 20.7 percent of stateside Puerto Ricans were in professional or managerial occupations, while 33.7 percent had service or sales jobs. The percentage in professional-managerial positions was higher than that of Mexicans (13.2 percent) and Central and South Americans (16.8 percent), but below that of Cubans (28.5 percent), other Latinos (29.0 percent), and non-Latinos (36.2 percent). Between 1993 and 2003, among stateside Puerto Ricans, those in professional-managerial occupations grew from 15.3 to 20.7 percent. While significant, this increase lagged behind that of non-Latinos (+8.8 points) and Cubans (+9.9 points).

Poverty

Stateside Puerto Ricans have been associated with problems faced by communities with persistently high poverty levels. Some have characterized them as part of the urban underclass in the United States. Their poverty rate was only exceeded by that of Dominicans (29.9 percent). It was higher than every other major group: whites (6.3 percent), blacks (21.3 percent), Asians (7.1 percent), Mexicans (21.2 percent), Cubans (12.9 percent), Central and South Americans (14.1 percent) and other Latinos (13.2 percent). What is troubling about these statistics is that among Latino groups, Puerto Ricans are the only ones who are already U.S. citizens, which should be an advantage, but apparently is not. However, over three quarters were above the poverty line. This rate was about half the poverty rate of Puerto Rico in 2000 of 85.6 percent.

The stateside Puerto Rican poverty rate for families headed by single women was especially alarming, standing at 39.3 percent, although it was significantly lower than the 61.3 percent corresponding poverty rate in Puerto Rico. As with general family poverty, the stateside Puerto Rican poverty level for single female headed households was higher than every other major group except Dominicans (49.0 percent). The rate was 20.3 percent for whites, 35.3 percent for blacks, 14.7 percent far Asians, 37.6 percent for Mexicans, 15.3 percent for Cubans, 27.1 percent for Central and South Americans, and 24.8 percent for other Latinos.

Civic participation

The Puerto Rican community has organized itself to represent its interests in stateside political institutions for close to a century. In New York City, Puerto Ricans first began running for public office in the 1920s. In 1937, they elected their first government representative, Oscar Garcia Rivera, to the New York State Assembly. In Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

, Puerto-Rican Nelson Merced
Nelson Merced
Nelson Merced is a Massachusetts Latino activist and politician. He was the first Hispanic elected to the Massachusetts General Court, serving from 1989 to 1993 as Democratic representative from the fifth Suffolk District in Boston, including the Roxbury and North Dorchester neighborhoods.-Early...

 became the first Hispanic elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives
Massachusetts House of Representatives
The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It is composed of 160 members elected from single-member electoral districts across the Commonwealth. Representatives serve two-year terms...

, and the first Hispanic to hold statewide office in the commonwealth. There are currently four Puerto Rican members of the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

, Democrats Luis Gutierrez
Luis Gutiérrez
Luis Vicente Gutiérrez is an American politician and the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1993. Gutiérrez was the first Latino to be elected to Congress from the Midwest. From 1986 until his election to Congress he served as a member of the Chicago City Council representing the 26th ward...

 of Illinois, José Enrique Serrano of New York, and Nydia Velázquez
Nydia Velázquez
Nydia Margarita Velázquez is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1993. She is a member of the Democratic Party. The district includes residential areas of three boroughs...

 of New York, and Republican Raúl Labrador
Raúl Labrador
Raúl Rafael Labrador is the U.S. Representative for . He is a member of the Republican Party. He previously represented District 14B in the Idaho House of Representatives.-Early life, education, and law career:...

 of Idaho, complementing the one Resident Commissioner
Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico
The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives elected by the voters of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico every four years...

 elected to that body from Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricans have also been elected mayor of major cities such as Miami, Hartford, and Camden.

There are various ways in which stateside Puerto Ricans have exercised their influence. These include protests, campaign contributions and lobbying, and voting. The level of voter participation in Puerto Rico is legendary, greatly exceeding that of the United States. However, many see a paradox in that this high level of voting is not echoed stateside. There, Puerto Ricans have had persistently low voter registration and turnout rates, despite the relative success they have had in electing their own to significant public offices throughout the United States.

To address this problem, the government of Puerto Rico has, since the late 1980s, launched two major voter registration campaigns to increase the level of stateside Puerto Rican voter participation. While Puerto Ricans have traditionally been concentrated in the Northeast, coordinated Latino voter registration organizations, such as the Southwest Voter Registration Education Project and the United States Hispanic Leadership Institute (based in the Midwest), have not concentrated in this region and have focused on the Mexican-American voter. The government of Puerto Rico has sought to fill this vacuum to insure that stateside Puerto Rican interests are well represented in the electoral process, recognizing that the increased political influence of stateside Puerto Ricans also benefits the island.

The Census Bureau estimated that 861,728 stateside Puerto Ricans cast their votes in the November 7, 2000 presidential elections. They represented only 0.8 percent of the total, but made up a significant 14.5 percent of the increasingly visible Latino vote. The 5.9 million Latinos who voted in 2000 made up 5.4 percent of total U.S. voters, with higher percentages in politically important areas such as Florida, California, Texas, New York and New Mexico.

While for other Latino groups citizenship status is a major obstacle to voting, this is not a significant issue for stateside Puerto Ricans (99.7 percent of whom are U.S. citizens). One result of this is that although stateside Puerto Ricans made up 10.2 percent of all Latinos of voting age who are citizens, they constituted a significantly higher 14.5 percent of Latinos who actually voted.

In 2000, only 38.6 percent of voting age stateside Puerto Ricans who were citizens were registered to vote. Of the racial-ethnic groups that exceeded this figure, Cubans led the way with 55.9 percent, followed by whites at 54.7 percent, and blacks at 44.6 percent. Among Latinos, the stateside Puerto Rican rate was higher than that of Mexicans (24.0 percent), Central and South Americans (24.7 percent), and other Latinos (34.8 percent).

In terms of actual voter turnout as a percent of those registered, 79.8 percent of stateside Puerto Ricans voted in 2000, lower than whites (86.4 percent) and blacks (84.1 percent). Among Latinos, stateside Puerto Rican turnout was lower than that of Cubans (87.2 percent), Central and South Americans (87.3 percent), and other Latinos (83.8 percent), but was higher than that of Mexicans (75.0 percent).

To get a better picture of the small proportion of voters among all those eligible to vote (whether registered or not), the turnout rate can be calculated as the number of voters as a percentage of the citizen voting age population (C-VAP) for each group. Using this measure, the C-VAP turnout rate for stateside Puerto Ricans was 30.8 percent in 2000. In other words, more than two-thirds of those eligible to vote (1.9 million in actual numbers) did not do so in 2000.

This low level of electoral participation is in sharp contrast with voting levels in Puerto Rico, which are much higher than that not only of this community, but also the United States as a whole. In the 2000 gubernatorial election in Puerto Rico, 90.1 percent of the voting age population was registered to vote, and the voter turnout was 82.6 percent of those registered and 74.4 percent of the total voting age population. In contrast, in the U.S. presidential elections that same year, only 49.5 percent of eligible Americans were registered to vote and only 42.3 percent of these actually cast their ballots (and these are high estimates based on respondents’ recall, while the figures from Puerto Rico are based on actual returns).

The reasons for the differences in Puerto Rican voter participation have been an object of much discussion, but relatively little scholarly research. Explanations have ranged from the structural/institutional, the role of political parties, and political culture, and a combination of these, as well as other explanations. However, relatively little has been done by U.S. scholars and policymakers to explore this conundrum.

When the relationship of various factors to the turnout rates of stateside Puerto Ricans in 2000 is examined, socioeconomic status emerges as a clear factor. For example, according to the Census:
  • Income: the turnout rate for those with incomes less than $10,000 was 37.7 percent, while for those earning $75,000 and above, it was 76.7 percent.
  • Employment: 36.5 percent of the unemployed voted, versus 51.2 percent for the employed. The rate for those outside of the labor force was 50.6 percent, probably reflecting the disproportionate role of the elderly, who generally have higher turnout rates.
  • Union membership: for union members it was 51.3 percent, while for nonunion members it was 42.6 percent.
  • Housing: for homeowners it was 64.0 percent, while it was 41.8 percent for renters.


There were a number of other socio-demographic characteristics where turnout differences also existed, such as:
  • Age: the average age of voters was 45.3 years, compared to 38.5 years for eligible nonvoters.
  • Education: those without a high school diploma had a turnout rate of 42.5 percent, while for those with a graduate degree, it was 81.0 percent.
  • Birthplace: for those born stateside it was 48.9 percent, compared to 52.0 percent for those born in Puerto Rico.
  • Marriage status: for those who were married it was 62.0 percent, while those who were never married managed 33.0 percent.
  • Military service: for those who ever served in the U.S. military, the turnout rate was 72.1 percent, compared to 48.6 percent for those who never served.


A number of other characteristics, among them gender and race, did not appear to make a significant difference.

Attention has been given to electoral reforms in the last decade or so to create conditions that would make voting and registration easier. These include such things as: the federal "Motor Voter" law that allows registration in government offices while applying for a driver’s license, food stamps or other government service; more flexible absentee ballot procedures; bilingual ballot provisions; same day registration; and so on.

Stateside Puerto Ricans registered to vote in 2000 in a variety of ways and places. The largest group registered through the mail (30.8 percent), followed by those who filled out a form at a voter registration drive (22.1 percent). The other ways they registered were: same day registration at the polling place (14.4 percent); government registration offices (13.7 percent); public assistance agencies (8.4 percent); and schools, hospitals and on campuses (3.0 percent).

Looking at the turnout rates for stateside Puerto Ricans depending on how they registered, they were lowest for registration in government offices and highest in other settings. The highest turnout rates were for those who registered at registration drives (95.2 percent), through the mail (93.8 percent) and those who registered the same day at the polls (90.5 percent). It was lowest for those who registered at government registration offices (70.9 percent) and public assistance agencies (52.7 percent). These figures indicate that a reform like the "Motor Voter" law is having the least effect for stateside Puerto Ricans, while the techniques being pursued by the government of Puerto Rico (registration drives and direct mail) appear more promising. However, much more analysis and fieldwork will be required to come to more definite conclusions.

See also

  • Teatro Puerto Rico
    Teatro Puerto Rico
    The Teatro Puerto Rico was to the Latino community in the South Bronx what the Apollo Theater was to the African American community in the Harlem section of Manhattan. During its 1940s to 1950s "golden era," it was the hub of la farándula, a vaudeville-style package of Spanish-language events, and...

  • Young Lords
    Young Lords
    The Young Lords, later Young Lords Organization and in New York , Young Lords Party, was a Puerto Rican nationalist group in several United States cities, notably New York City and Chicago.-Founding:...

  • Puerto Rican people
    Puerto Rican people
    A Puerto Rican is a person who was born in Puerto Rico.Puerto Ricans born and raised in the continental United States are also sometimes referred to as Puerto Ricans, although they were not born in Puerto Rico...

  • List of Puerto Ricans
  • History of Puerto Rico
    History of Puerto Rico
    The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3000 and 2000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 430 BC and 1000 AD. At the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New...

  • Demographics of Puerto Rico
    Demographics of Puerto Rico
    This article is about the demographic features of the population of Puerto Rico, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population....

  • List of Stateside Puerto Ricans

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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