Prisoner-of-war camp
Overview
 
A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of combatants captured by their enemy in time of war, and is similar to an internment camp which is used for civilian populations. A prisoner of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 is generally a soldier, sailor, or airman who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. Some non-combatant enemy personnel, such as merchant mariners and civil aircrews, were also considered prisoners of war.
Following General John Burgoyne
John Burgoyne
General John Burgoyne was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, mostly notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762....

's death at the Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga
The Battles of Saratoga conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American War of Independence and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war. The battles were fought eighteen days apart on the same ground, south of Saratoga, New York...

 in 1777, several thousand British
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

 and German (Hessian and Brunswick) troops were marched to Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Greater Boston area. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Cambridge is home to two of the world's most prominent...

.
Encyclopedia
A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of combatants captured by their enemy in time of war, and is similar to an internment camp which is used for civilian populations. A prisoner of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 is generally a soldier, sailor, or airman who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. Some non-combatant enemy personnel, such as merchant mariners and civil aircrews, were also considered prisoners of war.

American Revolutionary War

Following General John Burgoyne
John Burgoyne
General John Burgoyne was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, mostly notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762....

's death at the Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga
The Battles of Saratoga conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American War of Independence and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war. The battles were fought eighteen days apart on the same ground, south of Saratoga, New York...

 in 1777, several thousand British
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

 and German (Hessian and Brunswick) troops were marched to Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Greater Boston area. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Cambridge is home to two of the world's most prominent...

. For various reasons, the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution....

 desired to move them south. One of Congress' members offered his land outside of Charlottesville, Virginia
Charlottesville, Virginia
Charlottesville is an independent city geographically surrounded by but separate from Albemarle County in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States, and named after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the queen consort of King George III of the United Kingdom.The official population estimate for...

. The remaining soldiers (some 2,000 British, upwards of 1,900 German, and roughly 300 women and children) marched south in late 1778—arriving at the site (near Ivy Creek) in January 1779. Since the barracks were barely sufficient in construction, the officers were parole
Parole
Parole may have different meanings depending on the field and judiciary system. All of the meanings originated from the French parole . Following its use in late-resurrected Anglo-French chivalric practice, the term became associated with the release of prisoners based on prisoners giving their...

d to live as far away as Richmond
Richmond, Virginia
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

 and Staunton
Staunton, Virginia
Staunton is an independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the commonwealth of Virginia. The population was 23,746 as of 2010. It is the county seat of Augusta County....

. The camp was never adequately provisioned, but the prisoners built a theater on the site. Hundreds escaped Albemarle Barracks
Albemarle Barracks
Albemarle Barracks was a prisoner-of-war camp for British prisoners during the American Revolutionary War.Following Gen. John Burgoyne's defeat at the Battle of Saratoga, in 1777, several thousand British and German troops, of what came to be known as the Convention Army, were marched to...

 because of the lack of guards. As the British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 moved northward from the Carolinas in late 1780, the remaining prisoners were moved to Frederick, Maryland
Frederick, Maryland
Frederick is a city in north-central Maryland. It is the county seat of Frederick County, the largest county by area in the state of Maryland. Frederick is an outlying community of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of a greater...

; Winchester, Virginia
Winchester, Virginia
Winchester is an independent city located in the northwestern portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the USA. The city's population was 26,203 according to the 2010 Census...

; and perhaps elsewhere. No remains of the encampment site are left.

Napoleonic Wars

The earliest known purposely built prisoner-of-war camp was established at Norman Cross
Norman Cross
Norman Cross lies near Peterborough, Cambridgeshire. Traditionally in Huntingdonshire, it gave its name to a hundred and, from 1894 to 1974, Norman Cross Rural District....

, England in 1797 to house the increasing number of prisoners from the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states...

 and the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

.
  • Norman Cross - Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, England

American Civil War

Lacking a means for dealing with large numbers of captured troops early in the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, the U.S. and Confederate
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

 governments relied on the traditional European system of parole and exchange of prisoners. Both Union and Confederate prison camps had their share of atrocities resulting in starvation, disease, and death. The most notorious was the Confederate POW camp at Andersonville
Andersonville prison
The Andersonville prison, officially known as Camp Sumter, served as a Confederate Prisoner-of-war camp during the American Civil War. The site of the prison is now Andersonville National Historic Site in Andersonville, Georgia. Most of the site actually lies in extreme southwestern Macon County,...

.

Union camps

  • Camp Chase
    Camp Chase
    Camp Chase was a military staging, training and prison camp in Columbus, Ohio, during the American Civil War. All that remains of the camp today is a Confederate cemetery containing 2,260 graves. The cemetery is located in what is now the Hilltop neighborhood of Columbus, Ohio.- History :Camp Chase...

     – Columbus, Ohio
    Columbus, Ohio
    Columbus is the capital of and the largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio. The broader metropolitan area encompasses several counties and is the third largest in Ohio behind those of Cleveland and Cincinnati. Columbus is the third largest city in the American Midwest, and the fifteenth largest city...

  • Camp Douglas (Chicago)
    Camp Douglas (Chicago)
    Camp Douglas, in Chicago, Illinois, was a Union Army prisoner-of-war camp for Confederate soldiers taken prisoner during the American Civil War. It was also a training and detention camp for Union soldiers. The Union Army first used the camp in 1861 as an organizational and training camp for...

     – Chicago, Illinois
  • Davids' Island
    Davids' Island (New York)
    Davids' Island is a island off the coast of New Rochelle, New York, in Long Island Sound. Currently uninhabited, in the past it was the site of Fort Slocum. Plans are to preserve the island as public parkland under the Westchester County Parks system. The island is home to the endangered Kemp’s...

     – New York City
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  • Elmira Prison
    Elmira Prison
    Elmira Prison was a prisoner-of-war camp constructed by the Union Army in Elmira, New York, during the American Civil War to house captive Confederate soldiers....

     – Elmira, New York
    Elmira, New York
    Elmira is a city in Chemung County, New York, USA. It is the principal city of the 'Elmira, New York Metropolitan Statistical Area' which encompasses Chemung County, New York. The population was 29,200 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Chemung County.The City of Elmira is located in...

  • Fort Delaware
    Fort Delaware
    Fort Delaware is a harbor defense facility, designed by Chief Engineer Joseph Gilbert Totten, and located on Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River. During the American Civil War, the Union used Fort Delaware as a prison for Confederate prisoners of war, political prisoners, federal convicts, and...

     – Delaware City, Delaware
    Delaware City, Delaware
    Delaware City is a city in New Castle County, Delaware, United States. The population was 1,695 at the 2010 census. It is a small port town on the eastern terminus of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal and is the location of the ferry to Fort Delaware on Pea Patch Island.-Geography:Delaware City is...

  • Fort Warren
    Fort Warren (Massachusetts)
    Fort Warren is a historic fort on the Georges Island at the entrance to Boston Harbor. The fort is pentagonal, made with stone and granite, and was constructed from 1833–1861, completed shortly after the beginning of the American Civil War...

     – Boston, Massachusetts
  • Gratiot Street Prison
    Gratiot Street Prison
    Gratiot Street Prison was an American Civil War prison located in St. Louis, Missouri and was the largest war prison in Missouri.Run by the Union Army, it housed Confederate prisoners-of-war, confederate sympathizers, guerrillas, spies, and Federal soldiers accused of crimes. It is well known for...

     – St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis, Missouri
    St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

  • Johnson's Island
    Johnson's Island
    Johnson's Island is a island in Sandusky Bay, located on the coast of Lake Erie, 3 miles from the city of Sandusky, Ohio. It was the site of a prisoner-of-war camp for Confederate officers captured during the American Civil War. Johnson's Island was the only Union prison exclusively for Southern...

     – Lake Erie, Sandusky, Ohio
    Sandusky, Ohio
    Sandusky is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. It is located in northern Ohio and is situated on the shores of Lake Erie, almost exactly half-way between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east....

  • Ohio Penitentiary
    Ohio Penitentiary
    The Ohio Penitentiary, also known as the Ohio State Penitentiary, or less formally, the Ohio Pen or State Pen, was a prison operated from 1834-1983 in downtown Columbus, Ohio, in what is now known as the Arena District. The prison housed 5,235 prisoners at its peak in 1955...

     – Columbus, Ohio
    Columbus, Ohio
    Columbus is the capital of and the largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio. The broader metropolitan area encompasses several counties and is the third largest in Ohio behind those of Cleveland and Cincinnati. Columbus is the third largest city in the American Midwest, and the fifteenth largest city...

  • Old Capitol Prison
    Old Capitol Prison
    The Old Brick Capitol in Washington, D.C., served as temporary Capitol of the United States from 1815 to 1825, and became the Old Capitol Prison during the American Civil War. Razed in 1929, its site is now occupied by the U.S...

     – Washington, DC
  • Point Lookout
    Point Lookout, Maryland
    Point Lookout is a Maryland state park at the southern tip of St. Mary's County, Maryland. It is a peninsula formed by the confluence of the Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River....

     – Saint Mary's County, Maryland
    Saint Mary's County, Maryland
    Saint Mary's County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maryland.As of 2010, the population was 105,151. Its county seat is Leonardtown...

  • Rock Island Prison
    Rock Island Arsenal
    The Rock Island Arsenal comprises , located on Arsenal Island, originally known as Rock Island, on the Mississippi River between the cities of Davenport, Iowa, and Rock Island, Illinois. It lies within the state of Illinois. The island was originally established as a government site in 1816, with...

     – Rock Island, Illinois
    Rock Island, Illinois
    Rock Island is the county seat of Rock Island County, Illinois, United States. The population was 40,884 at the 2010 census. Located on the Mississippi River, it is one of the Quad Cities, along with neighboring Moline, East Moline, and the Iowa cities of Davenport and Bettendorf. The Quad Cities...

     – a government owned island in the Mississippi River
    Mississippi River
    The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...


Confederate camps

  • Andersonville – Andersonville, Georgia
    Andersonville, Georgia
    Andersonville is a city in Sumter County, Georgia, United States. The population was 331 at the 2000 census . It is located in the southwest part of the state, about southwest of Macon, Georgia on the Central of Georgia railroad...

     (also has National POW Museum)
  • Belle Isle
    Belle Isle (Virginia)
    Belle Isle is a small island in the James River in Richmond, Virginia in the United States. Belle Isle is owned by the city of Richmond, and has been designated a city park. It is accessible to pedestrian and bicycle traffic via a suspension footbridge that runs under the Robert E. Lee Bridge from...

     – Richmond, Virginia
    Richmond, Virginia
    Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

  • Blackshear Prison
    Blackshear Prison
    The Pierce County Jail was a temporary prisoner of war camp located in Blackshear, Georgia, during the American Civil War.During Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's 1864 "March to the Sea," Confederate officials hastily made plans to evacuate a number of existing POW camps and relocate their...

     – Blackshear, Georgia
    Blackshear, Georgia
    Blackshear is a city in Pierce County, Georgia, United States. The population was 3,283 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Pierce County.Blackshear is part of the Waycross Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:...

  • Cahaba Prison
    Cahaba Prison
    Cahaba Prison, also known as Castle Morgan, was a prisoner of war camp in Alabama where the Confederacy held captive Union soldiers during the American Civil War. The prison was located in the small Alabama town of Cahaba, at the confluence of the Alabama and Cahaba Rivers, not far from...

     (Castle Morgan) – Selma, Alabama
    Selma, Alabama
    Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, Alabama, United States, located on the banks of the Alabama River. The population was 20,512 at the 2000 census....

  • Camp Ford
    Camp Ford
    Camp Ford was a prisoner of war camp near Tyler, Texas, during the American Civil War. It was the largest Confederate-run prison west of the Mississippi River....

     – near Tyler, Texas
    Tyler, Texas
    Tyler is a city in and the county seat of Smith County, Texas, in the United States. It takes its name from President John Tyler . The city had a population of 109,000 in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau...

     http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/ford/
  • Castle Pinckney
    Castle Pinckney
    Castle Pinckney was a small masonry fortification constructed by the United States government by 1810 in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina...

     – Charleston, South Carolina
    Charleston, South Carolina
    Charleston is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded. The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location from a location on the west bank of the...

  • Castle Sorghum
    Castle Sorghum
    Camp Sorghum was a Confederate States Army prisoner of war camp located in Columbia, South Carolina during the American Civil War.Established in 1862, Camp Sorghum consisted of a tract of open field, without walls, fences, buildings, or any other facilities...

     – Columbia, South Carolina
    Columbia, South Carolina
    Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 129,272 according to the 2010 census. Columbia is the county seat of Richland County, but a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County. The city is the center of a metropolitan...

  • Castle Thunder
    Castle Thunder (prison)
    Castle Thunder, located in Richmond, Virginia, was a former tobacco warehouse located on Tobacco Row, converted into a prison used by the Confederacy to house civilian prisoners, including captured Union spies, political prisoners and those charged with treason during the American Civil War. A...

     – Richmond, Virginia
    Richmond, Virginia
    Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

  • Danville Prison – Danville, Virginia
    Danville, Virginia
    Danville is an independent city in Virginia, United States, bounded by Pittsylvania County, Virginia and Caswell County, North Carolina. It was the last capital of the Confederate States of America. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Danville with Pittsylvania county for...

  • Florence Stockade
    Florence Stockade
    The Florence Stockade, also known as The Stockade or the Confederate States Military Prison at Florence, was a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp located on the outskirts of Florence, South Carolina, during the American Civil War...

     – Florence, South Carolina
    Florence, South Carolina
    -Municipal government and politics:The City of Florence has a council-manager form of government. The mayor and city council are elected every four years, with no term limits...

  • Fort Pulaski – Savannah, Georgia
    Savannah, Georgia
    Savannah is the largest city and the county seat of Chatham County, in the U.S. state of Georgia. Established in 1733, the city of Savannah was the colonial capital of the Province of Georgia and later the first state capital of Georgia. Today Savannah is an industrial center and an important...

  • Libby Prison
    Libby Prison
    Libby Prison was a Confederate Prison at Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War. It gained an infamous reputation for the harsh conditions under which prisoners from the Union Army were kept.- Overview :...

     – Richmond, Virginia
    Richmond, Virginia
    Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

  • Salisbury Prison
    Salisbury Prison
    Salisbury Prison was a military prison of the Confederate States of America in Rowan County, North Carolina. Today the site is Salisbury National Cemetery....

     – Salisbury, North Carolina
    Salisbury, North Carolina
    Salisbury is a city in Rowan County in North Carolina, a state of the United States of America. The population was 33,663 in the 2010 Census . It is the county seat of Rowan County...


World War I

The first international convention on prisoners of war was signed at the Hague Peace Conference of 1899. It was widened by the Hague Convention of 1907. These rules proved insufficient in World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, and the International Red Cross proposed a more complete code.

German

  • Lamsdorf
    Stalag VIII-B
    Stalag VIII-B Lamsdorf was a notorious German Army prisoner of war camp, later renumbered Stalag-344, located near the small town of Lamsdorf in Silesia. The camp initially occupied barracks built to house British and French prisoners in World War I...

     - camp for other ranks
    Other Ranks
    Other Ranks in the British Army, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force are those personnel who are not commissioned officers. In the Royal Navy, these personnel are called ratings...

     in Silesia
    Silesia
    Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław...

  • Colditz Castle
    Colditz Castle
    Colditz Castle is a Renaissance castle in the town of Colditz near Leipzig, Dresden, and Chemnitz in the state of Saxony in Germany. Used as a workhouse for the indigent and a mental institution for over 100 years, it gained international fame as a prisoner-of-war camp during World War II for...

     - camp for officers in Saxony
    Saxony
    The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

     This is apocryphal and may not be true; the historian of the WWII Camp, Major Pat Reid, was never able to confirm that Colditz was so used in the First World War
  • Hammelburg
    Hammelburg
    Hammelburg is a town in the district of Bad Kissingen, in Lower Franconia, Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the river Franconian Saale, 25 km west of Schweinfurt...

     - camp for Allied officers in northern Bavaria
    Bavaria
    Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

  • Königstein Castle - camp for officers in Saxony
    Saxony
    The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

  • Mainz
    Mainz
    Mainz under the Holy Roman Empire, and previously was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire...

     Citadel - in the Rheinland
  • Minden
    Minden
    Minden is a town of about 83,000 inhabitants in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The town extends along both sides of the river Weser. It is the capital of the Kreis of Minden-Lübbecke, which is part of the region of Detmold. Minden is the historic political centre of the...

     - camp for British prisoners
  • Hammerstein/Westpreussen
    Czarne
    Czarne is a town in Człuchów County of Pomeranian Voivodeship in northern Poland. Population: 6,053 .-History:The town was founded on the territories that were formerly part of the Kingdom of Poland. They were acquired by the Monastic State of the Teutonic Order in 1308. Konrad von Jungingen...

     - camp for Russian prisoners.
  • Stralsund
    Stralsund
    - Main sights :* The Brick Gothic historic centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.* The heart of the old town is the Old Market Square , with the Gothic Town Hall . Behind the town hall stands the imposing Nikolaikirche , built in 1270-1360...

     - camp for Allied officers, located on Baltic coast
  • Szczypiorno
    Szczypiorno
    Szczypiorno is a municipal neighbourhood of the city of Kalisz, Poland. Formerly until 1976 a separate village at the outskirts of the city, it is best known as a seat of a World War I and Polish-Bolshevist War prisoner of war camp and the name-sake for szczypiorniak, the Polish language name for...

     - camp for Allied officers, located near Kalisz
    Kalisz
    Kalisz is a city in central Poland with 106,857 inhabitants , the capital city of the Kalisz Region. Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce...

    , the Kingdom of Poland
    Congress Poland
    The Kingdom of Poland , informally known as Congress Poland , created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, was a personal union of the Russian parcel of Poland with the Russian Empire...

  • Tucheln
    Tuchola
    Tuchola is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in northern Poland. The Pomeranian town, which had a population of 13,976 as of 2004, is located close to the Tuchola Forests about 7t0 km north of Bydgoszcz, and is the seat of Tuchola County...

     - in Pomerania
    Pomerania
    Pomerania is a historical region on the south shore of the Baltic Sea. Divided between Germany and Poland, it stretches roughly from the Recknitz River near Stralsund in the West, via the Oder River delta near Szczecin, to the mouth of the Vistula River near Gdańsk in the East...

    , camp for Russians
  • Gießen
    Gießen
    Gießen, also spelt Giessen is a town in the German federal state of Hesse, capital of both the district of Gießen and the administrative region of Gießen...

    - in Hesse
    Hesse
    Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

  • Döberitz- near Berlin
    Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

    , camp for Russian, Polish, French, and British prisoners
  • Ruhleben
    Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp
    Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp was a civilian detention camp during World War I. It was located in Ruhleben, then a village to the west of Berlin, now split between the districts of Spandau and Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf...

     - near Berlin
    Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

    , camp for British prisoners
  • Reichenberg (present-day Liberec
    Liberec
    Liberec is a city in the Czech Republic. Located on the Lusatian Neisse and surrounded by the Jizera Mountains and Ještěd-Kozákov Ridge, it is the fifth-largest city in the Czech Republic....

     in Czech Republic). Camp for Russian officers.
  • Limburg an Der Lahn - in Hesse
    Hesse
    Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

    , camp for British prisoners including members of Irish regiments.
  • Uelzen (supposed P.O.W. camp) - Russian/Belarus civilian named Khvilivitsky was held there 1915-18 after being held in a civilian camp, trying to escape to Holland and being recaptured: sources: Deutsches Wochenschach and family memories
  • Mannheim - Russian civilian named Weinstein transferred there in Sept. 1917
  • Brandenburg Camp - Merchant Seaman
  • Holzminden—British officers. Site of a noted tunnel escape.
  • Gütersloh
  • Clausthal
  • Ingolstadt—Fort Nine. This camp was the WWI counterpart to Colditz, the place where escapers were sent. Well documented in the book "The Escaping Club" by Alfred John Evans.
  • Karlsruhe—site of two camps. An interrogation camp was located at the former Europäischer Hof, while the main camp contained naval and, later, aviation officers.
  • Villengine—Russian POW's and then an officers' camp
  • Courtrai/Kortrijk


(this is only a partial list - please help to expand it, although also see )

Polish–Soviet War

Tuchola
Tuchola
Tuchola is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in northern Poland. The Pomeranian town, which had a population of 13,976 as of 2004, is located close to the Tuchola Forests about 7t0 km north of Bydgoszcz, and is the seat of Tuchola County...

 was the most notorious POW camp for Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 POWs (1919–1922).

From autumn 1920, thousands of captured Red Army men had been placed in the camp of Тuchola, in Pomerania
Pomerania
Pomerania is a historical region on the south shore of the Baltic Sea. Divided between Germany and Poland, it stretches roughly from the Recknitz River near Stralsund in the West, via the Oder River delta near Szczecin, to the mouth of the Vistula River near Gdańsk in the East...

. These POWs lived in trenches. Famine, cold and infectious diseases killed tens of prisoners daily. In the winter 1920/1921 PoWs had a death rate of about 25% which was attributed to malnutrition, poor sanitary conditions, lack of fuel and medicines and physical maltreatment by the Polish supervisors.

From the moment of opening an infirmary in February, 1921 till May 11, 1921 there was registered epidemic diseases 6491, not epidemic 12294, 2561 deaths (W.Rezmer, Zbigniew Karpus, G.Matvejev Red Army POWs in the Polish POW camps 1919-1922, p. 671).

Lieutenant Colonel I. Matuszewski, the head of the II department of the Polish Joint Staff, informed the military minister of Poland in the letter on February 1, 1922, that 22,000 PoWs were lost in the camp of Tuchola during its existence. (Red Army POWs..., p. 671), however according to Karpus, Rezmer the total death toll in all Polish POW camps was near 16,000, while Matvejev's estimate is 20,000.

On the other side of the frontline about 20,000 out of about 51,000 Polish POWs died in Soviet and Lithuanian camps (Karpus, Zbigniew, Alexandrowicz Stanisław, Zwycięzcy za drutami. Jeńcy polscy w niewoli (1919–1922). Dokumenty i materiały (Victors behind the fences. Polish POWs (1919–1922). Documents and materials). Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Toruń, 1995, ISBN 83-231-0627-4).

While the conditions for Soviet prisoners were clearly exposed by the free press in Poland (Karpus op.cit.), no corresponding fact-finding about Soviet camps for Polish POWs could be expected from tightly controlled Soviet press of the time. Available data shows many cases of mistreatment of Polish prisoners. There have been also cases of Soviet army executing Polish POWs when no POW facilities were available (Karpus op.cit.).

World War II

The Third Geneva Convention
Third Geneva Convention
The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It was first adopted in 1929, but was significantly updated in 1949...

 (1929) established the certain provisions relative to the treatment of Prisoners of War. One requirement was that POW camps were to be open to inspection by authorised representatives of a neutral power.
  • Article 10 required that POWs should be lodged in adequately heated and lighted buildings where conditions were the same as their own troops.
  • Articles 27-32 detailed the conditions of labour. Enlisted rank
    Enlisted rank
    An enlisted rank is, in most Militaries, any rank below a commissioned officer or warrant officer. The term can also be inclusive of non-commissioned officers...

    s were required to perform whatever labour they were asked and able to do, so long as it was not dangerous and did not support the captor's war effort. Senior Non-commissioned officer
    Non-commissioned officer
    A non-commissioned officer , called a sub-officer in some countries, is a military officer who has not been given a commission...

    s (sergeants and above) were required to work only in a supervisory role. Commissioned officers were not required to work, although they could volunteer. The work performed was largely agricultural or industrial, ranging from coal or potash mining, stone quarrying, or work in saw mills, breweries, factories, railway yards, and forests. POWs hired out to military and civilian contractors were supposed to receive pay. The workers were also supposed to get at least one day per week of rest.
  • Article 76 ensured that PoWs who died in captivity were honourably buried in marked graves.


The Cowra breakout
Cowra breakout
During World War II, a prisoner of war camp near the town of Cowra in New South Wales, Australia was the site of one of the largest prison escapes of the war, on 5 August 1944. At least 545 Japanese POWs were involved in the breakout.-The camp:...

, on August 5, 1944, is believed to be the largest escape of POWs in recorded history and possibly the largest prison breakout ever. At least 545 Japanese
Empire of Japan
The Empire of Japan is the name of the state of Japan that existed from the Meiji Restoration on 3 January 1868 to the enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of...

 POWs attempted to escape from a camp near Cowra
Cowra, New South Wales
Cowra is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia in the Cowra Shire. It is located on the Mid-Western Highway, 317 kilometres west of Sydney on the banks of the Lachlan River at an altitude of 310 metres above sea level. At the 2006 census Cowra had a population of 8,430...

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. Most sources say that 234 POWs were killed or committed suicide. The remainder were recaptured.

The Red Cross provided millions of Red Cross parcel
Red Cross parcel
Red Cross parcel usually refers to packages containing mostly food, tobacco and personal hygiene items sent by the International Association of the Red Cross to prisoners of war during the First and Second World Wars, as well as at other times. It can also refer to medical parcels and so-called...

s to Allied PoWs in Axis prison camps during the course of the war; most of these contained food and personal hygiene items, while others held medical kits. A special "release kit" parcel was also provided to some newly-released PoWs at the war's end.

Allied camps

  • List of POW camps in Australia
  • List of POW camps in Britain
  • List of POW camps in the United States
  • List of POW camps in Canada
  • List of POW camps in USSR
  • List of POW camps in India
  • List of POW camps in occupied Germany
  • Featherston prisoner of war camp
    Featherston prisoner of war camp
    Featherston prisoner of war camp was a camp for captured Japanese soldiers during World War II at Featherston, New Zealand. It had been established during World War I as the largest military training camp in New Zealand. At the request of the United States, in September 1942 it was re-established...

    , New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

  • Lom prisoner of war camp
    Lom prisoner of war camp
    Lom prisoner of war camp was a facility used by the Norwegian 2nd Division to hold German prisoners-of-war during the 1940 Norwegian Campaign of the Second World War...

    , Norway
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

  • Skorpa prisoner of war camp
    Skorpa prisoner of war camp
    Skorpa prisoner of war camp was a facility built by the Norwegian 6th Division to hold German prisoners-of-war during the 1940 Norwegian Campaign of the Second World War...

    , Norway
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

  • List of POW camps in Kenya
  • Zonderwater POW camp in Cullinan
    Cullinan, Gauteng
    Cullinan is a small town 30 km east of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. Sir Thomas Cullinan discovered a rich diamond pipe here in 1902 and soon afterwards, on 25 June 1905, the famed Cullinan Diamond, the largest in the world at , was discovered by Frederick Wells, surface manager of the Premier...

    , South Africa
    South Africa
    The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...


Click here for another List of World War II POW camps

Axis camps


Cigarettes as currency

In many POW camps, cigarettes were widely used as currency in the form of 'Commodity money
Commodity money
Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity out of which it is made. It is objects that have value in themselves as well as for use as money....

'. They performed the function of money as a medium of exchange. This was because they were generally accepted among the prisoners for settling payments or debts. They also performed the function of money as a unit of account. Prices of other goods were expressed in terms of cigarettes. Compared with other goods, the supply of cigarettes was more stable, as they were rationed in the POW camps, and cigarettes were more divisible, portable and homogeneous.

U.N. camps

The International Red Cross visited U.N. POW camps, often unannounced, noting prisoner hygiene, quality of medical care, variety of diet and weight gain. They talked to the prisoners and asked for their comments on conditions, as well as providing them with copies of the Geneva Convention. The IRC delegates dispersed boots, soap and other requested goods.
  • Koje-do Island - a prison camp where over 170,000 communist and non-communist prisoners were held from December 1950 until June 1952. Throughout 1951 and early 1952, upper-level communist agents infiltrated and conquered much of Koje section-by-section by uniting fellow communists, bending dissenters to their will through staged trials and public executions, and exporting allegations of abuse to the international community to benefit the communist negotiation team. In May 1952, Chinese and North Korean prisoners at Koje Island rioted and took Brigadier General Francis T. Dodd captive.


In 1952 the camp's administration was afraid that the prisoners would riot and demonstrate on May Day (a day honoring Communism) and so U.S. navy ships (such as the USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5)
USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5)
USS Gunston Hall was an in the United States Navy, named in honor of Gunston Hall, the estate of George Mason , one of the Founding Fathers of the United States....

) removed 15,000 North Korean and Chinese prisoners from the island and moved them to prison facilities at Ulsan and Cheju-do. These ships also participated in Operation Big Switch
Operation Big Switch
Operation Big Switch was the repatriation of all remaining prisoners of the Korean War. Ceasefire talks had been going on between Communist and UN forces since 1951, with one of the main stumbling blocks being the Communist insistence that all prisoners be returned home, with the UN insisting that...

 in September 1953 when prisoners were exchanged at the end of the war.

Communist camps

In the communist POW camps, U.N. prisoners suffered starvation and the deprivation of sleep, food and medical care; many endured various levels of torture. Communist guards often retained relief packages and food for themselves.

While these POW Camps were designated numerically by the communists, the POWs often gave the camps a name.
  • Camp 1 - Changsong - near Camp 3 on the Yalu River.
  • Camp 2 - Pyoktong - on the Yalu River.
  • Camp 3 - Changsong - near Camp 1 on the Yalu River.
  • Camp 4 - north of Camp 2
  • Camp 5 - near Pyoktong.
  • Camp 6 - P'yong-yang
  • Camp 7 - near Pyoktong.
  • Camp 8 - Kangdong
  • Camp 9 - P'yong-yang.
  • Camp 10 - Chon ma
  • Camp 11 - Pukchin
  • Camp 12 - P'yong-yang- (Peace Camp) was located in the northwestern vicinity of the capitol. Nearby were several other camps including PAK's Palace.
  • Bean Camp - Suan
  • Camp DeSoto - P'yong-yang locale - The camp was near to Camp 12.
  • Pak's Palace Camp - P'yong-yang locale - Located in the northern most area near the Capitol, this camp was so-named after a notorious interrogator, Col. Pak. The camp was near Camp 12.
  • Pukchin Mining Camp - between Kunu-ri and Pyoktong - (aka. Death Valley Camp).
  • Sunchon Tunnel - - (aka. Caves Camp) Site of a massacre of prisoners.
  • Suan Mining Camp - P'yong-yang
  • Valley Camps - Teksil-li

South Vietnamese Army camps in South Vietnam

By the end of 1965, Viet Cong suspects, prisoners of war, and even juvenile delinquents were all mixed together in South Vietnamese jails and prisons. After June 1965 the prison population steadily rose until by early 1966 there was no space for more prisoners in the existing jails and prisons. In 1965 plans were made to construct five POW camps, each having an initial capacity of 1,000 prisoners. Each camp would be staffed by the South Vietnamese military police, with U.S. military policemen as prisoner of war advisers being assigned to each stockade.

Prisons and jails
  • Con Son National Prison
  • Chi Hoa National Prison
  • Tam Hiep National Prison
  • Thu Duc National Prison
  • plus 42 Province jails


Camps
  • Bien Hoa camp - in III Corp area was opened May 1966
  • Pleiku camp - in II Corps area was opened August 1966
  • Da Nang camp (Non Nuoc) - in I Corps area was opened in November 1966
  • Can Tho camp - in IV Corps area was opened December 1966
  • Qui Nhon (Phu Tai) - opened March 1968 (for female PoWs)
  • Phu Quoc Island - off the coast of Cambodia opened in 1968

North Vietnamese Army camps

  • Alcatraz - North Central Hanoi
    Hanoi
    Hanoi , is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam...

  • Briarpatch - 33 miles (53 km) WNW of Hanoi
  • Camp Faith - 9 miles (14 km) West of Hanoi
  • Camp Hope - Son Tay, 22 miles (35 km) WNW of Hanoi
  • Dirty Bird - Northern Hanoi
  • Dogpatch - 105 miles (169 km) NNE of Hanoi
  • Farnsworth - 18 miles (29 km) SW of Hanoi
  • Hanoi Hilton
    Hanoi Hilton
    Hỏa Lò Prison, later sarcastically known to American prisoners of war as the "Hanoi Hilton", was a prison used by the French colonists in Vietnam for political prisoners and later by North Vietnam for prisoners of war during the Vietnam War....

     - Hoa Lo, Central Hanoi
  • Mountain Camp - 40 miles (64 km) NW of Hanoi
  • Plantation - Northeast Hanoi
  • Rockpile - 32 miles (51 km) South of Hanoi
  • Skidrow - 6 miles (10 km) SW of Hanoi
  • Zoo - SW suburb of Hanoi

Serb Camps

  • Manjača camp
    Manjaca camp
    Manjača camp was a concentration camp on mountain Manjača near the city of Banja Luka in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Croatian War and Bosnian War from 1991 to 1995...

     – Banja Luka
    Banja Luka
    -History:The name "Banja Luka" was first mentioned in a document dated February 6, 1494, but Banja Luka's history dates back to ancient times. There is a substantial evidence of the Roman presence in the region during the first few centuries A.D., including an old fort "Kastel" in the centre of...

    , Republika Srpska
    Republika Srpska
    Republika Srpska is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

  • Sremska Mitrovica camp
    Sremska Mitrovica camp
    Sremska Mitrovica prison is the biggest prison in Serbia, consisting of two facilities. It is situated in Sremska Mitrovica, Vojvodina province....

     – Sremska Mitrovica
    Sremska Mitrovica
    Sremska Mitrovica is a city and municipality located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia, on the left bank of the Sava river. As of 2002 the town had a total population of 39,041, while Sremska Mitrovica municipality had a population of 85,605...

    , Vojvodina
    Vojvodina
    Vojvodina, officially called Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province of Serbia. Its capital and largest city is Novi Sad...

  • Stajićevo camp
    Stajicevo camp
    The Stajićevo camp was an agricultural farm in Stajićevo near Zrenjanin, Serbia where Croatian prisoners of war and civilians were kept by Serbian authorities. The camp also acted as a transit facility where prisoners were taken before being moved to the Sremska Mitrovica camp...

     – Stajićevo
    Stajicevo
    Stajićevo is a village in Serbia. It is located in the Zrenjanin municipality, in the Central Banat District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population numbering 1,999 people .-History:...

     ,Vojvodina

Other Camps

  • Čelebići prison camp – Konjic
    Konjic
    Konjic is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in northern Herzegovina, around southwest of Sarajevo. It is a mountainous, heavily wooded area, and is above sea level. The municipality extends on both sides of the Neretva River. The town of Konjic, housed about a third...

    , Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two political entities that compose the sovereign country of Bosnia and Herzegovina . The two entities are delineated by the Inter-Entity Boundary Line...

  • Lapušnik prison camp – Kosovo
    Kosovo
    Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...


Afghanistan and Iraq wars

The United States has refused to grant prisoner-of-war status to many prisoners captured during its 2001 invasion of Afghanistan
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The War in Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001, as the armed forces of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the Afghan United Front launched Operation Enduring Freedom...

 and 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
The 2003 invasion of Iraq , was the start of the conflict known as the Iraq War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq and toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in 21 days of major combat operations...

. The legality of this refusal has been questioned and cases are pending in the US courts. A recent U.S. Supreme Court decision seems to have given all prisoners under US control POW status. This is under dispute. Other captives, including Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003...

, have been accorded POW status. The International Red Cross has been permitted to visit at least some sites. It has been alleged that many prisoners are held in secret locations or by friendly governments.
Known sites include:
  • Abu Ghraib prison
    Abu Ghraib prison
    The Baghdad Central Prison, formerly known as Abu Ghraib prison is in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km west of Baghdad. It was built by British contractors in the 1950s....

     – 32 km west of Baghdad
    Baghdad
    Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

    , Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

  • Bagram Air Base
    Bagram Air Base
    Bagram Airfield, also referred to as Bagram Air Base, is a militarized airport and housing complex that is located next to the ancient city of Bagram, southeast of Charikar in Parwan province of Afghanistan. The base is run by a US Army division headed by a major general. A large part of the base,...

     – near Charikar in Parvan
    Parvan Province
    Parwān , also spelled Parvān, once also the name of an ancient town in the Hindu Kush mountains, is today an administrative province in northern Afghanistan, directly north of Kabul Province...

    , Afghanistan
    Afghanistan
    Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

  • Camp Bucca
    Camp Bucca
    Camp Bucca was a detention facility maintained by the United States military in the vicinity of Umm Qasr, Iraq. As of June 2011, a group of entrepreneurial Iraqis and Americans are re-building Camp Bucca as Basra Gateway, a logistics city and environmentally-friendly industrial hub to lead the new...

     – near Umm Qasr
    Umm Qasr
    Umm Qasr , is a port city in southern Iraq. It stands on the canalised Khawr az-Zubayr, part of the Khawr Abd Allah estuary which leads to the Persian Gulf. It is separated from the border of Kuwait by a small inlet...

    , Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

  • Camp Delta
    Camp Delta
    Camp Delta is a permanent detainment camp at Guantanamo Bay that replaced the temporary facilities of Camp X-Ray. Its first facilities were built between February 27 and mid-April 2002 by Navy Seabees, Marine Engineers, and workers from Halliburton subsidiary Kellogg, Brown and Root...

     – Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
    Cuba
    The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...


American Civil War

  • Burnham, Philip. So Far from Dixie: Confederates in Yankee Prisons (2003)
  • Byrne, Frank L., "Libby Prison: A Study in Emotions," Journal of Southern History 1958 24(4): 430-444. in JSTOR
  • Cloyd, Benjamin G. Haunted by Atrocity: Civil War Prisons in American Memory (Louisiana State University Press; 2010) 272 pages.traces shifts in Americans' views of the brutal treatment of soldiers in both Confederate and Union prisons, from raw memories in the decades after the war to a position that deflected responsibility.
  • Horigan, Michael. Elmira: Death Camp of the North (2002)

External links

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