of an organization
, trade union
, or country
, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership (from Latin
pre- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term praeses
). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an official. Among other things, president today is a common title for the heads of state
of most republic
s, whether popularly elected
, chosen by the legislature
or by a special electoral college
Presidents in countries with a democratic/repr form of government are traditionally president for a specified period of time and may be re-elected or removed through the same process by which they are appointed, i.e., in many nations, periodic popular elections.
1821 The Republic of Gran Colombia (a federation covering much of present day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador) is established, with Simón Bolívar as the founding President and Francisco de Paula Santander as vice president. thumb|right|220px|[[Brazil]] declares independence.
1832 President Andrew Jackson writes to Vice President Martin Van Buren expressing his opposition to South Carolina's defiance of federal authority in the Nullification Crisis.
1833 U.S. President Andrew Jackson becomes the first President to ride on a train.
1886 U.S. President Grover Cleveland marries Frances Folsom in the White House, becoming the only president to wed in the executive mansion.
1901 President Theodore Roosevelt officially renames the "Executive Mansion" to the White House.
1934 Adolf Hitler becomes the supreme leader of Germany by joining the offices of President and Chancellor into ''Führer''.
1935 The National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1946 Ho Chi Minh is elected the President of North Vietnam.
1949 Point Four Program a program for economic aid to poor countries announced by United States President Harry S. Truman in his inaugural address for a full term as President.
1950 President Harry Truman orders the US Army to seize control of the nation's railroads to avert a strike.