Prence Sabahaddin in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....
) was an Ottoman
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...
sociologist and thinker, because of his violation of the Ottoman dynasty due his political activity and attitude, he was expelled.
Prince Sabahaddin, was a person full of surprises.
He had his attachments to the Ottoman Palace through his mother, but was known as a Young Turk standing in opposition to that bastion.
Allegations of his closeaffinity to the ambassador of England could not be proven.
As a follower of Émile Durkheim
David Émile Durkheim was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and, with Karl Marx and Max Weber, is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology.Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain...
, Prens Sabahaddin is considered to be one of the founders of sociology in Turkey.
He established the Private Enterprise and Decentralization Association (Teşebbüsü Şahsî ve Ademi Merkeziyet Cemiyeti in Turkish
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...
) in 1906.
BiographyPrens Sabahaddin was born in Istanbul in the Year 1878.
His Mother was Seniha Sultan,daughter of Ottoman Padisah Abdülmecit I., and Nalan î Dil Kadın Efendi.
His Father was Mahmud Celaleddin Paşa,the son of Kaptan ı Derya Gürcü Halil Rifat Paşa.
At age of 13, he was together with his younger brother Lütfullâh, ceremonially circumcised in the Dolmabahçe Palace
Dolmabahçe Palace located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coastline of the Bosphorus strait, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1922, apart from a 22-year interval in which Yıldız Palace was used.- History :Dolmabahçe Palace...
Prince Sabahaddin, nephew of the Sultan Murad V., Abdul Hamid II, Mehmed V., and the last Sultan Mehmed VI., got a Versatile training at the Ottoman palace and isconsidered the founding father of the Ottoman liberalism.
Sabahaddin fled in late 1899 with his brother and father, who had fallen out with Abdul Hamid II, first to Great Britain, then to Geneva, the center of opposition to the Ottoman sultan.
After a warning by the Federal Council in Geneva in 1900, they left and went to Paris and London.
Sabahaddin advocated revolutionary violence, and then led the opposition in exile.
During the first phase of his career as a political opposition (1900-1908) he sought unity between Christians and Muslims met and received the support of civilized world in the cause of the Young Turks.
In this time he met Edmond Demolin and became a follower of the school of so-called social sciences.
Statements: "Could Although announce some ethnic groups that were of the absolutism affected in the Ottoman empire, their position in the European public and win their support, the majority forming ethnic group, the Muslim ethnic groups that was of this oppression just as affected, this is not done.
Therefore it is considered in Europe as a partner in this oppression.
If this is not made known in Europe, there is a risk that the interventions that took place yesterday for Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Eastern Rumelia and Crete, tomorrow in the center of Anatolia, to be carried out before the door of our residence.
It is therefore necessary to prevent this!
Is it not necessary to stop such intervention?
How this is done?
As we hear our voice and listen to leave.
In order to hear this voice, however, we must first show Europe that we hear his own voice! "
- Prince Sebahaddin -'
Sabahaddin had Anglo-Saxon proclivities and advocated liberal economic policies in his Teşebbüs-ü Şahsi ve Adem-i Merkeziyet, which became a rival to Ahmed Rıza’s CUP.
This division plagued the Young Turk movement before 1908 and would provide the central dispute in the more institutionalized political discourse of the second constitutional period.
After the Young Turk revolution and the seizure of the Committee of Union and Progress in 1908 he returned to the Ottoman Empire.
As a proponent of a federal empire, Sabahaddin was not in the ethno-nationalist and centralist trend and its well-known bisexual inclination led early political speculation on his credibility.
His Liberal Party was banned in 1909 and 1913 he had to flee again.
The first World War I., he spent as head of the enemy in western Switzerland.
In 1919 Sabahaddin returned in the belief back to realize his political vision, to Istanbul, but was banned in 1924 by the victorious Nationalists under Mustafa Kemal (later Ataturk).
His project of a democratic Turkey contained means of decentralization and private initiative, elements of the social theories of Frederic Le Play and Edmond Demolin.
From 1924 Sabahaddin lived in retirement in Switzerland.
He seldom commented on this very small friendly country that deserves respect.
There was genetic material for scientific purposes to keep from him.
The relationship between the Prince and Switzerland, the host country during the 25 last years of his life were easy and peaceful.
The country that was the tired and was from decades of unsuccessful battles weary man a peaceful haven and this was indeed the center of Europe, but on the edge of the flesh-tearing history, the Prince either as model or as a counter model on which he had his program for build up the Ottoman Empire or for Turkey.
He died in 1948, his corpse was kept in a metal coffin four years in Switzerland.
1952,Prince Sabahaddin's mortal remains were transferred to Turkey/Istanbul and buried in the Mausoleum of his father and Grandfather.
BisexualityThe Prince's secret diary provides evidence for a bisexual predisposition.
Because of statements in letters and other life-course has been suggested that Sabahaddin's interest in the opposite sex was rather slight.
Sabahaddin had a succession of close friendships with men,including his Master Émile Durkheim, Satvet Lütfi Tozan, Mizânci Murad Bey and finally Hasan Fehmi Bey.
Hasan Fehmi Bey (1874 - April 6, 1909), an Ottoman ethnic Albanian journalist, was the great love of Prince Sabahaddin.
In Paris, the two spent a wonderful time.
Prince Sabahaddin was devastated as Hasan Fehmi Bey was shot in 1909.
Hasan Fehmi Bey told about him: "Prens Sabahaddin is an open-hearted man of elegant,almost delicate build.
His face is noble and beautyiful,his eyes kind.
They have color of hammered silver,while his complexion is dark olive-a very striking combinations.
Prens Sabahaddin is altogether the most impressive person we have ever met face to face.
He has apresence and a natural,noble manner which today can only be found in an aristocrat of the Ottoman Dynasty.
This man has absolute authority,not so much on account his station,but primarily on account of his personality.
He is a charismatic leader.
When he looks us in the eye,we have the feeling that he is looking into the depths of our souls.
We are sure that if we ever answered one of his questions untruthfully,he would know this immediately.
Prens Sabahaddin's gestures and looks are so clear and unmistakable".
Sabahddin's original Diary excerpt of Prince Sabahaddin from 1899 were lost during World War II, and all that remains today are copies.
These transcribed diary entries, along with private letters and other surviving personal documents, suggest that Sabahaddin was bisexual and struggled with his orientation throughout his life.
It also provides,for his remorse and for his hopeless attempts to suppress his desire.
Offspring and descendantsFrom his first marriage, with Tabinak Kadin Efendi, he had a daughter, Fethiye Sabahaddin Kendi (1899–1986) unmarried and without issue.
Disgusted with his first wife "Tabinak" and his environment, he moved from her.
He returned once more to her, but then permanently separated and finally, he dissolved the marriage.
Prince Sabâhaddin's second Wife was Prenses Kâmûran,the younger sister of his first Wife Tabinak.
In Istanbul,the bisexual-oriented Prince Sabahaddin married a third time, according to Muslim "Nikah Misyar
Nikah Misyar is a Muslim Nikah carried out via the normal contractual procedure, with the specificity that the husband and wife give up several rights by their own free will, such as living together, equal division of nights between wives in cases of polygamy, the wife's rights to housing, and...
Under Misyar, the husband and wife retain their homes and arrange for visits for a certain number of nights. The husband relinquishes his right to unlimited sexual access and housekeeping (since the wife does not live with him).
The wife gives up much more, including her right to the equal attention of the husband (in case of polygamy) and her right to maintenance or nafaqah and housing.
In the event of children born to the union, custody goes to the father or his family after age seven.
Seniye Inşirah's, Maidenname was "Qvavilebis da Oleandri" ("flower of the oleander"), she was the daughter of a Georgian chieftain of Batumi.
Qvavili was as sold after the death of her father as a slave to Constantinople, and arrived the harem of Shehzade Vahdettin, (later known as the last Sultan Mehmed VI).
In the harem she received the new name "Seniye Inşirah".
Vahdettin loves her, but she resists him with a poisoned dagger.
This Girly was known for her angelic face and her melodious voice.
Her oval face, her delicate features and blue almond eyes corresponded to the ideal of beauty that time.
The curly dark blonde hair she wore mostly open.
In addition, she had a graceful and gracious attitude.
She was considered shy, friendly, loving and generous.
The young slave fell early on by an unusual seriousness, and a generally introverted behavior.
She is described by contemporaries as a very small, very delicate, sensitive, sensual, and as an extraordinary beauty.
She had a good physical health and condition was, however, is extremely socially and legally closed silently.
Most historians now agree that she had melancholia, severe clinical depression, a psychosis, or a case of inherited schizophrenia.
A servant of the Pasha, the Eunuch Zümbül, was her assistant and confidant.
On Day, on a ride the horses went through her car, but Prens Sabahattin rescues her.
Statements of Prince Sabahaddin:
"Seniye Inşirah" ... was one of those dark, lush nature, which can only be born in the Caucasus.
As she stood there, dressed in red silk, the resolution, rich hair over her shoulders almost to the
ground undulating, with flashing eyes and upraised whip, she seemed to have been born to the queen.
'Her delicate, rosy-tinged nostrils quivered under the emotion of the moment, her lips had opened quietly,
to let it be the small, narrow, shining teeth, her feet are" very cute ".
He falls in love with her,she reciprocated his feelings and got pregnant.
Shehzade Vahideddin let her divorced when he learned that she have a affair with his nephew.
About this decision not only Sabâhaddin's Mother, the Princess Seniha Sultan, but also the Ottoman family were dismayed.
In 1924 she left Istanbul and went to Cairo, where she died completely isolated and alone in 1930.
Together they have one son, Şaban Bey (1910–1981), married and had issue.
- Şaban Bey married Nemzade Hatice Hanım (Istanbul/Hasköy, 1913 – Babaeski, 2000), the step-granddaughter of Emine Sultan (daughter of Abdulaziz I.).
- Mustafa (born 1933 Istanbul 1999)
- Kıymet (born 1938- ? Istanbul)
- Sefer Bey (born and died 1941 as baby)
- Sebahattin (born 1945 - Göppingen/Germany 1998) married with Rosemarie Lenhardt, born 1948 (Meyrem Gül) and had issue:
- Timur Can (born 1978), GermanyGermanyGermany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...
- Timur Can (born 1978), Germany
ReligionSabahaddin, his brother and father were supporters of Mu'tazilism.
' is an Islamic school of speculative theology that flourished in the cities of Basra and Baghdad, both in present-day Iraq, during the 8th–10th centuries. The adherents of the Mu'tazili school are best known for their having asserted that, because of the perfect unity and eternal nature of God,...
, المعتزلة Arabic, Al-Mu'tazila DMG (also Mu'tazilite), is within the Islamic Kalam theology of a rationalist-oriented school in the 8th to 9 Century was the most influential.
Prens Sabahaddin assessed the long-term historical development as follows: "The rejection of the Mu'tazila was the greatest disaster that befell the Muslims so that you have committed a crime against himself."
Many experts on the history of Arabic philosophy, however, refer to the continuity of rational thinking.