Plantago
Overview
 
Plantago is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of about 200 species of small, inconspicuous plants commonly called plantains. They share this name with the very dissimilar plantain
Plantain
Plantain is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa. The fruit they produce is generally used for cooking, in contrast to the soft, sweet banana...

, a kind of banana
Banana
Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red....

. Most are herbaceous plant
Herbaceous plant
A herbaceous plant is a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level. They have no persistent woody stem above ground...

s, though a few are subshrub
Subshrub
A subshrub or dwarf shrub is a short woody plant. Prostrate shrub is a similar term.It is distinguished from a shrub by its ground-hugging stems and lower height, with overwintering perennial woody growth typically less than 10–20 cm tall, or by being only weakly woody and/or persisting...

s growing to 60 cm (23.5 in) tall. The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are sessile, but have a narrow part near the stem which is a pseudo-petiole
Petiole (botany)
In botany, the petiole is the stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. The petiole usually has the same internal structure as the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile, or clasping when they partly surround the...

. They have three or five parallel veins that diverge in the wider part of the leaf.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
Plantago is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of about 200 species of small, inconspicuous plants commonly called plantains. They share this name with the very dissimilar plantain
Plantain
Plantain is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa. The fruit they produce is generally used for cooking, in contrast to the soft, sweet banana...

, a kind of banana
Banana
Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red....

. Most are herbaceous plant
Herbaceous plant
A herbaceous plant is a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level. They have no persistent woody stem above ground...

s, though a few are subshrub
Subshrub
A subshrub or dwarf shrub is a short woody plant. Prostrate shrub is a similar term.It is distinguished from a shrub by its ground-hugging stems and lower height, with overwintering perennial woody growth typically less than 10–20 cm tall, or by being only weakly woody and/or persisting...

s growing to 60 cm (23.5 in) tall. The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are sessile, but have a narrow part near the stem which is a pseudo-petiole
Petiole (botany)
In botany, the petiole is the stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. The petiole usually has the same internal structure as the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile, or clasping when they partly surround the...

. They have three or five parallel veins that diverge in the wider part of the leaf. Leaves are broad or narrow, depending on the species. The inflorescence
Inflorescence
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Strictly, it is the part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed and which is accordingly modified...

s are borne on stalks typically 5–40 cm (2.25-15.75 in) tall, and can be a short cone or a long spike, with numerous tiny wind-pollinated flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s.

Plantains are used as food plants by the larva
Larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

e of some species of Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies . It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies...

 (butterfly
Butterfly
A butterfly is a mainly day-flying insect of the order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths. Like other holometabolous insects, the butterfly's life cycle consists of four parts: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Most species are diurnal. Butterflies have large, often brightly coloured...

 and moth
Moth
A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly, both being of the order Lepidoptera. Moths form the majority of this order; there are thought to be 150,000 to 250,000 different species of moth , with thousands of species yet to be described...

) - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on plantains.

They are found all over the world
World
World is a common name for the whole of human civilization, specifically human experience, history, or the human condition in general, worldwide, i.e. anywhere on Earth....

, including America
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

, Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 and Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

. Many species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 in the genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 are cosmopolitan
Cosmopolitan distribution
In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats. For instance, the killer whale has a cosmopolitan distribution, extending over most of the world's oceans. Other examples include humans, the lichen...

 weeds. They are found in many different habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

s, most commonly in wet areas like seepages or bog
Bog
A bog, quagmire or mire is a wetland that accumulates acidic peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses or, in Arctic climates, lichens....

s. They can also be found in alpine and semi-alpine or coastal areas. The cosmopolitan weeds can be frequently seen at the side of roads.

Uses

Plantago species have been used since prehistoric times as herbal remedies
Herbalism
Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Herbalism is also known as botanical medicine, medical herbalism, herbal medicine, herbology, herblore, and phytotherapy...

. The herb
Herb
Except in botanical usage, an herb is "any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume" or "a part of such a plant as used in cooking"...

 is astringent
Astringent
An astringent substance is a chemical compound that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues, usually locally after topical medicinal application. The word "astringent" derives from Latin adstringere, meaning "to bind fast"...

, anti-toxic
Toxin
A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded...

, antimicrobial
Antimicrobial
An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes or prevent the growth of microbes...

, anti-inflammatory
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs make up about half of analgesics, remedying pain by reducing inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system....

, anti-histamine, as well as demulcent
Demulcent
A demulcent is an agent that forms a soothing film over a mucous membrane, relieving minor pain and inflammation of the membrane. Demulcents are sometimes referred to as mucoprotective agents. Demulcents such as pectin, glycerin, honey, and syrup are common ingredients in cough mixtures...

, expectorant, styptic and diuretic
Diuretic
A diuretic provides a means of forced diuresis which elevates the rate of urination. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way.- Medical uses :...

. Externally, a poultice
Poultice
A poultice, also called cataplasm, is a soft moist mass, often heated and medicated, that is spread on cloth over the skin to treat an aching, inflamed, or painful part of the body. It can be used on wounds such as cuts...

 of the leaves is useful for insect bites, poison-ivy rashes, minor sores, and boil
Boil
A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle. It is always caused by infection by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in a painful swollen area on the skin caused by an accumulation of pus and dead tissue...

s. In folklore
Folklore
Folklore consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales and customs that are the traditions of a culture, subculture, or group. It is also the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared. The study of folklore is sometimes called...

 it is even claimed to be able to cure snake
Snake
Snakes are elongate, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears. Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales...

bite. Internally, it is used for coughs and bronchitis
Bronchitis
Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the large bronchi in the lungs that is usually caused by viruses or bacteria and may last several days or weeks. Characteristic symptoms include cough, sputum production, and shortness of breath and wheezing related to the obstruction of the inflamed airways...

, as a tea
Tea
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

, tincture
Tincture
A tincture is an alcoholic extract or solution of a non-volatile substance . To qualify as a tincture, the alcoholic extract is to have an ethanol percentage of at least 40-60%...

, or syrup
Syrup
In cooking, a syrup is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals...

. The broad-leaved varieties are sometimes used as a leaf vegetable
Leaf vegetable
Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, green vegetables, greens, leafy greens or salad greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots...

 for salad
Salad
Salad is any of a wide variety of dishes, including vegetable salads; salads of pasta, legumes, eggs, or grains; mixed salads incorporating meat, poultry, or seafood; and fruit salads. They may include a mixture of cold and hot, often including raw vegetables or fruits.Green salads include leaf...

s, green sauce
Green Sauce
Green sauce is the name of several different sauces containing mainly herbs, namely the Italian salsa verde, the French sauce verte, the Spanish salsa verde and the German Grüne Soße or Frankfurter Grie Soß .- History :...

, et cetera.

Plantain seed husks
Psyllium seed husks
Psyllium seed husks also known as ispaghula, isabgol, or psyllium, are portions of the seeds of the plant Plantago ovata, , a native of India. They are soluble in water, expanding and becoming mucilaginous when wet...

 expand and become mucilaginous
Mucilage
Mucilage is a thick, gluey substance produced by most plants and some microorganisms. It is a polar glycoprotein and an exopolysaccharide.It occurs in various parts of nearly all classes of plant, usually in relatively small percentages, and is frequently associated with other substances, such as...

 when wet, especially those of P. psyllium
Psyllium
Psyllium , or Ispaghula , is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage.-History:...

, which is used in common over-the-counter bulk laxative
Laxative
Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. Certain stimulant, lubricant, and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and/or bowel examinations, and may be supplemented by enemas under...

 and fiber supplement products such as Metamucil
Metamucil
Metamucil is a bulk-producing laxative and fiber supplement. The Metamucil brand has existed since 1934, and was owned by G.D. Searle & Company until 1985 when Procter & Gamble acquired the brand. The active ingredient is psyllium seed husks. It may also reduce cholesterol when taken daily....

. P. psyllium seed is useful for constipation
Constipation
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Constipation is a common cause of painful defecation...

, irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic cause. In some cases, the symptoms are relieved by bowel movements...

, dietary fiber supplementation, and diverticular disease. Plantain has been consumed as human food since prehistory. For example, archaeological recovery along California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

's Central Coast has demonstrated use of this species as a food since the Millingstone Horizon
Millingstone Horizon
Millingstone Horizon is an archaeological period of Native American dominance denoting a period in California, USA involving extensive use of manos and other grinding technology. The interval is a subset of the Archaic Period; specifically Millingstone is usually applied to the period 6500 to...

.

Psyllium
Psyllium
Psyllium , or Ispaghula , is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage.-History:...

 supplements are typically used in powder form, along with adequate amounts of fluids. A dose of at least 7 grams daily taken with adequate amounts of fluid (water, juice) is used by some for management of elevated cholesterol. There are a number of psyllium products used for constipation
Constipation
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Constipation is a common cause of painful defecation...

. The usual dose is about 3.5 grams twice a day. Psyllium is also a component of several ready-to-eat cereals.

In India, mucilage
Mucilage
Mucilage is a thick, gluey substance produced by most plants and some microorganisms. It is a polar glycoprotein and an exopolysaccharide.It occurs in various parts of nearly all classes of plant, usually in relatively small percentages, and is frequently associated with other substances, such as...

 from Desert Indianwheat
Plantago ovata
Plantago ovata Plantago ovata Plantago ovata (Desert Indianwheat, Blond Psyllium; syn. Plantago brunnea Morris, Plantago fastigiata Morris, Plantago gooddingii A. Nels. & Kennedy, Plantago insularis Eastw., Plantago insularis Eastw. var. fastigiata (Morris) Jepson, Plantago insularis Eastw. var....

 (Plantago ovata) is obtained by grinding off the husk
Husk
Husk in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed. It often refers to the leafy outer covering of an ear of maize as it grows on the plant. Literally, a husk or hull includes the protective outer covering of a seed, fruit or vegetable...

. The mucilage is sold as Isabgol, a laxative
Laxative
Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. Certain stimulant, lubricant, and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and/or bowel examinations, and may be supplemented by enemas under...

 which is used to control irregular bowel syndrome and constipation. It has been used as an indigenous
Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory....

 Ayurvedic and Unani
Unani
Unani-tibb or Unani Medicine also spelled Yunani Medicine means "Greek Medicine", and is a form of traditional medicine widely practiced in South Asia...

 medicine for a whole range of bowel problems.

As Old English Wegbrade the plantago is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm
Nine Herbs Charm
The Nine Herbs Charm is an Old English charm recorded in the 10th century Lacnunga manuscript. The charm is intended for treatment of poison and infection through the preparation of nine herbs. The numbers nine and three are mentioned frequently within the charm and are significant numbers in...

, recorded in the 10th century. In Romania and Bulgaria, leaves from Plantago major are used as a folk remedy to preventing infection on cuts and scratches because of its antiseptic
Antiseptic
Antiseptics are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction...

 properties. In Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

 and other Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

an regions, the leaves were traditionally used topically as a cure for blister
Blister
A blister is a small pocket of fluid within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing , burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid called serum or plasma...

s resulting from friction
Friction
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and/or material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction:...

 (such as caused by tight shoes etc.).

There may also be a use for plantains in the abatement of enteric methane
Methane
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . It is the simplest alkane, the principal component of natural gas, and probably the most abundant organic compound on earth. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel...

 from ruminants, as the natural compounds present (e.g. condensed tannins; ~14g/kg DM), affect the acetate-propionate ratio in the rumen
Rumen
The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals. It serves as the primary site for microbial fermentation of ingested feed...

 which is a primary mechanism by which methanogenesis
Methanogenesis
Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens. Organisms capable of producing methane have been identified only from the domain Archaea, a group phylogenetically distinct from both eukaryotes and bacteria, although many live in close association with...

 is restricted. Currently this is not a viable option in any significant scale due to agronomic difficulties.

Species

The boundaries of the genus Plantago have been fairly stable, with the main question being whether to include Bougueria (one species from the Andes
Andes
The Andes is the world's longest continental mountain range. It is a continual range of highlands along the western coast of South America. This range is about long, about to wide , and of an average height of about .Along its length, the Andes is split into several ranges, which are separated...

) and Littorella
Littorella
Littorella is a genus of two to three species of aquatic plants. Many plants live their entire lives submersed, and reproduce by stolons, but some are only underwater for part of the year, and flower when they are not underwater.- Classification :...

(2–3 species of aquatic plants).

There are about 200 species of Plantago, including:
  • Plantago afra
  • Plantago africana
  • Plantago aitchisonii
  • Plantago alpina
  • Plantago amplexicaulis
    Plantago amplexicaulis
    Plantago amplexicaulis is an annual plant of the family Plantaginaceae and the genus Plantago that grows in dry sand and deserts.P. amplexicaulis is a therophyte, a type of plant that survives as seed during unfavourable conditions. In the deserts where P. amplexicaulis lives, this results in the...

  • Plantago arborescens
  • Plantago arenaria - Branched Plantain
  • Plantago argentea
  • Plantago aristata
    Plantago aristata
    Plantago aristata is a species of plantain known by the common name largebracted plantain. It is native to the eastern and central United States, and it can be found in other parts of North America as well as parts of Eurasia as an introduced species. It grows in many types of habitat, including...

  • Plantago asiatica
    Plantago asiatica
    Plantago asiatica, is a plant of genus Plantago .Common Name: Chinese Plantain, Arnoglossa,-External links:**...

  • Plantago aucklandica
  • Plantago bigelovii
  • Plantago canescens
  • Plantago coreana
  • Plantago cordata
  • Plantago coronopus
    Plantago coronopus
    Plantago coronopus is a species of Plantago sometimes grown as a leaf vegetable...

    - Buckshorn Plantain
  • Plantago cornuti
  • Plantago cretica
    Plantago cretica
    Plantago cretica is a species of Plantago, family Plantaginaceae....

  • Plantago cynops
  • Plantago elongata
    Plantago elongata
    Plantago elongata is a species of plantain known by the common names prairie plantain and slender plantain. It is native to much of western North America, from British Columbia to California and as far east as Minnesota. It grows in wet habitat, such as vernal pools and wet meadows, including areas...

  • Plantago erecta
    Plantago erecta
    Plantago erecta is a small, unassuming annual herb with needle-like leaves and translucent flowers clustered on a stalk. It grows in sandy, clay, or serpentine soils, on grassy slopes and flats or open woodland, from California to Oregon...

  • Plantago eriopoda
    Plantago eriopoda
    Plantago eriopoda is a species of plantain known by the common name redwool plantain. It is native to much of western and central North America from Alaska to the southwestern United States to the Great Lakes region, where it can be found in moist and wet habitat types, sometimes in alkaline soils...

  • Plantago erosa
  • Plantago fernandezia
  • Plantago fischeri
  • Plantago gentianoides
  • Plantago glabrifolia
  • Plantago grayana
  • Plantago hawaiensis
    Plantago hawaiensis
    Plantago hawaiensis is a rare species of flowering plant in the plantain family known by the common name Hawaiian plantain. It is endemic to Hawaii, where it is known only from the island of Hawaii. It grows on the slopes of Mauna Loa and Hualalai. Like other Hawaiian Plantago, it is known as...

  • Plantago hedleyi
  • Plantago heterophylla
  • Plantago hillebrandii
  • Plantago himalaica
  • Plantago incisa
  • Plantago krajinai
  • Plantago lanceolata
    Plantago lanceolata
    Plantago lanceolata is a species of genus Plantago known by the common names ribwort plantain, English plantain, and narrowleaf plantain. It is a common weed of cultivated land....

    - Ribwort Plantain
  • Plantago lanigera
  • Plantago longissima
  • Plantago macrocarpa
  • Plantago major - Greater Plantain, Common Plantain
  • Plantago maritima
    Plantago maritima
    Plantago maritima is a species of Plantago, family Plantaginaceae. It has a subcosmopolitan distribution in temperate and Arctic regions, native to most of Europe, northwest Africa, northern and central Asia, northern North America, and southern South America...

    - Sea Plantain
  • Plantago maxima
  • Plantago media
    Plantago media
    Plantago media, known as the hoary plantain, is a species of genus Plantago native to central and western Europe, including Great Britain and introduced to parts of the north-east United States...

    - Hoary Plantain
  • Plantago melanochrous
  • Plantago moorei
    Plantago moorei
    Plantago moorei is a species of plant in the Plantaginaceae family. It is endemic to Falkland Islands. Its natural habitat is temperate shrubland. It is threatened by habitat loss.-Source:...

    - Moore's Plantain
  • Plantago musicola
  • Plantago nivalis
    Plantago nivalis
    P. nivalis is a species of plantain which is found in the Sierra Nevada of Spain.- References :...

  • Plantago nubicola
    Plantago nubicola
    Plantago nubicola is aplant found in Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina.It was long classified as Bougueria nubicola, the only species in the genus Bougueria, and indeed it has a number of characteristics which make it different from the rest of Plantago...

    (also known as Bougueria nubicola)
  • Plantago obconica
  • Plantago ovata
    Plantago ovata
    Plantago ovata Plantago ovata Plantago ovata (Desert Indianwheat, Blond Psyllium; syn. Plantago brunnea Morris, Plantago fastigiata Morris, Plantago gooddingii A. Nels. & Kennedy, Plantago insularis Eastw., Plantago insularis Eastw. var. fastigiata (Morris) Jepson, Plantago insularis Eastw. var....

    - Blond Psyllium
  • Plantago pachyphylla
  • Plantago palmata
  • Plantago patagonica
    Plantago patagonica
    Plantago patagonica is a species of plantain known by the common name woolly plantain. It is native to much of North America, including the southern half of Canada, the western and central United States, and northern Mexico, and parts of southern South America. It grows in many types of habitat,...

  • Plantago polysperma
  • Plantago princeps
    Plantago princeps
    Plantago princeps is a rare species of flowering plant in the plantain family known by the common name ale. It is endemic to Hawaii, where it is known from the islands of Hawaii, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. Like other Hawaiian Plantago, it is known as kuahiwi laukahi, or laukahi kuahiwi...

  • Plantago purshii - Woolly Plantain
  • Plantago pusilla
  • Plantago psyllium
    Psyllium
    Psyllium , or Ispaghula , is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage.-History:...

    - Sand Plantain, French or Dark Psyllium
  • Plantago raoulii
  • Plantago rapensis
  • Plantago remota
  • Plantago reniformis
  • Plantago robusta
  • Plantago rugelii
    Plantago rugelii
    Plantago rugelii is a 3-12 inch tall perennial in the Plantain family...

    - Blackseed Plantain
  • Plantago rupicola
  • Plantago schneideri
  • Plantago sempervirens
  • Plantago sparsiflora
  • Plantago spathulata
  • Plantago subnuda
    Plantago subnuda
    Plantago subnuda is a species of plantain known by the common name tall coastal plantain. It is native to western North America from the west coast of the United States to west-central Mexico, where it grows in wet and moist habitat types, often in coastal areas, such as marshland. It is a...

  • Plantago tanalensis
  • Plantago taqueti
  • Plantago tenuiflora
  • Plantago triandra
  • Plantago triantha
  • Plantago tweedyi

  • External links


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